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Sample records for thyroid uptake detec-pc

  1. Evaluating the diagnostic device DETEC-PC for the thyroid uptakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, Dolores; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Alonso Abad, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    A study is presented for evaluating the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC, detection measurement system for the Thyroid Uptakes. A clinical trial was designed for that effect and all the patients included were evaluated using the DETEC-PC and the well-known radioimmunoassay (RIA) standard diagnostic procedure known by acronym RIA. For the Thyroid Uptakes using the DETEC-PC patients received an oral administration of a solution of radioactive iodine. The radioactive substance is attracted chemically to the gland and ionising radiation detector captures their emissions. The iodine concentration in the Thyroid, as well as the variation of this concentration over time reflects the function of the gland. The RIA is based on the analysis of the values associated with the t3, t4 and tsh hormones, and when these three parameters are in a certain range the patients can be classified. The sample size was calculated in order to estimate the gross coincidence percent between both methods with a precision of 1 % at a confidence level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the trial. Mainly two types of statistical analysis were carried out, in the first analysis all the patients included in the study were considered whereas in the second analysis the patients with doubtful RIA results were not included. Ideally the performance of a diagnostic tool is evaluated through the estimation of its sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, in the present study the reference procedure (RIA) can not be considered a gold standard diagnostic device. In such a setting the international regulations advise to use measurements of agreement to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of the new method. In the present study we evaluated the level of diagnostic agreement between the DETEC-PC and the RIA using the Kappa statistics. Additionally, the confidence interval for the Kappa statistics and the corresponding significant test for the present of agreement were also computes. The obtained

  2. Evaluation of the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC for the attract of iodine in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso A, D.; Arista R, E.; Alonso A, A.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study whose main objective is the evaluation of the diagnoses capacity of the DETEC - PC, a detection-measurement system for the reception of iodine in thyroid, with it presumptive diagnostic is presented. To such effect a clinical essay was designed in which all the patients included in the study were evaluated using the new equipment (DETEC - PC) and the standard diagnoses procedure well-known for the initials RIA. The sample size was calculated in a such way that the percent of gross coincidence among both methods could be estimate with a precision of 1% at a trust level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the essay. For the analysis of the agreement in the diagnostic it was used the Kappa statistician. The obtained results showed a high grade of gross agreement and an agreement level among moderate and substantial when it was corrected by possible random agreement among both procedures. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC for the attract of iodine in thyroid; Evaluacion de la capacidad de diagnostico del DETEC-PC para la captacion de iodo en tiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47. Playa C.P. 11300, La Habana (Cuba); Arista R, E. [CEADEN, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600, La Habana (Cuba); Alonso A, A. [Hasselt University, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    A comparative study whose main objective is the evaluation of the diagnoses capacity of the DETEC - PC, a detection-measurement system for the reception of iodine in thyroid, with it presumptive diagnostic is presented. To such effect a clinical essay was designed in which all the patients included in the study were evaluated using the new equipment (DETEC - PC) and the standard diagnoses procedure well-known for the initials RIA. The sample size was calculated in a such way that the percent of gross coincidence among both methods could be estimate with a precision of 1% at a trust level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the essay. For the analysis of the agreement in the diagnostic it was used the Kappa statistician. The obtained results showed a high grade of gross agreement and an agreement level among moderate and substantial when it was corrected by possible random agreement among both procedures. (Author)

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... capturing images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for ... Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive ... of any allergies you may have or other problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the test. You should also drink plenty of water to help flush the radioactive material out of ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief periods of time ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... doctor of any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies, medications you’re taking and whether you’ve had ... thyroid gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other ... performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... areas of abnormality, such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... your examination, blood tests may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. ... device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer in a small ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive ... images does not necessarily mean there was a problem with the exam or that something abnormal was ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the patient's body. In contrast, nuclear medicine procedures use a ... off a small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays. Special cameras ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of the Thyroid Scan ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... of any allergies you may have or other problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  9. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  10. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  11. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  12. Flavonoid rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO, the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH, and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function.

  13. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases by computed tomography and 123I thyroidal uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    Understanding the iodine kinetics in the thyroid is useful for the diagnosis of a patient with diffuse thyroid disease. In this study, 9 controls and 50 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, we evaluated diffuse thyroid diseases with 123 I thyroidal uptake and volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content measured by computed tomography. There was no significant correlation between volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content of the thyroid and 123 I thyroidal uptake. The thyroid volume in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly larger than that in the control group. The thyroid iodine concentration in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly smaller than that in the control group. The thyroid net iodine content in Hashimoto's disease was significantly smaller than that in the control group. Although most of the patients with Graves' disease had more increased radioiodine thyroidal uptake than the control group, there was no significant difference between them in the mean of the thyroid net iodine content. But the variance of net iodine contents in the former was significantly larger than that in the latter. The thyroid net iodine content was very low in all patients with very high thyroglobulin hemaggrugated antibody (TGHA) value although it was nearly normal in some patients with normal TGHA value. It was suggested that iodine concentration and net iodine content might be determined not only by iodine uptake but also by release and/or leakage of iodine compounds from the thyroid, which might depend on some antithyroid antibodies. (author)

  14. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake

  15. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was reported in Parkinson's disease and this contributes to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism such as multiple system atrophy. However, decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare MIBG uptake of the thyroid among Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and controls. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease, 11 patients with multiple system atrophy and 14 controls were examined in this study. Planar images were taken 15 minutes (early images) and 3 hours (late images) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123 I-MIBG. MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p<0.0001) and multiple system atrophy (p=0.018). MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly also in multiple system atrophy compared to controls (p=0.027). On late images, thyroid uptake differed significantly only between Parkinson's disease and controls (p=0.010). Our study is the first to demonstrate decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid in Parkinson's disease. Sympathetic nervous denervation of Parkinson's disease occurred not only in the heart but also in the thyroid. (author)

  16. The anti-thyroid antibody and I-131 uptake in thyroid disorder patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridul Alam; Fatema Sultana Haque; Mohammad Abdul Karim; Liaquat Ali; Omer Faruque; Azad Khan, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of thyroid disorder is extensive in Bangladesh, even more than that of other developing countries. The high incidence rate of goiter is reduced after universal iodine supplement. This study has been undertaken to study the an-thyroid anti-body level among the thyroid disorder population (anti-TPO and anti-thyrogobulin antibody) and TSAb among Graves' disease and sub-acute thyroiditis. This study was performed over 300 persons of them 150 have some type of thyroid (patient) disorder and 150 have got no clinical thyroid disorder (volunteer). We also studied TSH receptor anti-body (TSAb) in 112 Graves' disease patients and 86 patients with sub-acute thyroiditis. All the patient had I-131 Uptake in 24 hours. Among the patient 42(28%) had elevated anti-TPO, 12(8%) had borderline and 96(64%) had normal anti-TPO. It was found the uptake percentage of this group of patient hade slight lower than average uptake of our population. 13±5% It was found that 28(18.6%) had elevated anti thyrogobulin anti-body, 9 (6.2%) had borderline and 113(75.3%) had normal level anti thyrogobulin anti-body. It was also that found the uptake percentage of this group of patient had slight lower than average uptake of our population. We also found that 21% patient had elevated both the antibodies. Among the normal volunteer 24(16%) had elevated anti-TPO, 8 (5.3%) had borderline and 118(78.7%) had normal level of anti-TPO. Thyroid 1-131 uptake was 15±4%. It was found that 14(9.3%) had elevated anti thyrogobulin anti-body, 6(4.1%) had borderline and 130 (76.6%) had normal level of anti thyrogobulin anti-body. Among the normal volunteer 6% had elevated both the antibodies. It was found 91% patient Graves' disease had positive TSAb and 92% of' sub-acute thyroiditis has negative TSAb, I-131 uptake was 31±8% among this group of patient.. Thyroid stimulating antibody is found in 91% of Graves' disease and very few patient with sub-acute thyroiditis. The uptake of I-131 in sub

  17. Uptake of I-131 MIBG by medullary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Sakahara, H.

    1985-01-01

    I-131 MIBG scans are useful for the localization of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma with high catecholamine levels. Recently the authors have found that medullary thyroid cancer also showed an uptake of I-131 MIBG in both primary neck tumors and metastatic sites. Up to now scintigraphic studies were performed in 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. Scintigraphy was done at 24 and 48 hours after the administration of 0.5 mCi of I-131 MIBG, thyroid uptake of dissociated I-131 being prevented by Lugol's solution. Four out of 5 cases were familial type and uptake of I-131 MIBG was similarly observed in medullary thyroid cancer as well as in pheochromocytoma. Bone metastasis of medullary thyroid cancer was also detected with I-131 MIBG. However, one case of sporadic form was negative with I-131 MIBG, whereas there was a high uptake of Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: a newly developed radiopharmaceutical for medullary thyroid cancer, visualizing a different uptake mechanism of both reagents (J Nucl Med 25: 323-325, 1984). After adrenalectomy high uptake of I-131 MIBG was still observed in medullary thyroid cancer, in spite of normal catecholamine levels. The tumor to blood ratio was estimated in vivo to be about several hundreds at 24 hours after the administration. These cells are of neural crest origin and the mechanism of uptake of I-131 MIBG may not be related to the catechamine uptake mechanism. This paper concludes that I-131 MIBG is useful not only for the localization but also for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer, as preliminary performed in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

  18. Thyroid uptake of {sup 67}Ga-citrate is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in patients with sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ferrannini, Ele [University of Pisa and CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fazzi, Piera [University of Pisa, Respiratory Pathophysiology Section, Cardiac and Thoracic Department, Pisa (Italy); Grosso, Mariano; Boni, Giuseppe; Mariani, Giuliano [University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    To evaluate the association of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga)-citrate thyroid uptake with the presence of thyroid disorders in patients with sarcoidosis (S patients). Eighty-four S patients were evaluated by a complete thyroid work-up (neck ultrasound, circulating thyroid hormones and anti-thyroid antibodies, fine-needle aspiration). In S patients with {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake (respect those without): serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, the titre of anti-thyroid peroxidase (AbTPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTg), and the prevalence of S patients with hypothyroidism or with positive AbTg or AbTPO was significantly higher; a thyroid hypoechoic pattern was more frequent. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was not significantly different between the two groups. Two cases of papillary thyroid cancer were observed in S patients without {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake, whilst no case in those with {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake. {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake is associated with the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism in S patients; thyroid function and ultrasonography should be performed in the presence of {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake. (orig.)

  19. Thyroid iodine uptake and serum triiodothyronine level in eldery subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradowski, L.; Dolinska, G.; Knapik, Z.; Rynowiecka, M. (Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1980-01-01

    Iodine uptake by the thyroid and serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) level in subjects aged from 65 to 93 years were determined. Low T/sub 3/ level and normal uptake of inorganic iodine by the thyroid were found. In the light of these results it is suggested that normal accumulation of inorganic iodine and low production of T/sub 3/ are characteristic features of euthyroidism in elderly subjects. It is believed that the function of the thyroid is expressed better by determination of the serum levels of thyroid hormones than determination of the uptake of radioactive iodine. Elaboration of standard normal values which would take into account abnormalities encountered in old age is postulated.

  20. Use of gamma probe in 131I thyroid uptake studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Andrea Gondim Leitao

    2002-11-01

    Evaluation of thyroid uptake by administration of radioactive iodine is a well-defined procedure to assess patient thyroid function. In general, nuclear medicine institutions use gamma cameras coupled to pinhole collimators to perform uptake studies. With the growing use of intraoperative gamma probes in the radioguided surgical techniques, several institutions are purchasing this new and portable equipment, which can technically be also employed to assess patient's thyroid function, permitting further other applications of gamma cameras. The aim of the study was to compare thyroid uptake trails carried out with both gamma camera and intraoperative gamma probe, in order to evaluate the possible use of gamma probe for this purpose. At first a preliminary study of feasibility was carried out using a neck phantom to verify equipment efficiency with known activities of 131 I. Henceforth, work data from 12 patients undergone studies of thyroid uptakes were evaluated, 24 hours after oral administration of 370 kBq of 131 I. The maximum difference observed between the values obtained with both equipment was 60%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed protocol and made clear that gamma probe can be useful for thyroid uptake studies. (author)

  1. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  2. Normal reference values for thyroid uptake of technetium-99m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Historically, changes in normal thyroid uptake values for iodine have been reported in different geographical areas. These changes have been linked to geographical and chronological fluctuations in dietary iodine intake in different populations. Namibia is a country with mixed ethnicity, with access to dietary ...

  3. Gallium-67 Citrate uptake in cryptoccal thyroiditis in a Homosexual male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case of disseminated cryptococcosis and autopsy proven cryptococcal thyroiditis is described in a homosexual male. Thyroid uptake of Gallium-67 citrate was seen one week prior to positive blood cultures. This finding was the sole indication of thyroid involvement. Focal Gallium uptake may be considered as an indication for biopsy and culture in the initial work up of this group of immunocompromised hosts

  4. Effectiveness of the DETEC on the iodo uptake in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, D.; Fernandez Paz, J.L; Lopez Torres, E.; Lemus Cruz, O.M.; Lizaso Menedez, E.; Alonso Abad, A.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, it is discussed the clinical test that was designed with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the Mono detector System for Diagnosis (DETEC) on the Iodo uptake in Thyroid. The testing of 124 patients was carried out and the outcomes were compared with the outcomes from a Hungarian equipment made by the Gamma Mu vex, which it is being utilized now for this class of study. The statistical analysis of the outputs of the test was satisfactory

  5. Measuring thyroid uptake with hand-held radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1987-04-01

    With the use of Iodine 123, 125 and 131 and some compounds of Technetium-99 m, a fraction of the isotopes can be trapped in the thyroid of the technicians. We used the hand-held radiation contamination or survey meters of the nine (9) Nuclear medicine departments we visited to see if they were adequate for the evaluation of thyroid uptake of the users. Measurements on a neck-phanton helped us to determine a minimum detectable activity for each isotope. We were then able to check if the measurements of investigations and action levels were possible. None of the hand-held radiation monitors are completely satisfactory for the measure of thyroid uptake of the user. We discuss a class of equipment capable of measuring radiation emissions at the investigation level. Measurement at the action level is possible with meters having scintillation or proportional probes but none of them permits the discrimination in energy required for a quantitative evaluation of the radioisotopes used

  6. Redifferentiating Thyroid Cancer: Selumetinib-enhanced Radioiodine Uptake in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Osborne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, we reported a restorative therapeutic intervention that turned individual thyroid cancer lesions into more efficient tissues for taking up radioactive iodine (RAI, resulting in clinically significant and durable responses. A group of Iodine-131 refractory thyroid cancer patients were treated with the MEK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI selumetinib, and RAI uptake was restored in a subset of patients. We employed Iodine-124 positron emission tomography to measure radiation absorbed dose, on a lesion by lesion basis. The process can be thought of as a re-differentiation of the cancer toward a more nearly normal state most like the tissue from which the cancer arose. Remarkably, in its own way, a change was detected within a few weeks of treatment, restoring uptake with therapeutically effective levels of RAI and in some patients, previously completely refractory to radioiodine treatment. In this article, we summarize the basic work that led to this seminal study, and make the case for lesional dosimetry in thyroid cancer with Iodine-124 as a new optimal radiotracer for precision medicine in patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer.

  7. Follow-up of a case of subacute thyroiditis with uncommon thyroid {sup 99m}Tc uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Chengjiang, E-mail: 10518093zz@163.com [Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Hospital of Medical College. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2013-07-01

    Thyroidal 99mTc uptake in the acute thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is always inhibited. However, a patient with SAT had signs in the right-side thyroid gland with transient thyrotoxicosis and slightly high 99mTc uptake levels in the right lobe, low 99mTc uptake in the left lobe, and normal overall uptake. Histological examination showed cellular destruction and granulomatous inflammatory changes in the right lobe, with marked interstitial fibrosis in the left lobe. The patient was thyrotrophin-receptor antibody (TRAb) positive. After a short course of prednisolone, SAT-like symptoms and signs improved. TRAb-positivity resolved spontaneously after 22 months, and TSH levels were slightly low for 22 months. Levels then kept normal in the following four years. In conclusion, high 99mTc uptake by the right lobe was due to the combined effects of TRAb and left thyroid gland fibrosis. (author)

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacotte, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ≤ 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  9. Uninhibited thyroidal uptake of radioiodine despite iodine excess in amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.; Touber, J. L.; Trip, M. D.; van Royen, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine excess is associated with a low thyroidal radioiodine uptake due to dilution of the radioisotope by the increased stable iodide pool. We studied thyroidal uptake of radioisotopes in cardiac patients with iodine excess due to amiodarone treatment. 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy was performed

  10. Therapeutic implications of thymic uptake of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.M.; Barrington, S.F.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J.; Morrison, I.D.

    1998-01-01

    The management of 38 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the period 1991-1996, who each received at least one therapy dose of iodine-131, was reviewed, looking in particular at those in whom anterior mediastinal uptake was demonstrated on scans taken 3 and 7 days post-therapy. Such activity was noted in ten patients. On the basis of clinical follow-up, thyroglobulin measurement and radiological and other scintigraphic imaging, in nine of the ten patients the anterior mediastinal activity was attributed to physiological thymic uptake. Of those nine, all were under 50 years of age; seven were considered disease free, one had residual disease in the neck and one had distant metastases. Physiological uptake by the thymus was more prominent on the 7-day scans and in patients with low tumour volumes. For appropriate patient management it is essential to recognise that physiological uptake of 131 I by the thymus in patients under 50 years of age is a potential cause of false-positive therapy scans. (orig.)

  11. Therapeutic implications of thymic uptake of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, L.M.; Barrington, S.F.; Kettle, A.G.; O`Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury CT1 3NG (United Kingdom); Morrison, I.D. [Department of Radiology, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury CT1 3NG (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    The management of 38 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the period 1991-1996, who each received at least one therapy dose of iodine-131, was reviewed, looking in particular at those in whom anterior mediastinal uptake was demonstrated on scans taken 3 and 7 days post-therapy. Such activity was noted in ten patients. On the basis of clinical follow-up, thyroglobulin measurement and radiological and other scintigraphic imaging, in nine of the ten patients the anterior mediastinal activity was attributed to physiological thymic uptake. Of those nine, all were under 50 years of age; seven were considered disease free, one had residual disease in the neck and one had distant metastases. Physiological uptake by the thymus was more prominent on the 7-day scans and in patients with low tumour volumes. For appropriate patient management it is essential to recognise that physiological uptake of {sup 131}I by the thymus in patients under 50 years of age is a potential cause of false-positive therapy scans. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 20 refs.

  12. Gallium uptake in the thyroid gland in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, M.C.; Dake, M.D.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Amiodarone is an iodinated antiarrhythmic agent that is effective in the treatment of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. A number of side effects are seen, including pulmonary toxicity and thyroid dysfunction. A patient with both amiodarone-induced pneumonitis and hyperthyroidism who exhibited abnormal gallium activity in the lungs, as well as diffuse gallium uptake in the thyroid gland is presented. The latter has not been previously reported and supports the concept of iodide-induced thyroiditis with gallium uptake reflecting the inflammatory response.

  13. Reevaluation of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake test, with special reference to reversible primary hypothyroidism with elevated thyroid radioiodine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ikenoue, H.; Yoshinari, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Kuroda, T.; Fujishima, M.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical significance of the thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test was reevaluated in patients with various thyroid disorders. Compared with 262 normal subjects or 194 patients with euthyroid diffuse goiter with normal serum TSH levels, RAIU values were significantly higher in 100 patients with latent primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, 5-40 mU/L). In 126 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism (serum TSH, greater than 40 mU/L), RAIU values were either extremely high (49 patients with reversible hypothyroidism and 10 patients with postpartum hypothyroidism) or low (67 patients with irreversible hypothyroidism). The increase in RAIU values in latent, or reversible overt hypothyroidism was TSH dependent, and there was a good correlation between RAIU values and serum TSH levels (r = 0.6203; P less than 0.001). In overt primary hypothyroidism, spontaneous recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction alone occurred in 52 of 53 patients with RAIU values above 35%, in only 7 of 23 patients with RAIU values between 10-35%, and in none of 50 patients with RAIU below 10%. Thus, recovery was predicted by high RAIU values (P less than 0.001; prediction rate, 91.4%). Goiter was found in about 80% of the patients with reversible hypothyroidism, compared with only 34% of the patients with irreversible hypothyroidism. Recovery of thyroid function during iodide restriction also occurred in 71% of the patients with latent hypothyroidism. However, RAIU measurements did not predict the prognosis of patients with latent hypothyroidism. We conclude that iodine-induced reversible hypothyroidism is common in our patient population, and RAIU measurements may be helpful in determining the prognosis of patients with overt primary hypothyroidism

  14. Clinical signification of diffuse thyroid uptake on 18F-FDG PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, C.; Journo, A.; Netter, F.; Muller, M.A.; Olivier, P.; Karcher, G.

    2007-01-01

    Aim and methods: This retrospective study, performed on 28 patients. gave us the opportunity to evaluate the interest of the description of diffuse thyroid uptake on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Indeed. this topic is rarely treated in the literature. The first aim of our study was to search for the previous history of thyroid disease of the patients for whom a diffuse uptake was reported. We also evaluated the ability of the procedure to help the diagnosis of unknown thyroid pathologies. Results: Eighteen patients out of 28 had previous history of thyroid disease: most of them were already treated. For the other 10 patients. the FDG PET/CT allowed the detection of two chronic thyroiditis without biological abnormalities. one hypothyroidism and one hyperthyroidism. Five patients had normal thyroid biology and for an additional one, the diffuse uptake was probably in relation with a known lymphoma. Conclusion: This study confirms that the majority of patients with diffuse thyroid uptake of 18 F-FDG are related to previously known chronic thyroiditis, Basedow disease or goiter. Only one case was in relation with a neoplastic pathology (lymphoma). When patients have no previous thyroid disease, biology should be performed to detect a hypo- or hyperthyroidism, which could require a treatment. These results should be confirmed in a prospective way. (authors)

  15. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  16. RAI Thyroid Bed Uptake After Total Thyroidectomy: A Novel SPECT-CT Anatomic Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuren, Rebecca; Biagini, Agnese; Grewal, Ravinder K.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Kamani, Dipti; Sabra, Mona M.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent, more selective use of radioactive iodine (RAI) has led to reevaluation of the clinical importance of achieving complete total thyroidectomy with minimal residual normal thyroid tissue. We utilize the improved localization by post-RAI remnant ablation, single photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) to define specific anatomic sites of residual RAI-uptake foci after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to provide a novel classification system relating uptake to thyroid anatomy and preservation of adjacent neural structures. Study Design Retrospective. Method Radioactive iodine-uptake foci in thyroid bed were localized by SPECT/CT imaging at the time of RAI remnant ablation in 141 DTC patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Results Minimal residual RAI uptake (median 0.32% at 24 hours) in the thyroid bed was detected by diagnostic planar whole body scans in 93% and by posttherapy SPECT/CT imaging in 99% of subjects. Discrete RAI uptake foci were identified on the SPECT/CT imaging at Berry’s ligament (87%), at superior thyroid poles (79%), in paratracheal-lobar regions (67%), in isthmus-region (54%), and in pyramidal lobe (46%). Despite the residual foci, the nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) prior to remnant ablation (with a median thyroid-stimulating hormone of 0.36 m IU/L) was thyroid bed in the majority of patients. These foci can be classified as 1) neural-related and 2) capsule-related. These common residual foci have no relationship to postoperative Tg, suggesting that attempts at radical removal of thyroid tissue in these locations may not be warranted. PMID:25891354

  17. Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Presenting as a Focal Uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Diffuse increased uptake on 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F FDG PET) is a well-known finding of the lymphocytic thyroiditis. Nevertheless, a pathologic confirmation is needed in cases of a focal 18F FDG uptake in the thyroid gland. This article reports a rare case of a focal 18F FDG uptake lesion by PET, which was revealed pathologically to be lymphocytic thyroiditis

  18. Thyroid hormone induced oxygen consumption and glucose-uptake in human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1989-01-01

    Cellular oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism were examined in human mononuclear blood cells. The cellular oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were dependent on the number of cells, the temperature and the duration of incubation. Stimulation of the cells by T4 and T3 led to a dose dependen...... thyroid hormones and insulin exerted an additive effect on glucose uptake. Our study indicates a direct intracellular effect of T4 independent of its conversion to T3 and a different mechanism for insulin dependent and thyroid hormone glucose uptake....

  19. Determination of kinetic parameters for 123-I thyroid uptake in healthy Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic parameters for iodide thyroid accumulation in Japanese today with previously reported values. We determined the thyroid uptake of 123-I at 24 hours after the oral administration in healthy male Japanese without any diet restriction. The mean value was 16.1±5.4%, which was similar or rather lower than those previously reported in Japan (1958-1972). Kinetic model analysis was conducted to obtain the clearance for thyroid uptake from the blood circulation. The thyroid uptake clearance of 123-I was 0.540±0.073 ml/min, which was almost similar to those reported previously. There is no obvious difference in the thyroid uptake for 24 hours, and kinetic parameters in healthy Japanese for these 50 years. The fraction of distributed to the thyroid gland is lower than the ICRP reference man, and such difference must be taken into consideration to estimate the radiation exposure upon Fukushima accident in Japan.

  20. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ... Cancer Nuclear Radiation & the Thyroid Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Papillary & Follicular Thyroid Cancer Postpartum Thyroiditis Pregnancy and ...

  1. Treatment of non-uptaking 131I thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongli

    2005-01-01

    Normally, thyroid cancer is a disease with a good prognosis, but about 30% the of tumors dedifferentiate and may finally develop into highly malignant thyroid carcinoma with a mean survival time of less than 8 months. Due to the loss of thyroid-specific functions associated with dedifferentiation. These tumors are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as radioiodine therapy and thyroxine-mediated thyrotropin suppression. Medullary thyroid carcinomas are also highly aggressive. Here, therapy is limited to surgery, and no alternative is left if patients do not respond to this standard procedures. Several novel approaches are currently being tested for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Many of them utilize methods of gene therapy: 1) reintroduction of the tumor suppressor p53; 2) suicide gene therapy; 3) antitumor immune response by expression of an adenovirus-delivered interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene; 4) immune response by DNA vaccination against the tumor marker calcitonin; 5) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodine transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by radioiodide therapy; 6) blocking of the expression of the oncogene c-myc by antisense oligonuleotides; 7) radioimmunotherapy by a radiolabelled antibody; 8) retinoic acid is used for a redifferentiation therapy, and 9) somatostatin. (authors)

  2. Is the sup(99m)Tc-Thyroid-uptake (TcTU) a valid measure of thyroidal trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.; Hotze, L.A.; Schwedes, H.G.; Joseph, K.

    1979-01-01

    In 2067 euthyroid goitrous patients living in an iodine deficient area which is under medical service of the university of Marburg/L. (W. Germany) sup(99m)Tc-Thyroid-Uptake as a measure for thyroidal trapping has been evaluated with respect to age and sex dependance. For both sexes there is marked decrease with increasing age, the values in the female sex are always higher than in the male sex. Comparison with the relevant results of ODDIE and coworkers reveals general correspondence, the differences of a more strong age and sex dependance are to expect in a region of iodine deficiency. Thus, the study confirms the validity of TcTU as a measure of thyroidal trapping. (orig.) [de

  3. Diagnosis of pediatric hyperthyroidism: technetium 99 uptake versus thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Misra, Madhusmita; Levitsky, Lynne L

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with antithyroid drugs is effective in conditions of increased thyroid hormone production (mostly Graves' Disease; GD), but not in subacute thyroiditis (SAT) or autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Positive thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) make GD likely. However, not all children with GD have increased TSI. Uptake studies with (123)I or (99)Tc ((99m)Tc) provide accurate and rapid diagnosis but are expensive and involve radiation exposure. Our objective was to compare TSI with (99m)Tc uptake for diagnosis of pediatric hyperthyroidism. We performed a retrospective chart review of hyperthyroid children who had both TSI estimation and (99m)Tc uptake assessment at presentation. Based on subsequent laboratory studies and follow-up, 37 had GD and 10 had non-GD thyroiditis. The TSI index was considered positive (TSI+) when it was above the upper limit of normal. (99m)Tc uptake was considered positive (Tc+) for any uptake >0.4% and negative (and low) (Tc-) for uptake ≤0.4%. Forty-seven youth (83% females), aged 12.3±4.6 years, presented with a suppressed thyrotropin (TSH) and elevated free thyroxine and total triiodothyronine. All 37 patients with GD were Tc+ (100% sensitivity and specificity). The sensitivity of TSI for diagnosing GD was 84%, and the specificity was 100%. Six patients with GD were discordant with Tc+ but TSI-. Elevated TSI correlated with Tc+ (p=0.01) with a degree of agreement (kappa) of 0.69. (99m)Tc has excellent specificity and sensitivity in diagnosing GD. Given additional costs of (99m)Tc (two and a half times as much as TSI), it is reasonable to reserve (99m)Tc uptake assessment for hyperthyroidism of unclear etiology and negative TSI.

  4. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Wu, Xinchao [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Maimaiti, Yusufu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Gao, Zairong, E-mail: gaobonn@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine {sup 131}I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from {sup 131}I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced {sup 131}I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  5. Effect of environmental temperature on radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of rats during ontogenetic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samel, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of young rats, aged 1 to 30 days, was studied at nest temperature (35degC) and at the temperature of the animal room (24degC). In animals younger than two weeks 131 I uptake was significantly lower at 24degC than at nest temperature. In older animals, these temperature differences did not result in significantly different uptake values. It is suggested that short-term cold does not activate the pituitary-thyroid gland axis in younger animals with unstable body temperature, and that functional changes in the circulatory system might be responsible for the differences observed in 131 I uptake. (author)

  6. Thyroid hormone uptake by rat hepatocytes in primary culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P. Krenning (Eric)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractIodide is taken up by the thyroid follicular cell, oxydized and bound to thyroglobulin at the apical membrane facing the colloid in the follicular lumen. Iodinated colloid is subsequently engulfed by the follicular cell and hydrolysed, liberating thyroxine and triiodothyronine from their

  7. Estradiol decreases iodide uptake by rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlanetto T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol has well-known indirect effects on the thyroid. A direct effect of estradiol on thyroid follicular cells, increasing cell growth and reducing the expression of the sodium-iodide symporter gene, has been recently reported. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of estradiol on iodide uptake by thyroid follicular cells, using FRTL-5 cells as a model. Estradiol decreased basal iodide uptake by FRTL-5 cells from control levels of 2.490 ± 0.370 to 2.085 ± 0.364 pmol I-/µg DNA at 1 ng/ml (P<0.02, to 1.970 ± 0.302 pmol I-/µg DNA at 10 ng/ml (P<0.003, and to 2.038 ± 0.389 pmol I-/µg DNA at 100 ng/ml (P<0.02. In addition, 4 ng/ml estradiol decreased iodide uptake induced by 0.02 mIU/ml thyrotropin from 8.678 ± 0.408 to 7.312 ± 0.506 pmol I-/µg DNA (P<0.02. A decrease in iodide uptake by thyroid cells caused by estradiol has not been described previously and may have a role in goiter pathogenesis.

  8. Serum thyroxine and age - rather than thyroid volume and serum TSH - are determinants of the thyroid radioiodine uptake in patients with nodular goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnema, S J; Fast, S; Nielsen, V E

    2011-01-01

    Background: 131I therapy is widely used for treatment of non-toxic goiters. A limitation for this treatment is a low thyroid radioiodine uptake (RAIU), often encountered in these patients. Aim: To estimate the impact of various factors on the thyroid RAIU. Methods: We examined prospectively 170 p...

  9. 1-23I-MIBG thyroid uptake: Implications for MIBG imaging of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Milan, Elisa; Marcassa, Claudio; Paghera, Barbara; Fracassi, Federica; Camoni, Luca; Rodella, Carlo; Bertagna, Francesco; Motta, Federica; Bertoli, Mattia; Campini, Riccardo

    2016-12-01

    123I-MIBG has been widely used in patients with heart failure and neurological disorders. The patients are pre-treated with Lugol's oral solution or potassium perchlorate to prevent thyroid uptake of unlabeled 123I to limit the thyroid radiation exposure. However, despite the inhibition of the iodide pump, the thyroid is frequently visualized. The aim of this study was to study the pattern of thyroid uptake. We reviewed the 123I-MIBG images of 57 patients studied in three different centers in Italy for cardiac (n = 42) or neurological (n = 15) indications. They were imaged at 15 minutes and 4 hours after injection and in all patients, the thyroid was included in the imaging field of view. In 2 of the 3 centers, the patients were pre-treated with Lugol's oral solution and/or potassium perchlorate (group 1) but in the third center, they were not (group 2). The following imaging parameters were evaluated: heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M), thyroid-to-mediastinum ratio (T/M) at 4 hours, and tracer wash out from the heart (HWO) and from the thyroid (TWO). In the cardiac patients, the HWO was 22.98 ± 7.16% and TWO was 11.4 ± 11.86% (P Lugol's solution may not be justified in patients undergoing 123I-MIBG imaging in whom the risk of side effects due to pre-treatment could be higher than the risk due to thyroid radiation exposure.

  10. Robust Thyroid Gene Expression and Radioiodine Uptake Induced by Simultaneous Suppression of BRAF V600E and Histone Deacetylase in Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Rengyun; Zhu, Guangwu; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Context: Use of BRAF V600E inhibitors to restore thyroid iodide-handling gene expression and radioactive iodine (RAI) avidity is an attractive therapeutic strategy for RAI-refractory thyroid cancer, but recent initial clinical responses were modest. Given histone deacetylation at the sodium/iodide symporter promoter by histone deacetylase (HDAC) as a mechanism, simultaneously targeting BRAF V600E and HDAC could be a more effective strategy. Objectives: The objective of the study was to test whether suppressing both BRAF V600E and HDAC could more effectively induce thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells. Research Design: We tested the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) and the HDAC inhibitor SAHA (vorinostat), two major anticancer drugs currently approved for clinical use, in inducing thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells. Results: PLX4032 alone induced a modest expression of thyroid genes and RAI uptake preferentially in thyroid cancer cells harboring BRAF V600E. SAHA showed an effect in a genetic-independent manner in all the cells. A robust synergistic effect on thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake was observed in BRAF V600E-positive thyroid cancer cells when the two inhibitors were simultaneously used. This was dramatically enhanced further by TSH; triple combination of PLX4032, SAHA, and TSH showed the most robust effect on thyroid gene expression and RAI uptake in cells harboring BRAF V600E. Abundant sodium/iodide symporter protein expression in thyroid cancer cells under these conditions was confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. Conclusions: Simultaneously suppressing BRAF V600E and HDAC, particularly when cotreated with TSH, induced a far more robust expression of thyroid genes and RAI uptake in thyroid cancer cells than suppressing BRAF V600E alone. Triple combination of PLX4032, SAHA, and TSH is a specific robust regimen to restore RAI avidity in RAI-refractory BRAF V600E-positive thyroid

  11. Measuring the actual I-131 thyroid uptake curve with a collar detector system: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinks, Peter; Van Gils, Koen; Dickerscheid, Dennis B.M.; Habraken, Jan B.A. [Department of Medical Physics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Kranenborg, Ellen; Lavalaye, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2017-06-15

    Radionuclide therapy using I-131 is commonly used for the treatment of benign thyroid diseases. The therapeutic dose to be administered is calculated based on the type of disease, the volume of the thyroid, and the measured uptake percentage. This methodology assumes a similar biological half-life of iodine, whereas in reality a large variation in biological half-life is observed. More knowledge about the actual biological half-life of iodine for individual patients will improve the quantification of the delivered radiation dose during radioiodine therapy and could aid the evaluation of the success of the therapy. In this feasibility study we used a novel measurement device [Collar Therapy Indicator (CoTI)] to measure the uptake curve of patients undergoing I-131 radioiodine therapy. The CoTI device is a light-weight wearable device that contains two independent gamma radiation detectors that are placed in a collar. By comparing results of thyroid uptake measurements with results obtained with a gamma camera, the precision of the system is demonstrated. Additionally, for three patients the uptake curve is measured during 48 h of admission in the hospital. The presented results demonstrate the feasibility of the new measurement device to measure the uptake curve during radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  12. Aluminium effects on thyroid gland function: iodide uptake, hormone biosynthesis and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The effects of aluminium (Al) on thyroid function were evaluated in adult Wistar rats intraperitoneally (i.p) injected with 7 mg Al (as lactate)/kg body weight (b.w) per day during a six week period. The time-course kinetics of Na(125)I (3 μCi per 100 g b.w, i.p) was analysed by measuring gamma-radioactivity of thyroid, serum, serum protein precipitate and bile, at times ranging from 2 to 96 h post-dosing. In Al-treated group the (125)I(-) thyroid uptake at 24 h (15,840 ± 570 vs. 18,030 ± 630 dpm/mg, Pthyroid tissue were increased in Al-treated rats. The serum concentrations of total thyroxine (T4, 3.78 ± 0.14 vs. 4.68 ± 0.12 μg/dL, Pthyroid iodide uptake and hormones secretion by a mechanism involving the induction of an oxidative stress state, however, these changes could be managed by the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid endocrine axis. We can conclude that in adult rats the Al would not act as a thyroid disruptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurements for reduction and prevention of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Becker, W.

    1987-01-01

    After incorporation of radioiodine the thyroid gland is the organ with the highest radiation exposure. The most important methods for reduction or prevention of radioiodine incorporation by inhalation, ingestion or cutaneous resorption are the prevention of contamination and incorporation. The protection against external radiation and the prophylaxis with iodine are also very useful. The maximum of radioiodine exposure is reached within the first few days after exposure due to the short physical half-life of I-131. In addition to non-specific methods of protection for contamination and incorporation, thyroid blockage by iodine is of major importance. With 100 mg potassium iodide, taken in intervalls of eight hours, the radioiodine uptake of the thyroid gland can be reduced to 1%, provided that administration takes place before, or simultaneously with the exposure. The most important side effect, especially in endemic goiter areas, is the induction of thyrotoxicosis. In newborns and infants myxedema and the induction of an iodide-goiter may occur. Alternatively to iodide prophylaxis, the competitive restriction of the radioiodine uptake into the thyroid gland may be achieved using perchlorate. However, perchlorate shall not be preferred to iodide because of its potential side-effects. High doses of iodide should only be given, if the calculated thyroid radiation exposure is more than 0.25 Sv, because only at this dose level benefit is higher than risk. (orig.) [de

  14. Thyrotoxicosis caused by functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. A rare and elusive cause of hyperthyroidism with low radioactive iodine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, K.P.; Cowan, R.J.; Sevier, R.E.; Poole, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with progressively worsening thyrotoxicosis, refractory to medical therapy, is described. Repeated measurements of thyroidal RAI uptake over a 13 month period were low consistently and could not be explained by iodine ingestion, thyroiditis, or administration of exogenous thyroid hormone. An I-131 scan ultimately revealed striking activity at the base of the skull, reflecting ectopic excessive production of thyroid hormone by a solitary functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. The thyrotoxic state resolved after large doses of therapeutic I-131. Typical features of this rare cause of hyperthyroidism are discussed

  15. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  16. Clinical Significance of Diffuse Intrathoracic Uptake on Post-Therapy I-131 Scans in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Su; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sonya Youngju; Park, Hye Lim; Seo, Ye Young; Choi, Woo Hee [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and possible cause of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy I-131 scans in thyroid cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 781 post-therapy scans of 755 thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy between January and December 2010. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was examined, and clinical patient characteristics including sex, age, regimen for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH injection), TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-Tg Ab) levels, therapeutic dose of radioactive iodine therapy and prior history of radioactive iodine therapy were recorded.Scan findings were correlated with chest CT, chest radiographs, laboratory tests and/or clinical status. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake without evidence of pathologic condition was categorized as indeterminate. The association between clinical characteristics and intrathoracic uptake were analyzed for negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups. Diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was demonstrated in 39 out of 755 (5.2 %) patients, among which 3 were confirmed as lung metastasis. The 14 patients that showed high Tg or anti-Tg Ab levels were considered to be at risk of having undetected micrometastasis on other imaging modalities. The remaining 22 were indeterminate (2.9 %). Upon comparison of negative intrathoracic uptake and indeterminate uptake groups, TSH stimulation by thyroid hormone withdrawal was shown to be significantly correlated with diffuse intrathoracic uptake (p <0.05). The frequency of diffuse intrathoracic uptake on post-therapy scans was 5.2 % and could be seen in thyroid cancer patients with underlying lung metastasis as well as those without definite pathologic condition. In the latter, there was a higher frequency for diffusely increased intrathoracic

  17. Thyroidal radioisotope uptake in euthyroid cats : a comparison between 131I and 99MTcO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lambrechts

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Two thyroidal evaluation systems in euthyroid cats (n = 12 were compared. A single, confirmed hyperthyroid cat was included for interest. Firstly, thyroidal uptake of an intravenous bolus of approximately 111 MBq (3 mCi 99MTcO4- was estimated by using a scintillation camera and calculating the ratio of thyroid to salivary activities at 20 min and 4 h. Thyroid to salivary activity ratios were 1:1 at 20 min and 2:1 at 4 h. Two discrete areas of salivary uptake were identified, namely a parotid/mandibular complex and a more rostral buccal/sublingual complex. These results were compared to radioiodine uptake of an oral dose of approximately 0.925 MBq (25 mCi 131I using a standard thyroid uptake system, measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 h after administration. Mean radioiodine thyroidal uptake started at 33 % at 1 h, stabilised at 21 % between 4 and 24 h, and dropped to 18 % at 48 h. There was a significant correlation between the early thyroid:salivary ratio of the parotid/mandibular complex and the radioiodine uptake at 12 h.

  18. Multimodality imaging of 131I uptake in nude mice thyroid based on Cerenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhenhua; Liang Jimin; Qu Xiaochao; Yang Weidong; Ma Xiaowei; Wang Jing; Tian Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform the multimodality 131 I thyroid imaging using Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) and gamma imaging, and to compare the results of CLT and gamma imaging. Methods The nude mice (n=4, mass: (21 ±3) g) were injected with 1.67 ×10 7 Bq 131 I. CLT and gamma imaging were acquired at 0.5, 3, 12 and 24 h after the injection. Three-dimensional biodistribution of 131 I uptake in thyroid was reconstructed using Cerenkov source reconstruction method based on the diffusion equation (DE), and the reconstructed power of 131 I in different acquisition time points was obtained. Additionally, the ROIs were drawn over the gamma images of the mouse neck, and the counts were read. The correlation between the reconstructed power of CLT and gamma ray counts of gamma imaging was analyzed. Results: The power of 131 I uptake in thyroid at 0.5, 3, 12 and 24 h were 7.80 ×10 -13 , 1.62×10 -12 , 2.20×10 -12 and 2.68 × 10 -12 W, respectively. CLT results showed that reconstructed power increased with the increasing of acquisition time. Gamma imaging results indicated that 131 I uptake decreased in abdomen and increased in thyroid with the collection time. The results of CLT were consistent with that of gamma imaging (r 2 =0.7620, P<0.05). Conclusion: CLT has the potential to identify and monitor functioning thyroid tissue at before and (or) after 131 I treatment. (authors)

  19. Comparison of FDG Uptake with Pathological Parameters in the Well-differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Hee; Chung, Yong An; Kim, Ki Jun; Park, Chang Suk; Jung, Hyun Suk; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Chung, Soo Kyo; Yoo, Chang Young

    2009-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has variable degree of F-18 FDG avidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between F-18 FDG uptake and pathological or immunohistochemical features of DTC. DTC patients who underwent both pre-operative F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and surgery were included in the study. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of primary tumor were calculated. If the primary tumor showed no perceptibly increased F-18 FDG uptake, region of interest was drawn based on finding of CT portion of the PET/CT images. Pathological and immunohistochemical markers such as presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis and underlying thyroiditis, tumor size, Ki-67 labeling index, expressions of EGFR, COX-2, and Galectin-3 were evaluated. Total of 106 patients was included (102 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas). The mean SUVmax of the large tumors (above 1 cm) was significantly higher than the mean SUVmax of small (equal to or less than 1 cm) ones (7.8±8.5 vs. 3.6±3.1, p=0.004). No significant difference in F-18 FDG uptake was found according to the presence or absence of LN metastasis and underlying thyroiditis, or the degree of Ki-67 labeling index, expression of EGFR, COX-2 and Galectin-3. In conclusion, the degree of F-18 FDG uptake in DTC was associated with the size of primary tumor. But there seem to be no relationship between F-18 FDG uptake of DTC and expression of Ki-67, EGFR, COX-2 and Galectin-3

  20. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake in a thyroid adenoma with diffuse adipose metaplassia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paone, Gaetano; Giovanella, Luca [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT CentreOncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mazzucchelli, Luca [Institute of Pathology, Locarno (Switzerland); Peloni, Guiseppe; Fasolini, Fabrizio [Dept. of SurgeryBeata Vergine Hospital, Mendrisio (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    A 71-year-old female underwent a (99m)Tc-MIBI scan to characterize a cold nodule (30 mm) of the left thyroid lobe. The nodule showed diffuse uptake and retention of the radiotracer. After resection, histological examination demonstrated a microfollicular adenoma with diffuse white adipose metaplasia. Although mitochondria in brown adipose tissue have been widely studied, we have only a limited understanding of the relevance of mitochondria in white adipose tissue. Active mitochondria are present in white adipocytes, and this may account for the MIBI uptake, mimicking a hyperproliferation pattern, in our patient.

  1. Modulation of thyroidal radioiodide uptake by oncological pipeline inhibitors and Apigenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Aparna; Scarberry, Daniel; Green, Jill A.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Selmi-Ruby, Samia; Jhiang, Sissy M.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer is based on selective stimulation of Na+/I− Symporter (NIS)-mediated radioactive iodide uptake (RAIU) in thyroid cells by thyrotropin. Patients with advanced thyroid cancer do not benefit from radioiodine therapy due to reduced or absent NIS expression. To identify inhibitors that can be readily translated into clinical care, we examined oncological pipeline inhibitors targeting Akt, MEK, PI3K, Hsp90 or BRAF in their ability to increase RAIU in thyroid cells expressing BRAFV600E or RET/PTC3 oncogene. Our data showed that (1) PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 outperformed other inhibitors in RAIU increase mainly by decreasing iodide efflux rate to a great extent; (2) RAIU increase by all inhibitors was extensively reduced by TGF-β, a cytokine secreted in the invasive fronts of thyroid cancers; (3) RAIU reduction by TGF-β was mainly mediated by NIS reduction and could be reversed by Apigenin, a plant-derived flavonoid; and (4) In the presence of TGF-β, GDC-0941 with Apigenin co-treatment had the highest RAIU level in both BRAFV600E expressing cells and RET/PTC3 expressing cells. Taken together, Apigenin may serve as a dietary supplement along with small molecule inhibitors to improve radioiodine therapeutic efficacy on invasive tumor margins thereby minimizing future metastatic events. PMID:26397139

  2. Radioiodine therapy for Plummer's disease based on the thyroid uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Wisheu, S.; Behe, M.; Gratz, S.; Becker, W.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was the evaluation of a TcTUs (global technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression)-based approach in 370 patients with thyroid autonomy (Plummer's disease) treated by radioiodine therapy (RIT) under standardised conditions. The analysis included 370 patients (309 females, 61 males; mean age 64±11.6 years) treated for thyroid autonomy [unifocal (UFA), 36.8%; multifocal (MFA), 55.7%; disseminated (DISA), 7.6%]. During RIT all patients were under thyroid suppression (TSH 0.5 μU/l and/or TcTUs 4 μU/ml). A dose of 350-450 Gy to the autonomous tissue resulted in a success rate of 97% in the UFA group and 81% in the MFA/DISA group. Decrease in total thyroid volume and TcTUs did not differ significantly between successfully treated patients and patients with persistent autonomy. Multivariate analysis of all 370 patients identified four independent factors that negatively influenced the therapeutic success: high pretherapeutic thyroid volume (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.017), high pretherapeutic TcTUs values (P=0.0001; odds ratio: 1.378), multifocal/disseminated autonomy (P=0.0056; odds ratio: 3.245) and low target dose (P=0.017; odds ratio: 0.997). It is concluded that the high success rate in the treatment of UFA indicates the concept of TcTUs-based RIT to be valid, but that in the therapy of MFA/DISA the target se has to be corrected if the total thyroid volume exceeds a critical threshold. (orig.)

  3. Focal Bronchiectasis Causing Abnormal Pulmonary Radioiodine Uptake in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ash Gargya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. False-positive pulmonary radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma has been reported in patients with certain respiratory conditions. Patient Findings. We describe a case of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation therapy. Postablation radioiodine whole body scan and subsequent diagnostic radioiodine whole body scans have shown persistent uptake in the left hemithorax despite an undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin in the absence of interfering thyroglobulin antibodies. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography has confirmed that the abnormal pulmonary radioiodine uptake correlates with focal bronchiectasis. Summary. Bronchiectasis can cause abnormal chest radioactive iodine uptake in the followup of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Conclusions. Recognition of potential false-positive chest radioactive iodine uptake, simulating pulmonary metastases, is needed to avoid unnecessary exposure to further radiation from repeated therapeutic doses of radioactive iodine.

  4. Dose selection for radioiodine therapy of borderline hyperthyroid patients according to thyroid uptake of 99mTc-pertechnetate: applicability to unifocal thyroid autonomy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Joe, Alexius Y.; Biermann, Kim; Brockmann, Holger; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer; Wissmeyer, Michael; Juengling, Freimut D.; Krause, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying a previously described dose strategy based on 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under thyrotropin suppression (TcTU s ) to radioiodine therapy for unifocal thyroid autonomy. A total of 425 consecutive patients (302 females, 123 males; age 63.1±10.3 years) with unifocal thyroid autonomy were treated at three different centres with 131 I, using Marinelli's formula for calculation of three different absorbed dose schedules: 100-300 Gy to the total thyroid volume according to the pre-treatment TcTU s (n=146), 300 Gy to the nodule volume (n=137) and 400 Gy to the nodule volume (n=142). Successful elimination of functional thyroid autonomy with either euthyroidism or hypothyroidism occurred at a mean of 12 months after radioiodine therapy in 94.5% of patients receiving 100-300 Gy to the thyroid volume, in 89.8% of patients receiving 300 Gy to the nodule volume and in 94.4% receiving 400 Gy to the nodule volume. Reduction in thyroid volume was highest for the 100-300 Gy per thyroid and 400 Gy per nodule strategies (36±19% and 38±20%, respectively) and significantly lower for the 300 Gy per nodule strategy (28±16%; p s can be used independently of the scintigraphic pattern of functional autonomous tissue in the thyroid. (orig.)

  5. The clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Christine (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)); Lin, Michael (Univ. of New South Wales (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia)), email: Michael.lin@swsahs.nsw.gov.au; Chicco, Andrew; Benson, Rhonda (Liverpool Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Liverpool (Australia))

    2011-10-15

    Background Incidental focal fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid is not uncommon. A significant proportion is due to intercurrent thyroid cancer on further evaluation. Purpose To investigate and discuss the clinical significance and management of incidental focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with non-thyroidal malignancy. Material and Methods We investigated 188/7896 (2.4%) patients who had incidental focal thyroid uptake on FDG PET/CT in an oncology population over a 45-month period. Diagnosis was confirmed in 63 patients of whom 59 patients had histopathological verification. Results Thirty-two percent of confirmed cases were malignant comprising intercurrent thyroid cancer in three-quarters of these patients. Maximum standardized uptake values of the thyroid lesions and SUV ratios compared with background thyroid and mediastinal uptake were not predictive of a benign or malignant etiology. In patients with incidental thyroid cancers, more than half had non-papillary and intermediate to high-risk pathology. Conclusion Focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT showed a malignancy risk of 32%. The intensity of uptake does not predict histology and underpins the importance of further investigations to exclude intercurrent thyroid cancer in suitable patients

  6. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloteaux, Gerard.

    1977-01-01

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism [fr

  7. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  8. The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, R.; Horne, T.; Barr, J.; Ramot, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

  9. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules.

  10. Measurement of the iodine uptake by the thyroid: comparative analysis between the gamma camera system with 'pinhole' collimator and 13S002 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da; Mello, Rossana Corbo R. de; Rebelo, Ana Maria O.

    2002-01-01

    The thyroid uptake measurements are common in medical uses and are considered a direct and precise form of diagnostic, however, different results have been observed as measurements of thyroid uptake are taken using distinct equipment. This study attempts to find the cause of the differences between a thyroid uptake probe and a gamma camera. These discrepancies can be associated to the different patients samples, equipment's problems or operator procedures errors. This work presents the results of comparative uptake measurements performed in a neck phantom and a 4-hour thyroid uptake study in 40 patients, using a Gamma Camera Ohio Nuclear model Sigma 410 with a pinhole collimator and Nuclear Medicine System model 13S002, developed by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The results observed show that in spite of non satisfactory results commented in literature, both the System 13S002 and System Gamma Camera Ohio can be used in uptake thyroid diagnostic with statistical confidence degree of 99 %. (author)

  11. Diet low in iodine as well as goitrogens (LILGD) enhanced radioiodine (I-131) uptake in treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaro, Erik; Gebre-Medhin, Mehari; Lindahl, Sten-AAke

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Low iodine diet (LID) is accepted as an adjuvant to post-thyroidectomy radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer since it is held to enhance radioiodine uptake in thyroid remnants and thyroid cancer tissue. However, in the few clinical investigations performed only an indirect and weak evidence of a positive effect of the LID has been demonstrated. Also we had discouraging experience in the application of a strict LID using the same design as in the present study. We therefore decided to investigate the effect of a diet low in iodine as well as in goitrogens (LILGD). Methods: Six patients with differentiated thyroid cancer entered the study and they were their own control. After thyroid hormone withdrawal (TSH > 30 m U/L) and on regular diet a diagnostic whole body scan was performed 24 h after administration of 50 MBq (1,4 mCi) 123 I. The day following diagnostic scan the patients were put on LILGD for 4 days prior and two days after radioiodine therapy. In LILGD beverages, fruits and vegetables containing flavonoids, glucosinolates, cyanides and thiocyanates were avoided and spices and smoking prohibited. Therapeutic radioiodine was administered one week after diagnostic procedures and in the morning after over-night fasting with an activity range of 3,7-5,4 GBq (100 -150 mCi) 131 I. A 24-h therapeutic whole body scan and calculations of percentage uptake U(24) were performed. Diagnostic (basal) D U(24)% and subsequent therapeutic T U(24)% uptake were compared and expressed as therapeutic/diagnostic uptake ratios T/D U(24). Results: A significant increase in therapeutic versus diagnostic uptake T/D U(24) was observed (mean 2,53, median 2,30, range 1,40 - 4,46, p 131 I uptake in radio-ablation of normal and thyroid cancer tissue. (author)

  12. Dose selection for radioiodine therapy of borderline hyperthyroid patients according to thyroid uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate: applicability to unifocal thyroid autonomy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Joe, Alexius Y. [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biermann, Kim; Brockmann, Holger; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Wissmeyer, Michael [Inselspital Bern, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Juengling, Freimut D.; Krause, Thomas M. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hugstetter Str. 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Inselspital Bern, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying a previously described dose strategy based on {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under thyrotropin suppression (TcTU{sub s}) to radioiodine therapy for unifocal thyroid autonomy. A total of 425 consecutive patients (302 females, 123 males; age 63.1{+-}10.3 years) with unifocal thyroid autonomy were treated at three different centres with {sup 131}I, using Marinelli's formula for calculation of three different absorbed dose schedules: 100-300 Gy to the total thyroid volume according to the pre-treatment TcTU{sub s} (n=146), 300 Gy to the nodule volume (n=137) and 400 Gy to the nodule volume (n=142). Successful elimination of functional thyroid autonomy with either euthyroidism or hypothyroidism occurred at a mean of 12 months after radioiodine therapy in 94.5% of patients receiving 100-300 Gy to the thyroid volume, in 89.8% of patients receiving 300 Gy to the nodule volume and in 94.4% receiving 400 Gy to the nodule volume. Reduction in thyroid volume was highest for the 100-300 Gy per thyroid and 400 Gy per nodule strategies (36{+-}19% and 38{+-}20%, respectively) and significantly lower for the 300 Gy per nodule strategy (28{+-}16%; p<0.01). A dose strategy based on the TcTU{sub s} can be used independently of the scintigraphic pattern of functional autonomous tissue in the thyroid. (orig.)

  13. Influence of urinary iodine excretion on thyroid technetium-99m pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression: what happens when iodine supply increases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Hoegerle, S.; Trupkovic, T.; Krause, T.M.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines how thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression changes as a function of increasing iodine supply. This is of special interest in countries at the threshold of sufficient iodine supply, where thyroid scintigraphy plays a key role in thyroid examination, especially for the diagnosis of Plummer's disease. From 1995 to 1997, a total of 1069 patients with euthyroid goitre, Plummer's disease or Graves' disease were included in the study. All patients underwent thyroid examination including sonography, scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate, and determination of free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, TSH and urinary iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in the range from 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine showed an inverse correlation with thyroid pertechnetate uptake, but no correlation with TSH was observed. There was no correlation between thyroid pertechnetate uptake and iodine excretion when TSH stimulation was eliminated, with two exceptions: thyroid pertechnetate uptake was significantly increased for iodine excretion values below 50 and 100 μg iodine/g creatinine in patients with Graves' and Plummer's disease, respectively. When iodine excretion exceeded 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, pertechnetate uptake was reduced to a basal level independent of the TSH. In conclusion, the influence of TSH on the thyroid pertechnetate uptake seems to be secondary compared with the influence of the iodine supply. It can be concluded further that the reference range of thyroid pertechnetate uptake under TSH suppression will not change significantly when the iodine supply increases from conditions of mild iodine deficiency to iodine sufficiency. Thyroid pertechnetate uptake with and without TSH suppression cannot be reliably interpreted beyond an iodine excretion of 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. (orig.)

  14. Lung uptake on I-131 therapy and short-term outcome in patients with lung metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Manabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to assess I-131 lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy because of strong artifacts from I-131 uptake in the thyroid bed. The aim of this study was to analyze the lung uptake at the second I-131 therapy for lung metastasis in patients who did not have lung uptake at the initial therapy from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Then, we also analyzed the relationship between the initial lung uptake and short-term outcome after I-131 therapies. This study included 62 DTC patients with lung metastasis. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy such as patients with lung uptake (positive uptake group n=31) and those without lung uptake (negative uptake group n=31). The lung uptake was analyzed at the second therapy in both groups. The short-term outcome was also analyzed based on the CT findings of lung metastasis size and serum thyroglobulin level between the two groups. The positive uptake group showed positive lung uptake at the second therapy in 23 patients (74%), whereas none of negative uptake group showed any lung uptake at the second therapy (P < 0.01). The positive uptake group significantly decreased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (20.0 ± 11.7 to 16.6 ± 9.6 mm, P < 0.01) with further decrease after the second therapy (P < 0.05). The serum thyroglobulin level was also significantly decreased from the initial therapy to the second therapy (4348 ± 7011 to 2931 ± 4484 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In contrast, the negative uptake group significantly increased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (17.3 ± 12.2 to 19.9 ± 14.3 mm, P < 0.01) with further increase after the second therapy (P < 0.01). No patients without lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy showed lung uptake at the second therapy, or showed treatment effect. Therefore, second I-131 therapy for these patients with initially

  15. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R. (Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture.

  16. Iodine-131 uptake in a patient with thyroid cancer and rheumatoid arthritis during acupuncture treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, N.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Nagai, K.; Katagiri, M.; Harada, T.; Morita, R.

    1990-01-01

    A patient with thyroid carcinoma had abnormal accumulation of I-131 in the areas of both feet and hands on whole body scan. The sites of abnormal accumulation of I-131 were similar to those on bone scintigraphy. The radiographic examination of the lesions showed characteristic findings of rheumatoid arthritis, and the presence of small gold needles for acupuncture treatment was demonstrated. There were no findings of bone metastases. Although the mechanism of accumulation of I-131 in this patient is unknown, interpreters of I-131 whole body scintigraphs should keep this case in mind when acupuncture treatment has been done. The authors can only speculate on a common blood flow mechanism for enhanced HMDP and I-131 uptake in this arthritic patient who had been treated by acupuncture

  17. Three-dimensional noninvasive monitoring iodine-131 uptake in the thyroid using a modified Cerenkov luminescence tomography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Ma, Xiaowei; Qu, Xiaochao; Yang, Weidong; Liang, Jimin; Wang, Jing; Tian, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) provides the three-dimensional (3D) radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in small living animals, which is vital to biomedical imaging. However, existing single-spectral and multispectral methods are not very efficient and effective at reconstructing the distribution of the radionuclide tracer. In this paper, we present a semi-quantitative Cerenkov radiation spectral characteristic-based source reconstruction method named the hybrid spectral CLT, to efficiently reconstruct the radionuclide tracer with both encouraging reconstruction results and less acquisition and image reconstruction time. We constructed the implantation mouse model implanted with a 400 µCi Na(131)I radioactive source and the physiological mouse model received an intravenous tail injection of 400 µCi radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 (I-131) to validate the performance of the hybrid spectral CLT and compared the reconstruction results, acquisition, and image reconstruction time with that of single-spectral and multispectral CLT. Furthermore, we performed 3D noninvasive monitoring of I-131 uptake in the thyroid and quantified I-131 uptake in vivo using hybrid spectral CLT. Results showed that the reconstruction based on the hybrid spectral CLT was more accurate in localization and quantification than using single-spectral CLT, and was more efficient in the in vivo experiment compared with multispectral CLT. Additionally, 3D visualization of longitudinal observations suggested that the reconstructed energy of I-131 uptake in the thyroid increased with acquisition time and there was a robust correlation between the reconstructed energy versus the gamma ray counts of I-131 (r(2) = 0.8240). The ex vivo biodistribution experiment further confirmed the I-131 uptake in the thyroid for hybrid spectral CLT. Results indicated that hybrid spectral CLT could be potentially used for thyroid imaging to evaluate its function and monitor its treatment for thyroid cancer.

  18. Derivation of the critical effect size/benchmark response for the dose-response analysis of the uptake of radioactive iodine in the human thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Peter J J M; Loftus, Christine; Lewandowski, Thomas A

    2016-08-22

    Potential adverse effects of chemical substances on thyroid function are usually examined by measuring serum levels of thyroid-related hormones. Instead, recent risk assessments for thyroid-active chemicals have focussed on iodine uptake inhibition, an upstream event that by itself is not necessarily adverse. Establishing the extent of uptake inhibition that can be considered de minimis, the chosen benchmark response (BMR), is therefore critical. The BMR values selected by two international advisory bodies were 5% and 50%, a difference that had correspondingly large impacts on the estimated risks and health-based guidance values that were established. Potential treatment-related inhibition of thyroidal iodine uptake is usually determined by comparing thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine (RAIU) during treatment with a single pre-treatment RAIU value. In the present study it is demonstrated that the physiological intra-individual variation in iodine uptake is much larger than 5%. Consequently, in-treatment RAIU values, expressed as a percentage of the pre-treatment value, have an inherent variation, that needs to be considered when conducting dose-response analyses. Based on statistical and biological considerations, a BMR of 20% is proposed for benchmark dose analysis of human thyroidal iodine uptake data, to take the inherent variation in relative RAIU data into account. Implications for the tolerated daily intakes for perchlorate and chlorate, recently established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Human-centered design of the human-system interfaces of medical equipment: thyroid uptake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Jonathan K.R.; Farias, Marcos S.; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Monteiro, Beany G.

    2013-01-01

    Technology plays an important role in modern medical centers, making healthcare increasingly complex, relying on complex technical equipment. This technical complexity is particularly noticeable in the nuclear medicine. Poorly design human-system interfaces can increase the risks for human error. The human-centered approach emphasizes the development of the equipment with a deep understanding of the users activities, current work practices, needs and abilities of the users. An important concept of human-centered design is that the ease-of-use of the equipment can be ensured only if users are actively incorporated in all phases of the life cycle of design process. Representative groups of users are exposed to the equipment at various stages in development, in a variety of testing, evaluation and interviewing situations. The users feedback obtained is then used to refine the design, with the result serving as input to the next interaction of design process. The limits of the approach are that the users cannot address any particular future needs without prior experience or knowledge about the equipment operation. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework that contributes to the design of the human-system interfaces, through an approach related to the users and their activities. A case study is described in which the methodological framework is being applied in development of new human-system interfaces of the thyroid uptake system. (author)

  20. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; da Silva, R.S.; Turyn, D.; Dellacha, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125 I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125 I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125 I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na 125 I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na 125 I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125 I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125 I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125 I-hGH or 125 I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  1. Analysis of pelvic 131I uptake after 131I whole body scan in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Ying; Liu Jianzhong; Hao Xinzhong; Wu Lixiang; Lu Keyi; Yang Suyun; Shi Xiaoli; Hu Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and explore the possible mechanism for pelvic 131 I uptake after 131 I post treatment whole body scan (Rx-WBS)in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: (1) Data were retrospectively reviewed from 168 female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (everyone has a Rx-WBS). (2) 46 patients were accepted by analyzing the characteristics of Rx-WBS and combing with some inclusion criteria,and then followed up. Results: Among the 46 patients (46 positions accumulated 131 I) with significant pelvic 131 I uptake, 6 patients had two reasons leading to pelvic 131 I uptake, and 2 patients had no specific reason. Among the 50 reasons for pelvic 131 I uptake, 41 reasons related with uterus, 3 reasons related to rectum, 5 related to bladder and 1 related to ovarian chocolate cyst. Among the 41 reasons related to uterus, by combining the examinations of SPECT/CT, ultrasound, CT and the follow-up results, 18 were uterine leiomyomas, 9 were intrauterine devices, 2 were endometrial thickening, 3 were uterine cavity effusion, 7 were menstrual periods, 1 were uterine adenomyosis, 1 were gestational sac. Conclusions: (1) In the Rx-WBS of female, the significant pelvic 131 I uptake is generally caused by uterus, but not bladder. And it usually means gynecological disease, especially uterine leiomyomas when excluding physiological factors. (2) It is generally easy to differentiate bladder from rectum because they have different characteristic features of the pelvic 131 I uptake. (3) SPECT/CT plays a very important role in locating 131 I uptake in uterus. (authors)

  2. Thyroid hormone stimulated glucose uptake in human mononuclear blood cells from normal persons and from patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1989-01-01

    of stimulation of cells from control subjects and patients with NIDDM revealed an identical oxygen consumption, whereas the thyroid hormone-induced glucose uptake was significantly increased in cells from patients with NIDDM. T4 (5 mumol/l) stimulation in controls: 1.34 +/- 0.23 mmol.l-1 (mg DNA)-1.h-1, in NIDDM...... an increased thyroid hormone induced glucose uptake, indicating increased thyroid hormone sensitivity. This observation contrasts the well known insulin insensitivity, suggesting separate mechanisms for glucose uptake elicited by insulin and thyroid hormones....... by physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of T3 and T4 in a dose-dependent manner (50-5000 nmol/l), whereas rT3 and T2 had no stimulatory effect. The effect of T3 and T4 was independent of new protein synthesis in that it was not blocked by tunicamycin (1 mg/l) and tiothepa (75 mg/l). Examination...

  3. Use of gamma probe in {sup 131}I thyroid uptake studies; Utilizacao da sonda a cintilacao na captacao de {sup 131}I pela tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, Andrea Gondim Leitao

    2002-11-01

    Evaluation of thyroid uptake by administration of radioactive iodine is a well-defined procedure to assess patient thyroid function. In general, nuclear medicine institutions use gamma cameras coupled to pinhole collimators to perform uptake studies. With the growing use of intraoperative gamma probes in the radioguided surgical techniques, several institutions are purchasing this new and portable equipment, which can technically be also employed to assess patient's thyroid function, permitting further other applications of gamma cameras. The aim of the study was to compare thyroid uptake trails carried out with both gamma camera and intraoperative gamma probe, in order to evaluate the possible use of gamma probe for this purpose. At first a preliminary study of feasibility was carried out using a neck phantom to verify equipment efficiency with known activities of {sup 131} I. Henceforth, work data from 12 patients undergone studies of thyroid uptakes were evaluated, 24 hours after oral administration of 370 kBq of {sup 131} I. The maximum difference observed between the values obtained with both equipment was 60%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed protocol and made clear that gamma probe can be useful for thyroid uptake studies. (author)

  4. False-positive radioactive iodine uptake mimicking miliary lung metastases in a patient affected by papillary thyroid cancer and IgA deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Reynolds, James C. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States); Kundu, Amartya [Dept. of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States); Celi, Francesco S. [Div. of Endocrinology and MetabolismVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up {sup 123}I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial {sup 123}I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy.

  5. The clinical significance of measuring the thyroid 131I uptake rate to identify the type of premature hypothyroidism for hyperthyroid after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Chen Huaming; Zhu Tianfeng

    2001-01-01

    The 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate and the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consisting of 33 provisional hypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131 I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131 I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131 I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131 I uptake rate: if the 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate is normal, it is provisional hypothyroidism; if not, it is perpetual hypothyroidism

  6. Thyroid uptake measurements: gamma camera system with Pinhole collimator and nuclear medicine system model 13S002; Medida da captacao de Iodo pela tiroide: sistema gama-camara com colimador Pinhole x Sistema 13S002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Corbo, R.; Rebelo, A.M. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Karam, R. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: borges@ien.gov.br

    2001-07-01

    The thyroid uptake measurements are common in medical uses and are considered a direct and precise form of diagnostic, however, different results have been observed as measurements of thyroid uptake are taken using distinct equipment. This study attempts to find the cause of the differences between a thyroid uptake probe and a gamma camera. These discrepancies can be associated to the different patients samples, equipment's problems or operator procedures errors. This work presents the results of comparative uptake measurements performed in a neck phantom and a 4-hour thyroid uptake study in 40 patients, using a Gamma Camera Ohio Nuclear model Sigma 410 with a pinhole collimator and Nuclear Medicine System model 13S002, developed by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The results observed show that in spite of non satisfactory results commented in literature, both the System 13S002 and System Gamma Camera Ohio can be used in uptake thyroid diagnostic with statistical confidence degree of 99 %. (author)

  7. Alterations of serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin, nuclear binding of tri-iodothyronine and thyroid hormone-stimulated cellular uptake of oxygen and glucose in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined in mononuclear blood cells from patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTI) in which serum T3 was significantly (P less than 0.05) depressed (0.62 +/- 0.12 (S.D.) nmol/l) compared...

  8. The effects of human TSH receptor gene transfection on iodide uptake and thyroid-specific gene expression in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shasha; Wang Hui; Feng Fang; Lin Ning; Fu Hongliang; Du Xueliang; Wu Jingchuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of iodide uptake and the expression of thyroid-specific genes in poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) cells after transfection of human TSH receptor (hTSHR) gene in vitro. Methods: The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1/hTSHR-cDNA was transformed into DH 5a bacterial for amplification and then the recombinant plasmid was extracted. The recombinant was identified with PCR amplifying, restriction enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/hTSHR was transfected into FTC-133 cell line by lipofectin method in vitro. Immunofluorescence, iodide uptake studies and real time-PCR were applied to detect target protein expression. Statistical analysis was performed with t-test using SPSS 13.0 software. Results: Kpn I and Xba I restriction enzyme digestion, PCR amplifying and DNA sequencing confirmed that pcDNA3.1/hTSHR was successfully constructed. After transfection of the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/hTSHR-cDNA and the stimulation of hTSH, the tumor cells displayed the expression of hTSHR protein at cell surface and cytoplasm. The iodine uptake in pcDNA3.1/hTSHR transfected cells was 2.9 times higher than that of control(pcDNA3.1(+) transfected cells) group(t = 28.63, P<0.01). The expression of TSHR, NIS, TPO and Tg (mRNA levels) in pcDNA3.1/hTSHR transfected cells were also significantly elevated by 1.74 (t =5.959, P<0.01), 7.2 (t =3.807, P<0.05), 2.88 (t=4.769, P<0.01) and 2.67 times (t=6.388, P<0.01) respectively compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that iodide uptake may be reactivated by hTSHR receptor gene transfection in poorly differentiated FTC cell. (authors)

  9. The effect of eating salt with iodine on the normal values of thyroid 131I uptake rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Wang Huawen; Li Guirong; Chen Chunmei; Zhang Lixia; Yu Yuehua

    2002-01-01

    131 I uptake rates of control group, which stop eating salt with iodine for over six weeks, eating salt with iodine group, the hyperthyroidism group are determined in 2 h, 6 h and 24 h respectively. The results show 131 I uptake rate of eating salt with iodine group are (7.7 +- 4.2)% in 2 h, (13.8 +- 5.3)% in 6 h and (21.9 +- 7.7)% in 24 h. There are no difference between sex. There is significance of difference (P 131 I uptake rates between the hyperthyroidism group of eating salt with iodine and control group is 5.0%, and eating salt with iodine group is 22.5%. To determine the thyroid iodine uptake rate in the patients who did not stop eating salt with iodine, the ranges of normal values must be defined. This result could be as a standard to diagnose the patients of hyperthyroidism of eating salt with iodine

  10. Iodine capsules in thyroid therapy: An individually controlled study of I-131 uptake kinetics as compared to liquid administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Seelentag, W.W.; Pfeiffer, G.; Blauenstein, P.; Bekier, A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by parts of the patients gastric mucosa when given I-131 therapy in capsular rather than liquid form, and thus to establish the safety of this procedure. 16 patients with benign thyroid disease were studied by measuring serum radioactivity at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min. after administration of the capsule (120-200 MBq I131). These serum uptake values were compared to the uptake after administration of a liquid diagnostic dose of I-131 (2 MBq). From the resulting uptake curves the delay due to capsular dissolution was determined. The average dissolution time was found to be 12 min. with a large standard deviation of 7 min. Also, a theoretical curve was computed to indicate the dose rate as a function of the distance from the surface of the capsule. Based on this information the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa is of the order of 250 cGy for a therapeutic activity of 185 MBq, which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to outpatients in Switzerland. By having the patient swallow some liquid during the first ten minutes, the capsule can be made to move around, and hence, the local radiation dose can be reduced substantially. The authors conclude, that I-131 in capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. When large doses are given, administration of the dose in several capsules may be advisable

  11. Effect of triclosan, triclocarban, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, and bisphenol A on the iodide uptake, thyroid peroxidase activity, and expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Beland, Frederick A; Fang, Jia-Long

    2016-04-01

    Triclosan, triclocarban, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), and bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. We have examined the effects of these chemicals on sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake and the expression of genes involved in TH synthesis in rat thyroid follicular FRTL-5 cells, and on the activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) using rat thyroid microsomes. All four chemicals inhibited NIS-mediated iodide uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. A decrease in the iodide uptake was also observed in the absence of sodium iodide. Kinetic studies showed that all four chemicals were non-competitive inhibitors of NIS, with the order of Ki values being triclosantriclosan or triclocarban. BDE-47 decreased the level of Tpo, while BPA altered the expression of all six genes. Triclosan and triclocarban inhibited the activity of TPO at 166 and >300 μM, respectively. Neither BDE-47 nor BPA affected TPO activity. In conclusion, triclosan, triclocarban, BDE-47, and BPA inhibited iodide uptake, but had differential effects on the expression of TH synthesis-related genes and the activity of TPO. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of lithium on thyroidal 131iodine uptake, its clearance, and circulating levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine in lead-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Dhawan, D.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of lead acetate (50 mg per kg body weight) on the 131 iodine ( 131 I) biokinetics (uptake and retention) in rat thyroid and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T 3 ) as well as thyroxine (T 4 ) was evaluated as a function of time and in combination with lithium treatment. The 2-h and 24-h uptake of 131 I in the thyroid was stimulated significantly by lead treatment. The 24-h uptake showed a maximum stimulation after 4 months of lead treatment. Lithium supplementation, however, showed the opposite effect by reducing the iodine uptake, whereby the maximum decrease was noticed after 2 months of treatment. Further, simultaneous lead and lithium treatment resulted in an even more pronounced increase of 2-h 131 I uptake with a maximum after 3 months. However, the 24-h uptake after 3 months and 4 months of treatment did not differ significantly from the lead treated reference groups. The thyroidal biological half-life of 131 I (T biol ) was found to have clearly increased following the lead/lithium treatment. Interestingly, the combined lead/lithium treatment applied for 4 months caused a further growth of T biol , thus reflecting an increased retention of 131 I. A maximum increase of T biol was seen after 2 months of combined treatment. A progressive decline of the circulating T 3 and T 4 levels following lead or lithium treatment was noticed and was more pronounced after combined treatment. (orig.)

  13. Research paper effects of 13-HPODE on expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, iodide uptake and formation of hydrogen peroxide in porcine thyrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Sebastian; Bettzieche, Anja; Brandsch, Corinna; Eder, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    It has been shown that dietary oxidized fats influence thyroid function in rats and pigs. Mechanism underlying this phenomenon are unknown. This study was performed to investigate whether 13-hydroperoxy-9,11 -octadecadienic acid (13-HPODE), a primary oxidation product of linoleic acid, affects expression of gene involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and formation of hydrogen peroxide in primary porcine thyrocytes. Thyrocytes were treated with 13-HPODE in concentrations between 20 and 100 microM. Cells treated with vehicle alone ("control cells") or with equivalent concentrations of linoleic acid were considered as controls. Treatment of cells with 13-HPODE did not affect cell viability but increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) compared to control cells or cells treated with linoleic acid. Relative mRNA concentrations of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis like sodium iodide symporter, thyrotropin receptor, and thyroid peroxidase, as well as iodide uptake, did not differ between cells treated with 13-HPODE and control cells or cells treated with linoleic acid. Treatment of cells with 13-HPODE, however, reduced the relative mRNA concentrations of dual oxidase-2 and the formation of hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells or cells treated with linoleic acid (p < 0.05). Because the production of hydrogen peroxide is rate-limiting for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, it is suggested that 13-HPODE could have an impact on the formation of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland.

  14. Uptake, metabolism and subcellular distribution of (/sup 125/I)t/sup 4/ in calf thyroid slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazenbalk, G.D.; Kleiman de Pisarev, D.L.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A. (Division Bioquimica Nuclear, Dpto. Aplicaciones Biologicas, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and Depto. Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires)

    1984-01-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has shown that iodothyronines have a direct inhibitory action on the thyroid. In the present studies the uptake, metabolism and subcellular distribution of labelled thyroxine were analyzed. The entry of this hormone reaches a plateau after 15-20 min incubation and is temperature-dependent. The T/M values for T/sub 4/ were much lower than those of labelled T/sub 3/ and the curve was different from that obtained with (/sup 125/I). The influence of a series of compounds on the T/M values for thyroxine was studied. KI, T/sub 3/, IOP, PTU and MMI were without effect. Absence of Ca/sup + +/ in the buffer, or addition of KCIO/sub 4/ or ouabain caused a slight decrease, while TSH produced a stimulation in the T/M ratio. Calf thyroid slices dehalogenated thyroxine, producing both T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/. TSH increased the generation of these two compounds. Neither PTU nor IOP altered the production of T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ significantly. The lack of effect of IOP on T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ generation was confirmed in calf thyroid homogenates. However, and in agreement with previous reports, IOP significantly decreased production of both triiodothyronines in rat liver slices and in rat liver homogenates. When the subcellular distribution of labelled thyroxine was examined most of the radioactivity appeared in the soluble fraction and less than 1% was present in purified nuclei. The addition of unlabelled thyroxine to the slices only caused a significant displacement in the radioactivity of purified nuclei. The presence of labelled thyroxine in the nuclei was confirmed by paper chromatography.

  15. The intensity of 18FDG uptake does not predict tumor growth in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terroir, Marie; Dercle, Laurent; Lumbroso, Jean; Baudin, Eric; Berdelou, Amandine; Deandreis, Desiree; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie [Gustave Roussy and Universite Paris Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif (France); Borget, Isabelle [University Paris Sud, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Bidault, Francois [Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Ricard, Marcel [Gustave Roussy, Department of Physic, Villejuif (France); Deschamps, Frederic; Tselikas, Lambros [Department of Interventional Radiology, Villejuif (France); Hartl, Dana [Gustave Roussy, Department of Surgery, Villejuif (France)

    2017-04-15

    In patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake as well as age, tumor size and radioactive iodine (RAI) uptake are prognostic factors for survival. High FDG uptake is a poor prognostic factor and lesions with high FDG uptake are often considered aggressive, but the predictive value of FDG uptake for morphological progression is unknown. The principal aim of this retrospective single center study was to determine whether the intensity of FDG uptake was correlated on a per lesion analysis with tumor growth rate (TGR) expressed as the percentage of increase in tumor size during 1 year (1-year TGR). Fifty five patients with DTC were included between July 2012 and May 2014 with the following criteria: (i) at least one distant metastasis measuring ≥ 1 cm in diameter on CT scan (ii) evaluation by FDG-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed at our center (iii) at least one CT or another FDG-PET/CT performed 3 to 12 months after the reference FDG-PET/CT in the absence of systemic or local treatment between the two imaging procedures. One hundred and fifty-six metastatic lesions located in lungs (63), neck lymph nodes (28), chest lymph nodes (42), bone (11), liver (2) and other sites (12) were studied. The median size was 16 mm, median SUVmax/lesion: 8.7; median metabolic tumor volume/lesion (Metab.TV/lesion): 3.7 cm{sup 3}. The median 1-year TGR was 40.68 %. SUVmax and Metab.TV/lesion were not correlated to their 1-year TGR (p = 0.38 and p = 0.74 respectively). Among single patients with multiple lesions, the lesions with the highest SUVmax/lesion or the highest Metab.TV/lesion did not disclose the higher 1-year TGR. The intensity of FDG uptake on a per lesion analysis is not correlated to its 1-year TGR and cannot be used as a surrogate marker of tumour progression. (orig.)

  16. Iodine-131 thyroid uptake results in travelers returning from Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Thyroid screening measurements for 131 I were performed on 58 travelers returning from Eastern and Western Europe to Boston after the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986. The travelers consisted of both Americans arriving home after business or vacation and European nationals visiting relatives in the Boston area. For purposes of dosimetry the population was divided into three subpopulations--adult (greater than 18 yr old), children (less than or equal to 18 yr old), and two individuals, 17 and 26 wk pregnant. Seventy-four percent of the population had detectable quantities of 131 I thyroid burdens, ranging from 1 nCi (37 Bq) to 900 nCi (33,300 Bq). The highest adult radiation dose equivalent was 5.18 mrem (51.8 mSv). The children, however, had considerably higher dose equivalents with one infant receiving 37 rem (370 mSv). Several other children were above 1 rem (10 mSv). The fetal dose equivalents were less than 14 mrem (140 mu Sv). The presence of rain dominated those testing positive for 131 I. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident contaminated a wide range of Europe and a large population subsequently ingested radioactivity. The children exhibited the highest thyroid radiation dose equivalents of the individuals monitored in the present study. The significance of this is presently unknown

  17. Hiatal hernia uptake of iodine-131 mimicking mediastinal metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Khajehrahimi, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    There are a few case reports of hiatal hernia demonstrating thoracic uptake on I-131 scintigraphy. In this case, high thyroglobulin levels in combination with misinterpretation of I-131 uptake in the mediastinum, leaded to mismanagement of the patient. Here we present a case of focal I-131 uptake within a hiatal hernia initially mimicking an isolated mediastinal metastasis. There are many potential causes of false-positive I-131 scan result. In this case, adjunctive chest computed tomography and gastroesophageal barium study helped to elucidate the true nature of this I-131 uptake. False-positive findings may be caused by a wide variety of nonthyroidal carcinomas, which can concentrate radioiodine or from skin contamination. Several organs, such as the gastric, salivary glands, renal cyst, pericardial effusion, and ovarian can accumulate I-131. It should be borne in mind as a potential source of false-positive whole-body I-131 imaging

  18. Thymic uptake after high dose I131 treatment in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: interpretation and therapeutical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbon Arce, M.; Cambil Molina, T.; Martin Hernandez, T.; La Cinta Calvo Moron, M. de; La Riva Perez, P. de; Hernandez Herrero, C.; Castro Montano, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: I 131 is a very important for initial staging, treatment and monitoring of differentiated thyroid carcinoma after a total thyroidectomy. Doubtful uptake foci may appear due to physiological tracer distribution or true concomitant pathology. Increased functional activity of the thymus may be physiological in children and adolescents. In adults is associated with thymic hyperplasia, primary neoplasms, metastases, inflammatory processes or even in normal parenchyma. Thymic uptake after high dose radioiodine treatment is frequent in young adults and deciding the need of additional therapy is difficult in some cases. Materials and methods: we present 5 cases of female patients with a mean age of 36.6 years(24-43), which were treated with a mean dose of 106 mCi of I 131 (100-150 mCi) that showed tracer uptake in the thymic area. A blind therapeutic dose of I 131 was administered to 3 patients due to high Tg levels. In the remaining two, one corresponds to a 131 I-WBS (Whole Body Scan) after remnants ablation treatment and the remaining one to a 131 I-WBS after a treatment dose given for lymph node metastases. The 131 I-WBS was performed 7 days after treatment. Conventional anterior and posterior planar images and SPECT / CT of head, neck and upper mediastinum were performed in all patients. Tg levels were measured with and without hormone replacement therapy in all cases. In every case thymic samples were sent to pathology for analysis. Results: in one patient an elective total thymectomy was performed due to the macroscopic appearance and the prominent tracer uptake. In a second one also a total thymectomy was decided due to the intense tracer uptake and because the patient was catalogued as high risk and had history of several bilateral lung metastases on a previous 131 I-WBS which disappeared. In the remaining three, non additional invasive procedure was considered due to the normal previous pathology reports of the thymus

  19. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso A, D.; Arista R, E.; Arteche D, R.

    2006-01-01

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  20. Unusual uptake of prostate specific tracer {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC in a benign thyroid nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Aggarwal, Shipra; Arora, Geetanjali; Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Rajeev; Gupta, Ravikant [A.I.I.M.S, New Delhi (India)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 68}Ga-Prostate specific membrane antigen- N,N′-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid- positron emission tomography/computed tomography or 68 Ga- HBED-CC-PSMA PET/CT, popularly known as PSMA PET/CT, is able to detect a small volume of recurrent prostate carcinoma (PC) when there is a prostate specific antigen (PSA) rise on follow-up after prostatectomy or other definitive treatment for PC. The use of PSMA PET/CT in the initial staging in PC is uncertain at this time. Clinical studies are underway to define its exact role in the management of the disease. At the same time it is important to be aware of unexpected sites of uptake of this ligand. We present here the case of a 62-year-old male patient who underwent prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma prostate. He also had a long-standing left solitary thyroid nodule (STN). Four months after surgery, he had a rising trend in serum PSA levels on three occasions, but the absolute value was less than 4 at all times. He underwent a {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET/CT, but it did not reveal any recurrent/metastatic site of disease. However, there was increased tracer uptake in the left STN. Fine needle aspiration cytology revealed features of atypia of undetermined significance, Bethesda category III. The patient underwent a left hemithyroidectomy and the histopathology showed features of a follicular adenoma.

  1. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Standardized Uptake Value (SUV-shape Scheme for Thyroid Volume Determination in Graves’ Disease: A Comparison with Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yangchun chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thyroid volume measurement using 99mTc pertechnetate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images, acquired by the standardized uptake value (SUV-shape scheme designed by our expert team.Methods: A total of 18 consecutive patients with Graves’ disease (GD were subjected to both ultrasonographic and 99mTc pertechnetate SPECT examinations of thyroid within a five-day interval. The volume of thyroid lobes and isthmus was measured by ultrasonography (US according to the ellipsoid volume equation. The total thyroid volume, determined as the sum of the volume of both lobes and isthmus, was recorded as TV-US (i.e., thyroid volume measured by US and set as the reference. The thyroid volume was defined according to our SUV-shape scheme and was recorded as TV-SS (i.e., thyroid volume determined by the SUV-shape scheme. The data were analyzed using the Bland-Altman plot, linear regression analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation, and paired t-test, if necessary.Results: The values of TV-SS (40.2±29.4 mL and TV-US (43.0±34.7 mL were not significantly different (t=0.813; P=0.43. The linear regression equation of the two values was determined as TV-US= 1.072 × TV-SS − 0.29(r=0.906; P

  2. Selective Mitochondrial Uptake of MKT-077 Can Suppress Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Starenki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene. Not all patients with progressive MTC respond to current therapy inhibiting RET, demanding additional therapeutic strategies. We recently demonstrated that disrupting mitochondrial metabolism using a mitochondria-targeted agent or by depleting a mitochondrial chaperone effectively suppressed human MTC cells in culture and in mouse xenografts by inducing apoptosis and RET downregulation. These observations led us to hypothesize that mitochondria are potential therapeutic targets for MTC. This study further tests this hypothesis using1-ethyl-2-[[3-ethyl-5-(3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-yliden]-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidenemethyl] pyridinium chloride (MKT-077, a water-soluble rhodocyanine dye analogue, which can selectively accumulate in mitochondria.MethodsThe effects of MKT-077 on cell proliferation, survival, expression of RET and tumor protein 53 (TP53, and mitochondrial activity were determined in the human MTC lines in culture and in mouse xenografts.ResultsMKT-077 induced cell cycle arrest in TT and MZ-CRC-1. Intriguingly, MKT-077 also induced RET downregulation and strong cell death responses in TT cells, but not in MZ-CRC-1 cells. This discrepancy was mainly due to the difference between the capacities of these cell lines to retain MKT-077 in mitochondria. The cytotoxicity of MKT-077 in TT cells was mainly attributed to oxidative stress while being independent of TP53. MKT-077 also effectively suppressed tumor growth of TT xenografts.ConclusionMKT-077 can suppress cell survival of certain MTC subtypes by accumulating in mitochondria and interfering with mitochondrial activity although it can also suppress cell proliferation via other mechanisms. These results consistently support the hypothesis that mitochondrial targeting has therapeutic potential for MTC.

  3. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid To diagnose thyroid diseases, doctors use a medical history, physical exam, and thyroid tests. They sometimes also ...

  4. Comparison of thyroid stimulating activities measured by cyclic AMP production, those by radioiodine uptake in FRTL-5 cells and TSH-binding inhibitory activities in patients with hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Arai, Keisuke; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-01-01

    By using an assay measuring cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSab) were detected in all of 15 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease (EG) and of 26 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease (HG). There was no signicant difference between TSab activities in Eg and in HG. In an effort to elucidate why EG patients remain euthyroid in spite of having TSab, we investigated the effect of the patient's crude immunoglobulin fractions 125 I uptake in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, one of the indices of stimulation subsequent to cAMP production. The 125 Iuptake stimulation (IUS) activity was positive in 46,7% (7/15) of EG patients and 88.5% (23/26) of HG patients, being significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 0.401, P 99m Tc thyroid uptake in comparison to 19 HG patients with a similar range of IUS activities. There was a good correlation between thyroid weight and 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 8.827, P 99m Tc and presumably radioiodine in vivo, might be a factor responsible for keeping EG patients euthyroid despite the presence of TSab. (author)

  5. Decrease of 99mTc-uptake in autonomous thyroid tissue in Germany since the 1970s. Clinical implications for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotthardt, M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Stuebinger, M.; Pansegrau, J.; Buchwald, B.; Goecke, J.; Pfestroff, A.; Behr, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: the clinical relevance of thyroidal autonomy, i.e. the risk of a patient to become hyperthyroid after exposure to iodine, can be estimated by measurement of the thyroidal 99m Tc uptake under suppression of TSH (TcTUs). The upper tolerable limit has been set to 2% some 25 years ago. Considering the increase in nutritional iodine uptake over the last 15 years, we wanted to find out if the TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume may have changed. Patients, methods: we performed a pilot study in 1166 randomly chosen patients from 1980-2003 with different kinds of benign thyroid disorders to determine changes in TcTU or TcTUs over time. A second analysis was performed in 1063 patients from 1987-2004 with unifocal autonomy (UFA). In these patients, the volume of the autonomous tissue can be determined precisely thus allowing for exact determination of TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume. Results: the pilot study demonstrated that the TcTUs or the TcTU has been falling over the last 25 years in all benign thyroid disorders (p < 0.01). The total thyroid volume has also been decreasing in all disorders. In the second analysis of UFA only, 500 from the 1063 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these patients, the TcTUs per ml of autonomous volume has fallen from an average of 0.48% to an average of 0.28%. These results are statistically significant as determined by ANOVA testing (p = 0.032). Conclusion: as the TcTUs in relation to autonomous volume has dropped by approximately 40% over the last 25 years, the upper limit for a normal TcTUs should be reduced to 1-1.4%, dependent on regional factors. (orig.)

  6. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  7. Potential of the drug-regulation iodide uptake in patients for prevention of radioiodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kirillovich Fomin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of retinoic acid derivatives and lithium salts for radioiodine-refractory prevention in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer during multistage radioiodine therapy.Materials and methodsThe retrospective analysis was performed using the diagnostic and treatment results of 40 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer that underwent 131I therapy, which on the basis of posttherapy whole-body scan had direct indications for subsequent course of radioiodine therapy. The patients were divided into two groups:the control group (20 patients, which conducted a second course of radioiodine therapy on the standard template and without special training$the main group (20 patients, who were administered Sedalia (900 mg per day for 8 days, p.o. and isotretinoin (1.2 mg/kg body weight for 60 days, p.o. to prevention of the 131I resistance.To evaluate the effectiveness of a repeated course of radioiodine therapy following parameters were used: the thyroglobulin (Tg and antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg-Ab level in the serum, the posttherapy whole body scan in combination with SPECT-CT.ResultsWe have found, that radioactive iodine treatment was effective in 75% of the main group and 90% of patients in the control group. The remission was observed in 10% and 40% in the main and control group, respectively. The partial regression was considered as Tg and TG-Ab reduction, and was observed more in the study group. The resistance to 131I therapy was found in 20% and 10% in the main and control group, respectively, which was based on the fact of permanent Tg/Tg-Ab serum level and absence of the pathological foci iodine uptake on the whole-body scans. The disease progress was found in one patient in the main group.ConclusionThe use of retinoic acid derivatives and lithium salts, in an effort to prevent the resistance to 131I-theraphy pretend to be unjustified, because it does not lead to significant

  8. Change of 99mtechnetium-pertechnetate-thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs) induced by optimization of iodine supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Trupkovic, T.; Schumacher, T.; Krause, T.M.; Oexle, C.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    The present study deals with the change of the 99m Technetium-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTU s ) in dependence on the urinary iodine excretion. The study collective comprises 510 patients with euthyroid goiter (N=91), with functional thyroid autonomy (N=361) and with Graves' disease (N=58), who were examined in the now thyroid ambulance between January 1995 and February 1997 and who presented with endogeneous or exogeneous TSH-supression. All patients received a quantitative thyroid scintigraphy with 99m Technetium-pertechnetate and a measurement of the urinary iodine excretion. The TcTU s from the whole collective shows an inverse correlation to the urinary iodine excretion for the range of 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. The TcTU s remains constant on a low basal level for iodine excretion values over 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. Significant differences occur in dependence on the underlying disease. TcTU s is constantly low in patients with euthyroid goiter, independent of the iodine excretion value. The TcTU s is significantly increased in patients with functional thyroid autonomy or Graves' disease when iodine excretion is below 100 or 50 μg iodine/g creatinine respectively, but shows only minor changes when iodine excretion rises up to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. When iodine excretion exceeds 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, the TcTU s of patients with thyroid autonomy drops down to a low basal level. (orig.) [de

  9. Global 99mTc-uptake in the differentiation between normal thyroid, goitre with euthyroidism, and thyroid autonomy in an area of iodine deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreisig, T.; Vaitl, C.; Kirsch, C.M.; Knesewitsch, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Horn, K.; Bechtner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Global TcTU was determined in 568 patients without any specific thyroid drug intake - 54 with normal thyroid, 274 with goitre and euthyroidism and 240 with thyroid autonomy. 57 patients with autonomy and overt hyperthyroidism were the only group with TcTU values significantly higher than normals. Common to all groups was a large scatter of the TcTU values. In 332, the effects of individual iodine supply were studied by measuring the iodine concentration in spot urine samples. There was a significant inverse correlation between the TcTU values and the urinary iodine excretion in the groups of normal thyroids and of goitres with euthyroidism. In the group with autonomy an effect of iodine supply could only be seen in cases of greatly increased urinary iodine excretion, resulting in very low TcTU values. Out of 20 patients with autonomy and iodine contamination, only 4 showed overt hyperthyroidism. The large scatter of TcTU values in all groups may be explained by the persistent iodine deficiency as well as by the frequent exposure to unknown amounts of iodine in patients with thyroid disease. Therefore, the spontaneous TcTU alone cannot identify a small group of patients with autonomy and high risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, from a very large group of patients with goitre. (orig.) [de

  10. Incidental findings of intense radioiodine uptake in struma ovarii and bilateral nonlactating breasts simultaneously on postablation {sup 131}I SPECT/CT for papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Ra [Haeundae Paik HospitalUniversity of Inje, College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred for {sup 131}I therapy following total thyroidectomy. She was given 4,810 MBq (130 mCi) of {sup 131}I following 4 weeks of thyroid hormone withdrawal. A post therapy scan showed intense, focal activity in the pelvis and intense, diffuse activity on both sides of the chest, which was localized to the right ovary and both breasts on SPECT/CT examination. She had bilateral nipple pain and a history of antidopaminergic drugs as combination medication for her rheumatoid arthritis and prokinetics during radioiodine therapy. On a {sup 123}I whole-body scan 9 months later after stopping the drugs, bilateral breast uptake was not visible; however, right ovarian focal uptake was still visualized. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, and revealed struma ovarii with substantial internal necrosis due to radioiodine therapy. This case is interesting as two rare entities, {sup 131}I therapy-related struma ovarii and drug-related breast uptake, were simultaneously visualized.

  11. Sarcoidosis and Thyroid Autoimmunity

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    Piera Fazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies have shown a higher risk for subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, antithyroid autoantibodies [overall antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb], and in general, thyroid autoimmunity, overall in the female gender in patients with sarcoidosis (S. A significantly higher prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease was also described in female S patients with respect to controls. Gallium-67 (Ga-67 scyntigraphy in S patients, in the case of thyroid uptake, suggests the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. For this reason, ultrasonography and thyroid function should be done in the case of Ga-67 thyroid uptake. In conclusion, thyroid function, TPOAb measurement, and ultrasonography should be done to assess the clinical profile in female S patients, and the ones at high risk (female individuals, with TPOAb positivity, and hypoechoic and small thyroid should have periodically thyroid function evaluations and suitable treatments.

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake as a prognostic variable in primary differentiated thyroid cancer incidentally detected by PET/CT: a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Arnoldo [Galliera Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Puntoni, Matteo [Galliera Hospital, Clinical Trial Unit, Office of the Scientific Director, Genoa (Italy); Bertagna, Francesco; Giubbini, Raffaele [University of Brescia and Spedali Civili di Brescia, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy); Treglia, Giorgio; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Foppiani, Luca [Galliera Hospital, Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Arecco, Federico; Bardesono, Francesca; Orlandi, Fabio [University of Turin, Presidio Sanitario Gradenigo, Department of Oncology, Turin (Italy); Naseri, Mehrdad; Cabria, Manlio [Galliera Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Cistaro, Angelina [IRMET, PET Centre, Turin (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Our aim was to investigate the association between {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and event-free survival in patients in whom a differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was detected by {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Among 884 focal {sup 18}F-FDG PET thyroid incidentalomas referred to our 4 Nuclear Medicine Departments, we investigated 54 patients in whom a DTC was confirmed and a clinical follow-up was available. The ratio between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of DTC and SUV{sub mean} of the liver (SUV ratio) was recorded for each scan. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and {sup 131}I remnant ablation. After a median follow-up of 39 months we assessed the outcome. The association between disease persistence/progression, {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and other risk factors (T, N, M and histological subtype) was evaluated through univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 54 patients, 39 achieved complete remission. The remaining 15 showed persistence/progression of disease. High {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, i.e. SUV ratio ≥3, showed a low positive predictive value (48 %). Low {sup 18}F-FDG uptake (SUV ratio < 3) displayed a high negative predictive value (93 %). The median of SUV ratios in T1-T2 (2.2), in M0 (2.7) and in non-virulent subtypes (2.7) were significantly lower (p < 0.03) than in T3-T4 (5.0), M1 (7.3) and virulent subtypes (6.0). Kaplan-Maier analysis showed a significant association between high {sup 18}F-FDG uptake and disease persistence/progression (p = 0.001). When we adjusted risk estimates by using a multivariate Cox model, only T (p = 0.05) remained independently associated with disease persistence/progression. An intense {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the primary DTC is associated with persistence/progression of disease. However, when all other prognostic factors have been taken into account, {sup 18}F-FDG uptake does not add further prognostic information. (orig.)

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    Full Text Available ... the patient, acceptable for diagnostic exams. Thus, the radiation risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the examination table which slides in between two parallel gamma camera heads that are positioned above and ... not be as high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: Thank you! Please ... Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From (your name): Your e-mail ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... the severity of or treat a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... no other side effects. When swallowed, the radiotracer has little or no taste. When inhaled, you should ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your body. top of page How is ... is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? ...

  20. Diffuse thyroid uptake incidentally found on 1'8{sup F}-Flurodeoxygluse position emission tomography in subjects without cancer history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Yoon Ho; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Cheo, Yeam Seung; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of incidental diffuse thyroid uptake (DTU) on 1{sup 8F}-FDG PET in subjects without a history of cancer. This study included 2062 studies from adults who underwent 1{sup 8F}-FDG PET as a cancer screening program. Subjects were divided into the following two groups: with (group I) or without (group II) DTU. The presence of DTU and the thyroid visual grading score were compared with thyroid function tests, serum anti-microsomal antibody (AMA) levels, and the presence of diffuse parenchymal change (DPC) on ultrasonography (USG). DTU was found in 6.6% of the scans (137/2062). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and AMA levels were significantly higher in group I than in group II. Increased AMA level (55.1%) and DPC (48.7%) were more frequently found in group I (p < 0.001). The proportion of subjects with any abnormal results in serum free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, TSH, or AMA levels or DPC on USG was significantly higher in group I than in group II (71.5% vs. 10.6%, p < 0.001), and was significantly and gradually increased according to the visual grading score group (0 vs. 1-2 vs. 3-4 = 10.6% vs. 58.5% vs. 90.9%, p < 0.001). TSH and is AMA levels were significantly increased according to the visual grading score. The presence or degree of incidental DTU on 1{sup 8F}-FDG PET is closely correlated with increased serum AMA and TSH levels, and the presence of DPC on USG. Therefore, the most plausible pathological cause of DTU may be cell damage by an autoimmune mechanism.

  1. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  2. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  3. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, Osvaldo J.; Degrossi, E.B.; Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate

  4. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland; Desarrollo de un captador de iodo para el estudio de la funcionalidad de la glandula tiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D. [CPHR, A.P. 6195 C.P. 10600, La Habana (Cuba); Arista R, E.; Arteche D, R. [CEADEN, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  5. Value of 201Tl imaging in predicting therapeutic 131I uptake in patients with thyroglobulin-positive but 131I scan-negative differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlu, R.A.O.; Obaldo, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Serum thyroglobulin assay and 131Iodine (1311) whole body scan are considered complementary in detecting malignant thyroid tissue or metastases. A large number of patients, however, are encountered presenting with scan-negative, thyroglobulin-positive differentiated thyroid carcinoma posing a dilemma in therapeutic management. One of the first alternative scanning agents to be employed is 201Thallium (201Tl). Recent studies have demonstrated its usefulness in identifying lesions that are not visualized with traditional 131I whole body scan. It is not clear, however, whether 201Tl scan helps in the decision-making for subsequent 131I therapy. This study was conducted to determine if 201Tl scan can predict therapeutic 131I uptake and to define the clinical role of 201Tl scanning in these patients. Methods and results: A total of 12 patients (20-63 y/o), 5 males and 7 females, underwent surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer and all had serum thyroglobulin values above 10 ng/ml and normal TPO autoantibodies. Pre-therapy 131I scan using 111 MBq (3mCi) of 131I were obtained. As required for inclusion, all patients had negative pre-therapy scan and negative TPO autoantibody results and underwent 20lTl scanning within 3 weeks. All patients were given 131I therapy (3.7-5.5 GBq or 100-150 mCi) between one to two months after 201Tl scanning. Within a week after therapy, all patients underwent whole body 1311 scanning. 201Tl imaging demonstrated thyroid remnants in 9 out of 12 patients having positive 201Tl scan but negative pre-therapy 1311 scan. However, only 2 of the positive 201Tl scans showed 131I uptake post-therapy (positive predictive value of 20%). None of the subjects presented with a negative 201Tl scan and a positive post-therapy 131I scan. Conclusion: Our study suggests that evidence of remnants or metastases on 201Tl scanning may be an inappropriate basis for the decision to proceed with 131I therapy. The role of 20lTl imaging in this subset of

  6. Iodine uptake patterns om post-ablation whole body scans are related to elevated serum thyroglobulin levels after radioactive iodine therapy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Geum Cheol; Song, Min Chul; Min, Jung Joon; Cho, Sang Geon; Kwon, Seong Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Seong; Kang, Sae Ryung; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level is frequently elevated shortly after radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy. The authors studied the relationship between the elevation of serum Tg after RAI therapy and iodine uptake pattern on post-ablation whole body scans (RxWBSs) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study subjects were patients with PTC that had undergone first RAI therapy with thyroid hormone withdrawal after total thyroidectomy. Patients with a high level of serum anti-Tg antibody (TgAb, ≥ 60 U/mL), possible regional or distant metastasis as determined by pre-ablation or post-ablation studies, and negative iodine uptake of the anterior neck on RxWBS were excluded. Serum Tg was checked twice, that is, 7 days after (post-ablation Tg) and on the day of RAI therapy (pre-ablation Tg). Ratio of pre-ablation Tg to post-ablation Tg (Tg ratio) was used to assess changes in serum Tg levels after RAI therapy. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence of midline uptake above the thyroidectomy bed on RxWBS (negative (group 1) or positive (group 2) midline uptake). Variables were subjected to analysis to identify differences between the two groups. Two hundred and fifty patients were enrolled in this study; 101 in group 1 and 149 in group 2. Based on univariate analysis, post-ablation Tg (8.12 ± 11.05 vs. 34.12 ± 54.31; P < 0.001) and Tg ratio (7.81 ± 8.98 vs. 20.01 ± 19.84; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in group 2. On the other hand, gender, tumor (T) stage, lymph node (N) stage, size, multiplicity or bilaterality of primary tumor, dose of 131I, serum TgAb and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (before or after RAI therapy) were not significantly different in the two groups. Variables with P values of < 0.25 by univariate analysis were subjected to multivariate analysis, which showed post-ablation Tg (OR 1.060, 95 % CI = 1.028–1.092; P < 0.001) and Tg ratio (OR 1.059, 95 % CI

  7. Global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in female patients receiving suppressive doses of L-thyroxine for differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frusciante, V.; Dicembrino, F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Carnevale, V. [Division of Internal Medicine, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Scillitani, A.; Zingrillo, M.; Ghiggi, M.R. [Division of Endocrinology, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Giannatempo, G.M. [Department of Radiology, Ospedale ``Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza``, IRCCS di San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Minisola, S. [Istituto di II Clinica Medica, Universita degli Studi di Roma ``La Sapienza``, Rome (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the possible detrimental effects on bone of levothyroxine (l-T{sub 4}) suppressive therapy in female patients who had undergone surgery for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Twenty female (14 premenopausal and 6 postmenopausal) patients receiving l-T{sub 4} suppressive therapy for DTC were studied. The sample was selected in such a way as to avoid factors influencing bone metabolism other than l-T{sub 4}. All patients were monitored by sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine assays throughout the follow-up. Nineteen healthy (12 premenopausal and 7 postmenopausal) matched women served as controls. In all subjects bone turnover was evaluated by the measurement of global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (GSU); bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative computed tomography at the lumbar spine (LS) and by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both at the LS and at three femoral sites: the femoral neck, Ward`s triangle and the greater trochanter. No significant difference was found in either GSU or BMD between patients (treated for an average period of 68 months) and controls in the whole sample or in any subgroup. Furthermore, no correlations were found between either GSU or BMD and the duration of therapy, daily doses of l-T{sub 4} or results of thyroid function tests. Our data show that carefully monitored l-T{sub 4} therapy does not influence skeletal turnover (directly reflected by GSU) or the bone density of the spine and femur. (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  8. Bilateral renal metastasis of 261-265huerthle cell thyroid cancer with discordant uptake between I-131 sodium iodide and F-18 FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claimon, Apichaya; Suh, Min Seok; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Renal metastasis of thyroid cancer is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) with lungs, bones, and bilateral kidneys metastases. The renal metastatic lesions were clearly demonstrated by {sup 131}I whole body scan (WBS) with SPECT/CT. However, they exhibited false-negative results in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, kidney ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT scan. The findings imply that tumors have low glucose metabolism and are able to accumulate radioiodine, which is not commonly found in the relatively aggressive nature of HCTC. The patient received two sessions of 200 mCi {sup 131}I therapy within 6 months duration. There was complete treatment response as evaluated by the second post-therapeutic {sup 131}I SPECT/CT and serum thyroglobulin. To our knowledge, renal metastasis from HCTC with positive {sup 131}I but negative {sup 18}F-FDG uptake has not been reported in the literature. This case suggests that {sup 131}I SPECT/CT is useful for lesion localization and prediction of {sup 131}I therapy response.

  9. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered.

  10. Influence of the stable iodine upon the transition of iodine 131 through wounds and its uptake by the thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopov, N.; Simova, G.; Boyadzhiev, A.; Andreev, E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have been made with rats of Wistar breed with weight 0.200-0.250 kg. Different kinds of wounds were investigated - penetrating, incised and avulsions. Aqueous solution of Iodine-131 (ph=3, activity 50 kBq per sample in volume of 5 nm 3 ) was used as a contamination agent. The wounds were treated with non-active iodine solutions - 5% iodine tincture and Ludol's solution, on 5th and 30th min after contamination with iodine-131. Changes in isotope concentrations and its accumulation in thyroid were followed up radiometrically. The results obtained showed that the process was not influenced by the type of non-active solution and the duration of its application. It was concluded that the optimal working concentration of the carrier-solution was 10 -4 n and the Lugol's solution could be recommended for treatment of wounds contaminated with radioactive iodine

  11. Tc-99m-Labeled-rhTSH Analogue (TR1401) for Imaging Poorly Differentiated Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galli, Filippo; Manni, Isabella; Piaggio, Giulia; Balogh, Lajos; Weintraub, Bruce D.; Szkudlinski, Mariusz W.; Fremont, Valerie; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are frequent tumors of the thyroid with relatively good prognosis due to improved surgical techniques and follow-up procedures. Poorly differentiated thyroid cancers, which lose iodine uptake ability, in most

  12. Assessment of the usefulness of the standardized uptake values and the radioactivity levels for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer measured by using 18F-FDG PET/CT dual-time-point imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Hong, Seong-Jong; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Han, Man-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Ik-Han

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the SUV (standardized uptake value), the 18F-FDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) uptake pattern, and the radioactivity level for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer via dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET/CT (positron emission tomographycomputed tomography) imaging. Moreover, the study aimed to verify the usefulness and significance of SUV values and radioactivity levels to discriminate tumor malignancy. A retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients who received 18F-FDG PET/CT for thyroid cancer as a primary tumor. To set the background, we compared changes in values by calculating the dispersion of scattered rays in the neck area and the lung apex, and by comparing the mean and SD (standard deviation) values of the maxSUV and the radioactivity levels. According to the statistical analysis of the changes in 18F-FDG uptake for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, a high similarity was observed with the coefficient of determination being R2 = 0.939, in the SUVs and the radioactivity levels. Moreover, similar results were observed in the assessment of tumor malignancy using dual-time-point. The quantitative analysis method for assessing tumor malignancy using radioactivity levels was neither specific nor discriminative compared to the semi-quantitative analysis method.

  13. Uptake and localization of 131I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10-20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of 131 I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008-0.014 mCi/μg protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rij rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of 131 I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.54-0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113m/In was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios ( 131 I//sup 113m/In) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3-6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas

  14. Uptake and localization of 131I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of 131 I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of 131 I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of 113 mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios ( 131 I/ 113 mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas

  15. Measurement of 24-hr whole-body retention of Tc-99mMDP with a thyroid uptake probe: quantitative assessment of metabolic and metastatic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, H.; Futatsuya, R.; Kamei, T.; Furumoto, N.; Ishizaki, Y.; Hada, M.; Kakishita, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for measurement of 24-hr whole body retention (WBR) of Tc-99mMDP, using a thyroid uptake probe was established and its clinical significance was evaluated in 102 patients with various bone disorders, including metabolic and metastatic bone diseases, aged above 20 years old. Reproducibility of 24-hr WBR in 10 patients was very good (r=0.996). The 24-hr WBR of Tc-99mMDP in the normal subjects was 30.4 +- 4.6%. The WBR values of chronic renal failure, metastatic bone disease and hyperthyroidism groups were 98.4 +- 3.0, 44.0 +- 8.0, 40,6 +- 6.3% respectively, which were significantly higher (p < 0.001). However the WBR of steroid-induced osteoporotic group was significantly lower (17.3 +- 5.4%) as compared with the normal group (p < 0.001). Based on these results the method is simple, reproducible and accurate to measure 24-hr WBR of Tc-99mMDP. Quantification of WBR is of great clinical value to diagnose metabolic bone disease and to follow-up metabolic and metastatic bone disease after treatment

  16. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  17. Thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare ...

  18. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  19. Thymic uptake of iodine 131 in the follow up of thyroid carcinoma: frequency and characteristics; Fixation thymique de l'iode 131 dans le suivi du cancer thyroidien: frequence et caracteristiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedienne, B.; Brenot-Rossi, I.; Sauvan, R.; Pasquier, J. [Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1999-11-01

    Following radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma, we can see a thymic uptake. The aim of this study was to assess its frequency and characteristics. Patients and methods: 262 patients underwent one or more therapeutic activity of iodine-131. A whole body scintigraphy after administration of 74 MBq of iodine-131 was always done before. Results: six patients (2.3%) had a thymic uptake (4 women and 2 men); they were less than 51 years old. Thymic uptake was never seen after the first therapeutic activity, appeared for 3 patients after 2 therapeutics activities, for one after 3, and for 2 after 4. It was visualized in all cases only after the fourth day control, but never after 74 MBq of iodine-131. Thyroglobulin plasma level was normal in 5 cases. The sixth was 44 {mu}g/l but the patient had lymph metastases. Five patients had a CT-scan: the mediastinal uptake was related to a normal thymus in 4 patients and to an hyperplastic gland in one. Conclusion: thymus uptake of iodine-131 is not frequent, it happens after at least 2 therapeutics activities in rather young patients. It is seen only at post-therapeutic control. Thyroglobulin is normal if thymic uptake is the only abnormality, and the CT-scan shows a normal or hyperplastic gland. Additional therapeutics activities are without effect on thymic uptake of iodine-131. It is important to diagnose it in order to avoid surgery and useless therapeutics activities administrations. (author)

  20. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the thyroid gland and what are thyroid disorders? Your thyroid gland is a small structure in ... get older, you’re more likely to develop thyroid disorders. In addition to being more common with age, ...

  1. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is associated with the development of anti-thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti- thyroglobulin) antibodies. Women with ...

  2. Amiodarone and the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bartalena, Luigi; Pach, Dorota; Ruchała, Marek; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone, a benzofuranic iodine-rich antiarrhythmic drug, causes thyroid dysfunction in 15-20% of cases. Amiodarone can cause both hypothyroidism (AIH, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism) and thyrotoxicosis (AIT, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis). AIH is treated by L-thyroxin replacement and does not need amiodarone discontinuation. There are two main forms of AIT: type 1, a form of true iodine-induced hyperthyroidism; and type 2, a drug-induced destructive thyroiditis. However, mixed/indefinite forms exist, contributed to by both pathogenic mechanisms. Type 1 AIT usually occurs in diseased thyroid glands, whereas type 2 AIT develops in substantially normal thyroid glands. Thioamides represent the first-line treatment for type 1 AIT, but iodine-replete glands are poorly responsive; sodium/potassium perchlorate, by inhibiting thyroidal iodine uptake, may increase the response to thioamides. Type 2 AIT is best treated by oral glucocorticoids. Response depends on thyroid volume and severity of thyrotoxicosis. Mixed/indefinite forms may require a combination of thioamides, potassium perchlorate, and steroids. Radioiodine treatment is usually not feasible because amiodarone-related iodine load decreases thyroidal radioiodine uptake. Thyroidectomy represents an important and helpful option in cases resistant to medical therapy. Surgery performed by a skilled surgeon may represent an emergent treatment in patients who have severe cardiac dysfunction.

  3. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. ... Thyroid Tests Read more Ultrasound ...

  4. Clinical application of quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yongju; Xie Jian; Yan Xinhui; Wand Jiebin; Zhu Xuanmin; Liu Lin; Sun Haizhou

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of quantitative 99 Tc m -pertechnetate thyroid imaging for the diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in patients with thyroid disease. Methods: With the Siemens Orbit SPECT, 99 Tc m sodium pertechnetate thyroid imaging was performed on a control group and 108 patients with Graves' disease, 58 patients with Hashimoto's disease, 41 patients with subacute thyroiditis. Three functional parameters were calculated as follows: AR=5 min thyroid count/1 min thyroid count; UI=20 min thyroid count/thigh count; T d =imaging interval between carotid and thyroid. Results: 1) Three functional parameters were basically concordant with serological parameters in patients with Graves' disease. While uptake was high in patients who had contracted Graves' disease for ≤0.5 year, for those whose disease relapsed within 2 years the 99 Tc m thyroid uptake increased when the antithyroid medication was stopped. 2) Thyroid images of hyperthyroid patients with Hashimoto's disease showed increased perfusion and 99 Tc m uptake, a pattern similar to that found in Graves' disease. Differences in T d , AR , UI were not significant among euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's disease, so uptake ratios could indicate the thyroid activity. 3) Delayed thyroid image and diffuse uptake decrease were found in hyperthyroid patients with SAT, however, focal damages were observed in euthyroid patients. Conclusion: Quantitative 99 Tc m -pertechnetate thyroid imaging is a significantly helpful technique in the diagnosis and treatment for common thyroid disorders

  5. Thyroid hormones and iodide in the near-term pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, P.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), are produced by the thyroid gland. To synthesize thyroid hormones the thyroid needs iodide. The uptake of iodide as well as the production and secretion of T4 and T3 by the thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin (TSH),

  6. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Benabadji, Nadjia; Benzian, Zakaria; Amani, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  7. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    also indicate thyroid-disruptive properties of phthalates, but the effect of certain phthalates seems to be stimulative on TH production, contrary to most other groups of chemicals. Thyroid disruption may be caused by a variety of mechanisms, as different chemicals interfere with the hypothalamic......-pituitary-thyroid axis at different levels. Mechanisms of action may involve the sodium-iodide symporter, thyroid peroxidase enzyme, receptors for THs or TSH, transport proteins or cellular uptake mechanisms. The peripheral metabolism of the THs can be affected through effects on iodothyronine deiodinases or hepatic...... enzymes. Even small changes in thyroid homeostasis may adversely affect human health, and especially fetal neurological development may be vulnerable. It is therefore urgent to clarify whether the animal data showing effects of chemicals on thyroid function can be extended to humans....

  8. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodules Overview Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form within your thyroid, a small gland located at the base of ... just above your breastbone. The great majority of thyroid nodules aren't serious and don't cause ...

  9. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms, including: Fatigue Palpitations Chest pain Memory loss Thyroid nodules are sometimes found in people who have Hashimoto's disease. This may cause symptoms of an underactive thyroid gland, such as: Dry ...

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  11. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  12. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea . If your body's immune system causes thyroid disease, ... at all for several months or longer (called amenorrhea). How does thyroid disease affect pregnancy? Pregnancy-related ...

  13. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  14. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid medicines made with animal thyroid, such as Armour Thyroid, but is not useful for your baby’s ... the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. ...

  15. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Thyroid Information Find out more information on Thyroid Disease. learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and ... News Press Releases & Announcements Thyroid Information (Brochures & FAQ's / Thyroid Diseases & Conditions) Cancer of the Thyroid Public Health Statements ...

  16. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  17. Thyroid function during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economidou, Foteini; Douka, Evangelia; Tzanela, Marinella; Nanas, Serafeim; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic support of the critically ill patient is a relatively new target of active research and little is as yet known about the effects of critical illness on metabolism. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome, also known as the low T3 syndrome or euthyroid sick syndrome, describes a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests encountered in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of this syndrome include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and high levels of reverse T3, with normal or low levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This condition may affect 60 to 70% of critically ill patients. The changes in serum thyroid hormone levels in the critically ill patient seem to result from alterations in the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones, in TSH regulation, in the binding of thyroid hormone to transport-protein and in receptor binding and intracellular uptake. Medications also have a very important role in these alterations. Hormonal changes can be seen within the first hours of critical illness and, interestingly, these changes correlate with final outcome. Data on the beneficial effect of thyroid hormone treatment on outcome in critically ill patients are so far controversial. Thyroid function generally returns to normal as the acute illness resolves.

  18. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... benign thyroid nodule. None of the patients had uptake on a radionuclide scan. Patients underwent one ILP session. A needle was positioned in the thyroid nodule with US guidance, and the laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Patients were treated for 287-1,200 seconds with an output power...... of 1-3 W. ILP was performed with continuous US guidance and terminated when the echogenic changes were stationary. Thyroid nodule volume and thyroid function were evaluated before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. During the same period, 15 untreated patients (control group) were followed up...

  19. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  20. Recent tendency in diagnosis of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tatsuno, Ikuro

    1979-01-01

    Various new approaches have been recently investigated in diagnosis of thyroid diseases with the progress of nuclear medicine. sup(99m)TcO 4 - has become a routinely used radiopharmaceutical in thyroid scan. sup(99m)TcO 4 - thyroid uptake was evaluated by using thyroid-t-high ratio. 123 I thyroid scan is more valuable than 131 I scan because of its short half time and low radiation exposure. We use 123 I particulary in functional analysis of thyroid hot nodule. 201 Tl scans were performed in patients with cold nodule. All thyroid cancer patients showed 201 Tl positive accumulation in thyroid nodule. However, even in benign diseases 201 Tl was accumulated. 201 Tl scan will be most effectively used in detecting the metastatic lesions from thyroid cancer. Serum rT 3 concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method. Serum TBG concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method and T 4 /TBG ratio was evaluated. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody titer in thyroid diseases was evaluated by RIA method. It was more objective than widely used tanned red cell hemagglutinin method. (author)

  1. Clinical significance of endogenously labelled thyroid hormones in the diagnosis of thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, W.; Kutzim, H.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical value of the determination of 123 I concentration in serum 48 hrs after tracer administration ( 123 I) 48 is investigated with special regard to thyroidal autonomy. Serum radioiodine concentration, thyroid radioiodide uptake at 4 and at 48 hrs were measured in 74 healthy subjects and patients with simple goiter, in 36 patients with thyroidal autonomy (diagnosis by thyroid suppression test), and in 20 hyperthyroid patients. 83% of the patients with elevated radioiodine concentration belonged to the group of thyroidal autonomy. The product of radioiodine concentration and thyroid radioiodide uptake is a much better parameter. 95% of the patients in which this product was elevated, belonged to the autonomy group (5% diagnostic error). Also in the control group the diagnostic error was 5%. The combination of ( 123 I) 48 with the result of the TRH-test is very useful in excluding thyroidal autonomy, if ( 123 I) 48 is normal and the TRH-test is positive (100% of the patients have regulated thyroid glands.) 94% of the patients having elevated ( 123 I) 48 and a negative TRH-test belonged to the group of thyroidal autonomy. A very useful combination for the diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is the determination of the product of ( 123 I) 48 and the uptake together with the pulse rate or fine tremor of the fingers (or TRH-test). The results suggest that the determination of ( 123 I) 48 is a very good parameter of thyroidal autonomy beside the thyroid suppression test. It may be used alone for the diagnosis of thyroidal autonomy if the suppression test is contraindicated. In the diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism its determination makes the suppression test unnecessary in many instances. (orig.) [de

  2. MIBI-SPECT in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma; MIBI-SPECT bei kalten Knoten zur Schilddruesenkarzinomdetektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-12-15

    The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m-MIBI in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma is presented. Tc-99m-MIBI is a lipophilic cation and a non-specific radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging. It has become an important imaging technique for the assessment of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules because of its high negative predictive value excluding malignant thyroid tumours. After injection of Tc-99m-MIBI either a single-phase protocol with late planar and SPECT images about 1-2 h post injection or a double-phase protocol with early (about 15-30 min p.i.) and late images (about 2 h p.i.) were reported. Findings include a reduced, an isointense or an increased Tc-99m-MIBI accumulation in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the paranodular thyroid tissue and in comparison to pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. A 'Match' between pertechnetate and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy is a concordantly decreased uptake in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the normal thyroid gland. This finding has a negative predictive value of >97% to exclude differentiated thyroid cancer. A definite 'Mismatch' means a cold thyroid nodule on pertechnetate scintigraphy and an increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI in comparison to the MIBI-uptake of the paranodular thyroid tissue. The positive predictive value of this finding for malignancy varies between studies and is in the range of <10-65% (Cologne data: 19%) depending on the prevalence of malignant thyroid tumours in the patient population studied. An isointense uptake was not associated with thyroid malignancy according to 'Cologne' data. Further studies are desirable for better characterization of the method. (orig.)

  3. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-01-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with 131 I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after 131 I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women

  4. Temporary ovarian failure in thyroid cancer patients after thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.P.; Izembart, M.; Marliac, V.; Dagousset, F.; Merceron, R.E.; Vulpillat, M.; Vallee, G.

    1989-07-01

    We studied ovarian function retrospectively in 66 women who had regular menstrual cycles before undergoing complete thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and subsequent thyroid remnant ablation with /sup 131/I. Eighteen women developed temporary amenorrhea accompanied by increased serum gonadotropin concentrations during the first year after /sup 131/I therapy. No correlation was found between the radioactive iodine dose absorbed, thyroid uptake before treatment, oral contraceptive use, or thyroid autoimmunity. Only age was a determining factor, with the older women being the most affected. We conclude that radioiodine ablation therapy is followed by transient ovarian failure, especially in older women.

  5. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  6. The role of thyroid scanning in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Cooke, S.G.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide thyroid imaging was performed in 872 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism. Of these, 84% were found to have diffuse toxic hyperplasia (Graves' disease), while 12% had autonomously functioning nodules (Plummer's disease), 3% had Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland, and in the remaining 1%, either a clear diagnosis could not be established or the hyperthyroidism was due to thyroiditis or the Jod-Basedow phenomenon. It was found that a thyroid scan seldom provides additional diagnostic information in patients with Graves' disease when a diffuse goitre is present. However, if patients are to be treated with radioiodine ( 131 I), thyroid imaging with tracer quantitation can replace a 24-h 131 I uptake measurement, this having the advantages that the patients are required to attend only once, and that the gland size can be measured. In addition, visual confirmation of tracer uptake by the thyroid is obtained and patients with thyroiditis will not receive inappropriate therapy. When single or multiple thyroid nodules are palpated, a thyroid scan is crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis, as it is not otherwise possible to differentiate between Plummer's disease and Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland. Indeed, in 20 of our 63 patients (32%) with single autonomously functioning nodules, the initial clinical assessment had been incorrect. (orig.)

  7. Substantial interobserver variation of thyroid volume and function by visual evaluation of thyroid (99m)Tc scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Grupe, Peter; Boel-Jørgensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram.......(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy is much used in the evaluation of patients with nodular goitre. We investigated the ability of experienced observers to estimate the thyroid 24-h (131)I uptake (RAIU) and the thyroid volume by visual evaluation of the scintigram....

  8. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperthyroid patient, the most likely diagnosis is autoimmune thyroid disease. THYROGLOBULIN Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a protein produced by ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  9. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid and Weight Thyroid and Weight FAQs THYROID, BMR & WEIGHT WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THYROID AND ... it is known as the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Indeed, measurement of the BMR was one of ...

  10. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common in people with a family history of thyroid disease. In very rare cases, the disease may be ... syndrome - Hashimoto; PGA II - Hashimoto Images Endocrine glands Thyroid enlargement - scintiscan Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) Thyroid gland References Amino N, Lazarus ...

  11. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media interested in ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  12. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ thyroid cancer treatment. Bethesda, ... February 4, 2016. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ ...

  13. Concurrent Intrathyroidal Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Cancer in Struma Ovarii: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelbeek, Roeland J W; O'Neill, Brian T; Nishino, Michiya; Pallotta, Johanna A

    2017-05-01

    The presence of differentiated thyroid cancer in mature cystic teratomas in the ovaries is rare, and usually incidentally found on surgical pathology specimens. We present a case of simultaneous intrathyroidal thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer within a struma ovarii, presenting specific diagnostic challenges. A 55-year-old woman had an intrathyroidal, encapsulated 1.2-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, which was resected. Laboratory studies showed an elevated thyroglobulin level of 35 ng/mL while on suppressive levothyroxine therapy. During preparation for radioactive iodine ablation, thyroglobulin increased dramatically to 3490 ng/mL. A pretreatment whole-body scan showed residual tracer uptake in the thyroid bed and increased radiotracer uptake in the pelvis that raised concern for a pelvic metastasis, given the marked thyroglobulin elevation. After ablation, the posttreatment scan showed intense focal uptake in the pelvis. Single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography confirmed that the tracer uptake corresponded to a right adnexal mass. The patient underwent a laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorecotomy with pelvic washings. The final pathology of the right ovary showed papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. In addition, there was abundant normal thyroid tissue with colloid surrounding the carcinoma, indicating a source for the dramatic rise in thyroglobulin levels and suggesting that the ovarian papillary thyroid cancer arose within the teratoma and was not metastatic disease. Thyroglobulin measurements have been undetectable for 5 years since surgery and radioiodine treatment. Concurrent intrathyroidal thyroid cancer and differentiated thyroid cancer in struma ovarii are very rare, but can often be distinguished on clinical grounds.

  14. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  15. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  16. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Gertrud

    2006-01-01

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided

  17. Functional scintigraphy of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Emrich, D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain more diagnostic information by thyroid scintigraphy we used a gamma camera with a high resolution collimator and a computer. This led to an improvement of thyroid scintigrams and their documentation. Additionally it allowed to obtain values for global and regional uptake of pertechnetate before and under suppression. The usefulness of this method was proven by investigation of 50 individuals with normal thyroid function and 32 euthyroid patients with pathological suppressibility in an area of iodine deficiency. In normals global thyroid uptake and its suppression correlated with the FT 4 I and Δ TSH after TRH in dependence of their iodine excretion. Three types of pathological reaction under suppression could be delineated: 1. pure focal autonomy, 2. generalized (disseminated) autonomy, 3. combined focal and disseminated autonomy. The means of Δ TSH decreased stepwise from group 1 to 3 indicating increasing autonomy. The method is predominantly helpful to detect autonomy in euthyroid goitre. It is superior to qualitative evaluation of scintigrams. Additionally it is useful for decisions in therapy, especially for functionally orientated operation. (orig.) [de

  18. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only histopathologically but also ...

  19. Thyroidal angiogenesis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... As a well known environmental contaminant, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodide uptake and reduces thyroid hormone levels. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to high concentrations of sodium perchlorate (200, 350 and 500 mg/L) for 10 days, remarkable angiogenesis was identified, not only.

  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  1. Tomographic imaging of the human thyroid using 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, P.; Townsend, D.; Flattet, A.

    1986-01-01

    After receiving between 100 and 300 mu Ci of the positron-emitting radioisotope 124 I (half-life, 4.2 days), 64 patients with a variety of thyroid disorders were imaged with a high resolution positron camera. A 3-dimensional image of the distribution of radi,iodine uptake within the thyroid was obtained from a single 10- to 15-min scan. This image may be viewed as a sequence of 2-mm thick transverse, sagittal, or frontal sections or as a 3-dimensional shaded surface. The functional volume of the thyroid may be estimated by counting the volume elements (voxels) inside the thyroid surface. The precision of the estimate varied from 6-15%, depending on the size and clinical status of the thyroid. The volume estimation procedure was validated with phantoms and with the thyroids of patients who subsequently underwent partial thyroidectomy. This 3-dimensional imaging technique may be useful for diagnosis and management of thyroid diseases

  2. Sialolithiasis mimicking metastatic thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Bom, Hee Seung; Song, Ho Cheon; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Ji Yeul [Chonnam Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    We report a false positive case of I-131 scan due to a sialolithiasis in right submandibular gland. I-131 images showed not only remnant thyroid tissues and functional metastases in the anterior neck but also a hot uptake near right submandibular gland. We confirmed the sialolithiasis by radiologic studies. Sialolithiasis should be regarded as a false positive cause when I-131 scan shows a hot spot near salivary bed.

  3. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  4. Evaluation of appreciable filling defect in thyroid scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Kim, C. K.; Choe, Y. K.; Choi, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A summary of various data of the thyroid function test and clinical and pathological findings over 94 patients who have appreciable filling defect on their thyroid scan, among 860 patients received thyroid function tests due to suspected thyroid diseases at the Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, was discussed and evaluated. 1. The incidence of cold nodule in female is about 9.5 times more frequent than in male, and the majority of patients (72.3%) were in the 2nd through 3rd decades. 2. The cold nodules are more distributed in right lobe (60.0%) than in left lobe and more distributed in lower portions of both lobes (54.2%) than in middle and upper portions. 3. The clinical symptoms supporting the evaluation of thyroid functional state in various thyroid diseases are not helpful for patients with cold nodules. 4. Considering the mean values of various thyroid function tests of patients with cold nodules, the value of 1-131 thyroid uptake test is in lower limit of normal range, the value of T 3 -RBC uptake test in normal range, and the value of PBI test in upper limit of normal range. 5. Considering the filling defect portion on thyroid scan by cold nodule as fraction, in the case of involving entire one lobe the values of all thyroid function tests are more meaningfully decreased than in order cases but the case of involving more than half an lobe to one lobe compared with the case of involving less than half a lobe, the values of thyroid uptake tests are not meaningfully changed but the values of T 3 -RBC uptake tests or PBI tests are moreover increased in the former

  5. The Thyroid Na+/I- Symporter: Molecular Characterization and Genomic Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Hani; Tuzlako?lu-?zt?rk, Merve; Tazebay, Uygar Halis

    2017-01-01

    Iodide (I-) is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and the iodide concentrating mechanism of the thyroid gland is essential for the synthesis of these hormones. In addition, differential uptake of iodine isotopes (radioiodine) is a key modality for the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. The sodium dependent iodide transport activity of the thyroid gland is mainly attributed to the functional expression of the Na+/I- Symporter (NIS) ...

  6. Radiation of the thyroid during examination of patients with thyroid diseases using radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Likhtarev, A.A.; Nikolaeva, A.A.

    1984-02-01

    Basing on 131I uptake functions in the thyroid of 109 patients irradiation doses of this organ were evaluated for persons with normal iodine metabolism and in the following diseases: hypothyrosis, moderate thyrotoxicosis, nodular toxic and nontoxic goiter, vegetative neurosis. Maximum tolerant doses of 123I, 125I, 131I and 132I are recommended for diagnostic examination of thyroid function and scanning of this organ.

  7. Focal thyroid incidentalomas identified with whole-body FDG-PET warrant further investigation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S

    2012-02-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) whole body positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) detects clinically occult malignancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and significance of focal thyroid 18F - fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. A retrospective review of all patients who had FDG PET-CT examinations, in a single tertiary referral centre was performed. PET scan findings and the final pathological diagnosis were collated. 2105 scans were reviewed. Focal uptake was identified in 35 (1.66%) patients. Final surgical histology was available on eight patients, which confirmed papillary carcinoma in four (20%) patients and lymphoma and metastatic disease in two patients respectively. This gave an overall malignancy rate in focal thyroid uptake of at least 33%. Thyroid incidentalomas occurred with a frequency of 2.13%, with an associated malignancy rate of at least 33% in focal thyroid uptake. The high malignancy rate associated with focal thyroid uptake mandates further investigation in medically fit patients.

  8. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it keeps the temperature just right. What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid disorder ... into the kid's bloodstream. Why Do Kids Get Thyroid Disease? In most cases, doctors and scientists can't ...

  9. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  10. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Overview Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, ...

  11. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Symptoms Thyroid cancer often begins as a small lump (nodule) ...

  12. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive ...

  13. Radioactive iodine uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Hyperthyroidism Read more Thyroid Diseases Read more Thyroid Tests Read more A.D. ...

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  15. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertini, Roberto; Dalurzo, Liliana; Jaen, Ana del V.

    2008-01-01

    In this document the case of a 66-year old woman is presented, with record of multi nodular goiter of 5 year of evolution, which is derived to scan ultrasound office to make a puncture-aspiration with thin needle because of the growth of nodular thyroid injuries. The ultrasound scan examination made before the puncture determine multiple dominant nodules of hyperplasia aspect between 15 and 25 mm of diameter and a small nodule of 6 mm suspected proliferate process. Despite its size, it was decided to include small nodule in injuries to a biopsy. The cytological study reveals nodular hyperplasia with carcinoma in the small nodule of 6 mm. A thyroidectomy is practiced on the patient. The deferred histological study of the thyroid gland confirms the finding of multi-nodular goiter with a small focus of papillar carcinoma. The ganglions examined were negative in the deferred examination [es

  16. Thyroid metastasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Ibrahimpasic, Tihana; Nixon, Iain J; Shaha, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid gland are uncommon. Renal, lung, breast, and colon cancer and melanoma are the most common primary diseases implicated. Few retrospective series have been reported. Treatment decisions must be individualized, and will depend on the state of systemic disease. Selected patients could benefit from surgical treatment. Although most patients selected for surgery will not be cured, the aim of surgery is to avoid the complications of uncontrolled central neck disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Graves' disease: thyroid function and immunologic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, A.A.; Crawley, J.C.; Copping, S.; Hinge, D.; Himsworth, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Patients with Graves' disease were studied for two years during and after a twelve-month course of treatment. Disease activity was determined by repeated measurements of thyroidal uptake of [/sup 99m/Tc]pertechnetate during tri-iodothyronine administration. These in-vivo measurements of thyroid stimulation were compared with the results of in-vitro assays of Graves, immunoglobulin (TSH binding inhibitory activity--TBIA). There was no correlation between the thyroid uptake and TBIA on diagnosis. Pertechnetate uptake and TBIA both declined during the twelve months of antithyroid therapy. TBIA was detectable in sera from 19 of the 27 patients at diagnosis; in 11 of these 19 patients there was a good correlation (p less than 0.05) throughout the course of their disease between the laboratory assay of the Graves, immunoglobulin and the thyroid uptake. Probability of recurrence can be assessed but sustained remission of Graves' disease after treatment cannot be predicted from either measurement alone or in combination

  18. Method of conjugate gamma camera image to determine tumor uptake in other thyroid treatments with I-131; Metodo de la imagen conjugada en Gammacamara para determinar la captacion en resto tumoral tiroideo en tratamientos con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R.; Sainz, A.; Tortosa, R.; Mari, A.

    2011-07-01

    The efficacy of ablation of thyroid remnants with 1-131 in the treatment of CDT depends on the activity captured in these remains, the optimal method for quantifying this activity is based on the gamma camera imaging with in the course of treatment. However, due to saturation of the image with high activities and time-cost optimization of machine, not usually get those images, except in a post-treatment scan. In our service MN tracking each patient is between 6 and 9 after administration. A method of quantification of the activity captured in other thyroid screening using this image.

  19. Bilateral breast uptake of radioiodine in a male patient with gynecomastia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, Lebriz; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Vatankulu, Betul; Sonmezoglu, Kerim

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old male patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma was given radioiodine for the treatment of persistent disease. Post radioiodine whole body scan revealed uptake at the thyroidal region and bilateral uptake at the upper thoracic region. Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) confirmed uptake at the left thyroid lobe, and additional symmetrical mammary gland uptake was observed at both breasts. The patient had obesity-related gynecomastia, but he did not have any history of breast cancer, mastitis, hyperprolactinemia, or galactorrhea. Although breast uptake of radioiodine is a common finding in postpartum or lactating women, it is uncommon in male patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a male patient with breast uptake of radioiodine documented with SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT is useful in male patients in the differentiation of benign breast uptake with lung metastases or axillary metastases of thyroid cancer

  20. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Gurleyik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH, very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves’ disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe.

  1. Lugol's iodine: its effect on thyroid blood flow in patients with thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigold, J H; Morgan, A K; Earle, D J; Young, A E; Croft, D N

    1985-01-01

    It has been established practice for 60 years to prepare thyrotoxic patients undergoing thyroidectomy with Lugol's iodine. However, evidence in support of its claimed benefits, namely a reduction in the vascularity and friability of the toxic thyroid gland, is scanty. We have therefore determined the effect of Lugol's iodine on thyroid blood flow, as measured by thyroid uptake of thallium-201, in nine patients with Graves' disease and one euthyroid patient. Thallium-201 uptake, as well as serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, fell significantly after treatment with iodine. Although not correlated with thyroid function tests, thallium-201 uptake was significantly correlated with thyroid weight. These results support the contention that thyroid blood flow is reduced in thyrotoxic patients treated with Lugol's iodine.

  2. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakheet, S.M. (Dept. of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)); Hammami, M.M. (Dept. of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

    1994-07-01

    Breast uptake of radioiodine, if not suspected, may be misinterpreted as thyroid cancer metastasis to the lung. To characterize the patterns of radioiodine breast uptake, we retrospectively studied 20 radioiodine scans that were performed within 1 week of cessation of breast feeding. Four patterns of uptake were identified: ''full'', ''focal'', ''crescent'' and ''irregular''. The uptake was asymmetric in 60% (left>right in 45%, right>left in 15%), symmetric in 25% and unilateral in 15% of cases. A characteristic full bilateral uptake was present in 40% of cases. In three cases with the irregular pattern, caused in part by external contamination with radioactive milk, the uptake closely mimicked lung metastases. Delayed images, obtained in one case, showed an apparent radioiodine shift from the breast to the thyroid, suggesting that the presence of breast uptake can modulate radioiodine uptake by thyroid tissue. In a case of unilateral breast uptake, a history of mastitis was obtained, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. Breast uptake of radioiodine may take several scintigraphic patterns that are not always characteristic of the lactating breast and may affect the apparent extent of thyroid remnant/metastasis. (orig.)

  3. Thyroid disease: thyroid function tests and interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases of the thyroid are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, especially in women, but the symptoms can be relatively nonspecific or mild. For this reason, clinicians have been placing increased reliance on the laboratory for assistance in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In the 1950s, only one thyroid test ...

  4. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  5. Typical and atypical (silent) subacute thyroiditis in a wife and husband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.; Caplan, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Typical subacute thyroiditis was diagnosed in a woman. Three weeks later, signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism developed in her husband. Although the right lobe of his thyroid gland was slightly enlarged, pain and tenderness were absent throughout the course of his illness. The free thyroxine equivalent (FTE) value and the sedimentation rate were elevated; the low uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland was consistent with ''silent'' subacute thyroiditis. We postulate that a common etiology, probably viral, was operative in both cases. Nine additional cases of hyperthyroidism with low levels of thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine are described. The thyroid glands of these patients were normal or slightly enlarged. Antithyroglobulin antibody levels determined in seven patients were not substantially elevated. The clinical course of these patients was characteristic of ''silent'' subacute thyroiditis. Although the origin of the syndrome remains unclear, the disease is self-limited and therapy, if any, is supportive

  6. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  7. 99mTc Sestamibi Thyroid Scan in Amiodarone-Induced Thyrotoxicosis Type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj R; Tamara, Luis A; Lee, Ho

    2016-07-01

    Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) type I describes inducement of clinical hyperthyroidism by excessive thyroidal iodine in the setting of latent Graves disease, and therapy differs from that used for AIT type II. A 65-year-old man previously on amiodarone for atrial fibrillation developed clinical hyperthyroidism. Diagnosis of AIT was made, but the type was not clear. Tc sestamibi thyroid scan showed diffusely increased uptake and retention in an enlarged thyroid gland, a pattern consistent with AIT type I. Methimazole was initiated and controlled the thyrotoxicosis. I iodide thyroid scan and uptake study performed later was consistent with Graves disease.

  8. Lingual thyroid: value of integrated imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovagnorio, F.; Cordier, A.; Romeo, R.

    1996-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon cause of oropharyngeal mass, due to a congential anomaly of thyroidal development and migration: It is defined precisely as the presence of thyroid tissue in the midline of the tongue base between circumvallatae papilae and the epiglottis. We report a case of lignual thyroid in which the integration of clinical data, sonography, color-duplex Doppler, MRI and scintigraphy was determinant in demonstrating the disease. A 22-year-old woman presented with a sensation of foreign body in the throat, dysphonia, dyspnoea and dysphagia; we performed sonography (7.5 MHz linear probe), color Doppler (7 MHz Doppler frequeny, PRF 3500 Hz) and MRI (1.5 T, spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images with administration of Gd-DTPA); a scan with 123 I demonstrated a relevant uptake at the base of the tongue, but no uptake at the typical thyroid location. The gland was removed and partially transplanted in the strap muscles of the neck. (orig.)

  9. Lingual thyroid: value of integrated imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovagnorio, F. [Sezione di Radiologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Dipt. di Medicina Sperimentale e Patologia, Univ. `La Sapienza`, Rome (Italy); Cordier, A. [Ist. di Clinica Otorinolaringoiatrica, Univ. `La Sapienza`, Rome (Italy); Romeo, R. [Ist. di Clinica Otorinolaringoiatrica, Univ. `La Sapienza`, Rome (Italy)

    1996-02-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon cause of oropharyngeal mass, due to a congential anomaly of thyroidal development and migration: It is defined precisely as the presence of thyroid tissue in the midline of the tongue base between circumvallatae papilae and the epiglottis. We report a case of lignual thyroid in which the integration of clinical data, sonography, color-duplex Doppler, MRI and scintigraphy was determinant in demonstrating the disease. A 22-year-old woman presented with a sensation of foreign body in the throat, dysphonia, dyspnoea and dysphagia; we performed sonography (7.5 MHz linear probe), color Doppler (7 MHz Doppler frequeny, PRF 3500 Hz) and MRI (1.5 T, spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images with administration of Gd-DTPA); a scan with {sup 123}I demonstrated a relevant uptake at the base of the tongue, but no uptake at the typical thyroid location. The gland was removed and partially transplanted in the strap muscles of the neck. (orig.)

  10. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ― a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  11. Work-up of thyroid incidentalomas identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Simonsen, Lene; Bülow, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Several reports have described dramatic increase over recent decades in the incidence of thyroid cancer, even as thyroid cancer-related mortality rates have not changed substantially. Nevertheless, in several retrospective studies the incidence of malignancy in focal18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG......) thyroid uptake discovered on whole body18F-FDG PET/CT, carried out for non-thyroid cancers, is 13-64%. Our aim was to design a practical algorithm for management of an increasing number of thyroid incidentalomas, identified by18F-FDG PET/CT....

  12. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, L.E.; Safran, M.; Bambini, G.; Pinchera, A.; Martino, E.

    1985-11-01

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T/sub 4/ and T/sub 3/ concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. /sup 131/I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG).

  13. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  14. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qari, Faiza A.; Maimani, Abdulroaf A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated

  15. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  16. An Evaluation by TSH Radioimmunoassay on Familial Thyroid Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yeul

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of thyroid disorders is connected with iodine deficiency, defective synthesis or releasing of thyroid hormone and endemicity. Genetic factors are known as a single gene defects, interaction of multiple genes with environmental factors, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Diofnosis thyroid disorders is enforced by 13I uptake test, thyroid scanning with 131 I or 99m Tc and serum radioimmunoassays of T3, T4, free T4 and TSH. They were largely classified as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, simple goiter and normal. The pedigree of 58 families was drawn by propositus, and then the correlation between thyroid disorders and TSH levels was analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) The offsprings and their mothers of 15 families were hypothyroidism, THS level was 5 folds for offsprings and 4 folds for mothers in comparison with control group. 2) 13 families were hyperthyroidism in siblings but their mothers were normal in thyroid function, TSH level of the siblings was lower than control group. 3) Though the offsprings and their mothers of 10 families were similar to TSH level of control group, they are all simple goiter, familial thyroid disorders, in other thyroid function test. The familial thyroid disorders suggested that these transmitted from mothers to offsprings with X-linked dominant or autosomal dominant inheritance.

  17. Retinoic acid modulation of thyroid dual oxidase activity in rats and its impact on thyroid iodine organification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, Mônica; da Silva, Alba Cenélia Matos; Marassi, Michelle Porto; Lourenço, Alexandre Lopes; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2010-06-01

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) mediates iodide uptake into the thyrocytes, which is important for the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid disorders. Decreased ability to uptake iodide in thyroid carcinomas reduces the efficacy of radioiodine therapy, and retinoic acid (RA) treatment reinduces iodide uptake. The effectiveness of treatment depends not only on iodide uptake but also on the ability of thyrocytes to organify iodine, which is catalyzed by thyroperoxidase (TPO) in the presence of H(2)O(2). Our goal was to determine the influence of RA on thyroid iodide uptake, iodine organification, and TPO and dual oxidase (DuOx) activities. Normal rats were treated with all-trans-RA or 13-cis-RA (100 or 1500 microg/100 g body weight (b.w.), s.c.) for 14 and 28 days. The 2 h thyroid radioiodine content significantly decreased in rats treated with all-trans-RA (100 microg/100 g b.w.) for 14 days. In this group, NIS function and TPO activity were unchanged, whereas DuOx activity was significantly decreased, which might have contributed to the decrease in iodine organification. Both doses of 13-cis-RA for 28 days increased the 15 min thyroid radioiodine uptake, while the 2 h radioiodide uptake increased only in rats treated with the highest dose of 13-cis-RA. While TPO activity did not change, H(2)O(2) generation was increased in this group, and serum thyroxine levels were normal. Since radioiodine half-life in the thyroid gland is important for treatment efficacy, our results highlight the importance of correctly choosing the RA isomer, the time and the dose of treatment, in order to improve the efficacy of radioiodine therapy.

  18. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Hulya; Akman, Ipek; Coskun, Senay; Demirel, Utku; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah; Bilgen, Hulya; Ozek, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I) had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8%) in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4). Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5%) had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction. PMID:23737782

  19. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8% in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4. Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5% had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction.

  20. What might cause pain in the thyroid gland? Report of a patient with subacute thyroiditis of atypical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Zybek, Ariadna; Biczysko, Maciej; Majewski, Przemysław; Ruchała, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SAT), also known as de Quervain's thyroiditis or painful subacute thyroiditis, is the commonest thyroid condition responsible for neck tenderness. Other causes of pain in the thyroid gland should be taken into consideration during differential diagnosis, especially when a patient presents with misleading or equivocal signs and symptoms. We report the case of a 39 year-old woman diagnosed as having SAT whose clinical, biochemical and radiological presentation varied significantly from the common SAT manifestation. A tentative diagnosis of SAT was made based on the presented symptoms, ultrasonography and fine-needle biopsy results. However, biochemical analysis suggested neither inflammatory process nor the presence of thyrotoxicosis. Moreover, technetium scan of the thyroid revealed normal uptake of the isotope and there was neither clinical nor ultasonographic response for corticosteroids. The patient's symptoms, despite being prescribed typical treatment, gradually deteriorated and the pain became increasingly debilitating. Eventually, the patient underwent total thyroidectomy. As a result, she has become free of symptoms, but the macroscopic picture of thyroid gland, noted during the operation, gave a suspicion of neoplastic process. Nevertheless, histological study of flow samples confirmed the tentative diagnosis of de Quervain's thyroiditis, despite all previous findings that were not suggestive of it. This report confirms the likelihood that SAT can present atypically. Additionally, it indicates that surgical treatment may be considered in patients with severe, debilitating, persistent thyroid gland pain connected with SAT clinical course.

  1. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  2. Incidental detection of hyperfunctioning thyroid cancer metastases in patients presenting with thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant A Damle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyrotoxicosis due to functioning metastases from thyroid cancer is rare. It also presents a therapeutic challenge, as both the metastatic cancer and thyrotoxicosis need to be treated. We present here two cases of thyrotoxicosis which on a routine 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scan showed extrathyroidal foci of uptake. Two patients who initially presented with thyrotoxicosis underwent a routine thyroid scan. Abnormal uptake in the shoulder was incidentally noted, which prompted us to do a whole body pertechnetate scan in the same sitting, which revealed extensive hyperfunctioning metastases in the lungs and bones. We also discuss the ′Flip Flop′ phenomenon in thyroid cancer, which was seen in our case. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating the abnormal foci of uptake seen on a routine thyroid scan.

  3. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... Information A LISTING OF THE FDA-APPROVED MEDICINES PRODUCT FDA RATING MANUFACTURER Unithroid® AB (Stevens)*+ L-Thyroxin ...

  4. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  5. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  6. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  7. Measuring Quality in Thyroid Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the surgical quality measures currently in use are not disease specific. For thyroid cancer, mortality and even recurrence are difficult to measure since mortality is rare and recurrence can take decades to occur. Therefore, there is a critical need for quality indicators in thyroid cancer surgery that are easily measured and disease specific. Here we will review recent research on two potential quality indicators in thyroid cancer surgery. The uptake percentage on postoperative radioactive iodine scans indicates the completeness of resection. Another measure, the lymph node ratio, is the proportion of metastatic nodes to the total number of nodes dissected. This serves as a more global measure of quality since it indicates not only the completeness of lymph node dissection but also the preoperative lymph node evaluation and decision-making. Together, these two quality measures offer a more accurate, disease-specific oncologic indicator of quality that can help guide quality assurance and improvement.

  8. Reduction of thyroid volume following radioiodine therapy for functional autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, M.; Jacob, M.; Thelen, M.H.; Michalowski, U.; Deutsch, U.; Reiners, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study we evaluated the data of 112 patients who underwent radioiodine treatment for functional autonomy of the thyroid at Essen University Hospital from 1988 to 1993. Therapeutic activities of radioiodine were administered after individual determination of activity for intended radiation doses (150-300 Gy) taking into consideration autonomously functioning volume, maximum uptake, and effective half-life. The achieved dose was calculated by means of measurement of the radioiodine kinetics during therapy. Depending on the type of autonomous function of the thyroid (solitary autonomously functioning nodule, multiple autonomously functioning nodules, autonomously functioning thyroid tissue) volume reductions between 39 and 46% were found approximately 6 months after treatment. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of the micronutrient iodine in thyroid carcinoma angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Kayla; Nucera, Carmelo

    2016-12-20

    Iodide is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone production. The uptake and metabolism of iodide by thyrocytes is crucial to proper thyroid function. Iodide ions are drawn into the thyroid follicular cell via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the cell membrane and become integrated into tyrosyl residues to ultimately form thyroid hormones. We sought to learn how an abnormal concentration of iodide within thyrocyte can have significant effects on the thyroid, specifically the surrounding vascular network. Insufficient levels of iodide can lead to increased expression or activity of several pathways, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The VEGF protein fuel vessel growth (angiogenesis) and therefore enhances the nutrients available to surrounding cells. Alternatively, normal/surplus iodide levels can have inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Varying levels of iodide in the thyroid can influence thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation and angiogenesis via regulation of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and VEGF-dependent pathway. We have reviewed a number of studies to investigate how the effect of iodide on angiogenic and oxidative stress regulation can affect the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells. The various studies outlined give key insights to the role of iodide in thyroid follicles function and vascular growth, generally highlighting that insufficient levels of iodide stimulate pathways resulting in vascular growth, and viceversa normal/surplus iodide levels inhibit such pathways. Intriguingly, TSH and iodine levels differentially regulate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. All cells, including carcinoma cells, increase uptake of blood nutrients, meaning the vascular profile is influential to tumor growth and progression. Importantly, variation in the iodine concentrations also influence BRAF V600E -mediated oncogenic activity and might deregulate tumor proliferation. Although the mechanisms are not well eluted, iodine

  10. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  11. Post-surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma in dogs with retinoic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2016-01-20

    Jan 20, 2016 ... However, the dFTC functional characteristics (iodine uptake, thyroid ... Owners who did not want their dogs to receive .... Dogs that presented any lymph node affected with local invasion or distal metastasis were excluded from the experiment. Histological procedures and thyroid tumour classification.

  12. Thyroid function test in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirboluk, Amir Ahmad; Rohani, Farzaneh; Asadi, Ramin; Eslamian, Mohammad Reza

    2017-12-01

    Metabolism of thyroid hormones is influenced by acute systemic illnesses including diabetic ketoacidosis. In these cases T3 level is usually decreased and this condition is called "low T3 syndrome" which is usually reversed by treating the under lying Disease. thyroid function test analysis before and after diabetic ketoacidosis treatment. In this cross sectional study thyroid function tests were analyzed in 16 diabetic ketoacidosis patients according to American diabetic association before and after insulin therapy. mean triiodothyronine (T3) level before and after ketoacidosis treatment were 63.2±28.2ng/dl/and 78.5±26.2ng/dl (P. value 0.00) respectively and the mean thyroxin level (T4) before and after ketoacidosis were 3.18±1.4ng/dl and 5.17±2.4ng/dl (P. value=0.00) .Mean thyrotropin (TSH) level and triiodothyronine uptake (T3RU) before and after treatment showed no significant difference. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a sever systemic disease which along with reduction in T3 level, T4 level is also decreased and TSH level is normal. The changes in Thyroid hormones are reversed to normal after treatment of ketoacidosis so it is recommended in interpreting results of TFT in these patients we should consider these facts and thyroid function test should be repeated after treatment. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  14. Amiodarone and the thyroid: a 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogazzi, F; Tomisti, L; Bartalena, L; Aghini-Lombardi, F; Martino, E

    2012-03-01

    Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction occurs in 15-20% of amiodarone-treated patients. Amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) does not pose relevant problems, is easily controlled by L-thyroxine replacement, and does not require amiodarone withdrawal. Most frequently AIH develops in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Amiodarone- induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is most frequently due to destructive thyroiditis (type 2 AIT) causing discharge of thyroid hormones from the damaged, but otherwise substantially normal gland. Less frequently AIT is a form of hyperthyroidism (type 1 AIT) caused by the iodine load in a diseased gland (nodular goiter, Graves' disease). A clearcut differentiation between the two main forms is not always possible, despite recent diagnostic advances. As a matter of fact, mixed or indefinite forms do exist, contributed to by both thyroid damage and increased thyroid hormone synthesis. Treatment of type 1 (and mixed forms) AIT is based on the use of thionamides, a short course of potassium perchlorate and, if treatment is not rapidly effective, oral glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment for type 2 AIT. Amiodarone should be discontinued, if feasible from a cardiac standpoint. Continuation of amiodarone has recently been associated with a delayed restoration of euthyroidism and a higher chance of recurrence after glucocorticoid withdrawal. Whether amiodarone treatment can be safely reinstituted after restoration of euthyroidism is still unknown. In rare cases of AIT resistance to standard treatments, or when a rapid restoration of euthyroidism is advisable, total thyroidectomy represents a valid alternative. Radioiodine treatment is usually not feasible due to the low thyroidal iodine uptake. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  15. Absolute activity determination of I-125 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelled, O.; German, U.; Kol, R.; Levinson, S.; Laichter, Y.

    1997-01-01

    I-125 has been widely used in nuclear medicine and as a tracer in different experiments. The dose equivalent to the thyroid Tom internal contamination of 1-125, can be estimated by in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid or through bioassay of urine . The in-vivo monitoring of the thyroid can be carried out by counting the photon emission from the decay of the 1-125 , by a Nal(Tl) detector calibrated with a thyroid phantom. This direct method is sensitive , but due to the low photon energy (27keV to 35keV), the counting efficiency depends strongly on the variations of the thyroid mass , thyroid depth below the surface , thyroid shape and detector position . It is estimated that the uncertainty of the activity determination can reach several hundred percents . A mewed for absolute determination of the activity of a '251 source based on the counting rate values of file 27 keV photons and the 54 keV coincidence photo peak, which diminishes the geometry dependence of the counting efficiency , was applied to determine the uptake of 125-I in human thyroid In this work we checked also the application of the absolute determination method wife high sensitivity phoswich detectors. We compare the results of calculations of interval exposure to 125-I for a real case, evaluated by the absolute determination method and by the direct method. (authors)

  16. Technetium-99m tetrofosmin imaging in thyroid diseases: comparison with Tc-99m-pertechnetate, thallium-201 and Tc-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klain, M.; Cuocolo, A.; Marzano, L.; Lombardi, G.; Salvatore, M.; Univ. di Napoli

    1996-01-01

    In this study, tetrofosmin whole-body scintigraphy was performed in 35 patients with evidence of thyroid diseases. All patients underwent laboratory evaluation of thyroid function as well as 99m Tc pertechnetate scan, thallium-201 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) whole-body studies. Thyroid images were semi-quantitatively analysed by a 4-point score: 0=no significant uptake; 1=uptake increased but inferior to normal thyroid tissue; 2=uptake equal to normal thyroid tissue; 3=uptake superior to normal thyroid tissue. A total of 41 thyroid nodules were detected, of which 15 were goitre nodules, 13 adenomas and 13 malignant lesions. In goitre nodules, concordant results of tetrofosmin and pertechnetate uptake (score 1 or 0) were observed in the majority of lesions (87%). In function adenomas both tetrofosmin uptake and pertechnetate uptake were score 3. In non-function adenomas tetrofosmin uptake was score 3, while pertechnetate uptake was score 0. In six malignant lesions, tetrofosmin uptake was score 3, while pertechnetate uptake was score 0; in the other seven lesions, where a prevalence of goitre abnormalities was observed, results of tetrofosmin and pertechnetate uptake were similar (score 0 or 1). In (70%) patients with malignant nodules, whole-body tetrofosmin images showed increased abnormal uptake in a total of 28 extra-thyroid tumour sites, as subsequently confirmed by other techniques. When tetrofosmin images were compared to 201 Tl and 99m Tc-MIBI scans, concordant results were observed in all cases. In conclusion, tetrofosmin imaging may be particularly useful to characterize and stage patients with malignant thyroid nodules; it shows similar results to thallium but provides better image quality. Comparable findings were observed between tetrofosmin and MIBI studies. Thus, tetrofosmin may be an alternative to thallium and MIBI in the aforementioned patients. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. High Frequency Of Thyroid Dysfunction In Indian Patients With Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Shriya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study was carried out look for any association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid disease and to find out clinical characteristics of vitiligo, which may predict such and association. Thirty-five consecutive cases of vitiligo were enrolled for this study. Besides recording the clinical features of vitiligo and thyroid disease, antithyroid autoantibody assays (anthi-thyroglobulin, anti-TPO and thyroid hormone profiles were done in these cases and 30 appropriately age and sex matched controls. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU thyroid scintiscan was done for all the cases and controls. Amongst the vitiligo cases, vitiligo vulgaris was the commonest type (45.70%, while mucosal vitiligo constituted 22.8% of cases. No Patient was found to have thyroid disease clinically; however, on assays, thyroid abnormality (endocrine, immunological or both was found in 57.1% of the cases as against 10% of the controls (p<0.05. Autonatibody positivity was found in 31.4% of the cases as against 10% of the controls (p<0.05. Biochemical abnormality (predominantly hyperthyroidism was found in 40% of the cases as against 6.7% of the controls (p<0.05. Four patients with hyperthyroidism showed diffuse increase in uptake on RAIU scan and auto antibody poisitivity, thus were diagnosed as Grave’s disease. An early age at onset was found in patients with thyroid disease. Mucosal vitiligo was found in 35% of the cases with thyroid dysfunction as against 6.7% in those without (p<0.05 with was the most unique finding of the study. To conclude, we would like to stress that patients with vitiligo should be screened for thyroid dysfunction, especially those with mucosal vitiligo.

  18. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from wel...

  20. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Performed This is a test to diagnose thyroid disease or thyroid cancer . It is often used to ... What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may mean: Thyroid disease such as goiter or thyroiditis Noncancerous tumors Thyroid ...

  1. New strategies for the treatment of undifferentiated thyroid cancer and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvenal, Guillermo J.

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated thyroid cancer, which accounts for about 5-10% of thyroid cancer cases, is a very aggressive tumor with no effective treatment, since it lacks iodine uptake and does not respond to radio or chemotherapy. The prognosis of these patients is bad, due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the early development of metastasis. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the genetic changes that underlie thyroid cancer, as all kinds of tumors. The characterization of these proteins is being exploited to delineate new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this cancer. This work is focused on those compounds or therapeutic approaches that are being used in clinical essays or in animal models. (author) [es

  2. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  3. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography imaging for temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radionuclide accumulation in 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin-treated thyroid cancer mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Yu; Brandt, Michael P; Shen, Daniel H; Kloos, Richard T; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2014-01-01

    Selective iodide uptake and prolonged iodine retention in the thyroid is the basis for targeted radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer patients; however, salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent nonthyroidal complications. In this study, we have used noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography functional imaging to quantify the temporal dynamics of thyroidal and salivary radioiodine accumulation in mice. At 60 min post radionuclide injection, radionuclide accumulation in the salivary gland was generally higher than that in thyroid due to much larger volume of the salivary gland. However, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in the salivary gland was lower than that in thyroid and was comparable among mice of different age and gender. Differently, radionuclide accumulation per anatomic unit in thyroid varied greatly among mice. The extent of thyroidal radioiodine accumulation stimulated by a single dose of exogenous bovine TSH (bTSH) in triiodothyronine (T3)-supplemented mice was much less than that in mice received neither bTSH nor T3 (nontreated mice), suggesting that the duration of elevated serum TSH level is important to maximize thyroidal radioiodine accumulation. Furthermore, the extent and duration of radioiodine accumulation stimulated by bTSH was less in the thyroids of the thyroid-targeted RET/PTC1 (thyroglobulin (Tg)-PTC1) mice bearing thyroid tumors compared with the thyroids in wild-type (WT) mice. Finally, the effect of 17-allyamino-17-demothoxygeldanamycin on increasing thyroidal, but not salivary, radioiodine accumulation was validated in both WT mice and Tg-PTC1 preclinical thyroid cancer mouse model. PMID:20943721

  5. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  6. Role of serum thyroglobulin levels in the assessment of thyroid disease (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.G.; Khan, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg), a glycoprotein, is the principal iodoprotein of the thyroid gland and is the major component of the thyroid mass. As Tg is specific to thyroid gland and thyroid related-cells, its measurement in the circulation is potentially useful to study the pathogenesis, establish the diagnosis and follow the course of thyroid disorders. Serum Tg is a suitable marker for the differentiated thyroid carcinoma after total thyroid ablation by surgery and /sup 131/I treatment. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric (IRMA) methodologies are important to measure hormones for diagnosis of various diseases. In addition to /sup 131/I uptake, /sup 131/I whole body scintigraphy and estimation of T3, T4 and TSH levels, serum Tg levels in euthyroids (n=42), hyper thyroids (n=55) and treated cases (thyroidectomy and /sup 131/I ablation) of carcinoma (CA) thyroid were 9.7 - +9.96, 109.9 - +160.3 and 2.2 - + 4.2 respectively. Serum Tg levels were significantly higher (P < 0.005) in hyper thyroids and significantly lower (P < 0.025) in treated CA thyroids when compared with those of euthyroids. In treated patients (surgery and /sup 131/I ablation) serum Tg assay is an excellent method to assess the treatment and recurrence of disease. (author)

  7. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  8. Recovery of NIS expression in thyroid cancer cells by overexpression of Pax8 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presta, Ivan; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Arturi, Franco; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Mattei, Tiziana; Scarpelli, Daniela; Tosi, Emanuele; Scipioni, Angela; Celano, Marilena; Gulino, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Recovery of iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cells by means of obtaining the functional expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) represents an innovative strategy for the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. However, the NIS gene expression alone is not always sufficient to restore radioiodine concentration ability in these tumour cells. In this study, the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma ARO cells were stably transfected with a Pax8 gene expression vector. A quantitative RT-PCR was performed to assess the thyroid specific gene expression in selected clones. The presence of NIS protein was detected by Western blot and localized by immunofluorescence. A iodide uptake assay was also performed to verify the functional effect of NIS induction and differentiation switch. The clones overexpressing Pax8 showed the re-activation of several thyroid specific genes including NIS, Pendrin, Thyroglobulin, TPO and TTF1. In ARO-Pax8 clones NIS protein was also localized both in cell cytoplasm and membrane. Thus, the ability to uptake the radioiodine was partially restored, associated to a high rate of efflux. In addition, ARO cells expressing Pax8 presented a lower rate of cell growth. These finding demonstrate that induction of Pax8 expression may determine a re-differentiation of thyroid cancer cells, including a partial recovery of iodide uptake, fundamental requisite for a radioiodine-based therapeutic approach for thyroid tumours

  9. [Usefulness of thyroid scintigraphy in the therapeutic management of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Capote, C; Mena Bares, L M; Benítez Velazco, A; Louhibi Rubio, L; Contreras Puertas, P I; Maza Muret, F R; Latre Romero, J M

    2007-01-01

    Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism is relatively common in iodine-deficient regions. Two types have been described: type I, caused by increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormone in individuals with underlying thyroid disease, can be treated with antithyroid drugs or radioiodine; and type II, a destructive thyroiditis responsive to corticoid therapy but not to antithyroid drugs. It can be difficult to distinguish between the two types, and cases of mixed types have been reported. to assess the usefulness of thyroid scintigraphy in amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. 27 consecutive patients (13 females) with amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Mean age was 65 years (range: 39-89). All patients underwent 99mTc-pertechnectate thyroid scintigraphy and were classified according to the qualitative estimation of radiotracer uptake: type I (increased / normal uptake): 9 patients, all of whom responded to antithyroid drugs or radioiodine, except one patient with sub-clinical hyperthyroidism who received no therapy; type II (very low or undetectable uptake): 13 patients, 11 of whom responded to discontinuation of amiodarone or prednisone therapy (2 patients). Hyperthyroidism was resistant in 2 patients and required antithyroid drugs or potassium perchlorate; mixed type (low uptake but with underlying thyroid pathology): 5 patients, with variable evolution; all needed antithyroid drugs, one required subtotal thyroidectomy, and another radioiodine treatment. thyroid scintigraphy can establish the correct therapeutic approach in most cases of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism, making it essential in the clinical management of these patients.

  10. Atypical subacute thyroiditis detected with /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kyoichi; Mitsuwa, Umeo

    1985-01-01

    A 54-year-old female patient with fever of unknown origin is presented in whom subacute thyroiditis was found by /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy. Imaging at 48 hours with /sup 67/Ga revealed abnormal uptake in the left anterior neck, corresponding to the left lobe of the thyroid. /sup 123/I uptake rate of the thyroid and sup(99m)TcO -thyroid scintigraphy undertaken 2 weeks after /sup 67/Ga citrate scintigraphy also confirmed subacute thyroiditis. The patient was successfully treated with 1.5 g/day of aspirin. /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy is thought to provide useful information on the localization of lesions in atypical cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  11. Human embryonic stem cells form functional thyroid follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Risheng; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F

    2015-04-01

    The molecular events that lead to human thyroid cell speciation remain incompletely characterized. It has been shown that overexpression of the regulatory transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1 (ttf-1) directs murine embryonic stem (mES) cells to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells by initiating a transcriptional regulatory network. Such cells subsequently organized into three-dimensional follicular structures in the presence of extracellular matrix. In the current study, human embryonic stem (hES) cells were studied with the aim of recapitulating this scenario and producing functional human thyroid cell lines. Reporter gene tagged pEZ-lentiviral vectors were used to express human PAX8-eGFP and NKX2-1-mCherry in the H9 hES cell line followed by differentiation into thyroid cells directed by Activin A and thyrotropin (TSH). Both transcription factors were expressed efficiently in hES cells expressing either PAX8, NKX2-1, or in combination in the hES cells, which had low endogenous expression of these transcription factors. Further differentiation of the double transfected cells showed the expression of thyroid-specific genes, including thyroglobulin (TG), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), and the TSH receptor (TSHR) as assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Most notably, the Activin/TSH-induced differentiation approach resulted in thyroid follicle formation and abundant TG protein expression within the follicular lumens. On stimulation with TSH, these hES-derived follicles were also capable of dose-dependent cAMP generation and radioiodine uptake, indicating functional thyroid epithelial cells. The induced expression of PAX8 and NKX2-1 in hES cells was followed by differentiation into thyroid epithelial cells and their commitment to form functional three-dimensional neo-follicular structures. The data provide proof of principal that hES cells can be committed to thyroid cell speciation under

  12. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  13. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta Zunino, L.

    1992-01-01

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author) [es

  14. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  15. Thyroiditis: Symptoms to sequelae - An Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneha, S.; Krishna, B.A.; Madhavi, C.; Sangeeta, T.; Rijju, G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroiditis presents with symptoms varying from thyrotoxicosis to hypothyroidism. In fairly a large number of patients the symptoms are very subtle and hence clinical diagnosis is difficult to make without laboratory assistance. In view of this we undertook a study to assess the patterns of clinical presentation and the behavioral pattern of patients with thyroiditis. Materials and Methods: Totally 43 patients were included in the study with clinical suspicion of thyroiditis. 31 patients presented with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis while 6 patients presented with hypothyroid symptoms. Six patients presented with history of acute upper respiratory tract infection with tender thyromegaly and euthyroid status. These patients were subjected to thyroid scan (43 patients), sonography (6 patients), thyroid antibody levels estimation (43 patients), FNAC evaluation (3 patients) and T3, T4, TSH estimation (43 patients). The patients were followed up for a period of 6 months to 2 years. Clinical evaluation and T3, T4 and TSH evaluation was performed. Result: 19 of the 31 patients (61.29%) who presented with thyrotoxicosis progressed to hypothyroid state both clinically and biochemically. 11 of the 31 patients (35.48%) reverted to euthyroid status. One patient continued to maintain thyrotoxic state at the end of 2 years and was treated with antithyroid measures. In the hypothyroid group of six patients, four patients continued to maintain hypothyroid state while two patients reverted to euthyroid status during follow up. In the euthyroid group of six patients four patients developed hypothyroid status and the other two patients remained euthyroid. The 99m- Tco4 scan demonstrated poor and patchy uptake in all the patients. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that majority of the patients (72.09%) of thyroiditis present with thyrotoxic symptoms. The sequelae of hypothyroidism was seen in 61.29% of patients in this group. We observed an interesting finding of patients

  16. First reported case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louis C; Green, Jennifer B

    2011-06-01

    Unilateral Graves' disease is a rare disease variant that can occur in a bilobar thyroid gland. We report the first documented case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland and review the pertinent literature. A 48-year-old man presented in June 2010 with thyrotoxicosis. I-131 radioisotope uptake was elevated at 33.4%, and scintigraphy revealed that uptake of the radioisotope was uniformly increased in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed a non-nodular, enlarged, and heterogeneous left lobe; Doppler investigation of the lobe showed hypervascularity classically seen in Graves' disease. The right lobe of the thyroid, on the other hand, appeared homogeneous and hypovascular on ultrasonography. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin was significantly elevated at 191% (reference range disease was the most likely diagnosis. As has occasionally been described in the literature, unilateral involvement of the thyroid gland is a rare presentation of Graves' disease. Pre-existing functional or structural differences (either congenital or acquired) between the two lobes may contribute to this rare presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of unilateral Graves' disease presenting in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland. Although the pathophysiology of unilateral Graves's disease has not been clearly elucidated, clinicians should be aware that Graves' disease can present unilaterally in either lobe of the thyroid gland.

  17. Predictive value of scintigraphic (semi-)quantitative thyroid parameters on radioiodine therapy outcome in hyperthyroid cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volckaert, Veerle; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Daminet, Sylvie; Saunders, Jimmy H; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The outcome of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroid cats is suspected to be influenced by multiple factors. The degree of activity of the thyroid gland, represented by uptake of sodium pertechnetate or tracer activities of radioiodine by the thyroid gland on thyroid scintigraphy, has been suggested in the literature as one of those. Thyroid gland pertechnetate uptake can be represented by (semi-)quantitative factors such as the thyroid to salivary gland (T/S) ratio, the thyroid to background (T/B) ratio and the percentage technetium uptake by the thyroid glands (%TcU). The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between these thyroid scan parameters and radioiodine therapy outcome. Methods Sodium pertechnetate thyroid scans of 75 hyperthyroid cats were retrospectively evaluated and statistical analysis was performed with and without correction for injected radioiodine activity. Three different background regions of interest (ROIs) were used to calculate the T/B ratio and %TcU: 'neck', 'circle' and 'copy ROI'. Results Higher T/S ratios were found to be significantly related to a persistent hyperthyroid outcome in both analyses. For the T/S ratio, a threshold value of 5.4 was determined, with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 59%. An increased risk for persistent hyperthyroidism compared with a final euthyroid outcome with an increased T/B circle ratio was only found to be significant without correction for the activity of radioiodine administered. For the %TcU no statistical significance was reached. Regarding a low total thyroxine outcome, no significant relationships with any of the investigated parameters were found. Conclusions and relevance The findings of this study suggest that semi-quantification of thyroid gland uptake is best performed using the T/S ratio. A T/S ratio ⩾5.4 is a possible indicator for an increased risk of persistent hyperthyroidism.

  18. Over-the-counter-drug-induced thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thanh D; Mai, Vinh Q; Clyde, Patrick W; Shakir, Mohamed K M

    2013-01-01

    Excessive iodine ingestion may cause thyroid dysfunction. In this case series, we report four patients who developed significant thyroid dysfunction after ingesting over-the-counter (OTC) drugs containing large concentrations of iodine. Four patients from a tertiary medical center are reported. Case 1 involved acute exacerbation of thyrotoxicosis induced by taking OTC Tri-iodine™ in a 35-year-old woman while still on methimazole therapy. Case 2 involved thyroid-extract-induced thyrotoxicosis following ingestion of Thyromine™, and was confirmed by laboratory studies and ¹³¹I thyroid uptake. Cases 3 and 4 involved severe, symptomatic hypothyroidism induced in 2 patients with underlying autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) following ingestion of Iodoral™. In all cases, thyroid dysfunction resolved with appropriate management and discontinuation of the OTC drugs. These case reports demonstrate the significant risks associated with OTC preparations containing iodine in patients predisposed to thyroid dysfunction. There is no valid reason for taking high-dose OTC iodine supplements, which have been shown to cause harm and have no known benefit.

  19. Thyroid mass estimation in Grave's disease by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, G.S.; Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, R.; Pandey, A.K.; Gupta, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: One of the important parts of treatment of Grave's disease with I-131 is the delivery of accurate dose to the target volume. Three important parameters that need to be accurately measured for dosimetry are; the 24 hr thyroid uptake (%), the thyroid mass and effective half life of I-131 in the gland. In this presentation we describe the estimation thyroid mass by SPECT. We have standardised a method to estimated thyroid volume by SPECT using thyroid phantoms of different sizes and then used them for routine thyroid mass estimation in patients with Graves' disease. Materials and Methods: Due to variation in thyroid weight in patients with Grave's disease, we standardised the scintigraphic (SPECT) technique using thyroid phantoms of different volumes such as 5 ml, 9.5 ml, 10.5 ml, 35 ml, 80 ml, 101ml and 110 ml. Each phantom was filled with 99 mTc solution with different activity concentration (100 μCi, 300 μCi, 600 μCi and 1.0 μCi) and SPECT images were acquired on a VARICAM dual head camera in 128x128 matrix. The acquired data was processed using a standardised Metz filter but without attenuation or scatter correction. Coronal slices were used with suitable threshold for edge detection. An irregular ROI was plotted around each lobe and isthmus of the thyroid gland and the enclosed slice area was measured. The area measured from all the frames was added and multiplied by the slice thickness to get the volume of the thyroid gland. The estimated volume of each phantom was compared and correlated with its actual volume. The thyroid mass in 40 patients was estimated by SPECT and compared with that estimated by ultrasonography.Results and Conclusion: The results of thyroid mass estimation with SPECT in phantom study suggested a 30% threshold for all phantom volumes. However, 35% threshold was used in patients' images for estimating thyroid volume. The estimated volumes by scintigraphy were compared with that estimated by ultrasonography. A correlation coefficient

  20. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  2. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  3. The continuing importance of thyroid scintigraphy in the era of high-resolution ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    At the molecular level, the uptake of radioiodine and pertechnetate is proportional to the expression of the thyroidal sodium/iodine symporter (NIS). Qualitative and quantitative scintigraphic evaluation of the thyroid is performed with a gamma camera fitted with an on-line computer system and enables determination of the iodine uptake or the technetium uptake (TCTU) as an iodine clearance equivalent. Despite new molecular genetic insights into congenital hypothyroidism, the iodine-123 or pertechnetate scan remains the most accurate test for the detection of ectopic thyroid tissue. Following the identification of specific mutations of the genes coding for the NIS, thyroid peroxidase and pendrin, the discharge test has lost its role in establishing the diagnosis of inherited dyshormonogenesis, but it is still of value in the assessment of defect severity. In PDS mutations the test can be used to establish the diagnosis of syndromic disease. Quantitative pertechnetate scintigraphy is the most sensitive and specific technique for the diagnosis and quantification of thyroid autonomy. The method has proved to be valuable in risk stratification of spontaneous or iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, in the estimation of the target volume prior to radioiodine therapy and in the evaluation of therapeutic success after definitive treatment. In iodine deficiency areas the thyroid scan remains indispensable for the functional characterisation of a thyroid nodule and is still a first-line diagnostic procedure in cases of suspected thyroid malignancy. This is especially of importance in patients with Graves' disease, among whom a relatively high prevalence of cancer has been found in cold thyroid nodules. While determination of the TCTU is without any value in the differentiation between autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease in most cases, it is of substantial importance in the differentiation between hyperthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease. (orig.)

  4. Tetrac can replace thyroid hormone during brain development in mouse mutants deficient in the thyroid hormone transporter Mct8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Horn (Sigrun); S. Kersseboom (Simone); S. Mayerl (Steffen); J. Müller (Julia); C. Groba (Claudia); M. Trajkovic-Arsic (Marija); T. Ackermann (Tobias); T.J. Visser (Theo); H. Heuer (Heike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) plays a critical role in mediating the uptake of thyroid hormones (THs) into the brain. In patients, inactivating mutations in the MCT8 gene are associated with a severe form of psychomotor retardation and abnormal serum TH levels. Here, we

  5. Metastatic Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Secreting Thyroid Hormone and Radioiodine Avid without Stimulation: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is an extremely rare case of a patient with metastatic follicular thyroid cancer who continued to produce thyroid hormone and was iodine scan positive without stimulation after thyroidectomy and radioiodine (I-131 therapy. Patient Findings. A 76-year-old Caucasian male was diagnosed with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma on lung nodule biopsy. Total thyroidectomy was performed and he was ablated with 160 mCi of I-131 after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH stimulation. Whole body scan (WBS after treatment showed uptake in bilateral lungs, right sacrum, and pelvis. The thyroglobulin decreased from 2,063 to 965 four months after treatment but rapidly increased to 2,506 eleven months after I-131. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH remained suppressed and free T4 remained elevated after I-131 therapy without thyroid hormone supplementation. He was treated with an additional 209 mCi with WBS findings positive in lung and pelvis. Despite I-131, new metastatic lesions were noted in the left thyroid bed and large destructive lesion to the first cervical vertebrae four months after the second I-131 dose. Conclusions. This case is exceptional because of its rarity and also due to the dissociation between tumor differentiation and aggressiveness. The metastatic lesions continued to secrete thyroid hormone and remained radioiodine avid with rapid progression after I-131 therapy.

  6. Kinetic examination of the thyroid for an early detection of localized autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Kissel, H.J.; Schnabel, K.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of localised thyroid autonomy can in many cases be of high importance for the patient. By manifesting accelerated radioiodine kinetics in suspicious lobes or regions of the thyroid, autonomies of the thyroid can be detected early and definitely. Examination covered 50 euthyroidic patients showing only an asymmetric thyroidal configuration in the scintiscan. Unilateral determining of the radioiodine kinetics at the Auger-camera helped to find out if, and in how many cases, there is really an accelerated iodine metabolism in the thyroids represented asymmetrically. Fire of the examinated patients showed, compared with the opposite side, both increased iodine uptake and accelerated iodine output in the lobes which are seen more clearly in the scintiscan. This might be an indication of a very early stage of thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  7. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  8. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  9. Flavonoids and thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der D.; Kastelijn, J.; Schroder-van der Elst, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The most potent natural plant-derived compounds that can affect thyroid function, thyroid hormone secretion and availability to tissues is the group of flavonoids, i.e. plant pigments. They are present in our daily food, such as vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, wine, and tea. Epidemiological

  10. Thyroid evaluation with radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is given therapeutically for the treatment of hypothyroidism and in goiterous conditions. When administered in full maintenance dosage, it interrupts the operation of the homeostatic mechanism that evokes excesses of thyrotropin (TSH) in response to various goiterogenic stimuli or impending thyroid failure, resulting in thyroid gland enlargement. All patients with treated thyroid cancer are maintained indefinitely on full replacement dosages of thyroid hormone to eliminate endogenous TSH and its trophic effect, thereby minimizing recurrence and growth of the tumor. A high-risk group of patients that were irradiated to the head and neck in childhood for various reasons are placed on thyroid hormone therapy prophylactically to turn off their endogenous TSH if they are found free of thyroid nodularity on initial evaluation. The adequacy of thyroid hormone therapy and the regularity of its intake can be ultimately evaluated by the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, where no TSH response indicates adequate therapy and a normal TSH response suggests inadequate or irregular treatment

  11. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  12. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  13. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  14. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Metastatic to the Kidney: Report of a Case with Cytohistologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a case of a 45-year-old female who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer and presented 20 years later with a left renal mass. CT-guided core biopsy was performed, and imprints and histologic sections of the biopsy showed cells resembling thyroid follicular cells with a background containing colloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1, consistent with metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC. The patient later underwent radical nephrectomy; histologic sections of the resected tumor revealed an encapsulated lesion morphologically similar to the biopsy specimen. Thyroid metastases to the kidney are extremely rare and are often detected during postthyroidectomy surveillance by elevation in thyroid hormone levels, 131I scintigraphy, or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in positron emission tomography studies. Treatment involves total thyroidectomy, resection of the metastatic foci, and 131I therapy. The differential diagnoses of renal metastasis of FTC include the encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, which possesses some of the nuclear features seen in conventional PTC but may occasionally be indistinguishable from FTC in cytologic preparations, and renal lesions such as benign thyroidization of the kidney and thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of the kidney, which mimic FTC in histologic appearance but do not stain with thyroid markers.

  15. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease

  16. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine/Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease.

  17. Indications for treatment of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on pathophysiological findings and considerations it is attempted to review critically the present state of indications and therapeutic modalities in cases of thyroid autonomy. If hyperthyroidism occurs or has occurred in autonomy, definitive treatment with radioiodine or surgery is indicated. In cases of autonomy with euthyroidism, treatment planning and indication of definite therapy are difficult still today, because the risk to develop hyperthyroidism cannot as yet be sufficiently estimated. A useful indicator in such cases seems to be the percentage of global thyreoidal uptake of 99m-technetium under supression. If autonomy is severe surgical treatment today is superior to radio-iodine therapy, but is associated with a higher rate of manifest hypothyroidism. Further research into both the risk of hyperthyroidism in thyroid autonomy and the optimization of radio-iodine therapy are needed. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Transport of thyroid hormone in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva K Wirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH transport into the brain is not only pivotal for development and differentiation, but also for maintenance and regulation of adult central nervous system (CNS function. In this review, we highlight some key factors and structures regulating thyroid hormone uptake and distribution. Serum TH binding proteins play a major role for the availability of TH since only free hormone concentrations may dictate cellular uptake. One of these proteins, transthyretin is also present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF after being secreted by the choroid plexus. Entry routes into the brain like the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and the blood-CSF-barrier will be explicated regarding fetal and adult status. Recently identified TH transmembrane transporters (THTT like monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8 play a major role in uptake of TH across the BBB but as well in transport between cells like astrocytes and neurons within the brain. Species differences in transporter expression will be presented and interference of TH transport by endogenous and exogenous compounds including endocrine disruptors and drugs will be discussed.

  20. Long-term follow-up of the thyroid gland after treatment with 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine in children with neuroblastoma: importance of continuous surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, S C; van Eck-Smit, B L F; van Trotsenburg, A S P; Kremer, L C M; Tytgat, G A M; van Santen, H M

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in up to 52% of patients 1.4 years after treatment with (131) I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in children with neuroblastoma (NBL), despite the use of potassium-iodide (KI). Our aim was to investigate if the incidence and severity of thyroid damage increases in time. All long-term survivors of childhood NBL treated with (131) I-MIBG in the period 1989-1999 in our center (n = 16 of 43) were evaluated. During exposure to (131) I-MIBG, patients received 100 mg KI per day as thyroid protection. All MIBG images were evaluated for thyroid uptake of radio-iodine. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration above the institutional age-related reference ranges (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or using thyroxine at last moment of follow-up. In all, ultrasound investigation of the thyroid was performed. Fifteen years after treatment with (131) I-MIBG, in 81% (n = 13) thyroid disorders were diagnosed. Eight survivors (50%) were treated with thyroxine. Thyroid nodules were found in nine survivors, of which two were diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. In 28% of (131) I-MIBG-images radio-iodine uptake in the thyroid gland was seen, but no correlation was found between thyroidal radio-iodine uptake and thyroid disorders. Despite protection with KI during exposure to (131) I-MIBG in childhood, the occurrence of thyroid disorders is high and increases in time. Continuous screening for thyroid dysfunction and nodules in these survivors is recommended. Other ways to protect the thyroid gland should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Autoimmune thyroid diseases complicated with reversible changes of thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Y; Ochi, Y

    1999-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AID) with reversible thyroid dysfunction was classified mainly by etiology. Hashimoto thyroiditis itself, pregnancy, cytokine therapy and various drugs, iodine-rich food and AID with TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) were main items. Silent or painless thyroiditis which was termed destructive thyroiditis occurs without clear cause or after adrenectomy for Cushing syndrome. Abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rarely causes transient thyrotoxicosis at early phase of pregnancy and postpartum thyroiditis which has similar symptom as silent thyroiditis is relatively common disorders. Thyroid dysfunction of patients with both TRAb (TSAb and TSBAb) is pathophysiologically unknown and the detection of both antibodies in a patient serum is difficult methodologically. We developed the highly sensitive TSAb assay by patients' IgG precipitated by high concentration PEG (22.5%) using porcine thyroid cell. This assay is also useful for detection of the coexistence cases of TSAb and TSBAb.

  2. Chemotherapy in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chemotherapy alone, either as a single drug or a combination of drugs with or without external radiation (ER) is useful for treatment of locally advanced disease and non iodine concentrating metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). The reported response is not encouraging, but the absence of better alternatives leave no choice for the treatment of such cases. However, for treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ANC), chemotherapy (CT) in combination with ER results in local control. In medullary thyroid cancers (MTC), the results obtained with multimodal treatment are encouraging

  3. [Amiodarone and thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maby-Mottet, V; Ollo, D; Meyer, P

    2012-11-14

    Amiodarone, an iodine-rich drug, results in mild disturbances of thyroid function in most patients and in thyroid dysfunction in approximately 20% of them. Hypothyroidism, mainly found in countries without iodine deficiency, is substituted with levothyroxine and does not need amiodarone to be discontinued. Hyperthyroidism, commonly found in areas of iodine deficiency, is more complex and usually motivates discontinuation of amiodarone. Type I hyperthyroidism, induced by iodine overload, is treated with antithyroid drugs, and type 2, resulting from the cytotoxic effect of amiodarone, may be treated with glucocorticoids. Considering the risk of thyroid dysfunction in patients treated with amiodarone, it is recommended to check regularly TSH level.

  4. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Older Patients and Thyroid Disease DEFINITION: WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING PATIENTS OVER THE ... Nodules in Children and Adolescents Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Resources Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Brochure PDF ...

  5. Radioiodine-treatment (RIT) of functional thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression) - based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of postradioiodtherapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up. (author)

  6. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  7. Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.N.; Prasad, G.C.; Udupa, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131 I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

  8. Development of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fatigue Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. HIV and thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Alan A; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2013-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are associated with dysfunction of many endocrine organs and their axis. HIV infectivity leads to altered metabolism, poor oral intake and increased prevalence of weight loss and wasting which may have a role in thyroid dysfunction. Overt thyroid dysfunction occurs at similar rates as the general population while subclinical disease such as nonthyroidal illness (sick euthyroid syndrome), subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated low T4 levels are more frequent. Moreover, HAART therapy can complicate thyroid function further through drug interactions and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this review we report the common thyroid dysfunctions associated with HIV before and after HAART therapy. We discuss presentation, diagnostic work up, treatment and follow up in each condition.

  11. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  12. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... a very important role in controlling the body's metabolism . It does this by producing thyroid hormones , primarily ...

  13. Thyroid hemiagenesis with immunthyropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.

    1999-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease occurring in a patient with hemiagenesis is presented. The detection of the rare occurrence of a congential hemiagenesis is often made by either clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or anatomical abnormalities such as nodular goiter. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning and ultrasonography of an absent lobe. Anti-thyroid antibody studies documented the presence of Graves' disease within the remaining lobe. (orig.) [de

  14. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  15. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density...

  16. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  17. Diagnostic significance of the serum thyroid hormone indicies in various thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.H.; Ko, S.M.; Yoon, S.R.; Ro, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the serum thyroid hormones in various thyroid function states, the author measured serum T 3 uptake, serum T 3 , serum T 4 , serum free T 4 and free T 4 index in 27 cases of normal subjects, 11 cases of hypothyroidism, 152 cases of euthyroidism and 81 cases of hyperthyroidism by the radioimmunoassay method. The results were as follows: 1) The ranges of serum thyroid hormones in normal subjects were, serum T 3 uptake; 27.4-42.1%, serum T 3 ; 93-245 ng/dl, serum T 4 ; 4.08-12.9 ng/dl and serum free T 4 ; 0.57-1.53 ng/dl (M+-2 S.D.). 2) Free T 4 index and serum T 4 show relatively high diagnostic value in euthyroidism group, and serum T 3 and T 4 in hypothyroidism group, while serum T 3 , free T 4 and T 4 show relatively high diagnostic value in hyperthyroidism group. 3) There were significant correlation between free T 4 index and serum T 4 (r=0.68) and between free T 4 index and serum free T 4 (r=0.67) in hyperthyroidism group. (author)

  18. Thyroid hormone receptors in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in energy homeostasis throughout life. Thyroid hormone production and secretion by the thyroid gland is regulated via the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Thyroid hormone has to be transported into the cell, where it can bind to the thyroid hormone

  19. Ultrasound findings of diffuse metastasis of gastric signet-ring-cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Koji; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Ota, Shuji; Masugi, Hideo; Chikuta, Ikumi; Mashimo, Yamato; Edo, Naoki; Tokairin, Takuo; Seki, Nobuhiko; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that metastases to the thyroid from extrathyroidal malignancies occur as solitary or multiple nodules, or may involve the whole thyroid gland diffusely. However, diffuse metastasis of gastric cancer to the thyroid is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 74-year-old woman with diffuse infiltration of gastric adenocarcinoma (signet-ring-cell carcinoma/poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma) cells in the thyroid. The pathological diagnosis was made based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. An 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed multiple lesions with increased uptake, including the bilateral thyroid gland. On thyroid ultrasound examination, diffuse enlargement with internal heterogeneity and hypoechoic reticular lines was observed. On color Doppler imaging, a blood-flow signal was not detected in these hypoechoic lines. These findings were similar to those of diffuse metastases caused by other primary cancers, such as lung cancer, as reported earlier. Therefore, the presence of hypoechoic reticular lines without blood-flow signals is probably common to diffuse thyroid metastasis from any origin and an important diagnostic finding. This is the first report to show detailed ultrasound findings of diffuse gastric cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland using color Doppler.

  20. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Debyani; Santos, Elmer; Ryder, Mabel; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Kolesnick, Richard; Thin, Tin Htwe; Rosen, Neal; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.; Refetoff, Samuel; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced human thyroid cancers, particularly those that are refractory to treatment with radioiodine (RAI), have a high prevalence of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations. However, the degree to which these cancers are dependent on BRAF expression is still unclear. To address this question, we generated mice expressing one of the most commonly detected BRAF mutations in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (BRAFV600E) in thyroid follicular cells in a doxycycline-inducible (dox-inducible) manner. Upon dox induction of BRAFV600E, the mice developed highly penetrant and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors. Discontinuation of dox extinguished BRAFV600E expression and reestablished thyroid follicular architecture and normal thyroid histology. Switching on BRAFV600E rapidly induced hypothyroidism and virtually abolished thyroid-specific gene expression and RAI incorporation, all of which were restored to near basal levels upon discontinuation of dox. Treatment of mice with these cancers with small molecule inhibitors of either MEK or mutant BRAF reduced their proliferative index and partially restored thyroid-specific gene expression. Strikingly, treatment with the MAPK pathway inhibitors rendered the tumor cells susceptible to a therapeutic dose of RAI. Our data show that thyroid tumors carrying BRAFV600E mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of its expression or activity is associated with tumor regression and restoration of RAI uptake in vivo in mice. These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. PMID:22105174

  1. SPECT/CT imaging in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-08-15

    SPECT/CT improves localization of single photon-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. To determine the utility of SPECT/CT in children with papillary thyroid carcinoma. 20 SPECT/CT and planar studies were reviewed in 13 children with papillary thyroid carcinoma after total thyroidectomy. Seven studies used I-123 and 13 used I-131, after elevating TSH by T4 deprivation or intramuscular thyrotropin alfa. Eight children had one study and five children had two to four studies. Studies were performed at initial post-total thyroidectomy evaluation, follow-up and after I-131 treatment doses. SPECT/CT was performed with a diagnostic-quality CT unit in 13 studies and a localization-only CT unit in 7. Stimulated thyroglobulin was measured (except in 2 cases with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies). In 13 studies, neck activity was present but poorly localized on planar imaging; all foci of uptake were precisely localized by SPECT/CT. Two additional foci of neck uptake were found on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT differentiated high neck uptake from facial activity. In six studies (four children), neck uptake was identified as benign by SPECT/CT (three thyroglossal duct remnants, one skin contamination, two by precise anatomical CT localization). In two children, SPECT/CT supported a decision not to treat with I-131. When SPECT/CT was unable to identify focal uptake as benign, stimulated thyroglobulin measurements were valuable. In three of 13 studies with neck uptake, SPECT/CT provided no useful additional information. SPECT/CT precisely localizes neck iodine uptake. In small numbers of patients, treatment is affected. SPECT/CT should be used when available in thyroid carcinoma patients. (orig.)

  2. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins are regulators of the rat thyroid peroxidase gene in thyroid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Rauer

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs-1c and -2, which were initially discovered as master transcriptional regulators of lipid biosynthesis and uptake, were recently identified as novel transcriptional regulators of the sodium-iodide symporter gene in the thyroid, which is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. Based on this observation that SREBPs play a role for thyroid hormone synthesis, we hypothesized that another gene involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, the thyroid peroxidase (TPO gene, is also a target of SREBP-1c and -2. Thyroid epithelial cells treated with 25-hydroxycholesterol, which is known to inhibit SREBP activation, had about 50% decreased mRNA levels of TPO. Similarly, the mRNA level of TPO was reduced by about 50% in response to siRNA mediated knockdown of both, SREBP-1 and SREBP-2. Reporter gene assays revealed that overexpression of active SREBP-1c and -2 causes a strong transcriptional activation of the rat TPO gene, which was localized to an approximately 80 bp region in the intron 1 of the rat TPO gene. In vitro- and in vivo-binding of both, SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, to this region in the rat TPO gene could be demonstrated using gel-shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Mutation analysis of the 80 bp region of rat TPO intron 1 revealed two isolated and two overlapping SREBP-binding elements from which one, the overlapping SRE+609/InvSRE+614, was shown to be functional in reporter gene assays. In connection with recent findings that the rat NIS gene is also a SREBP target gene in the thyroid, the present findings suggest that SREBPs may be possible novel targets for pharmacological modulation of thyroid hormone synthesis.

  3. Dysfunction of thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid hormone transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrugger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential in processes of growth and development especially in the development of the central nervous system. Malfunction in thyroid hormone synthesis or decrease in the availability of thyroid hormones can lead to diseases as for example congenital hypothyroidism. In this thesis genetic variations (mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene, mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene) as well as exogenic factors (endocrine disrupters) were examined, leading to d...

  4. Comparative evaluation of 123I and /sup 99m/Tc for thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Ansari, A.N.; Bradley-Moore, P.R.; Lambrecht, R.; Wolf, A.

    1975-01-01

    Both /sup 99m/Tc and 123 I can be used to advantage in assessing thyroid function and anatomy. The nuclides have similar principal gamma photons, and their short physical half-lives result in low radiation dose, thus allowing administration of large quantities of activity. The very early uptakes of these radionuclides by the thyroid do not bear a consistent relationship, and that requires further study. The clinical value of 123 I depends ultimately on its consistent availability at reasonable cost

  5. Studies on thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Bengal goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)

  6. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Page Dong YH, Fu DG. Autoimmune thyroid disease: mechanism, genetics and current knowledge. Eur Rev Med ... Tomer Y. Cutting edge: the etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Oct;41(2): ...

  8. Clinical studies on thyroid diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).

  9. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  10. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  11. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  12. Comparison of imaging modalities for diagnosis of thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Hirsch, H.; Stein, N.; Maier, R.; Meindl, S.; Voges, K.; Willmann, L.

    1984-01-01

    From 4-1-1980 to 3-30-1983 in more than 10000 patients scanning of the thyroid was performed by a rectiliniear scanner and predominantly by a gamma-camera using a special collimator and a data processing unit for evaluation of global and regional uptake of sup(99m)TcO 4 or 123 I. The functional scans were compared with the structural information provided by real-time ultrasonography of the thyroid, employing in questionable cases specially developed computer aided pattern recognition methods. Other modalities as a multiwire camera, X-ray fluorescence, CT-imaging, NMR-tomography were also evaluated in selected cases. From the data a diagnostic strategy for the use of imaging modalities to diagnose thyroid diseases was derived. (orig.) [de

  13. Thyroid function during a prolonged stay in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, R C; Malhotra, A S; Nair, C S; Bajaj, A C; Rajan, K C; Pal, K; Prasad, R; Basu, M

    1995-01-01

    Adaptation of the thyroid gland to the Antarctic environment was studied in nine healthy euthyroid tropical men of the Sixth Indian Antarctic Expedition during 1 year of their residence at polar latitudes. Circulatory concentrations of thyroid hormones, total T4 (TT4), total T3 (TT3), free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3), reverse T3 (rT3), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), T3 uptake and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were estimated in New Delhi and during the first week of each month of the stay in Antarctica. At the end of the Austral summer in March, the TT3 concentrations were found to be significantly lower (P days and polar nights.

  14. Unstimulated Thyroid Function Indices of Nigerians With Secondary Amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, C.U.; Giwa-Osagie, O.F.; Fregene, A.O.; Olajide, T.O.

    1988-01-01

    The unstimulated plasma thyroid indices of triiodothyronine uptake (T3U), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine index (FTI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin levels were measured in 56 patients who were complaining of secondary amenorrhea, and in 40 control patients. No significant differences were noted in the plasma indices between the two groups. Mean ± standard error plasma prolactin levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea and in the control patients were 21.8 ± 2 ng/mL and 10.5 ng/mL, respectively. Twenty-two (39 percent) patients who were complaining of amenorrhea had hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea. The thyroid indices of these patients did not differ significantly from the control group. PMID:3385789

  15. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita [Hospital of the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, German WHO-REMPAN Collaboration Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for

  16. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  17. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical ...

  18. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  19. Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lienard A; Miller, Donald L; Lee, Choonsik; Melo, Dunstana R; Villoing, Daphnée; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Winters, Sarah J; Labrake, Michael; Myers, Charles F; Lim, Hyeyeun; Kitahara, Cari M; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2017-12-01

    This study summarizes and compares estimates of radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland for typical patients who underwent diagnostic radiology examinations in the years from 1930 to 2010. The authors estimated the thyroid dose for common examinations, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT). For the most part, a clear downward trend in thyroid dose over time for each procedure was observed. Historically, the highest thyroid doses came from the nuclear medicine thyroid scans in the 1960s (630 mGy), full-mouth series dental radiography (390 mGy) in the early years of the use of x rays in dentistry (1930s), and the barium swallow (esophagram) fluoroscopic exam also in the 1930s (140 mGy). Thyroid uptake nuclear medicine examinations and pancreatic scans also gave relatively high doses to the thyroid (64 mGy and 21 mGy, respectively, in the 1960s). In the 21st century, the highest thyroid doses still result from nuclear medicine thyroid scans (130 mGy), but high thyroid doses are also associated with chest/abdomen/pelvis CT scans (18 and 19 mGy for males and females, respectively). Thyroid doses from CT scans did not exhibit the same downward trend as observed for other examinations. The largest thyroid doses from conventional radiography came from cervical spine and skull examinations. Thyroid doses from mammography (which began in the 1960s) were generally a fraction of 1 mGy. The highest average doses to the thyroid from mammography were about 0.42 mGy, with modestly larger doses associated with imaging of breasts with large compressed thicknesses. Thyroid doses from dental radiographic procedures have decreased markedly throughout the decades, from an average of 390 mGy for a full-mouth series in the 1930s to an average of 0.31 mGy today. Upper GI series fluoroscopy examinations resulted in up to two orders of magnitude lower thyroid doses than the barium swallow. There are

  20. The Thyroid Na+/I- Symporter: Molecular Characterization and Genomic Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Alotaibi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodide (I- is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4, and the iodide concentrating mechanism of the thyroid gland is essential for the synthesis of these hormones. In addition, differential uptake of iodine isotopes (radioiodine is a key modality for the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. The sodium dependent iodide transport activity of the thyroid gland is mainly attributed to the functional expression of the Na+/I- Symporter (NIS localized at the basolateral membrane of thyrocytes. In this paper, we review and summarize current data on molecular characterization, on structure and function of NIS protein, as well as on the transcriptional regulation of NIS encoding gene in the thyroid gland. We also propose that a better and more precise understanding of NIS gene regulation at the molecular level in both healthy and malignant thyroid cells may lead to the identification of small molecule candidates. These could then be translated into clinical practice for better induction and more effective modulation of radioiodine uptake in dedifferentiated thyroid cancer cells and in their distant metastatic lesions.

  1. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  2. 131-iodine capsules in thyroid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulthess, G.K. von; Bekier, A.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of therapeutic doses of 131-Iodine in a capsular form which were given to 16 patients with benign thyroid disease, and compared it to the uptake of a dose of a liquid diagnostic sodium iodide I-131 ( 131 I) given to the same patients. The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by the gastric mucosa, and thus, to establish the safety of this galenic form of 131 I. It was found that the average capsule-dissolution time was about 12 min, with a large standard deviation of about 7 min. Using these data and a theoretical radiation-dose calculation, we estimated that the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa was approximately 250 rad (250 cGy) for a therapeutic activity of 5 mCi (185 MBq), which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to out-patients in Switzerland. Thus, 131 I administered in a capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. (orig.)

  3. EAMJ Jan. Thyroid.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... age-related population because thyroid diseases significantly affect fertility rate and autoimmune thyroid disease tend to remit during pregnancy. (2,4). Numerous hormonal changes and metabolic demands occur in pregnancy, resulting in complex changes in maternal thyroid function, yet normal.

  4. Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisa Izić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

  5. Thyroid Disorders in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    to enhance thyroid-targeted expression of sodium/iodide symporter. J Clin Endocrinol. Metab 89(5): 2344-2350. Mariotti, S, Cambuli, VM (2007) Cardiovascular risk in elderly hypothyroid patients. Thyroid 17. (11): 1067-1073. Mariotti, S, Franceschi, C, Cossarizza, A, Pinchera, A. (1995) The aging thyroid. Endocr Rev 16(6):.

  6. Thyroid disease in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Panayota; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George

    2011-09-01

    Several changes in thyroid hormone secretion, metabolism, and action occur with the increase in age. Aging is often associated with a decrease in serum thyroid stimulating hormone and T3 levels, whereas serum free T4 levels usually remain unchanged. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is higher in the elderly as compared to the younger population. In elderly individuals the non-specific clinical manifestations of thyroid hormone excess or deprivation can cause confusion in the clinical setup; while some of the symptoms of thyroid disease are similar to those in younger patients, it is not uncommon for both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism to be manifested in subtle ways in older patients, often mimicking symptoms of aging or masquerading as diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or nervous system. In addition, diagnosis of thyroid disorders is commonly complicated, due to chronic, non-thyroidal illness or medication therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment of overt thyroid disorders is crucial, since these disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly, usually due to common coexistent diseases such as diminished cardiovascular reserve. Treatment of subclinical thyroid disease should also be considered, based on a combination of age, symptoms and risk factors in the individual patients. In addition, both prevalence and aggressiveness of thyroid cancer increase with age. This review summarizes the changes of thyroid function, as well as the clinical manifestations and treatment of thyroid disorders with advancing age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Carcinoma of the Thyroid. Preoperative diagnostic and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennvall, J.

    1984-01-01

    By improving preoperative diagnosis and identification of important prognostic factors of thyroid carcinoma (TC) it might be possible to decrease the number of diagnostic surgical intervantions and to give patients with a confirmed TC a more adequate treatment. Preoperative diagnosis: consecutive series of 83 patients with scintigrams and of 203 patients with fine-needle aspiration (AC) with subsequently histologically confirmed TC were evaluated as well as 217 patients with confirmed benign thyroid disorders. The most common scintigraphic appearance was a solitary reduced uptake (70%). The sensitivity of AC for medullary and undifferentiated TC was 0.82-0.84, but it was for papillary (occult TC excluded) 0.58 and for follicular TC 0.42. A 'cold' nodule with also a decreased thallium-uptake is mostly a benign disorder, but with an increased uptake it might be a well-differentiated TC or a follicular adenoma. These could, however, be significantly separated by the thallium-elimination rate (p=0.0001). Prognostic factors: During 1955-1972, 262 patients with histologically verified TC were referred to the Department and 226 of these (86%) with a median follow-up of 11 years form the basis for prognostic multivariate analyses. According to these analyses, and when deaths in intercurrent disease were estimated, neither age at diagnosis nor sex were found to be important predictors of survival of TC. The following predictors were identified: for papillary TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule and marked cellular atypia; for follicular TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule, marked cellular atypia and distant metastases; for medullary TC: tumour extension beyond the thyroid capsule. (Author)

  9. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kradinov, A.I.; Fesenko, V.P.; Kabalich, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size [ru

  10. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  11. Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

  12. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  13. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  14. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  15. Subacute Thyroiditis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANAN YILDIZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case of subacute thyroiditis occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy in a 33-years-old pregnant patient. Thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy is a rare condition and occurs in 0.1 to 0.4% of all pregnancies. Graves' Disease and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis constitute the majority of emerging thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Subacute thyroiditis may also cause temporary thyrotoxicosis. Although the majority of the patients recover without treatment, complications in the pregnancy should be considered and each patient must be evaluated individually. As a result, differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy and treatment plan should be done well and subacute thyroiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 1-1

  16. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  20. Molecular Basis for Certain Neuroprotective Effects of Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eDavis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of brain damage that is common to ischemia-reperfusion inury and brain trauma includes disordered neuronal and glial cell energetics, intracellular acidosis, calcium toxicity, extracellular excitotoxic glutamate accumulation and dysfunction of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum. Thyroid hormone isoforms, 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 and L-thyroxine (T4, have nongenomic and genomic actions that are relevant to repair of certain features of the pathophysiology of brain damage. Thyroid hormone can nongenomically repair intracullar H+ accumulation by stimulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger and can support desirably low [Ca2+]i.c. by activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase. Thyroid hormone nongenomically stimulates astrocyte glutamate uptake, an action that protects both glial cells and neurons. The hormone supports the integrity of the cytoskeleton by its effect on actin. Several proteins linked to thyroid hormone action are also neuroprotective. For example, the hormone stimulates expression of the seladin-1 gene whose gene product is anti-apoptotic and is potentially protection in the setting of neurodegeneration. Transthyretin (TTR is a serum transport protein for T4 that is important to blood-brain barrier transfer of the hormone and TTR has also been found to be neuroprotective in the setting of ischemia. Finally, the interesting thyronamine derivatives of T4 have been shown to protect against ischemic brain damage through their ability to induce hypothermia in the intact organism. Thus, thyroid hromone or hormone derivatives have experimental promise as neuroprotective agents.

  1. Detection of metastatic thyroid carcinoma through whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenario, H.S.; Pascacio, F.M.; Cruz, Benjamin de la; Anden, A.B.

    Whole body counters are not only used in measuring radioactivity in the body for radiation protection purposes but also in the measurement of iron absorption, body potassium and cesium, chronic blood loss, and also in the determination of the effectiveness of surgery, thyroid hormone and radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid carcinoma. This report deals with our experience in the use of a shadow-shield whole body counter in the determination of I-131 uptake by metastatic lesions of cancer of thyroid after total thyroidectomy and ablation therapy with I-131. This study was undertaken jointly by the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans Memorial Hospital and the Biomedical Research Division of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Preliminary results indicate that the 22 patients who underwent whole body counting after total thyroidectomy I-131 ablation therapy, 9 patients had elevated percentage retention of I-131, 10 patients with normal values and 3 patients with rising values. Foci of I-131 concentration in those with elevated and rising percentage concentration values were seen in the thyroidal bed scintiscans, while the 10 patients with normal values had negative scintiscans. The results of our observations confirm the results obtained by other workers abroad. Our preliminary results indicate that with the use of whole body counters a sensitive method of assessing whether functioning metastatic lesion of cancer of the thyroid still exist after total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy can be provided. (author)

  2. Molecular pathology and thyroid FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, D N; Glaysher, S

    2017-12-01

    This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies. This review describes practical examples of molecular techniques as applied to thyroid FNA in routine clinical practice and the value of molecular diagnostics in thyroid FNA. It describes the range of molecular abnormalities identified in thyroid nodules and thyroid cancers with some practical applications of molecular methods to diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  4. Free Thyroid Transfer: A Novel Procedure to Prevent Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Jeffrey; Almarzouki, Hani; Barber, Brittany; Scrimger, Rufus; Romney, Jacques; O'Connell, Daniel; Urken, Mark; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) has been found to be ≤53%. Medical treatment of hypothyroidism can be costly and difficult to titrate. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of free thyroid transfer as a strategy for the prevention of radiation-induced damage to the thyroid gland during radiation therapy for HNC. Methods and Materials: A prospective feasibility study was performed involving 10 patients with a new diagnosis of advanced HNC undergoing ablative surgery, radial forearm free-tissue transfer reconstruction, and postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. During the neck dissection, hemithyroid dissection was completed with preservation of the thyroid arterial and venous supply for implantation into the donor forearm site. All patients underwent a diagnostic thyroid technetium scan 6 weeks and 12 months postoperatively to examine the functional integrity of the transferred thyroid tissue. Results: Free thyroid transfer was executed in 9 of the 10 recruited patients with advanced HNC. The postoperative technetium scans demonstrated strong uptake of technetium at the forearm donor site at 6 weeks and 12 months for all 9 of the transplanted patients. Conclusions: The thyroid gland can be transferred as a microvascular free transfer with maintenance of function. This technique could represent a novel strategy for maintenance of thyroid function after head and neck irradiation.

  5. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors induced thyroid dysfunction: a review of its incidence, pathophysiology, clinical relevance, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Salti, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) belong to a new class of molecular multitargeted anticancer therapy which targets different growth factor receptors and hence attenuates cancer cell survival and growth. Since their introduction as adjunct treatment for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), a number of reports have demonstrated that TKI can induce thyroid dysfunction which was especially more common with sunitinib maleate. Many mechanisms with respect to this adverse effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been proposed including their induction of thyroiditis, capillary regression in the thyroid gland, antithyroid peroxidase antibody production, and their ability to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Of interest is the observation that TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction may actually be protective as it was shown to improve overall survival, and it was suggested that it may have a prognostic value. Followup on thyroid function tests while patients are maintained on tyrosine kinase inhibitor is strongly recommended. When thyroid dysfunction occurs, appropriate treatment should be individualized depending on patients symptoms and thyroid stimulating hormone level.

  6. Free Thyroid Transfer: A Novel Procedure to Prevent Radiation-induced Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeffrey [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Almarzouki, Hani [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Barber, Brittany, E-mail: brittanybarber0@gmail.com [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Scrimger, Rufus [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Romney, Jacques [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); O' Connell, Daniel [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Urken, Mark [Institute for Head and Neck and Thyroid Cancers, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Seikaly, Hadi [Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The incidence of hypothyroidism after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) has been found to be ≤53%. Medical treatment of hypothyroidism can be costly and difficult to titrate. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of free thyroid transfer as a strategy for the prevention of radiation-induced damage to the thyroid gland during radiation therapy for HNC. Methods and Materials: A prospective feasibility study was performed involving 10 patients with a new diagnosis of advanced HNC undergoing ablative surgery, radial forearm free-tissue transfer reconstruction, and postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. During the neck dissection, hemithyroid dissection was completed with preservation of the thyroid arterial and venous supply for implantation into the donor forearm site. All patients underwent a diagnostic thyroid technetium scan 6 weeks and 12 months postoperatively to examine the functional integrity of the transferred thyroid tissue. Results: Free thyroid transfer was executed in 9 of the 10 recruited patients with advanced HNC. The postoperative technetium scans demonstrated strong uptake of technetium at the forearm donor site at 6 weeks and 12 months for all 9 of the transplanted patients. Conclusions: The thyroid gland can be transferred as a microvascular free transfer with maintenance of function. This technique could represent a novel strategy for maintenance of thyroid function after head and neck irradiation.

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induced Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review of Its Incidence, Pathophysiology, Clinical Relevance, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ahmadieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI belong to a new class of molecular multitargeted anticancer therapy which targets different growth factor receptors and hence attenuates cancer cell survival and growth. Since their introduction as adjunct treatment for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, a number of reports have demonstrated that TKI can induce thyroid dysfunction which was especially more common with sunitinib maleate. Many mechanisms with respect to this adverse effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been proposed including their induction of thyroiditis, capillary regression in the thyroid gland, antithyroid peroxidase antibody production, and their ability to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Of interest is the observation that TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction may actually be protective as it was shown to improve overall survival, and it was suggested that it may have a prognostic value. Followup on thyroid function tests while patients are maintained on tyrosine kinase inhibitor is strongly recommended. When thyroid dysfunction occurs, appropriate treatment should be individualized depending on patients symptoms and thyroid stimulating hormone level.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPARγ rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  9. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  10. Thyroid Incidentalomas on 18F-FDG PET/CT: Clinical Significance and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Makis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the current study is to examine the incidence and clinical significance of unexpected focal uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT in the thyroid gland of oncology patients, the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax of benign and malignant thyroid incidentalomas in these patients, and review the literature. Methods: Seven thousand two hundred fifty-two 18F-FDG PET/CT studies performed over four years, were retrospectively reviewed. Studies with incidental focal 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid gland were further analyzed. Results: Incidental focal thyroid 18F-FDG uptake was identified in 157 of 7252 patients (2.2%. Sufficient follow-up data (≥12 months were available in 128 patients, of whom 57 (45% had a biopsy performed and 71 had clinical follow-up. Malignancy was diagnosed in 14 of 128 patients (10.9%. There was a statistically significant difference between the median SUVmax of benign thyroid incidentalomas (SUVmax 4.8 vs malignant (SUVmax 6.3, but the wide range of overlap between the two groups yielded no clinically useful SUVmax threshold value to determine malignancy. Conclusion: 18F-FDG positive focal thyroid incidentalomas occurred in 2.2% of oncologic PET/CT scans, and were malignant in 10.9% of 128 patients. This is the lowest reported malignancy rate in a North American study to date, and significantly lower than the average malignancy rate (35% reported in the literature. Invasive biopsy of all 18F-FDG positive thyroid incidentalomas, as recommended by some studies, is unwarranted and further research to determine optimal management is needed. There was no clinically useful SUVmax cut-off value to determine malignancy and PET/CT may not be a useful imaging modality to follow these patients conservatively.

  11. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis and hashimotofs thyroiditis (HT) are the two main forms of autoimmune thyroiditis among which the latter is most frequent. A vast majority of cases of papillary carcinoma and primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) arise in the setting of HT. A case of 32.year.old female who presented with thyroid ...

  12. The role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezosi, E.; Bajnok, L.; Sztojka, I.; Szabo, J.; Leovey, A.; Kakuk, G.; Nagy, E. [Department of Medicine, University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary); Gyory, F. [Department of Surgery, University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary); Varga, J.; Galuska, L. [Nuclear Medicine Centre, University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary)

    1999-08-01

    Various diagnostic techniques have been successfully used in the clinical management of cold nodules; however, the decision on whether to employ surgery or a conservative treatment is not always easy. This study was designed to appraise the diagnostic value of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy in the assessment of cold nodules detected using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. Fifty-two patients were included in the study. All had already been selected for surgery, based on their clinical and laboratory findings, including fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The total number of cold nodules on {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scans was 59. The thyroid scan was performed 20-40 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI. Uptake of MIBI in thyroid nodules was compared with that in the surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and a score of between 0 and 3 was assigned to each nodule as follows: 0, cold; 1, decreased; 2, equal; 3, hot. Definitive histology revealed nodular goitre in 24 cases, adenoma in 19, thyroiditis in 1, differentiated cancer in 12, medullary cancer in 2, and anaplastic cancer in 1. None of the degenerative nodules were hot on MIBI scan, while the adenomas showed a variety of MIBI imaging patterns, most frequently the score 3 pattern. In the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer the sensitivities of score 3 and score 2+3 MIBI uptake patterns were 83% (10/12) and 100%, respectively. The score 3 MIBI uptake pattern had a specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100% with respect to thyroid (benign and malignant) neoplastic diseases, whereas a specificity of 72% and a positive predictive value of 43% were observed in the detection of differentiated cancer. After a cold nodule had been detected using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, a second scan with high MIBI uptake increased by 7.8 times the probability that this nodule would be a differentiated cancer. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy is a useful method in the

  13. A patient with Graves’ disease showing only psychiatric symptoms and negativity for both TSH receptor autoantibody and thyroid stimulating antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasaki Hidetaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb negative Graves’s disease (GD is extremely rare. Here we present such a patient. Case presentation The patient was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having schizophrenia forty years ago. She did not show characteristic symptoms for hyperthyroidism, such as swelling of thyroid, exophthalmos, tachycardia and tremor, however, she showed only psychomotor agitation. Serum free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine levels were elevated and TSH level was suppressed, suggesting the existence of hyperthyroidism. However, both the first generation TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb1 and the thyroid stimulating autoantibody (TSAb were negative. Slightly increased blood flow and swelling was detected by thyroid echography. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse and remarkably elevated uptake of 123I uptake. Finally, we diagnosed her as having GD. She was treated by using methimazole, and hyperthyroidism and her psychiatric symptoms were promptly ameliorated. Discussion We experienced a patient with GD who did not show characteristic symptoms except for psychiatric symptoms, and also showed negativity for both TRAb1 and TSAb. Thyroid autoantibody-negative GD is extremely rare. Thyroid scintigraphy was useful to diagnose such a patient.

  14. Primary thyroid lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur-Roszak, M.; Litwiniuk, M.; Lacka, K.

    2007-01-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease with heterogeneous histological and clinical characteristics. As a result, diagnosis and subsequent management of the disease is difficult. PTL occurs most commonly in the thyroid glands with a background of Hashimotos thyroiditis. The clinical presentation was usually an enlarging neck mass squeezing the surrounding structures. Most patients can be diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by immuno phenotypic analysis, obviating the need for open surgical biopsy. Main histopathologic subtypes are either diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Patients with localised, low-grade MALT lymphomas may be treated with surgery. Postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy is necessary in some patients. Systemic chemotherapy is the optimal treatment for DLBCL. In this group surgery may be used for palliative debulking to alleviate obstructive symptoms. Prognosis for MALT lymphoma is good. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients have poor prognosis (5-yr survival <50%). What should be stressed here is that patients with rapidly growing nodular goitre with or without cervical adenopathy should always be examined for primary thyroid lymphoma. (authors)

  15. Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Şahlı

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal involvement of Graves’ disease but it sometimes occurs in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Autoimmunity against putative antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease. There is an increased volume of extraocular muscles, orbital connective and adipose tissues. Clinical findings of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are soft tissue involvement, eyelid retraction, proptosis, compressive optic neuropathy, and restrictive myopathy. To assess the activity of the ophthalmopathy and response to treatment, clinical activity score, which includes manifestations reflecting inflammatory changes, can be used. Supportive approaches can control symptoms and signs in mild cases. In severe active disease, systemic steroid and/or orbital radiotherapy are the main treatments. In inactive disease with proptosis, orbital decompression can be preferred. Miscellaneous treatments such as immunosuppressive drugs, somatostatin analogs, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins and anticytokine therapies have been used in patients who are resistant to conventional treatments. Rehabilitative surgeries are often needed after treatment.

  16. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Image findings of a false positive radioactive iodine-131 uptake mimicking metastasis in pulmonary aspergillosis identified on single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaleshwaran Koramadai Karuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High doses of iodine-131 are commonly used in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after total or subtotal thyroidectomy, in order to ablate the remaining cancer or normal thyroid tissue. Multiple different false-positive scans can occur in the absence of residual thyroid tissue or metastases. The authors present a case of abnormal uptake of radioactive iodine in the aspergilloma, potentially masquerading as pulmonary metastases.

  18. Combined Cerenkov luminescence and nuclear imaging of radioiodine in the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer cells expressing sodium iodide symporter: initial feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Sungmin; Park, Jeong Chan; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Ha, Jeoung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2011-01-01

    Radioiodine (RI) such as (131)I or (124)I, can generate luminescent emission and be detected with an optical imaging (OI) device. To evaluate the possibility of a novel Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) for application in thyroid research, we performed feasibility studies of CLI by RI in the thyroid gland and human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells expressing sodium iodide symporter gene (ARO-NIS). For in vitro study, FRTL-5 and ARO-NIS were incubated with RI, and the luminometric and CLI intensity was measured with luminometer and OI device. Luminescence intensity was compared with the radioactivity measured with γ-counter. In vivo CLI of the thyroid gland was performed in mice after intravenous injection of RI with and without thyroid blocking. Mice were implanted with ARO-NIS subcutaneously, and CLI was performed with injection of (124)I. Small animal PET or γ-camera imaging was also performed. CLI intensities of thyroid gland and ARO-NIS were quantified, and compared with the radioactivities measured from nuclear images (NI). Luminometric assay and OI confirmed RI uptake in the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and luminescence intensity was well correlated with radioactivity of the cells. CLI clearly demonstrated RI uptake in thyroid gland and xenografted ARO-NIS cells in mice, which was further confirmed by NI. A strong positive correlation was observed between CLI intensity and radioactivity assessed by NI. We successfully demonstrated dual molecular imaging of CLI and NI using RI both in vitro and in vivo. CLI can provide a new OI strategy in preclinical thyroid studies. ©The Japan Endocrine Society

  19. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  20. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)