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Sample records for thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited

  1. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited; Oftalmopatia tireoidea revisitada

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    Machado, Karina Freitas Soares; Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-07-15

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  2. Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

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    Esra Şahlı

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal involvement of Graves’ disease but it sometimes occurs in euthyroid or hypothyroid patients. Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Autoimmunity against putative antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit plays a role in the pathogenesis of disease. There is an increased volume of extraocular muscles, orbital connective and adipose tissues. Clinical findings of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy are soft tissue involvement, eyelid retraction, proptosis, compressive optic neuropathy, and restrictive myopathy. To assess the activity of the ophthalmopathy and response to treatment, clinical activity score, which includes manifestations reflecting inflammatory changes, can be used. Supportive approaches can control symptoms and signs in mild cases. In severe active disease, systemic steroid and/or orbital radiotherapy are the main treatments. In inactive disease with proptosis, orbital decompression can be preferred. Miscellaneous treatments such as immunosuppressive drugs, somatostatin analogs, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins and anticytokine therapies have been used in patients who are resistant to conventional treatments. Rehabilitative surgeries are often needed after treatment.

  3. THYROID ASSOCIATED OPHTHALMOPATHY – A REVIEW

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    CHONG MS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder affecting the orbital and periorbital tissues. Hyperthyroidism is commonly associated with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, however in 5% to 10% of cases it is euthyroid. Genetic, environmental and endogenous factors play a role in the initiation of the thyroid ophthalmopathy. Smoking has been identified as the strongest risk factor for the development of the disorder. The pathogenesis involves activation of both humoral and cell mediated immunity with subsequent production of gycoaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid resulting in oedema formation, increase extraocular mass and adipogenesis in the orbit. The natural history of the disease progresses from active to inactive fibrotic stage over a period of years. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and almost all patients with ophthalmopathy exhibit some form of thyroid abnormality on further testing. Treatment is based on the clinical severity of the disease. Non-severe cases are managed by supportive measures to reduce the symptomatology and severe cases are treated by either medical or surgical decompression. Rehabilitative surgery is done for quiescent disease to reduce diplopia and improve cosmesis.

  4. Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: pediatric and endocrine aspects

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    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a rare event: incidence rates (cases per 100,000 population per year) are in the age groups 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 years for females 3.5, 1.8 and 3.3 respectively, and for males 0, 1.7 and 0. The severity of childhood GO appears to be less than that of

  5. Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: pediatric and endocrine aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2004-08-01

    Childhood Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is a rare event: incidence rates (cases per 100,000 population per year) are in the age groups 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 years for females 3.5, 1.8 and 3.3 respectively, and for males 0, 1.7 and 0. The severity of childhood GO appears to be less than that of adulthood GO, presumably explained by the lower prevalence of smoking in children. IGF-I stimulates collagen synthesis and glucosaminoglycan production by orbital fibroblasts. Serum concentrations of free and total IGF-I and IGF-2 and of the three IGF-binding proteins in GO patients are similar to those of the controls. Increased IGF levels in retrobulbar tissues may thus represent autocrine or paracrine activity in theory susceptible to reduction by somatostatin analogues. Whereas orbital octreoscans are useful in the assesment of disease activity of GO, the efficacy of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of GO is rather modest - possibly related to their almost absent affinity for sst 1 and sst 4 receptors. The new compound SOM 230 might be much more effective in this respect.

  6. Long-term follow-up of seven patients with ophthalmopathy not associated with thyroid autoimmunity: heterogeneity of autoimmune ophthalmopathy

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    McCorquodale T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tom McCorquodale,1 Hooshang Lahooti,1 Bamini Gopinath,2 Jack R Wall11Department of Medicine, Nepean Clinical School, the University of Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Vision Research, the University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Ophthalmopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease. However, in approximately 5% of cases this autoimmune eye disorder occurs in the apparent absence of Graves' hyperthyroidism: the so-called euthyroid Graves' disease (EGD.Methods: Seven patients with EGD were followed for evidence of thyroid and orbital autoimmunity, for up to 10 years. Calsequestrin and collagen XIII antibodies were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and TSH-receptor (TSH-r antibodies were measured as TSH-r-binding antibody (TRAb and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI. Eye signs were characterized and quantified as clinical activity score (CAS, NOSPECS classes, Nunery types 1 and 2, and margin-reflex distance (MRD.Results: Calsequestrin antibodies were detected on at least one occasion in three of the seven patients and collagen XIII antibodies were detected one or more times in five patients. In one patient with isolated congestive ophthalmopathy who was studied intensely, collagen XIII antibodies were initially positive and then became negative as the eye disease stabilized, while antibodies targeting calsequestrin were always negative. TRAb was not detected in any patient, but TSI was detected in three patients on one occasion each. Ultrasound abnormalities were found in four of the six patients for whom this was carried out, but there was no clear evidence for thyroiditis in any of these patients. For comparison, 13 patients were studied with typical Graves' ophthalmopathy. There were no significant differences compared to EGD in respect to the prevalence of positive calsequestrin or collagen XIII antibodies, but these patients included more

  7. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy:an update

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    Aruna Dharmasena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealedseveral possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1 inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2 profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab; 3 prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4 neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5 inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6 inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves’ disease (GD and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT achieved euthyroidism faster than

  8. PTX3: A Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy

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    Pei Mou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO is an autoimmune disease, which involves inflammation and tissue remodeling. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is a component of innate immune system and recently implicated in autoimmunity. This observation may indicate that PTX3 participates in the inflammatory process of TAO. Methods. All studies were performed on TAO patients and healthy controls (45: 28 in total. RNA-seq was used to detect differential gene expression of orbital adipose-connective tissue. Quantitative PCR was performed to verify the results. PTX3 protein in orbital adipose-connective tissues was visualized by immunohistochemistry (IHC. PTX3 concentration in serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results. RNA-seq showed 1.86-log⁡2FC higher PTX3 expression in the orbital adipose-connective tissues from TAO group than controls (FDR = 0.0059. qPCR confirmed the difference (5.59-fold increase, p=0.0012. The presence of PTX3 protein was demonstrated. Orbital adipose tissue from healthy controls showed weak staining for PTX3 while tissue from TAO group was strongly positive. Serum PTX3 concentration was significantly elevated in patients when compared to the control group (1.9-fold increase; p<0.0001. Conclusions. Patients with TAO showed increased presence of PTX3 in orbital tissue and serum, which may suggest a potential relationship of PTX3 and TAO.

  9. PTX3: A Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy

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    Chen, Ziyu

    2018-01-01

    Background Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease, which involves inflammation and tissue remodeling. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a component of innate immune system and recently implicated in autoimmunity. This observation may indicate that PTX3 participates in the inflammatory process of TAO. Methods All studies were performed on TAO patients and healthy controls (45: 28 in total). RNA-seq was used to detect differential gene expression of orbital adipose-connective tissue. Quantitative PCR was performed to verify the results. PTX3 protein in orbital adipose-connective tissues was visualized by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PTX3 concentration in serum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results RNA-seq showed 1.86-log⁡2FC higher PTX3 expression in the orbital adipose-connective tissues from TAO group than controls (FDR = 0.0059). qPCR confirmed the difference (5.59-fold increase, p = 0.0012). The presence of PTX3 protein was demonstrated. Orbital adipose tissue from healthy controls showed weak staining for PTX3 while tissue from TAO group was strongly positive. Serum PTX3 concentration was significantly elevated in patients when compared to the control group (1.9-fold increase; p < 0.0001). Conclusions Patients with TAO showed increased presence of PTX3 in orbital tissue and serum, which may suggest a potential relationship of PTX3 and TAO. PMID:29675428

  10. Treatment of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy with periocular injections of triamcinolone

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    Ebner, R; Devoto, M H; Weil, D; Bordaberry, M; Mir, C; Martinez, H; Bonelli, L; Niepomniszcze, H

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of periocular triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), and the presence of ocular or systemic adverse effects. Methods: A multicentre prospective pilot study was performed on patients diagnosed with Graves’ ophthalmopathy less than 6 months before entry to the study. Patients were admitted to the study and were randomised into two groups: treatment and control. The treatment group received four doses of 20 mg of triamcinolone acetate 40 mg/ml in a peribulbar injection to the inferolateral orbital quadrant. Both groups were evaluated by measuring the area of binocular vision without diplopia on a Goldmann perimeter and the size of the extraocular muscles on computed tomography (CT) scans. Ophthalmological and systemic examinations were done to rule out ocular and systemic adverse effects. Follow up was 6 months for both groups. Results: 50 patients were eligible for the study. 41 patients completed the study. There was an increase in the area of binocular vision without diplopia in the treatment group (Σ initial: mean 231.1 (SD 99.9) and final absolute change, mean 107.1 (SD 129.0)) compared to the control group (Σ initial: mean 350.7 (SD 86.5) and final absolute change, mean −4.5 (SD 67.6)). The sizes of the extraocular muscles were reduced in the treatment group (mean (inferior rectus initial values): 1.3 (0.7), final percentage change: −13.2 (25.7), medial rectus initial values: 1.2 (0.6), final percentage change: −8.2 (20.7), superior rectus-levator palpebrae initial values: 1.2 (0.6), final percentage change: −9.5 (29.1), lateral rectus initial values: 1.0 (0.4), final percentage change: −11.5 (20.6)) compared to the control group (inferior rectus initial values: 0.9 (0.3), final percentage change: −4.0 (21.5), medial rectus initial values: 0.9 (0.3), final percentage change: 0.6 (22.4), superior rectus-levator palpebrae initial values: 0.9 (0.3), final percentage change

  11. Application of new therapies in Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: animal models and translation to human clinical trials

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    Banga, J Paul; Nielsen, Claus H; Gilbert, Jacqueline A

    2008-01-01

    Most current approaches for treating Graves' disease are based essentially upon regimes developed nearly 50 years ago. Moreover, therapeutic approaches for complications such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and dermopathy are singularly dependent on conventional approaches of nonspecific...

  12. Application of new therapies in Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: animal models and translation to human clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banga, J Paul; Nielsen, Claus H; Gilbert, Jacqueline A

    2008-01-01

    Most current approaches for treating Graves' disease are based essentially upon regimes developed nearly 50 years ago. Moreover, therapeutic approaches for complications such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and dermopathy are singularly dependent on conventional approaches of nonspecif...

  13. Hyperthyroidism in Patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy, and Thyroidal, Skeletal and Eye Muscle Specific Type 2 Deiodinase Enzyme Activities.

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    Molnár, Ildikó; Szentmiklósi, József A; Somogyiné-Vári, Éva

    2017-09-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is characterized by hyperthyroidism, which is associated with higher serum T 3 levels than T 4 due to deiodinase enzymes.The effect of Graves' patient's sera (n=52) with elevated thyroid hormone and TSH receptor or thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels was investigated on thyroidal, skeletal and eye muscle type 2 deiodinase enzyme (DII) activities. DII activities were measured with 125 I-T 4 substrate, while thyroid hormone and antibody levels with immunoassays.In Graves' ophthalmopathy, sera with elevated FT 4 or FT 3 levels reduced DII activites remarkably in all tissue fractions. Thyroidal DII activities were lower than those using eye muscle fraction (0.6±0.22 vs 1.14±0.43 pmol/mg/min, Pactivities in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy after methimazole therapy compared to those who had no ophthalmopathy (2.88±2 vs 20.42±11.82 pmol/mg/min, Pactivities, while sera with anti-TPO antibodies were connected to lower DII activities in Graves' ophthalmopathy.In summary, the actions of hyperthyroid sera derived from patients with Graves' disease were tested on tissue-specific DII activities. Elevated FT 4 level-induced DII inactivation is present in Graves' ophthalmopathy, which seems to be also present at the beginning of methimazole therapy. Stimulating TSH receptor antibiodies increased DII activities via their nongenomic effects using sera of hyperthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy, but anti-TPO antibodies could influence DII activities via altering FT 4 levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy to predict the clinical evolution and therapeutic response of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

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    Nocaudie, M.; Bailliez, A.; Itti, E. [Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire, Lille (France). Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle; Bauters, C.; Wemeau, J.L. [Clinique d`Endocrinologie, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Lille (France); Marchandise, X.

    1999-05-01

    Management of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy remains a topic of controversy. Immunosuppressive treatments have to be applied at peak disease activity and before criteria of severity develop. Expression of somatostatin receptors on activated lymphocytes allows scintigraphic imaging with indium-111 pentetreotide. We conducted a prospective study with 17 patients who presented severe ophthalmopathy (11 Graves` disease, four Hashimoto`s thyroiditis, two isolated in appearance: Means` syndrome). Each patient underwent hormonal (free T{sub 3} and TSH) and immunological (TBII) assessment, an orbital computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, a visual functional examination and {sup 111}In-pentetreotide orbital scintigraphy before undergoing treatment by steroids and/or radiotherapy, independently of scintigraphic results. At 4 and 24 h after the intravenous injection of 111 MBq of {sup 111}In-pentetreotide, planar imaging centred on the head and neck (anterior and both lateral views) was carried out. Retrobulbar uptake was assessed by visual semi-quantitative analysis (score given by two independent trained observers) and by quantitative analyses (regions of interest, orbit/brain uptake indices). Patients were ophthalmologically followed up for 6 months and then classified as improved or not. Visual semi-quantitative analysis of 4-h/24-h planar images was correlated with the ophthalmological evolution ({chi}{sup 2} test, P<0.01). All ten patients in whom scintigraphy was considered positive were clinically improved at 6 months, and of the seven patients in whom scintigraphy was negative, six were not improved. Nevertheless, objective quantitative analysis did not succeed in confirming these results. We conclude that {sup 111}In-pentetreotide scintigraphy requires further developments, including quantitative single-photon emission tomographic acquisition, if its role as a guide to therapeutic strategy in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is to be confirmed

  15. Treating the thyroid in the presence of Graves' ophthalmopathy

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    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bonnema, Steen J; Smith, Terry J

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) remains enigmatic. Optimal therapeutic choices for the hyperthyroidism associated with Graves' disease (GD) in the presence of GO remain controversial. Whether antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioiodine (RAI), or thyroidectomy should be favored in such patients...... remains debated. Pre-therapy variables such as ethnicity, sex, age, thyroid function, level of TSH-receptor antibodies and smoking behavior influence response to therapy. Among the most important management goals are restoring euthyroidism and abstaining from smoking. On average, ATDs and thyroidectomy...... - independent of extent - do not influence the natural course of GO. RAI can cause de novo development or progression of GO, which is largely preventable with oral steroid prophylaxis. In patients with mild GO, the thyroid treatment is largely independent of GO. Moderate to severe GO should be treated promptly...

  16. Ultrasonography compared to magnetic resonance imaging in thyroid-associated Graves' ophthalmopathy

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    Vlainich, Ana R.; Romaldini, Joao H.; Pedro, Ana B.; Farah, Chady S.; Sinisgalli Junior, Cicero A., E-mail: anavlainich@uol.com.b [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (IAMSPE), SP (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    Objective: to compare ultrasonography (US) to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical activity score (CAS) in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Subjects and methods: Nineteen patients underwent extraocular muscle thickness measurements by US and MRI, reflectivity by US and signal-intensity ratio by MRI. There were also twelve US control subjects. Results: US median thicknesses were greater than in controls. Correlation was found between US and MRI in the median thickness of the left eye rectus medial muscle as well as between signal-intensity ratio (SIR) and thickness by US. An inverse correlation was found between reflectivity and SIR in the inferior and lateral rectus. On associating the tests for detecting activity the best results were obtained with CAS plus MRI (sensitivity 75%), and US and MRI (positive predictive value 77% and specificity 80%). Conclusion: CAS and US results showed poor correlation with MRI results suggesting that they cannot replace each other but when combined these methods can improve the evaluation of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. (author)

  17. Outcome of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy treated by radiation therapy

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    Abboud, Mirna; Arabi, Asma; Salti, Ibrahim; Geara, Fady

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid associated orbitopathy is a common manifestation of Graves disease. Many options can be considered for treatment. In this case series, we reviewed the medical records of 17 patients who received radiation therapy (RT) for GO in a tertiary care center between 1997 and 2007. All patients received 20 Gy to both orbits and 12 of them (71%) had already received one or more trials of steroid therapy prior to RT. After a median follow-up of 2 years, a subjective improvement in exophthalmos and vision was reported by all patients at the end of RT but only 3 patients reported a decrease in their diplopia immediately after therapy. Symptoms continued to improve with time in many patients: 22% had complete reversal of their symptoms and signs, and the remaining 78% had partial improvement. Two patients developed recurrent signs and symptoms, both of them were smokers who continued to smoke after treatment. About 60-65% of patients responded favorably to RT alone which increased to 87-97% when RT is combined with steroids. No patients developed late toxicity during the follow-up period. We conclude that RT is an effective treatment option in GO even in patients who failed previous treatment with steroids or surgical decompression. Based on our own clinical experiences and the literature data, the combination of RT and intravenous corticosteroid administration may improve the response rate

  18. Customized Orbital Decompression Surgery Combined with Eyelid Surgery or Strabismus Surgery in Mild to Moderate Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

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    Choi, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Yeun; Lew, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of customized orbital decompression surgery combined with eyelid surgery or strabismus surgery for mild to moderate thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Twenty-seven consecutive subjects who were treated surgically for proptosis with disfigurement or diplopia after medical therapy from September 2009 to July 2012 were included in the analysis. Customized orbital decompression surgery with correction of eyelid retraction and extraocular m...

  19. Early response to intravenous glucocorticoids for severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy predicts treatment outcome.

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    Hart, Richard H; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Crombie, Alex; Perros, Petros

    2005-08-01

    The results for 18 consecutive patients with severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) treated with high-dose, pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone (MP) are presented in this paper. Eighteen (18) patients with severe TAO, defined as either optic neuropathy, progressive diplopia, or severe soft-tissue swelling accompanied by evidence of NOSPECS class 2b or more severe eye disease, were studied in a prospective, noncontrolled case series. Patients were treated with 1.5 g of intravenous MP, divided over 3 days, followed by a tapering course of oral prednisolone. All patients were examined before treatment, 1 week and 1 month after commencement of treatment and at 2-3 monthly intervals thereafter. Assessment of visual acuity, differential intraocular pressure (IOP), soft-tissue inflammation, diplopia, and exophthalmometry were used to calculate a modified ophthalmopathy index (OI) for each patient at each visit. Median duration of follow-up was 14 months. A statistically significant reduction in OI following treatment with high-dose MP was observed after 1 week of treatment from 10.8 +/- 3.9 standard deviation (SD) to 8.3 +/- 3.4 (SD) (P < 0.001) and between 1 week and the end of the treatment period (OI, 7.2 +/- 3.4 (SD); P < 0.05). A response occurred in 83% of patients within a week but only 66% maintained this response. There was a significant negative correlation between response to treatment (OI before treatment-OI after treatment) and duration of eye disease (P = 0.034, Spearman correlation). High-dose, pulsed intravenous MP is an effective medical treatment for severe TAO. Responders can be identified within the 1st week. Treatment response is inversely related to disease duration.

  20. SEARCH FOR TARGET TISSUE IN THE EYE ORBIT FOR AUTOIMMUNE AGGRESSION OF THYROID ANTIBODIES IN ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY

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    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We searched for a possible target tissue in eye orbit for thyroid autoantibodies in endocrine ophthalmopathy (Graves’ disease, using correlation analysis method. We examined a group of 139 patients (278 eye orbits with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy associated with diffuse toxic goiter. Serological parameters (antibodies to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor; thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase were compared with instrumental diagnostic data (multi-layer CT, ultrasonography of eye orbit, and exophthalmometer, as well as clinical symptoms. Statistical correlation analysis enabled us to show different degrees of association between thyroid antibodies and clinical manifestations of Graves’ disease and eye orbit involvement. Especially, carriers of antibodies to TSH receptor and thyroglobulin (as compared to seronegative patients exhibited higher exophthalmos scores (19.16±0.26 mm, p < 0.001, and 19.41±0.40 mm, p < 0.05, respectively, and with total muscle index (2.42±0.05, p < 0.01, and 2.42±0.08, respectively. Meanwhile, eyelids in carriers of antibodies to TSH receptor and thyroid peroxidase proved to be more swollen (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively. Carriage of antibodies to thyroglobulin was associated with synchronous involvement of two structures of the eye orbit: extraocular muscles and retrobulbar tissue, which is reflected by increase in the average ntegral exophthalmos index within the group.

  1. Evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness profile in thyroid ophthalmopathy without optic nerve dysfunction

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    Kumari Mugdha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness profile in patients of thyroid ophthalmopathy with no clinical signs of optic nerve dysfunction. METHODS: A prospective, case-control, observational study conducted at a tertiary care centre. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients with eyelid retraction in association with any one of: biochemical thyroid dysfunction, exophthalmos, or extraocular muscle involvement; or thyroid dysfunction in association with either exophthalmos or extra-ocular muscle involvement; or a clinical activity score (CAS>3/7. Two measurements of RNFL thickness were done for each eye, by Cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography 6mo apart. RESULTS: Mean age of the sample was 38.75y (range 13-70y with 18 males and 22 females. Average RNFL thickness at first visit was 92.06±12.44 µm, significantly lower than control group (101.28±6.64 µm (P=0.0001. Thickness of inferior quadrant decreased from 118.2±21.27 µm to 115.0±22.27 µm after 6mo (P=0.02. There was no correlation between the change in CAS and RNFL thickness. CONCLUSION: Decreased RNFL thickness is an important feature of thyroid orbitopathy, which is an inherent outcome of compressive optic neuropathy of any etiology. Subclinical RNFL damage continues in the absence of clinical activity of the disease. RNFL evaluation is essential in Grave’s disease and active intervention may be warranted in the presence of significant damage.

  2. [Expressions of lysozyme C and lactoferrin in tears of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients].

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    Jiang, Lihong; Mou, Pei; Wei, Ruili

    2015-03-17

    To explore the differential expressions of lysozyme C and lactoferrin in tears of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients versus healthy subjects by proteomics. Tear samples were obtained from patients with active period TAO and age and gender-matched healthy subjects without symptoms of ocular surface. Then they were divided into patient and control groups. Then tear samples of two groups were analyzed. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of 15% gel was performed to determine the different protein bands in sample groups. And different labeled protein bands were collected for in-gel tryptic digestion. Mass spectrometry was employed to determine the protein components from different protein bands. Then Scaffold search engine was used for analyzing the results of mass spectrometry and identifying specific proteins. Based on mass spectrometric analysis of different protein bands, most proteins were down-regulated or became absent in TAO patients. Both lysozyme C and lactoferrin were up-regulated. Identification of protein relative quantitative ratio (patient/control): lysozyme C: 4.88, lactoferrin: 1.61. Lysozyme C and lactoferrin are two important effectors of tear function and metabolism. Both are up-regulated in TAO patients' tears. Thus both are probably involved in inflammatory process of TAO and play synergistic roles in the pathogenesis of disease.

  3. Clinical characteristics of moderate-to-severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy in 354 Chinese cases.

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    Qian Li

    Full Text Available Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder which disfigures appearance, threatens vision, and results in a pronounced loss of quality of life. The diversity and ethnic difference of the disease manifestations have made it difficult to tailor therapies for each patient. Few studies have analyzed its characteristics in Chinese populations. We therefore enrolled 354 patients with moderate-to-severe TAO from February 2015 to July 2016. A single ophthalmologist consistently performed detailed ophthalmic examinations. Orbital computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed to verify enlarged extraocular muscles. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the association between sex, age, smoking, family history of thyroid diseases, degree of proptosis and disease severity. The mean age of males (46.56±11.08 years was significantly higher than that of females (41.39±years, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.09. The females and males between 31~40 and 41~50 years, respectively, had the highest incidence of TAO. 81.48% of the patients suffered hyperthyroidism. TAO was diagnosed either after (47.17% or simultaneously with thyroid dysfunction (27.68%. Proptosis (91.24%, eyelid retraction (83.33%, together with eyelid swelling (79.38% and extraocular muscle enlargement (75.42%, were the most common clinical sign. 19.77% of patients manifested lower eyelid retraction. The mean values of exophthalmos and asymmetry on proptosis were 19.94±3.45mm and 2.18±2.06mm, respectively in males, 18.58±3.31mm and 1.61±1.53mm, respectively in females. The severity of disease was significantly associated with male, older age, smoking, family history of thyroid diseases and degree of proptosis. We found several differences in Chinese compared with White. The female-to-male ratio and mean value of exophthalmos were significantly lower than the data of White. Inferior and superior rectus became the most common

  4. Influence factors for decreased quality of life in thyroid-associated ophthalmo-pathy patients

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    Si-Si Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the quality of life in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy in China, to analyze the factors related to the decline of quality of life and to provide evidence for the clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Totally 125 patients diagnosed with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy from January 2015 to January 2016 at Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were included. Clinical data including gender, age, eyelid, conjunctival hyperemia and edema, lacrimal caruncle swelling, degree of proptosis, eyelid retraction volume, vision, diplopia were recorded. TAO-QOL questionnaire were investigated. The content was divided into two dimensions: visual function and appearance. Each dimension contains eight related questions. Final indicators for each dimension was the score. Independent t test, ANOVA and multiple regression analysis were performed using SPSS tactics 22.0 software. RESULTS: Eighty-eight valid questionnaires were included. The average score of visual function was 72.6±28.3 and that of appearance was 66.8±26.0; 28 cases(28/88were in active phase while 60 cases(60/88were in inactive phase. Visual function and appearance scores were 59.4±28.8 and 56.1±26.0 in active group; 78.8±26.1 and 71.8±24.6 in inactive group. Active group has decreased score for both visual function sore and appearance score(P=0.002 and P=0.008. The score of patients with mild TAO(26/88 was 86.2±17.1 and 82.1±17.8; 70.3±28.3 and 63.3±25.5 for moderate-severe patients(55/88, 41.1±34.6 and 37.6±22.7 for extremely severe patients(7/88. The score of both visual function and appearance in severe group were significantly lower than those in the moderate-severe group(P=0.006 and P=0.007.Compared to mild group, those of moderate-severe group were significantly lower(P=0.012, P=0.001.The visual function score of patients in constant diplopia group were significantly lower than the no diplopia group

  5. Therapeutic effect of periorbitally injected triamcinolone acetonide for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

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    Jing Jin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the therapeutic effect of periorbitally injected triamcinolone acetonide(TAfor thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.METHODS:Thirty-six patients(60 eyesdiagnosed as thyroid-associated disease by many related academics were collected in the past two years, 12 male(18 eyesand 24 female(42 eyes, 12 cases with monocular, 24 with binocular, aged 23~40 years, mean 33±5 years. Their course of diseases were 2mo~4a, mean 15mo.The therapy of TA:20mg for each eye once, every 3~4wk, 3~4 times as one course. The injection point and method:the patient took the supine position, the skin around the ocular was disinfected twice with entoiodine; the patient was asked to look upward, the needle entered at the 1/3 lateral-mid point; then the needle reached the equator along the paries superior orbitae; after that, the direction of the needle changed to slightly towards inferior nasal; the depth was about 35mm; the patient was asked to move his eyeball towards different directions; 1mL of the medicine was injected to the retrobulbar after making sure the eyeball was not injured and no blood in the syringe if its plunger was draw back; sterile gauze was pressed against the eyeball and make sure there was no hemorrhage or other discomforts. Observation for the therapeutic effect, including the improvement of eye symptoms and signs, after one course.RESULTS:TA had a significant efficience for relieving phengophobia(χ2=19.326,Pχ2=8.500,Pχ2=8.500, Pχ2=8.025,Pχ2=8.743,PP were 0.144,0.530,0.589, all P>0.05.Besides, protopsis(16.082±2.503mmas compared to(16.875±3.143mmand Dalrymple symptom(0.950±1.167mmas compared to(3.100±1.633mmwere exactly improved(PP=0.081. CONCLUSION:Periorbitally injected TA can improve protopsis,Dalrymple symptom and local ocular symptoms, and all patients we treated were at an normal IOP. But ocular movement, diplopia and Von Graefes symptom were not improved.

  6. Clinical factors affecting intraocular pressure change after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong JH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jae Hoon Jeong,1 Jeong Kyu Lee,1,2 Dong Ik Lee,1 Yeoun Sook Chun,1 Bo Youn Cho2 1Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University 2Thyroid Center, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Objective: To report the physiological monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP during the postoperative periods after orbital decompression surgery and ascertain the correlation between the clinical factors and IOP changes.Methods: The medical records of 113 orbits from 60 patients who underwent orbital decompression surgery were reviewed retrospectively. IOP measurement during the postoperative periods was classified based on the postoperative day: week 1 (1–7 days, month 1 (8–41 days, month 2 (42–70 days, month 3 (71–97 days, month 4 (98–126 days, and final (after 127 days. The mean postoperative follow-up was 286.5 days for orbits with at least 6 months of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the IOP reduction percentage and clinical factors.Results: The mean IOP increased from 16.9 to 18.6 mmHg (10.1% at postoperative week 1 and decreased to 14.4 mmHg (14.5% after 2 months. Minimal little changes were observed postoperatively in the IOP after 2 months. Preoperative IOP had a significant positive effect on the reduction percentage both at postoperative week 1 (β=2.51, P=0.001 and after 2 months (β=1.07, P=0.029, and the spherical equivalent showed a positive correlation with the reduction level at postoperative week 1 (β=1.71, P=0.021.Conclusion: Surgical decompression caused a significant reduction in the IOP in thyroid-associated orbitopathy, and the amount of reduction was closely related to preoperative IOP; however, it may also cause a transient elevation in the IOP during the early postoperative phase in highly myopic eyes. Keywords: Graves’ ophthalmopathy, intraocular pressure, myopia, physiologic monitoring, postoperative periods

  7. Prevention of thyroid associated-ophthalmopathy in children and adults: current views and management of preventable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassas, Gerasimos E; Perros, Petros

    2007-03-01

    Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention are defined according to the timing of the preventive intervention in the natural history of a disease. Secondary prevention in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is challenging in the absence of reliable specific serum markers for subclinical GO that would allow an early diagnosis. Some risk factors for occurrence or progression of GO have been identified. Cigarette smoking, thyroid dysfunction and radioactive iodine (RAI) are known preventable risk factors. The list is probably much longer, and future research should be aimed at identifying more. Smoking cessation, restoration of euthyroidism by antithyroid drugs or L-thyroxine, glucocorticoid coverage after RAI or deferring RAI until the eye disease is inactive, may prevent progression of GO. Passive smoking seems to exacerbate autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in general, and may have a deleterious effect on childhood GO in particular, therefore avoidance of passive smoking is likely to be beneficial.

  8. Observation of Corneal Langerhans Cells by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Qun; Cheng, Jin-Wei; Cai, Ji-Ping; Le, Qi-Hua; Ma, Xiao-Ye; Gao, Lian-Di; Wei, Rui-Li

    2016-07-01

    To examine the density and morphology of Langerhans cells (LCs) in the cornea of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Forty patients with TAO and 20 healthy volunteers were studied. All subjects underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination of both eyes. The ocular surface status was assessed by Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) symptom questionnaires, tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining and the Schirmer test. Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy was applied to evaluate the LC density and morphology in both central and peripheral cornea. The correlations between confocal microscopy data and clinical data were also analyzed. The OSDI and fluorescein staining values were significantly higher, while BUT and Schirmer test scores were lower in both active and inactive TAO patients compared to the controls. Central LC densities of patients with active TAO (76.38 ± 67.77 cell/mm(2)) and inactive TAO (47.49 ± 38.58 cell/mm(2)) were both significantly higher than those of the controls (21.46 ± 21.74 cell/mm(2)). The number of LCs in the peripheral cornea was also significantly increased in the active TAO group (131.53 ± 74.18 cell/mm(2)) compared to the control group (70.21 ± 37.76 cell/mm(2)). Central LC morphology (LCM) values were significantly higher in both active (1.77 ± 0.63) and inactive (1.51 ± 0.63) TAO groups compared to the control group (1.01 ± 0.80), whereas peripheral LCM scores of the two TAO groups were increased without statistical significance. There were significant correlations between both central LC density and central LCM scores and clinical data, including clinical activity score, OSDI and Schirmer test scores, and between peripheral LC density and OSDI and Schirmer test scores. No significant correlations were found between peripheral LCM scores and clinical data. The increase of corneal LCs in density and maturation in patients with TAO reflects an activated state of the local immune system, which

  9. Inhibition effect of B7-H1 gene-modified regulatory dendritic cells on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy in mice

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    Hua-Xin Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To construct adenovirus vector expressing mice B7-H1 gene, transfect dendritic cells(DCs, and to study the therapeutic effect of modified DC on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy(TAOin mice.METHODS: We designed and constructed B7-H1 gene adenovirus expression vector, and transfected DCs from mouse bone marrow, tested the phenotype and function of modified DCs, identificated its negative regulation to immune responses. The modified DCs were infected the sicked mice. And then the immunotherapeutic effect of modified DCs to TAO were tested. RESULTS: B7-H1 gene adenovirus vector was constructed and transfected DCs from bone marrow. The titer of the recombinant adenovirus was 1.8×109PFU/mL. B7-H1 gene modified DCs characteristics of regulatory DCs, could inhibit positive immune responses. The inhibition proceeding of TAO into mice infected modified DCs, was obviously prior to the control mice. The gene modified DCs, maybe become the new immunotherapy biological agent to thy TAO.CONCLUSION: We constructed the expression of mouse B7-H1 gene adenovirus expressed vector successfully, transfected DCs,by vector have properties of regulatory DCs, inhibiting positive immune response and the occurrence and development of thyroid eye disease. Gene modified DCs, reveal potent to the treatment of thyroid eye disease.

  10. New advances in understanding thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and the potential role for insulin-like growth factor-I receptor [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Terry J Smith

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), a localized periocular manifestation of the autoimmune syndrome known as Graves’ disease, remains incompletely understood. Discussions of its pathogenesis are generally focused on the thyrotropin receptor, the proposed role for which is supported by substantial evidence. Considerations of any involvement of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) in the disease are frequently contentious. In this brief, topically focused review, I have attem...

  11. Application of new therapies in Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: animal models and translation to human clinical trialsTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banga, J.P.; Gilbert, J.A.; El, Fassi D.

    2008-01-01

    Most current approaches for treating Graves' disease are based essentially upon regimes developed nearly 50 years ago. Moreover, therapeutic approaches for complications such as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and dermopathy are singularly dependent on conventional approaches of nonspecific...

  12. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO: the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moncayo Helga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1° as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°. A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°. Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt

  13. Childhood Graves' ophthalmopathy: results of a European questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krassas, G. E.; Segni, M.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and its management in children and adolescents up to 18 years old with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Study design: This was a questionnaire study (QS) among members of the European Thyroid Association and the European Society for

  14. Graves' ophthalmopathy and {sup 1}31{sup I} therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcocci, C.; Bartalena, L.; Tanda, M.L.; Manetti, L.; Dell' Unto, E.; Mazzi, B.; Rocchi, R.; Barbesino, G.; Pinchera, A. [Pisa Univ. of Pisa, Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    1999-12-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune process initiated and maintained by antigen(s) shared by the thyroid and the orbit. A matter of argument concerns the choice of the method of treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism when clinically evident ophthalmopathy is present. Restoration of euthyroidism appears to be beneficial for ophthalmopathy. On the other hand the continuing disease activity associated with the recurrence of hyperthyroidism appears to adversely affect the course of ophthalmopathy. For these reasons it is our opinion that in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy the permanent control of thyroid hyper function by ablation of thyroid tissue should be obtained by radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy. The rationale for an ablative strategy is the following: (i) permanent control of hyperthyroidism avoids exacerbations of eye disease associated with recurrence of hyperthyroidism; (ii) hypothyroidism, which follows thyroid tissue ablation, should be regarded as a therapeutic end point rather than as an undesirable result; (iii) ablation of thyroid tissue may result in the removal of both the thyroid-orbit cross-reacting antigen(s) and the major source of thyroid-auto reactive lymphocytes. The relationship between radioiodine therapy and the course of GO is a matter of controversy, and some authors have suggested that radioiodine administration ma be associated with a worsening of preexisting ophthalmopathy. This was not observed when radioiodine treatment was associated with a 3-month oral course of prednisone. The development or progression of GO after radioiodine therapy might be due to the release of thyroid antigens following radiation injury and to subsequent exacerbations of autoimmune reactions directed towards antigens shared by the thyroid and the orbit. The view that radioiodine therapy may be associated with a progression of ophthalmopathy is not shared by some authors who claim that the apparent link between

  15. Revisiting available knowledge on teleostean thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Iván; Orozco, Aurea

    2018-03-21

    Teleosts are the most numerous class of living vertebrates. They exhibit great diversity in terms of morphology, developmental strategies, ecology and adaptation. In spite of this diversity, teleosts conserve similarities at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels. In the context of thyroidal systems, and as in the rest of vertebrates, thyroid hormones in fish regulate development, growth and metabolism by actively entering the nucleus and interacting with thyroid hormone receptors, the final sensors of this endocrine signal, to regulate gene expression. In general terms, vertebrates express the functional thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta, encoded by two distinct genes (thra and thrb, respectively). However, different species of teleosts express thyroid hormone receptor isoforms with particular structural characteristics that confer singular functional traits to these receptors. For example, teleosts contain two thra genes and in some species also two thrb; some of the expressed isoforms can bind alternative ligands. Also, some identified isoforms contain deletions or large insertions that have not been described in other vertebrates and that have not yet been functionally characterized. As in amphibians, the regulation of some of these teleost isoforms coincides with the climax of metamorphosis and/or life transitions during development and growth. In this review, we aimed to gain further insights into thyroid signaling from a comparative perspective by proposing a systematic nomenclature for teleost thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and summarize their particular functional features when the information was available. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F. Anders

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented

  17. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ... Cancer Nuclear Radiation & the Thyroid Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Papillary & Follicular Thyroid Cancer Postpartum Thyroiditis Pregnancy and ...

  18. Thyrotropin receptor and CD40 mediate interleukin-8 expression in fibrocytes: implications for thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Mester, Tünde; Ginter, Anna; Kim, Denise S

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) through elucidating the role of thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) and CD40 in the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in peripheral blood fibrocytes. Fibrocytes infiltrate the orbit of patients with TAO, where they differentiate into fibroblasts. Fibrocyte precursors occur with increased frequency in the peripheral blood expressing TSHR and CD40 in TAO patients. We hypothesize that in vitro derived fibrocytes and peripheral blood fibrocyte precursors express proinflammatory chemoattractant molecules including IL-8 initiated by TSHR and CD40 signaling. Since nearly all TAO patients express activating antibodies to TSHR, this is particularly relevant for activation of peripheral blood fibrocytes. TSHR and CD40 expression on peripheral blood fibrocytes was determined by flow cytometry. IL-8 RNA was quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-8 protein production was measured by Luminex and flow cytometry. Thyroid-stimulating hormone and CD40 ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in peripheral blood fibrocytes was studied by flow cytometry. Both TSHR- and CD40-mediated signaling lead to IL-8 expression in mature fibrocytes. Fibrocyte precursors assayed directly from circulating peripheral blood demonstrate intracellular IL-8 expression with addition of thyroid-stimulating hormone or CD40 ligand. TSHR- and CD40-induced IL-8 production is mediated by Akt phosphorylation. Peripheral blood TSHR(+) and CD40(+) fibrocytes express IL-8 and may promote the recruitment of inflammatory cells, mitogenesis, and tissue remodeling in TAO. TSHR- and CD40-mediated IL-8 signaling is mediated by Akt. Delineating the molecular mechanisms of fibrocyte immune function may provide potential therapeutic targets for TAO.

  19. Graves disease with ophthalmopathy following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.R.; Fleming, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The number of patients achieving long-term survival following neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies is increasing. Paralleling this increase in survivors is the development of late complications of the therapy itself. Eleven patients have previously been reported who developed Graves ophthalmopathy 18 months to seven years after receiving neck radiotherapy for nonthyroidal malignancies. The seven patients who had HLA typing were all HLA-B8 negative, despite the reported association of the HLA-B8 antigen with Graves disease. A patient who is HLA-B8 positive who developed Graves ophthalmopathy and hyperthyroidism nine years after receiving mantle radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease is reported. It is recommended that Graves disease be included among the thyroid diseases that receive consideration during follow-up of patients who have received mantle radiotherapy

  20. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  1. Association of thyrotrophin receptor antibodies with the clinical features of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerding, M. N.; van der Meer, J. W.; Broenink, M.; Bakker, O.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Prummel, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and Graves' hyperthyroidism are closely associated diseases and thought to be caused by the same autoimmune process. An obvious explanation for this would be the presence of autoantibodies reacting with an autoantigen present in the orbit and the thyroid gland. The

  2. Both Th1- and Th2-derived cytokines in serum are elevated in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakelkamp, I. M.; Gerding, M. N.; van der Meer, J. W.; Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2000-01-01

    Increased serum cytokine levels have been reported in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, but less is known about their levels in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). It is not known whether GO is a cell-mediated or humoral autoimmune disease. We investigated whether serum cytokines are

  3. Effect of short-term lithium carbonate administration in hyperthyroidism, with or without associated ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistriceanu, M; Roşca, T R; Mocanu, I; Bistriceanu, I; Voinea, F

    1986-01-01

    The study was carried out on 21 female hyperthyroid patients aged 22-53 years, with or without associated ophthalmopathy, admitted to the Endocrinology ward of the 1st Medical Clinic of the Craiova County Hospital, Romania, between 1983 and 1985. Administration of lithium carbonate was proceeded and followed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) determinations of T3 and T4 and measurement of Achilles' reflex (AR). Two regimens were employed. The first comprised ten patients receiving doses of 500 mg/day lithium carbonate and the second 11 patients who had an associated ophthalmopathy and who received 250 mg/day lithium carbonate and 30 mg/day carbimazole. Lithium administration was discontinued after 4 weeks. The results of the therapy suggest a possible intervention of lithium carbonate in the process of blocking the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and/or its regulating processes, with concomitant improvement of the clinical status, much more in the patients without ophthalmopathy.

  4. Medical management of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    In most patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism the eye signs are self-limiting and mostly subclinical. However, about one-third of the patients have clinically relevant ophthalmopathy, which can be disabling and disfiguring. The mechanical causes of the symptoms and signs of the eye disease are

  5. A clinico-investigative profile in Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana A

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinico-investigative profile was studied in 30 patients with Graves′ Ophthalmopathy (GO (15 each with early and late. In accordance to the thyroid status 63.3% of patients were hyperthyroid and 36.7% euthyroid. There was slight female preponderence, with ratio being 1.5:1. Exophthalmometric readings were significantly high in GO patients as compared to controls. However, no significant diagnostic role of postural exophthalmometry was seen. Positional tonometery may have respectable place among the tests for early diagnosis of GO; however, it could not differentiate between hyperthyroid and euthyroid cases. Further the role of ultrasonography, if available could not be overemphasized.

  6. ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY: ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  7. Measurement of autoantibodies against human eye muscle plasma membranes in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Faryna, M; Nauman, J; Gardas, A

    1985-01-01

    Antibodies that reacted with plasma membranes of human eye muscle but showed no binding to plasma membranes of human skeletal muscle were identified in serum of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Rabbit antithyroglobulin serum at a dilution of 1 X 10(-3) to 20 X 10(-3) had no effect on the binding of these antibodies to eye muscle membrane antigens. There was no correlation between antihuman eye muscle plasma membrane antibodies and antihuman thyroid membrane antibodies or antibodies again...

  8. Ophthalmopathy in the course of Graves-Basedow disease - diagnosis and treatment with regard to the role of the radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, E.; Kubiak, M.; Wisniewski, T.; Zarzycka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a most frequent extra thyroid symptom of the Graves-Basedow disease. The etiology is unknown, but supposes that she has an auto immunologic basis. For the pathogenesis of ophthalmic symptoms accepts three processes: the infiltration, the swelling and the fibrination of the extra ocular tissue. Clinically we favour two forms: gentle which appears more often and infiltration-edematous which worse prognoses. The disease can make for the permanent damage of the vision organ. For with the unknown etiology we can use only the symptomatic treatment such as: steroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression. Purpose of this study is the performance of the present state of the knowledge on the subject of ophthalmopathy in the course of the Graves-Basedow disease with particular reference to the role of the radiotherapy - methods of the treatments seldom used in non neoplastic diseases. (authors)

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in orbital fibroadipose tissue in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondur, Ahmet; Konuk, Onur; Dincel, Aylin Sepici; Bilgihan, Ayse; Unal, Mehmet; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in the orbit in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Orbital fibroadipose tissue samples were obtained from 13 cases during orbital fat decompression surgery. All cases demonstrated features of moderate or severe GO according to the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy classification. The disease activity was evaluated with the Clinical Activity Score, and the clinical features of GO were evaluated with the Ophthalmopathy Index. Orbital fibroadipose tissue samples of 8 patients without any thyroid or autoimmune disease were studied as controls. In the tissue samples, lipid hydroperoxide level was examined to determine the level of oxidative stress; glutathione level to determine antioxidant level; superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase activities to determine antioxidant activity. Lipid hydroperoxide level and all three antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly elevated, while glutathione level significantly diminished in tissue samples from GO cases compared to controls (p < 0.05). Glutathione levels in tissue samples of GO cases showed negative correlation with Ophthalmopathy Index (r = -0.59, p < 0.05). The antioxidant activity in the orbit is enhanced in GO. However, the oxidative stress appears to be severe enough to deplete the tissue antioxidants and leads to oxidative tissue damage. This study may support the possible value of antioxidant treatment in GO.

  10. Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Meyer, Verena; Pakura, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    were captured when they described entrepreneurs. Therefore, this paper aims to revisit gender role stereotypes among young adults. Design/methodology/approach: To measure stereotyping, participants were asked to describe entrepreneurs in general and either women or men in general. The Schein......: The images of men and entrepreneurs show a high and significant congruence (r = 0.803), mostly in those adjectives that are untypical for men and entrepreneurs. The congruence of women and entrepreneurs was low (r = 0.152) and insignificant. Contrary to the participants’ beliefs, their explicit notions did...... not have any effect on measures of congruence. However, young adults who knew business owners in their surroundings rated the congruence of women and entrepreneurs significantly higher (r = 0.272) than average. Originality/value: This study is unique in combining “implicit” stereotypes and explicit notions...

  11. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  12. MRI estimation of extraocular muscle swelling in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Hatakeyama, Masayuki; Asanagi, Kaoru

    1988-01-01

    The thickness and width of superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles were measured via T1-weighted coronal images using a 0.5 T superconducting MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system in 10 patients with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy and 27 normal orbits. Lateral rectus muscles were not measured because the partial volume effect obscured their contours. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of ophthalmopathy. Group A had no ophthalmopathy, group B had corneal involvement or restricted eye movement, group C had optic nerve involvement. Mean muscle thickness increased in the order A, B and C. Mean rectus muscle width was normal in group A, but dramatically increased in group C, results suggesting that swelling of the extraocular muscles is a characteristic pathologic change in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. It is concluded that MRI is a safe and useful method of evaluating the severity of and prognosing dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. (author)

  13. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  14. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for endocrine ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko

    1990-01-01

    Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author)

  15. Methylprednisolone Pulse Treatment of Graves´Ophthalmopathy is not associated with secondary Adrenocortical insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Kristensen, Lars Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an inflammatory disease in the orbital region. The first-line medical treatment is glucocorticoids. An important potential side effect of glucocorticoid treatment is suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with impairment of endogenous...... cortisol production, implicating symptoms of adrenocortical insufficiency, especially in the period after cessation of therapy with possible risks in cases of intercurrent illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate HPA axis function before and after methylprednisolone pulse treatment of GO. Study...... for GO. Therefore, routine precautions are not necessary. However, our results do not exclude that transient secondary adrenocortical insufficiency might occur occasionally. © 2015 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel...

  16. Radiation therapy of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Koga, Sukehiko; Anno, Hirofumi; Komai, Satoshi (Fujita-Gakuen Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    During the decade from 1978 to 1987, 20 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with irradiation of 2000 cGy to the orbital tissue. We examined the effects of the therapy on 17 such patients. Exophthalmos tended to decrease. When the degree of deviation of the exophthalmic eye was small, the effect of therapy tended to be better than when it was large. Two cases that showed an increase in retrobulbar fatty tissue without thickening of the extraocular muscles did not respond as well as those that had thickening of the extraocular muscles. Diplopia tended to improve both subjectively and objectively. Ocular movement improved in 11 of the 17 patients. There were no serious radiation injuries after the radiation therapy, except for some transient swelling of the eyelid. (author).

  17. Radiotherapy in the management of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Koh-ichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Morita, Kazuo; Osanai, Hajime; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Hinoda, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    To report the results of radiotherapy for patients with failure, adverse reactions or relative contraindications to the use of steroids or immunosuppressants, by using newly developed quantitative indexes. Fourteen female and six male patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with radiotherapy between 1989 and 1996. Prior to radiotherapy, eight patients received treatment with prednisone, four received immunosuppressants and four received a combination of both. Four patients with contraindications to steroids were initially managed with radiotherapy. Most of the patients received a dose of 24-28 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. We used the newly developed motility limitation index to assess extraocular motility. Treatment was well tolerated. There have been no late complications. All 12 patients with soft tissue signs such as edema, irritation, tearing and pain were improved. Proptosis did not improve or improved only slightly, 3 mm at best. However, proptosis in all but two has been stabilized and has not deteriorated in the follow-up period. Most of the patients have experienced an improvement of eye-muscle motility. Extraocular muscles that work for elevation were impaired more severely than the other muscles and this tended to remain. Of the 16 patients using steroids before or when radiotherapy was initiated, 15 were tapered off and only one patient required additional steroids, thus sparing the majority from steroid adverse reactions. Radiotherapy was effective in preventing exacerbations of active inflammatory ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves' disease with minimal morbidity and thus eliminated the adverse reactions associated with protracted corticosteroid use. The newly developed motility limitation index was useful in detecting delicate changes in motility of individual extraocular muscles. (author)

  18. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid To diagnose thyroid diseases, doctors use a medical history, physical exam, and thyroid tests. They sometimes also ...

  19. Graves’ Ophthalmopathy Misdiagnosed as Relapsing Conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini P. Chatziralli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female patient presented at the outpatients’ Department of Ophthalmology with epiphora, eyelid swelling, and a foreign body feeling in the right eye. The symptoms were present for 4 months, and the patient was treated as suffering from relapsing conjunctivitis. The slit lamp examination revealed keratitis due to exposure, related with the deficient closure of the eyelids. There was a 2 mm difference in the readings with the Hertel exophthalmometry examination between the eyes. Her medical history was clear, and she was referred for computed tomography of the orbits and brain and biochemical examinations (FT3, FT4, and TSH to investigate the presence of an intraorbital mass. FT3 was significantly increased and TSH was accordingly low, indicating the diagnosis of Graves’ disease, which presented without other signs and symptoms apart from ophthalmopathy. Computed tomography scan excluded the diagnosis of an intraorbital mass. Therefore, it is important not to underestimate the ocular manifestations of systemic diseases.

  20. Is sleeping position related to asymmetry in bilateral Graves' ophthalmopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Bleumink, Manon; Saeed, Peerooz; Baldeschi, Lelio; Prummel, Mark F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In agreement with the systemic nature of Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) presents as a symmetric bilateral eye disease in the vast majority of patients. However, asymmetric involvement of both eyes is frequently observed. We hypothesized that sleeping position might be

  1. Simultaneous induction of Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy by TSHR genetic immunization in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xia

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is the most common form of autoimmune thyroid disorder, characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. To address the pathological features and establish a therapeutic approach of this disease, an animal model carrying the phenotype of Graves' disease (GD in concert with Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO will be very important. However, there are no ideal animal models that are currently available. The aim of the present study is to establish an animal model of GD and GO disease, and its pathological features were further characterized.A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1- T289 was constructed by inserting the TSHR A-subunit gene into the expression vector pcDNA3.1, and genetic immunization was successfully performed by intramuscular injection of the plasmid pcDNA3.1-T289 on female 8-week-old BALB/c mice. Each injection was immediately followed by in vivo electroporation using ECM830 square wave electroporator. Morphological changes of the eyes were examined using 7.0T MRI scanner. Levels of serum T4 and TSHR antibodies (TRAb were assessed by ELISA. The pathological changes of the thyroid and orbital tissues were examined by histological staining such as H&E staining and Alcian blue staining.More than 90% of the immunized mice spontaneously developed goiter, and about 80% of the immunized mice manifested increased serum T4 and TRAb levels, combined with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. A significantly increased synthesis of hyaluronic acid was detected in in the immunized mice compared with the control groups.We have successfully established an animal model manifesting Graves' hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, which provides a useful tool for future study of the pathological features and the development of novel therapies of the diseases.

  2. Non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism associated with isolated bilateral ocular lymphoma mimicking Graves' disease with ophthalmopathy: a cause of misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, L; Brogioni, S; Valeriano, R; Nardi, M; Cartei, F; Bogazzi, F; Martino, E

    1995-11-01

    A very rare association of non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism due to nodular goiter with isolated bilateral non-Hodgkin's ocular lymphoma is described. A 66-year-old woman presented with bilateral proptosis, marked periocular swelling, conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis, severe extraocular muscle impairment with diplopia. Thyroid function tests showed normal free thyroid hormone concentrations with undetectable serum thyrotropin levels. Patient was placed on antithyroid drug treatment, ocular conditions deteriorated. More than two years later, when first seen in our institution, orbital CT scan showed the presence of a retro-ocular mass that, at biopsy, proved to be B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently with no localization in other sites. Thyroid evaluation revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism due to an autonomous thyroid nodule in the left lobe of the gland. Radiotherapy of the orbit was followed by a dramatic regression of lymphoma, but further staging some months later showed involvement of several abdominal lymph node structures. This case underscores the need of a thorough diagnostic work-up of ocular disease resembling Graves' ophthalmopathy, even when it is bilateral and associated with overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  3. Long-term results of irradiation for patients with progressive GRAVES' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Sheri D.; Lum, Bert L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Katkuri, Shobha; Levin, Peter S.; MacManus, Michael; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with progressively symptomatic thyroid eye disease and to evaluate the potential long-term sequelae. Methods and Materials: Four hundred fifty-three patients provided written informed consent and received retrobulbar RT for Graves' ophthalmopathy at Stanford University Medical Center; 197 with ≥1 year of follow-up were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 197 patients, 189 received RT to the bilateral retrobulbar regions, and 4 received unilateral RT. The technical information was unavailable for 4 patients. Patients were assessed by chart review, telephone interview, questionnaire, and multidisciplinary physician examination. Eye impairment was scored using the SPECS system. The end point review included the before and after treatment SPECS score, surgical intervention, and patient satisfaction. Potential complications, including cataract development, retinopathy, and tumor formation, were investigated. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the prognostic variables. Results: Improvement or resolution was 89% for soft-tissue findings; 70% for proptosis; 85% for extraocular muscle dysfunction; 96% for corneal abnormalities; and 67% for sight loss. The response to RT may take >6 months to stabilize. Factors predictive of response varied in the individual SPECS categories but included the initial SPECS score, pretreatment thyroid status, female gender, a 20-Gy RT dose, and a history of hypertension. Nonpredictive factors included a history of tobacco use, diabetes mellitus, steroids, and prior cataracts. Only 16% required surgical intervention to preserve their vision or restore binocular vision. Twenty-two patients (12%) developed cataracts after irradiation (median 11 years). No patient developed a tumor within the RT field during the follow-up period (range 1-29 years). Ninety-eight percent of patients were pleased with their results, and 2% believed their symptoms progressed

  4. Flashing lights in thyroid eye disease: a new symptom described and (possibly) explained

    OpenAIRE

    Danks, J.; Harrad, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Some patients with restrictive thyroid ophthalmopathy, referred for consideration of extraocular muscle surgery, complained of flashing lights in the superior visual field on upgaze. The frequency was assessed and the pathogenesis of this previously unreported symptom explored.
METHODS—30 patients were recruited, all of whom had tight inferior recti and were in the burnt out phase of thyroid eye disease. They were directly questioned regarding any symptoms of photopsia and the...

  5. Disease activity in Graves' ophthalmopathy: diagnosis with orbital MR imaging and correlation with clinical score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Fabio; Cirillo, Mario; Ferrara, Marco; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Carella, Carlo; Caranci, Ferdinando; Cirillo, Sossio

    2013-10-01

    In Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) it is important to distinguish acute inflammation at an early stage, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from inactive fibrotic end stage disease, unresponsive to the same treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the most relevant signal intensities on orbital MR imaging with contrast administration both to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (defined by a cut-off value of 3) and to make a prediction of patient's CAS. Such threshold was considered as widely used in literature. Sixteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GO in different phases of thyroid disease based on clinical and orbital MR imaging signs, and six normal volunteers were examined. Orbital MR imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla MR Unit. MR scans were assessed by an experienced neuroradiologist, blinded to the clinical examinations. We found a statistical correlation between CAS and both STIR and contrast enhanced T1-weighted sequences. There was also a statistically significant correlation between STIR and contrast-enhanced T1 images disclosing the possibility of avoiding the injection of contrast medium. Our study proved that signal intensity values on STIR sequence increase in the inflammatory oedematous phase of disease. We confirmed the correlation between signal intensities on this sequence and CAS, showing an increase in signal intensity proportional to the CAS value. So we validated MRI use to establish the activity phase of disease more sensitively than CAS alone.

  6. Concomitant Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, presenting as primary hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Hypothyroidism in patients with Graves\\' disease is usually the result of ablative treatment. We describe a 58 year old man with Graves\\' ophthalmopathy and pre-tibial myxoedema, who presented with spontaneous primary hypothyroidism. Circulating TSH receptor antibody activity was increased, while thyroid microsomal antibody was detectable in titres greater than one in one hundred thousand. It is likely that the TSH receptor antibody of Graves\\' disease was ineffective in stimulating hyperthyroidism because of concomitant thyroid destruction due to Hashimoto\\'s disease. Alternatively, primary hypothyroidism could have resulted from the effects of a circulating TSH receptor blocking antibody.

  7. Which Domains of Thyroid-Related Quality of Life Are Most Relevant? Patients and Clinicians Provide Complementary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify how thyroid diseases impact the patients' lives and to select the most relevant quality of life (QoL) issues for a thyroid-specific questionnaire. DESIGN: Fifteen thyroid experts and 80 thyroid outpatients (14 with nontoxic goiter, 12 nodular toxic goiter, 21 Graves' disease......, 17 thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, and 16 primary hypothyroidism) were interviewed. METHODS: The relevance of 138 thyroid disease-related issues was rated during interviews. For each issue, three relevance measures were obtained: a diagnosis-specific patient rating, a diagnosis-specific expert...... focused on thyroid-characteristic issues. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of QoL issues and physical symptoms are relevant for thyroid patients, particularly fatigue and emotional susceptibility. Patients and clinicians offer complementary perspectives on relevance...

  8. Targeting thyroid diseases with TSH receptor analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan C; Chacón, Ana M; Latif, Rauf

    2013-12-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major regulator of thyroid function and growth, and is the key antigen in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Various effective treatment strategies are currently available for many of these clinical conditions such as antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy, but they are not devoid of side effects. In addition, treatment of complications of Graves' disease such as Graves' ophthalmopathy is often difficult and unsatisfactory using current methods. Recent advances in basic research on both in vitro and in vivo models have suggested that TSH analogs could be used for diagnosis and treatment of some of the thyroid diseases. The advent of high-throughput screening methods has resulted in a group of TSH analogs called small molecules, which have the potential to be developed as promising drugs. Small molecules are low molecular weight compounds with agonist, antagonist and, in some cases, inverse agonist activity on TSHR. This short review will focus on current advances in development of TSH analogs and their potential clinical applications. Rapid advances in this field may lead to the conduct of clinical trials of small molecules related to TSHR for the management of Graves' disease, thyroid cancer, and thyroid-related osteoporosis in the coming years. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare ...

  10. Thyroid Autoimmune Antibodies and Major Depressive Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Johnson; Rush, A John; Burt, Tal; Chan, Edwin Sy; Siddiqui, Fahad J; Assam, Pryseley N; Lai, Oi Fah; Chan, Herng Nieng; Ng, Beng Yeong; Khoo, Daphne H

    2015-08-01

    Anti-thyroid antibodies are associated with extra-thyroid diseases such as Graves' ophthalmopathy and Hashimoto's encephalopathy. Some evidence suggests that anti-thyroid antibodies are also associated with depression. Interleukin (IL)-17 appears to play an important role in autoimmune thyroid disease. This study investigated whether specific thyroid autoantibodies and IL-17 distinguished persons with depression from non-depressed controls. Forty-seven adult females with non-psychotic, current major depressive disorder and 80 healthy female controls participated in this study. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies, free T3 and T4, TSH and IL-17 were measured from the serum. Measurements were repeated to assess test-retest reliability. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to estimate discriminatory values of the measurements. Differences between groups and associations between the clinical and biochemical assessments were analysed. Median TSH receptor antibody concentration was significantly higher in the depressed than control group (P depression severity scores (r = 0.33, P depression severity scores. Thyroid function and other thyroid autoantibodies were not associated with depression severity. TSH receptor antibodies might be a biomarker of immune dysfunction in depression.

  11. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the thyroid gland and what are thyroid disorders? Your thyroid gland is a small structure in ... get older, you’re more likely to develop thyroid disorders. In addition to being more common with age, ...

  12. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is associated with the development of anti-thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti- thyroglobulin) antibodies. Women with ...

  13. Thyroid ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. ... Thyroid Tests Read more Ultrasound ...

  14. The investigation of cytokine level in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhong; Zhang Yi; Luo Zhihang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the level of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-lide growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with thyroid eye disease and to seek the relationship between serum level and the outbreak as well as the condition variety. Methods: To measure the level of serum IL-6 and IGF-1 by radioimmunoassay in 30 patients with thyroid eye disease after their clinical expression and activity score have been assessed, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism but without ophthalmopathy, 30 healthy subjects. Results: The level of serum IL-6 and IGF-1 in patients with thyroid eye disease were higher than that of patients with hyperthyroidism but without ophthalmopathy (t=4.20, t=4.00, P<0.01) and healthy subjects (t=4.20, t=4.05, P<0.01). IL-6 and IGF-1 levels tend to elevate with the increase of severity of eye disease. There were significant differences among them. Conclusion: The leve of IL-6, IGF-1 and the cause of thyroid eye disease are closely related, and IL-6 and IGF-1 levels in peripheral blood might reflect the severity of eye disease. (authors)

  15. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodules Overview Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form within your thyroid, a small gland located at the base of ... just above your breastbone. The great majority of thyroid nodules aren't serious and don't cause ...

  16. MINIMALLY INVASIVE METHODS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Levchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Balanced” bone  decompression of the  orbit was  performed in a patient  with endocrine ophthalmopathy, CAS3, OD=30 mm,  OS=31 mm with the use of minimally invasive transconjunctival approaches and frameless neuronavigation. At the first stage the preoperative computed  tomography  of  the  orbits   was  imported   into  the  navigation  software,  and  then   marked  the  area of  the  proposed resection of the  orbit  walls. Further, in the  operating room,  the  patient  was  registered in the  navigation system. To perform  bone decompression of the orbit and lipectomy, we used  preseptal, transcaruncular and lateral retrocanthal approaches. These approaches are  transconjunctival and  do not  leave postoperative scars. Upon completion  of the  orbitotomy, its accuracy and  dimensions were determined by the intraoperative pointer of the neuronavigation system.Results. The postoperative period was uneventful. In the early postoperative period there was a regression of exophthalmus OD=26 mm,  OS=27  mm,  closure  of the  eye gap,  but retraction of the eyelids remained. When examined 3 months after the operation, the exophthalmic regression was OD=23 mm, OS=24 mm, retraction of the  eyelids — 1 mm,  with lead — finishing to the  lateral  adhesion. When  examined  after  6 months — the  position of the  eyeballs in orbit: ОD=21 mm,  ОS=22  mm,  retraction of the  eyelids is not present, there is no violation of oculomotorics, complications were not recorded. A satisfactory result  was  obtained.Conclusion. Minimally invasive transorbital approaches allow the  transconjunctival acces to all orbital walls to perform  decompression of the  orbit and lipectomy without cutaneous incisions,  to achieve good cosmetic and functional results. And the intraoperative use  of the neuronavigation system ensures  the bone decompression of the orbit in full. The technique is

  17. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthan, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves’ ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased. PMID:24646903

  18. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Harthan

    2014-01-01

    We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves’ ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased.

  19. Probable risk of tumour induction after retro-orbital irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders-Keilholz, A.; De Keizer, R.J.W.; Goslings, B.M.; Van Dam, E.W.C.M.; Jansen, J.Th.M.; Broerse, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Retrobulbar irradiation for Graves' ophthalmopathy is considered as a safe treatment and has recently been recommended as the initial treatment for patients with moderately severe eye problems. However, calculations using risk factors presently known reveal a theoretical risk of radiation-induced cancer of 1.2%. Therefore, the authors suggest that this treatment should be reserved for the elderly patient, for example above the age of 40-50 years

  20. B-cell depletion with rituximab in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Graves' ophthalmopathy the latest addition to an expanding family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; El Fassi, Daniel; Hasselbalch, Hans K

    2007-01-01

    of 10 Graves' disease patients remained in remission 400 days after rituximab treatment versus none in the control group, and remarkable improvements in the eye symptoms of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy were observed. This supports a role for B cells in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy...

  1. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  2. Efficacy of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT scintigraphy in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Jinglan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of the orbital somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC) to detect clinical stage of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the response to corticosteroid therapy. The subjects of the experiment were 46 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and four volunteers without eye disease or GO as the normal group (NG). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and the left and right lateral position planar imaging of the heads of the all subjects were obtained 4 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC. The (99m)Tc-TOC SPECT/CT was repeated 3 months later. 35 (35/46) patients were received corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone, 10 mg po tid ) for 3 months, however, the other 11 patients as control groups did not receive any treatment. The treatment effect was evaluated both by the orbital (99m)Tc-TOC uptake and NOSPECS. A significant decrease in the O/OC ratio was observed in 22 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.21 ± 0.09, P TOC scintigraphy is a feasible technique to estimate the Graves' ophthalmopathy activity and predict the response to subsequent corticosteroid therapy in GO patients. The technique could be a useful tool for physicians not familiar with CAS determination.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martina Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR- γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves’ disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO, such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3 and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders.

  4. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms, including: Fatigue Palpitations Chest pain Memory loss Thyroid nodules are sometimes found in people who have Hashimoto's disease. This may cause symptoms of an underactive thyroid gland, such as: Dry ...

  5. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  6. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea . If your body's immune system causes thyroid disease, ... at all for several months or longer (called amenorrhea). How does thyroid disease affect pregnancy? Pregnancy-related ...

  7. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  8. Management plan and delivery of care in Graves' ophthalmopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Morgan; Perros, Petros

    2012-06-01

    Most patients with Graves' orbitopathy have mild disease that requires no or minimal intervention. For the minority of patients with moderate or severe disease, multiple medical and surgical treatments may be required at different stages. It is crucial that such patients are monitored closely and treatments applied with care in the right sequence. Medical treatments should be used as early as possible and only during the active phase of the disease. Rehabilitative surgery is indicated in the inactive phase of the disease and should follow the sequence: surgical decompression followed by eye muscle surgery, followed by lid surgery. Delivery of care in a coordinated fashion that makes use of best available expertise is important and best implemented through a Combined Thyroid Eye clinic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid medicines made with animal thyroid, such as Armour Thyroid, but is not useful for your baby’s ... the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. ...

  10. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Thyroid Information Find out more information on Thyroid Disease. learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and ... News Press Releases & Announcements Thyroid Information (Brochures & FAQ's / Thyroid Diseases & Conditions) Cancer of the Thyroid Public Health Statements ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  12. SMILE Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Appelquist, Joakim; Ekelin, Annelie; Jila, Florian; Hallqvist, Klas

    2003-01-01

    The mobile service "SMILE" supporting care of the elderly is evaluated from an economic as well as an work practice perspective. SMILE Revisited beskriver utvecklingen, införandet och avvecklingen av ett system för mobilt stöd för hemtjänsten. Systemet analyseras dels ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv, dels ur ett arbetsvetenskapligt perspektiv.

  13. TSH-R expression and cytokine profile in orbital tissue of active vs inactive Graves' ophthalmopathy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakelkamp, I. M. M. J.; Bakker, O.; Baldeschi, L.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Prummel, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE From in vitro studies using cultures of orbital fibroblasts, it has become clear that cytokines play an important role in the orbital inflammation in Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Orbital fibroblasts seem to be the key target cells of the autoimmune attack, and they are able to express the

  14. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  15. Therapeutic use of mini-scleral lenses in a patient with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthan, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy can be very challenging to manage secondary to the complex nature of their disease presentation. Patients may present with a variety of ocular findings including: lid retraction, periorbital and lid swelling, chemosis, conjunctival hyperemia, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restrictive myopathy, exposure keratopathy and/or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Mini-scleral and scleral lens designs have been important in the management of irregular and regular corneas, and in the therapy of ocular surface diseases. We present here the case of a 48-year-old Caucasian male who had been diagnosed with Graves' ophthalmopathy 13 years earlier. With significant ocular surface staining and over ten diopters of astigmatism, the patient had never been able to wear contact lenses comfortably. After being fit with the Mini-Scleral Design™ lenses, his vision improved to 20/25 OU, his ocular surface improved, and overall quality of vision increased. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  17. Gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific association of the rs11675434 single-nucleotide polymorphism near TPO with susceptibility to Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Aleksander; Szymański, Konrad; Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata; Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Kula, Dorota; Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Bolanowski, Marek; Płoski, Rafał; Bossowski, Artur; Daroszewski, Jacek; Jarząb, Barbara; Bednarczuk, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The role of TPO gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to Graves' disease (GD) remains unclear. However, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near TPO have been recently associated with serum levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody in two independent genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we have observed a strong association between the rs11675434 SNP located near TPO and the presence of clinically evident Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim of the current study was to reevaluate and dissect this association in an extended group of 1231 well-characterized patients with GD (1043 adults and 188 children) and 1130 healthy controls from the Polish Caucasian population, considering possible gender-dependent and age-of-onset-specific effects of the studied SNP. We found that the T allele of rs11675434 was significantly more frequent in GD patients with than without GO (odds ratio (OR)=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05-1.51, P=0.012), which was consistent with our previous findings. Further analyses performed in subgroups of patients showed that the association with GO was significant in adult patients with age of GD onset ⩾45 years (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.03-1.75, P=0.031), but not in children and adolescents or adult patients with earlier onset of the disease (OR=1.72, 95% CI=0.77-3.84, P=0.18 and OR=1.05, 95% CI=0.79-1.40, P=0.75, respectively). Moreover, a strong association with GO was present in males (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.40-3.02, P=0.0002), whereas it was absent in females (OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.90-1.35, P=0.35). The results of our study further suggest that rs11675434 SNP located near TPO is associated with the development of GO, especially in males and patients with later age of GD onset.

  18. Increased TRAb and/or low anti-TPO titers at diagnosis of graves' disease are associated with an increased risk of developing ophthalmopathy after onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M; Planck, T; Asman, P; Hallengren, B

    2014-02-01

    Patients with low thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO) and increased TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) at diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD) have been suggested to have an increased risk to develop Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The aim was to evaluate if GO development can be predicted.This is an observational study with registration of possible GD and GO risk factors.399 patients with GD were registered 2003-2008 in Malmö, Sweden and out of these 310 were retrospectively followed up to 6 years. The main outcome measures were anti-TPO titer, TRAb titer, smoking habits, radioiodine treatment and GO development.TRAb was assessed with a third generation assay at GD diagnosis in 231 patients. The proportion of patients with GO increased above the median 6.3 IU/L both at diagnosis of GD (p=0.001) and at follow-up (p=0.0001).The distribution of GO patients anti-TPO above or below 20 kIU/L at diagnosis of GD was similar between groups (p=0.239). However at follow-up anti-TPOTPO>20 kIU/L (p=0.018).87% of patients who developed GO after GD diagnosis had TRAb above 6.3 IU/L and/or anti-TPO below 20 kIU/L. The proportion of GO was doubled in GD patients treated with radioiodine but could not explain the described findingsAnti-TPO6.3 IE/L at the time of GD diagnosis were associated with an increased risk to develop GO after diagnosis of GD. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperthyroid patient, the most likely diagnosis is autoimmune thyroid disease. THYROGLOBULIN Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a protein produced by ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  20. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid and Weight Thyroid and Weight FAQs THYROID, BMR & WEIGHT WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THYROID AND ... it is known as the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Indeed, measurement of the BMR was one of ...

  1. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common in people with a family history of thyroid disease. In very rare cases, the disease may be ... syndrome - Hashimoto; PGA II - Hashimoto Images Endocrine glands Thyroid enlargement - scintiscan Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) Thyroid gland References Amino N, Lazarus ...

  2. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media interested in ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  3. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ thyroid cancer treatment. Bethesda, ... February 4, 2016. www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ ...

  4. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  5. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in evaluation of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Jiang, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Hao-Yan; Sun, Jiao; Li, Pei-Yong; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2007-06-01

    A promising radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-Octreotide) can be applied for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with the potential to replace Indium-111 labeled somatostatin analogus. Here we evaluate whether orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be used as a Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) activity parameter to predict the retrobulbar irradiation response. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy was performed on 14 consecutive patients demonstrating moderated to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The patients were treated with retrobulbar irradiation following the octreoscan and the response to this therapy was assessed at 3 months after the start of treatment. The orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake was calculated to assess the effects of treatment. Among the 14 GO patients, eight (57.1%) responded to retrobulbar radiotherapy; six (42.9%) showed no change. We compared the eight responders and six non-responders in terms of orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake, using the orbital/occipital ratio. On the 4-h (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, responders had a higher orbital/occipital uptake ratio than the no-responders (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the orbital/occipital ratio and the clinical activity score (CAS) (P = 0.034). The Receiving-Operator-Characteristic curve showed the best threshold for discriminating active and inactive disease was 1.40 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 83.3%). In the responders group, all these eight patients had positive scintigraphy. While there were five patients who had negative scintigraphy in the non-responders group. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be a useful method for the estimation of disease activity and prediction the response to subsequent radiotherapy in GO patient. And the patients with positive octreoscan were more likely to respond to irradiation.

  6. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibodies in Pregnancy: Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Ines; Giuliani, Cesidio; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Graves’ disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves’ hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves’ disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR. The typical clinical features of Graves’ disease (goiter, hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy, dermopathy) occur when TSAbs predominate. Graves’ disease shows some peculiarities in pregnancy. The TRAbs disturb the maternal as well as the fetal thyroid function given their ability to cross the placental barrier. The pregnancy-related immunosuppression reduces the levels of TRAbs in most cases although they persist in women with active disease as well as in women who received definitive therapy (radioiodine or surgery) before pregnancy. Changes of functional properties from stimulating to blocking the TSHR could occur during gestation. Drug therapy is the treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism during gestation. Antithyroid drugs also cross the placenta and therefore decrease both the maternal and the fetal thyroid hormone production. The management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy should be aimed at maintaining euthyroidism in the mother as well as in the fetus. Maternal and fetal thyroid dysfunction (hyperthyroidism as well as hypothyroidism) are in fact associated with several morbidities. Monitoring of the maternal thyroid function, TRAbs measurement, and fetal surveillance are the mainstay for the management of Graves’ disease in pregnancy. This review summarizes the biochemical, immunological, and therapeutic aspects of Graves’ disease in pregnancy focusing on the role of the TRAbs in maternal and fetal

  7. The relationship between sex and symmetry in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoussi SC

    2014-07-01

    ophthalmopathy, thyroid status, clinical activity score, NO SPECS

  8. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  9. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  10. Paradoxical effects of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy and mild immunothyropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.; Rudolph, F.; Prillwitz, A.; Groth, P.; Schuemichen, C.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To examine all cases with Graves' disease after radioiodine therapy of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue (AFFT) in order to find the cause. Methods: We retrospectively studied 1428 pts who were treated between 11/93 and 3/97 with radioiodine for AFTT and who underwent at least one control examination. Results: 15 (1.1%) of all pts developed Graves' disease 8.4 (4-13) months after radioiodine therapy. There was no direct suggestion of Graves' disease (TRAK negative, no endocrine ophthalmopathy) in any pt at the time of radioiodine therapy. More detailed analysis of anamnestic data, however, revealed evidence that immunothyropathy predated radioiodine therapy in 11 of the 15 pts. Paradoxical effects of radioiodine therapy manifested as an increase in immunothyropathy 14 pts, a deterioration in metabolism in 11 pts and a first occurrence of endocrine ophthalmopathy in 5 pts. Conclusion: Exacerbation of preexisting, functional primarily insignificant immunothyropathia is held responsible in most cases for the observed paradoxical effects after radioiodine therapy, resulting in radiation-induced manifest Graves' disease; however no therapeutical consequences are recommended. (orig.) [de

  11. Application of new therapies in Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: animal models and translation to human clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banga, J Paul; Nielsen, Claus H; Gilbert, Jacqueline A

    2008-01-01

    immunosuppression. The recent development of an induced model of experimental Graves' disease, although incomplete as it lacks the extrathyroidal manifestations, provided opportunities to investigate immune intervention strategies, including influence upon the autoreactive B and T cell players in the autoimmune...

  12. Guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases (version 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Dressler, J. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik der Henriettenstiftung, Hannover (Germany); Gruenwald, F. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Leisner, B. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin des Allg. Krankenhauses St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany); Moser, E. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin der Radiologischen Universitaetsklinik Freiburg (Germany); Reiners, C.; Schneider, P. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Schober, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The version 3 of the guideline for radioiodine therapy for benign thyroid diseases presents first of all a revision of the version 2. The chapter indication for radioiodine therapy, surgical treatment or antithyroid drugs bases on an interdisciplinary consensus. The manifold criteria for decision making consider the entity of thyroid disease (autonomy, Graves' disease, goitre, goitre recurrence), the thyroid volume, suspicion of malignancy, cystic nodules, risk of surgery and co-morbidity, history of subtotal thyroidectomy, persistent or recurrent thyrotoxicosis caused by Graves' disease including known risk factors for relapse, compression of the trachea caused by goitre, requirement of direct therapeutic effect as well as the patient's preference. Because often some of these criteria are relevant, the guideline offers the necessary flexibility for individual decisions. Further topics are patients' preparation, counseling, dosage concepts, procedural details, results, side effects and follow-up care. The prophylactic use of glucocorticoids during radioiodine therapy in patients without preexisting ophthalmopathy as well as dosage and duration of glucocorticoid medication in patients with preexisting ophthalmopathy need to be clarified in further studies. The pragmatic recommendations for the combined use of radioiodine and glucocorticoids remained unchanged in the 3{sup rd} version. (orig.) [German] Die Version 3 der Leitlinie zur Radioiodtherapie (RIT) bei benignen Schilddruesenerkrankungen stellt im Wesentlichen eine redaktionelle Ueberarbeitung der Version 2 dar. Im Kapitel Indikation und Empfehlungen fuer eine Radioiodtherapie, eine Operation oder eine thyreostatische Therapie bei gutartigen Schilddruesenerkrankungen basiert die Leitlinie auf einem interdisziplinaer abgestimmten Konzept. Die Entscheidungskriterien sind multifaktoriell und beruecksichtigen die Art der Schilddruesenerkrankung (Autonomie, Morbus Basedow, Struma, Rezidivstruma

  13. Prognostic Value of Tc99m-Pertechnetate Thyroid Scintigraphy in Radioiodine Therapy in a Cohort of Chinese Graves’ Disease Patients: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study is to assess the prognostic value of Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy for predicting the outcomes of fixed low dose of radioiodine therapy (RIT in a cohort of Chinese Graves’ disease (GD patients. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective study of GD patients who received RIT with a single dose of radioiodine (5 mCi. All the patients received Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy prior to RIT. Thyroid mass, Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake, gender, age at diagnosis, duration of the disease, ophthalmopathy, and serum levels of FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 prior to RIT were analyzed as potential interference factors for outcomes of RIT. Results. One hundred and eighteen GD patients who completed RIT were followed up for 12 months. The outcomes (euthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism were found to be significantly associated with thyroid mass and Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake. Patients with thyroid mass ≤ 40.1 g or Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake ≤ 15.2% had higher treatment success. Conclusions. A fixed low dose of 5 mCi radioiodine seems to be practical and effective for the treatment of Chinese GD patients with thyroid mass ≤ 40.1 g and Tc99m-pertechnetate uptake ≤ 15.2%. This study demonstrates Tc99m-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy is an important prognostic factor for predicting the outcomes of RIT.

  14. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it keeps the temperature just right. What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid disorder ... into the kid's bloodstream. Why Do Kids Get Thyroid Disease? In most cases, doctors and scientists can't ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  16. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  17. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Overview Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  20. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Symptoms Thyroid cancer often begins as a small lump (nodule) ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  2. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive ...

  3. Presence of Dry Eye in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Kan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the tear function tests in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and to compare the results with healthy subjects. Methods. A hundred and ten patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 100 healthy subjects were included in this study. The presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and tear function tests were evaluated clinically. The results were first compared between the patients and the control groups and then compared between patients with NOSPECS and patients without NOSPECS. Logistic regression analyses of the risk factors for dry eye including sex, gender, free plasma thyroxine, proptosis, upper eyelid margin-reflex distance, and duration of the disease were also evaluated. Results. The mean ocular surface disease index score was significantly higher and mean Schirmer and mean tear break-up time scores were significantly lower in patients compared to control subjects. Mean Schirmer and tear break-up time scores were found to be significantly lower in patients with NOSPECS when compared to the patients without NOSPECS. Both proptosis and free plasma thyroxine levels were significantly associated with dry eye. Conclusions. Patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis tend to develop dry eye more common than healthy subjects. Proptosis and lower free plasma thyroxine levels were found to be risk factors for the presence of dry eye.

  4. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertini, Roberto; Dalurzo, Liliana; Jaen, Ana del V.

    2008-01-01

    In this document the case of a 66-year old woman is presented, with record of multi nodular goiter of 5 year of evolution, which is derived to scan ultrasound office to make a puncture-aspiration with thin needle because of the growth of nodular thyroid injuries. The ultrasound scan examination made before the puncture determine multiple dominant nodules of hyperplasia aspect between 15 and 25 mm of diameter and a small nodule of 6 mm suspected proliferate process. Despite its size, it was decided to include small nodule in injuries to a biopsy. The cytological study reveals nodular hyperplasia with carcinoma in the small nodule of 6 mm. A thyroidectomy is practiced on the patient. The deferred histological study of the thyroid gland confirms the finding of multi-nodular goiter with a small focus of papillar carcinoma. The ganglions examined were negative in the deferred examination [es

  5. Grief revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, B Y

    2005-06-01

    The article serves to examine the cultural influences on attitudes towards the deceased and bereaved, as well as on the practice of mourning, and to revisit normal and pathological variants of grief. Grief is a subjective state of psychological and physiological reaction to the loss of a loved one. Reaction to the loss is experienced internally in a uniform manner across cultures. However, mourning, the voluntary social expression of the loss, varies from culture to culture. Rituals provide a standardised mode of behaviour, which helps to relieve the sense of uncertainty or loss. There were reports of ghost sightings involving foreign tourists in the 6 worst-hit southern provinces in Thailand following the tsunami tragedy. This phenomenon of "mass hallucinations" is understandable from the cultural perspective. New models of grief have been developed to account for the individuality and diversity of grief and to encompass the social, behavioural and spiritual dimensions of loss as well as those of the psychological and physical. Clinically, the duration of grief reactions varies widely, depending on the nature of the loss and the connection to the deceased. In the case of the tsunami tragedy, with relatives missing, homes swept away and familiar neighbourhoods turned into wastelands, many victims are likely to have complicated grief. Traumatic grief, which includes a prominent component of separation distress characterised by yearning and searching and frequent "bittersweet" recollections of the deceased, has been associated with long-term dysfunction. Grief work utilising the traumatic grief treatment protocol appears to be a promising intervention.

  6. Thyroid metastasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Ibrahimpasic, Tihana; Nixon, Iain J; Shaha, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid gland are uncommon. Renal, lung, breast, and colon cancer and melanoma are the most common primary diseases implicated. Few retrospective series have been reported. Treatment decisions must be individualized, and will depend on the state of systemic disease. Selected patients could benefit from surgical treatment. Although most patients selected for surgery will not be cured, the aim of surgery is to avoid the complications of uncontrolled central neck disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Associations of CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established that T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4 is a susceptible gene for Graves’ disease (GD. Also many studies showed the association between the CTLA4 exon-1 49A/G polymorphism and the risk of developing Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO in GD patients. But those results were inconsistent. In recent years many new studies were published which helped to shed light on the relationship of CTLA4 SNP49 with GO. So we performed the meta-analysis to explore the association between the SNP49 and GO susceptibility in GD patients. Studies up to February 29, 2012, were searched by using PubMed. The odds ratio was used to evaluate the strength of the association. Altogether 12 case-control studies involving 2,505 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Results showed that the G allele was related to the increased risk of GO compared with the A allele under allelic genetic model (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.14–1.72, P=0.001 in European subgroup. No publication bias was detected. Our results showed that the SNP49 polymorphism of CTLA4 gene was related to increased risk of GO.

  8. Radiation therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Escola de Medicina de Marilia, SP (Brazil). Radiation Oncology Department; Boin, Andre Campiolo [Escola de Medicina de Marilia, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Escola de Medicina de Marilia, SP (Brazil). Department of Ophthalmology; Paula, Jayter Silva de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina. Department of Ophthalmology

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) with total dose of 20 Gy (RT 20 Gy) in the treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed comparing RT 20 Gy with or without glucocorticoid to clinical treatments for Graves' ophthalmopathy. The Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library databases and recent relevant journals were searched. Relevant reports were reviewed by two reviewers. Response to radiotherapy was defined as clinical success according to each trial. We also evaluated the quality of life and whether RT to produce fewer side effects than other treatments. Results: A total of 8 randomized controlled trials (439 patients) were identified. In the subgroup analysis, the overall response to treatment rates was better for: RT 20 Gy plus glucocorticoid vs glucocorticoids alone, OR=17.5 (CI95% 1.85-250, p=0.04), RT 20 Gy vs sham RT, OR= 3.15 (CI95% 1.59-6.23, p=0.003) and RT 20Gy plus intravenous glucocorticoid vs RT 20Gy plus oral glucocorticoid, OR=4.15(CI95% 1.34-12.87, p=0.01). There were no differences between RT 20 Gy versus other fractionations and RT 20 Gy versus glucocorticoid alone. RT 20 Gy with or without glucocorticoids showed an improvement in diplopia grade, visual acuity, optic neuropathy, lid width, proptosis and ocular motility. No difference was seen for costs, intraocular pressure and quality of life. Conclusion: Our data have shown that RT 20 Gy should be offered as a valid therapeutic option to patients with moderate to severe ophthalmopathy. The effectiveness of orbital radiotherapy can be increased by the synergistic interaction with glucocorticoids. Moreover, RT 20 Gy is useful to improve a lot of ocular symptoms, excluding intraocular pressure, without any difference in quality of life and costs. (author)

  9. Thyroid disease: thyroid function tests and interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases of the thyroid are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, especially in women, but the symptoms can be relatively nonspecific or mild. For this reason, clinicians have been placing increased reliance on the laboratory for assistance in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In the 1950s, only one thyroid test ...

  10. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases

  11. Test-retest reliability of the GO-QOL: a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire for patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwee, C. B.; Gerding, M. N.; Dekker, F. W.; Prummel, M. F.; van der Pol, J. P.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of a recently developed disease-specific quality of life questionnaire for evaluative studies in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (the GO-QOL), measuring visual functioning and psychosocial consequences of changed appearance. Ninety-three patients were

  12. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  13. Preliminary report: long-term results of transnasal orbital decompression in malignant Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, O; Oberländer, N; Neugebauer, A; Fricke, J; Rüssmann, W

    2000-06-01

    In order to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of transnasal orbital decompression for malignant Graves' ophthalmopathy, we carried out a retrospective chart review and clinical follow-up examination of 78 consecutive patients who were operated on for compressive optic neuropathy (CON) with loss of visual acuity or visual field defects. The intervention - strictly transnasal, endoscopically controlled, bilateral decompression of the medial and inferomedial wall of the orbit - was performed when medical and radiation therapy had failed. A total of 145 endonasal decompressions were performed on 78 patients (63 female, 15 male, 52. 2 +/- 10.5 yrs.) over 9 years. Of these, 65 were operated bilaterally, 15 required only unilateral decompression; 4 had repeated surgery. Visual acuity increased from an average of 0.50 +/- 0.27 (range, 0.01 - 1.25) to 0.75 +/- 0.21 (range, 0.01 - 1.25). Proptosis decreased by an average of 3.94 +/- 2.73 mm (range, -1.0 - 11.0 mm), from a mean preoperative Hertel measurement of 22.19 +/- 3. 13 mm (range, 15 - 34 mm) to a mean postoperative Hertel measurement of 18.3 +/- 2.65 mm (range, 10 - 26 mm). Ocular motility was corrected by recession of the medial rectus muscle in 58 cases, in 26 cases immediately after decompression in the same surgical session. The transnasal orbital decompression procedure improved vision, decreased proptosis in a range comparable to more invasive techniques and had favorable cosmetic results without additional disfiguring by scars. Post-decompression strabismus was successfully managed by recession of both medial orbital muscles in the same surgical session.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of short-time inversion recovery sequence in Graves' ophthalmopathy before and after prednisone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, Fabio; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cirillo, Sossio [' ' F. Magrassi-A. Lanzara' ' Second University, Naples (Italy). Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Surgery; Prudente, Mariaevelina [Second University, Naples (Italy). Medicine Dept.; Vita Salute San Raffaele Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Cirillo, Mario [Second University, Naples (Italy). Neuroradiological Services; Elefante, Andrea [Federic II Univ., Naples (Italy). Neuroradilogical Dept.; Carella, Carlo [Polidiagnostic Center Check-Up, Salerno (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS < 3) from active Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO) (CAS > 3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement. (orig.)

  15. Auto-estima na forma inativa da oftalmopatia de Graves Inactive Graves' ophthalmopathy and self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de Toledo Magalhães

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a auto-estima dos pacientes com oftalmopatia de Graves na fase inativa. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes portadores de oftalmopatia de Graves, eutireoideanos, na fase inativa, com idade variando entre 26 e 65 anos, média 43 ± 11,0 anos, denominado grupo estudo e 39 indivíduos que não apresentavam oftalmopatia de Graves, com idade variando entre 18 e 67 anos, média de 41 ± 13,4 anos, selecionados na população geral denominado grupo controle. Para avaliar a auto-estima foi utilizada a escala de auto-estima Rosenberg Unifesp-EPM aplicada por meio de entrevista. Os valores dos escores de auto-estima nos dois grupos estudados foram comparados pelo teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney. O mesmo teste foi aplicado com objetivo de comparar os resultados obtidos no grupo oftalmopatia de Graves considerando a gravidade da doença. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada alteração com significância estatística na auto-estima dos pacientes com oftalmopatia de Graves (p=0,057. O grupo estudo apresentou, em média, valores inferiores de auto-estima, comparado ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença da auto-estima entre os pacientes dos subgrupos leve e moderado-grave (P=0,2710. CONCLUSÃO: A oftalmopatia de Graves na fase inativa não afetou a auto-estima dos pacientes, no grupo estudado.PURPOSE: To assess the self-esteem of Graves' ophthalmopathy patients in the inactive phase. METHODS: Thirty euthyroid patients were evaluated in the inactive phase of disease with age ranging from 26 to 65 years, average of 43 ± 11,0 years, called study group and 39 individuals without Graves' ophthalmopathy with age ranging from 18 to 67 years, average of 41 ± 13,4 years, selected from the general population called control group. To evaluate the self-esteem the Rosenberg UNIFESP/EPM self-esteem scale, applied by means of an interview, was utilized. The self-esteem scores in the two studied groups were compared by means of the non

  16. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  17. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  18. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Hulya; Akman, Ipek; Coskun, Senay; Demirel, Utku; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah; Bilgen, Hulya; Ozek, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I) had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8%) in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4). Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5%) had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction. PMID:23737782

  19. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Neonatal Thyroid Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate obstetric features of pregnant women with thyroid disorders and thyroid function tests of their newborn infants. Methods. Women with hypothyroidism and having anti-thyroglobulin (ATG and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO antibodies were assigned as group I, women with hypothyroidism who did not have autoantibodies were assigned as group II, and women without thyroid problems were assigned as group III. Results. Pregnant women with autoimmune hypothyroidism (group I had more preterm delivery and their babies needed more frequent neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission. In group I, one infant was diagnosed with compensated hypothyroidism and one infant had transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Five infants (23.8% in group II had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels >20 mIU/mL. Only two of them had TSH level >7 mIU/L at the 3rd postnatal week, and all had normal free T4 (FT4. Median maternal TSH level of these five infants with TSH >20 mIU/mL was 6.6 mIU/mL. In group III, six infants (6.5% had TSH levels above >20 mIU/mL at the 1st postnatal week. Conclusion. Infants of mothers with thyroid problems are more likely to have elevated TSH and higher recall rate on neonatal thyroid screening. Women with thyroid disorders and their newborn infants should be followed closely for both obstetrical problems and for thyroid dysfunction.

  20. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... Information A LISTING OF THE FDA-APPROVED MEDICINES PRODUCT FDA RATING MANUFACTURER Unithroid® AB (Stevens)*+ L-Thyroxin ...

  1. Sarcoidosis and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Fazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies have shown a higher risk for subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, antithyroid autoantibodies [overall antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb], and in general, thyroid autoimmunity, overall in the female gender in patients with sarcoidosis (S. A significantly higher prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease was also described in female S patients with respect to controls. Gallium-67 (Ga-67 scyntigraphy in S patients, in the case of thyroid uptake, suggests the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. For this reason, ultrasonography and thyroid function should be done in the case of Ga-67 thyroid uptake. In conclusion, thyroid function, TPOAb measurement, and ultrasonography should be done to assess the clinical profile in female S patients, and the ones at high risk (female individuals, with TPOAb positivity, and hypoechoic and small thyroid should have periodically thyroid function evaluations and suitable treatments.

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  4. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  5. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  9. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  13. Thyroid and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape ...

  15. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  16. The incidence of ophthalmopathy after radioiodine therapy for Graves` disease: Prognostic factors and the role of methimazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, A.W.C. [Univ. of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); Cheng, A. [Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of development or exacerbation of Graves` ophthalmopathy (GO). This is thought to be associated with a surge of autoantibodies after RAI therapy. The role of methimazole (MMI), which possesses immunomodulatory action, in the prevention of GO was explored by studying 114 patients with Graves` disease. They were assigned randomly to receive either RAI alone or adjunctive antithyroid drugs, which consisted of MMI and L-T{sub 4} as a block-replacement therapy for 12 months and were followed for 2 yr. Thirty-five patients (30.7%) had GO at presentation. Twenty-one (18%) patients developed new GO, and six had worsening of preexisting GO. The development of hypothyroidism (P < 0.01) and an elevation of TSH (P < 0.05) were associated with increased risk of development or exacerbation of GO. The chance of development or exacerbation of GO is higher in those with no ophthalmopathy than in those with preexisting GO at presentation (P = 0.002). The incidence of development or exacerbation of GO was similar in the two treatment groups (RAI, 22.8%; adjunctive antithyroid drugs, 23.7%; P = NS). MMI was able to suppress the surge of TSH receptor antibody (TRAB) after RAI, but a surge in TRAB was not of prognostic significance for the development of GO after RAI. Patients who developed or had exacerbation of GO actually had lower TRAB at presentation (P = 0.02). The authors conclude that hypothyroidism with elevated TSH is an important adverse factor for the development or exacerbation of GO, and MMI was unable to prevent the development or exacerbation of GO after RAI. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy

    OpenAIRE

    KHATAVI, Fatima; NASROLLAHI, Kobra; ZANDI, Alireza; PANAHI, Maryam; MORTAZAVI, Mahshid; POURAZIZI, Mohsen; RANJBAR-OMIDI, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves’ orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy. In this procedure, levator aponeurectomy was performed via a transconjunctival approach. Upper marginal reflex dista...

  18. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  19. Increased percentage of L-selectin+ and ICAM-1+ peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T cells in active Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the percentage of CD4+/CD8+ peripheral T cells expressing CD62L+ and CD54+ in patients with Graves' disease and to assess if these estimations could be helpful as markers of active ophthalmopathy. The study was carried out in 25 patients with Graves' disease (GD divided into 3 groups: 1/ 8 patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO (CAS 3-6, GO complaints pound 1 year, 2/ 9 patients with hyperthyroid GD without symptoms of ophthalmopathy (GDtox and 3/ 8 patients with euthyroid GD with no GO symptoms (GDeu. The control group consisted of 15 healthy volunteers age and sex matched to groups 1-3. The expression of lymphocyte adhesion molecules was evaluated by using three-color flow cytometry. In GO group the percentage of CD8+CD54+, CD8+CD62L+, CD4+CD54+ and CD4+CD62L+ T cells was significantly higher as compared to controls (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively. The percentage of CD8+CD54+ T lymphocytes was also elevated in GO group in comparison to hyperthyroid GD patients (p< 0.05. CD4+CD62L+ and CD8+CD54+ percentages were also increased in GDtox and GDeu as compared to controls. We found a positive correlation between the TSHRab concentration and the percentage of CD8+CD62L+ T cells in all studied groups (r= 0.39, p<0.05 and between the TSHRab level and CAS (r= 0.77, p<0.05. The increased percentage of CD8+CD54+ and CD8+CD62L+ T cells in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy may be used as a marker of immune inflammation activity.

  20. Influence of radioiodine therapy on ocular changes and their relation to urine cotinine level in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnywojtek, A.; Czepczynski, R.; Budny, B.; Ruchata, M.; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, M.; Florek, E.; Komar-Rychlicka, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Radioiodine therapy (RIT) is frequently used as the definitive treatment in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism when remission is not achieved with anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs). In this observational study, we intended to examine whether the use of high doses of radioiodine (RAI) [22 mCi (814 MBq)] with prophylaxis of oral glucocorticoids (oGCS) does not exacerbate Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) in smokers and non-smokers, especially with regard to cotinine concentrations and ocular changes before and after RIT. Material and methods: The studied group consisted of 26 smokers, aged 28-61 years and 25 non-smoker patients, aged 21-54 years, respectively. The patients were qualified to RAI after one-year of ineffective ATDs treatment. Criterion for acceptance in the study were patients with mild GO with hyperthyroidism at diagnosis based on the severity (NOSPECS) and activity (CAS) scale. All the patients were subjected to RIT with oGCS prophylaxis and evaluated prospectively during a one-year follow-up. The ophthalmological examination was performed at various stages of RIT: initial pre-radioiodine administration, at the time of treatment 6, and 12 months after RAI. Urine cotinine measurement was employed to detect nicotine exposure, also in regard to smoking intensity. Results: TSHR-Abs concentration was higher in smokers (P < 0.05), rising from (22.9 ± 1.2) IU/l before therapy to (29.6 ± 5.3) IU/l at 2 months, (32.6 ± 8.6) IU/l at 6 months, and (28.9 ± 10.6) IU/l at 12 months after RIT. These observed changes were statistically different between groups at baseline (P < 0.05) and after one-year follow-up (P < 0.005). Mean urine cotinine were considerably higher in smokers comparing to non smokers in each point of. CAS values in the smoking group before RIT increased statistically from 2.8 ± 0.2 points at baseline to 4.3 ± 0.3 after 6 months, and 4.0 ± 0.5 (12 months), while in the non-smoking patients it was 1.4 ± 0.2, 2.8

  1. Pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Olympia; Moran, Carla; Halsall, David; Chatterjee, Krishna; Gurnell, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid function tests (TFTs) are amongst the most commonly requested laboratory investigations in both primary and secondary care. Fortunately, most TFTs are straightforward to interpret and confirm the clinical impression of euthyroidism, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. However, in an important subgroup of patients the results of TFTs can seem confusing, either by virtue of being discordant with the clinical picture or because they appear incongruent with each other [e.g. raised thyroid hormones (TH), but with non-suppressed thyrotropin (TSH); raised TSH, but with normal TH]. In such cases, it is important first to revisit the clinical context, and to consider potential confounding factors, including alterations in normal physiology (e.g. pregnancy), intercurrent (non-thyroidal) illness, and medication usage (e.g. thyroxine, amiodarone, heparin). Once these have been excluded, laboratory artefacts in commonly used TSH or TH immunoassays should be screened for, thus avoiding unnecessary further investigation and/or treatment in cases where there is assay interference. In the remainder, consideration should be given to screening for rare genetic and acquired disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis [e.g. resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), thyrotropinoma (TSHoma)]. Here, we discuss the main pitfalls in the measurement and interpretation of TFTs, and propose a structured algorithm for the investigation and management of patients with anomalous/discordant TFTs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  4. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from wel...

  5. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Performed This is a test to diagnose thyroid disease or thyroid cancer . It is often used to ... What Abnormal Results Mean Abnormal results may mean: Thyroid disease such as goiter or thyroiditis Noncancerous tumors Thyroid ...

  6. Imbalance of Th17/Treg in Different Subtypes of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To clarify the imbalance of Th17/Treg in different subtypes of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs including Graves' disease(GD, Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO. Methods: 47 patients with AITD (including 16 GD, 15 HT, and 16 GO and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, the ratio of Th17/Treg, as well as their related transcription factors RORγt and Foxp3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were measured by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR Results: Compared with those in control group, the percentage of CD4+IL-17+T cell(Th17 and the mRNA expression of its transcription factor RORγt were higher in PBMCs of AITDs (P+Foxp3+T (Treg cells and its transcription factor Foxp3 mRNA were significantly decreased in PBMCs of GD (PConclusion: Increased Th17 lymphocytes may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of HT and GO while decreased Treg may be greatly involved in GD.

  7. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  8. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar Bhardwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  9. Quality of life assessment in patients with Graves' disease and progressive infiltrative ophthalmopathy during combined treatment with methylprednisolone and orbital radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulig, G.; Andrysiak-Mamos, E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess quality of life (QoL) in patients with infiltrative form of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) during the combined pulse treatment with methylprednisolone and orbital radiotherapy, and also to search for the relation between the results of ophthalmopathy treatment and changes in QoL. Material and methods: The study involved 29 patients aged 25-74 (the mean age: 52 ±6 years) with infiltrative form of GO. They were classified for ophthalmopathy treatment on the basis of the following factors: the obtained euthyreosis, progressive character of eye changes, the level of eye changes determined on the basis of NO SPECS classification (at least class 3c), ophthalmopathy index (OI) according to Donaldson. 4. GO was diagnosed as active if CAS (clinical activity score) . 4. During the treatment, the patients received 6 cycles of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in doses of 1,0 g/24 h given as one-hour-long intravenous infusions for three successive days in a week. Between the 2 nd and 4 th cycle of Solu-Medrol, orbital radiotherapy with 10 MeV X-rays was performed. The control group was made up of healthy volunteers selected with regard to sex, age, educational background and nicotine addiction so as they corresponded with the study group. It involved 53 individuals aged 21-75 (the mean age: 52,4 ±14 years). QoL was assessed by means of the MOS SF-36 estionnaire. Results: Patients with GO evaluated their QoL lower than healthy individuals, which referred to physical functioning, physical and emotional role functioning, general health, vitality, social functioning, mental health and bodily pain. No correlation was found between quality of life and such factors as age, sex, or duration time of Graves disease and ophthalmopathy. Analogically, no relation was observed between the activity and stage of clinical development of eye changes and QoL. The use of the combined GO therapy contributed to a considerable decrease in the

  10. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  11. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  12. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta Zunino, L.

    1992-01-01

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author) [es

  13. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  14. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  15. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  16. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  17. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN)

  18. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  19. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  20. Revisiting the Rhetorical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the special strand on "Revisiting the rhetorical curriculum" is to explore the educational potential of a new rhetorical perspective, specifically in relation to different traditions within educational and rhetorical studies. This implies that we do not only look at education "in" rhetoric, but that we position education also "as" a…

  1. Revisiting Professional Teacher Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Society for Music Education's (ASME) involvement in the development of professional standards for music educators was a significant and active research time in the history of the Society. As ASME celebrates its golden jubilee, it is appropriate to revisit that history and consider the future prospects of subject-specific standards.…

  2. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  3. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  4. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis consist...

  5. Seven Issues Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul

    2002-01-01

    and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited several times, by Halasz in his 1991 Hypertext keynote talk, and by Randy Trigg in his 1996 Hypertext keynote...

  6. A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHATAVI, Fatima; NASROLLAHI, Kobra; ZANDI, Alireza; PANAHI, Maryam; MORTAZAVI, Mahshid; POURAZIZI, Mohsen; RANJBAR-OMIDI, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves’ orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves’ orbitopathy. In this procedure, levator aponeurectomy was performed via a transconjunctival approach. Upper marginal reflex distance (MRD1) was measured before the surgery and at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the surgery. MRD1 was reduced significantly from preoperatively (mean: 7.84 mm) to 1 week after the surgery (mean: 3.59 mm) (P MRD1 was 5.09 mm and 5.10 mm, respectively, showing that lid retraction was improved significantly (P < 0.001). Lateral levator aponeurectomy via the transconjunctival approach is a simple, scar-less, quick procedure that has optimal stable outcome. PMID:29367934

  7. A Promising Modified Procedure for Upper Eyelid Retraction-Associated Graves' Ophthalmopathy: Transconjunctival Lateral Levator Aponeurectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatavi, Fatima; Nasrollahi, Kobra; Zandi, Alireza; Panahi, Maryam; Mortazavi, Mahshid; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Ranjbar-Omidi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Upper eyelid retraction is a characteristic feature of thyroid eye disease, including Graves' orbitopathy. In this study, a new surgical technique for correction of lid retraction secondary to Graves' orbitopathy is described. Sixteen eyelids of patients older than 18 years old underwent surgical correction for moderate to severe lid retraction secondary to Graves' orbitopathy. In this procedure, levator aponeurectomy was performed via a transconjunctival approach. Upper marginal reflex distance (MRD1) was measured before the surgery and at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after the surgery. MRD1 was reduced significantly from preoperatively (mean: 7.84 mm) to 1 week after the surgery (mean: 3.59 mm) (P MRD1 was 5.09 mm and 5.10 mm, respectively, showing that lid retraction was improved significantly (P < 0.001). Lateral levator aponeurectomy via the transconjunctival approach is a simple, scar-less, quick procedure that has optimal stable outcome.

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  10. Flavonoids and thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der D.; Kastelijn, J.; Schroder-van der Elst, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The most potent natural plant-derived compounds that can affect thyroid function, thyroid hormone secretion and availability to tissues is the group of flavonoids, i.e. plant pigments. They are present in our daily food, such as vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, wine, and tea. Epidemiological

  11. Thyroid evaluation with radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is given therapeutically for the treatment of hypothyroidism and in goiterous conditions. When administered in full maintenance dosage, it interrupts the operation of the homeostatic mechanism that evokes excesses of thyrotropin (TSH) in response to various goiterogenic stimuli or impending thyroid failure, resulting in thyroid gland enlargement. All patients with treated thyroid cancer are maintained indefinitely on full replacement dosages of thyroid hormone to eliminate endogenous TSH and its trophic effect, thereby minimizing recurrence and growth of the tumor. A high-risk group of patients that were irradiated to the head and neck in childhood for various reasons are placed on thyroid hormone therapy prophylactically to turn off their endogenous TSH if they are found free of thyroid nodularity on initial evaluation. The adequacy of thyroid hormone therapy and the regularity of its intake can be ultimately evaluated by the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, where no TSH response indicates adequate therapy and a normal TSH response suggests inadequate or irregular treatment

  12. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  13. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of short-time inversion recovery sequence in Graves' Ophthalmopathy before and after prednisone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Fabio; Prudente, Mariaevelina; Cirillo, Mario; Elefante, Andrea; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Carella, Carlo; Cirillo, Sossio

    2014-05-01

    In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS  3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of short-time inversion recovery sequence in Graves' ophthalmopathy before and after prednisone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, Fabio; Belfiore, Maria Paola; Romano, Francesco; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cirillo, Sossio

    2014-01-01

    In Graves' Ophthalmopathy, it is important to distinguish active inflammatory phase, responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, from fibrotic unresponsive inactive one. The purpose of this study is, first, to identify the relevant orbital magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities before treatment, so to classify patients according to their clinical activity score (CAS), discriminating inactive (CAS 3) subjects and, second, to follow post-steroid treatment disease. An observational study was executed on 32 GO consecutive patients in different phases of disease, based on clinical and orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging parameters, compared to 32 healthy volunteers. Orbital Magnetic Resonance Imaging was performed on a 1.5 tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit by an experienced neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical examinations. In pre-therapy patients, compared to controls, a medial rectus muscle statistically significant signal intensity ratio (SIR) in short-time inversion recovery (STIR) (long TR/TE) sequence was found, as well as when comparing patients before and after treatment, both medial and inferior rectus muscle SIR resulted significantly statistically different in STIR. These increased outcomes explain the inflammation oedematous phase of disease, moreover after steroid administration, compared to controls; patients presented lack of that statistically significant difference, thus suggesting treatment effectiveness. In our study, we proved STIR signal intensities increase in inflammation oedematous phase, confirming STIR sequence to define active phase of disease with more sensibility and reproducibility than CAS alone and to evaluate post-therapy involvement. (orig.)

  16. A prospective study of the effects of radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism in patients with minimally active graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, Petros; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Neoh, Chris; Frewin, Sarah; Dickinson, Jane

    2005-09-01

    Radioiodine is an effective and safe treatment for hyperthyroidism but has been implicated as a risk factor for deterioration or new presentation of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Prophylactic glucocorticoids appear to prevent this effect. The objective of this study was to document the course of GO after radioiodine therapy. This was a prospective observational study. Patients were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, and 12 months after radioiodine therapy. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Seventy-two GO patients with minimally active eye disease participated in the study. A fixed dose of radioiodine was administered. T(4) was commenced 2 wk later to prevent hypothyroidism. Change in activity and severity of GO were analyzed. Exophthalmometer readings, the width of the palpebral aperture, diplopia scores, and the clinical activity score improved significantly. By clinically significant criteria, the eye disease improved in four patients (transiently in three of the four cases), most likely attributable to the natural course of the disease. No patient's eyes deteriorated. Radioiodine is not associated with deterioration of GO in patients with minimally active eye disease when postradioiodine hypothyroidism is prevented.

  17. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy using turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Momosaka, D; Honda, H

    2018-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to correlate diffusivity of extraocular muscles, measured by three-dimensional turbo field echo (3DTFE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, with their size and activity in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. Twenty-three patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy were included. There were 17 women and 6 men with a mean age of 55.8±12.6 (SD) years (range: 26-83 years). 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium MR images were obtained with b-values of 0 and 500s/mm 2 . The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of extraocular muscles was measured on coronal reformatted MR images. Signal intensities of extraocular muscles on conventional MR images were compared to those of normal-appearing white matter, and cross-sectional areas of the muscles were also measured. The clinical activity score was also evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed with Pearson correlation and Mann-Whitney U tests. On 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation, the mean ADC of the extraocular muscles was 2.23±0.37 (SD)×10 -3 mm2/s (range: 1.70×10 -3 -3.11×10 -3 mm 2 /s). There was a statistically significant moderate correlation between ADC and the size of the muscles (r=0.61). There were no statistically significant correlations between ADC and signal intensity on conventional MR and the clinical activity score. 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation technique allows quantifying diffusivity of extraocular muscles in patients with Grave's ophthalmopathy. The diffusivity of the extraocular muscles on 3DTFE with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation MR images moderately correlates with their size. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Amiodarone and the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Bartalena, Luigi; Pach, Dorota; Ruchała, Marek; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone, a benzofuranic iodine-rich antiarrhythmic drug, causes thyroid dysfunction in 15-20% of cases. Amiodarone can cause both hypothyroidism (AIH, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism) and thyrotoxicosis (AIT, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis). AIH is treated by L-thyroxin replacement and does not need amiodarone discontinuation. There are two main forms of AIT: type 1, a form of true iodine-induced hyperthyroidism; and type 2, a drug-induced destructive thyroiditis. However, mixed/indefinite forms exist, contributed to by both pathogenic mechanisms. Type 1 AIT usually occurs in diseased thyroid glands, whereas type 2 AIT develops in substantially normal thyroid glands. Thioamides represent the first-line treatment for type 1 AIT, but iodine-replete glands are poorly responsive; sodium/potassium perchlorate, by inhibiting thyroidal iodine uptake, may increase the response to thioamides. Type 2 AIT is best treated by oral glucocorticoids. Response depends on thyroid volume and severity of thyrotoxicosis. Mixed/indefinite forms may require a combination of thioamides, potassium perchlorate, and steroids. Radioiodine treatment is usually not feasible because amiodarone-related iodine load decreases thyroidal radioiodine uptake. Thyroidectomy represents an important and helpful option in cases resistant to medical therapy. Surgery performed by a skilled surgeon may represent an emergent treatment in patients who have severe cardiac dysfunction.

  20. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Benabadji, Nadjia; Benzian, Zakaria; Amani, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  1. Radiotherapy of Graves' ophthalmopathy. State of the art and review of the literature; Radiotherapie der endokrinen Orbitopathie. State of the Art und Literaturuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eich, H.T. [Klinikum der Univ. Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Micke, O. [Franziskus-Hospital Bielefeld (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Seegenschmiedt, M.H. [Alfried-Krupp Krankenhaus Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie

    2007-07-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, is a disorder of autoimmune origin, the pathogenic mechanisms of which are still incompletely understood. Although GO is severe in only 3-5% of affected individuals, quality of life is severely impaired even in patients with mild GO. The role of radiotherapy in the management of GO is discussed controversially. However, recent randomized clinical trials have, with one exception, confirmed that orbital radiotherapy is an effective and safe therapeutic procedure for GO. This article describes the sequences, dosages and fractionation schemes as well as the risks and side effects of the radiotherapy. (orig.)

  2. [Autoimmune thyroid diseases complicated with reversible changes of thyroid function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Y; Ochi, Y

    1999-08-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AID) with reversible thyroid dysfunction was classified mainly by etiology. Hashimoto thyroiditis itself, pregnancy, cytokine therapy and various drugs, iodine-rich food and AID with TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) were main items. Silent or painless thyroiditis which was termed destructive thyroiditis occurs without clear cause or after adrenectomy for Cushing syndrome. Abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rarely causes transient thyrotoxicosis at early phase of pregnancy and postpartum thyroiditis which has similar symptom as silent thyroiditis is relatively common disorders. Thyroid dysfunction of patients with both TRAb (TSAb and TSBAb) is pathophysiologically unknown and the detection of both antibodies in a patient serum is difficult methodologically. We developed the highly sensitive TSAb assay by patients' IgG precipitated by high concentration PEG (22.5%) using porcine thyroid cell. This assay is also useful for detection of the coexistence cases of TSAb and TSBAb.

  3. Chemotherapy in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chemotherapy alone, either as a single drug or a combination of drugs with or without external radiation (ER) is useful for treatment of locally advanced disease and non iodine concentrating metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). The reported response is not encouraging, but the absence of better alternatives leave no choice for the treatment of such cases. However, for treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ANC), chemotherapy (CT) in combination with ER results in local control. In medullary thyroid cancers (MTC), the results obtained with multimodal treatment are encouraging

  4. [Amiodarone and thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maby-Mottet, V; Ollo, D; Meyer, P

    2012-11-14

    Amiodarone, an iodine-rich drug, results in mild disturbances of thyroid function in most patients and in thyroid dysfunction in approximately 20% of them. Hypothyroidism, mainly found in countries without iodine deficiency, is substituted with levothyroxine and does not need amiodarone to be discontinued. Hyperthyroidism, commonly found in areas of iodine deficiency, is more complex and usually motivates discontinuation of amiodarone. Type I hyperthyroidism, induced by iodine overload, is treated with antithyroid drugs, and type 2, resulting from the cytotoxic effect of amiodarone, may be treated with glucocorticoids. Considering the risk of thyroid dysfunction in patients treated with amiodarone, it is recommended to check regularly TSH level.

  5. Remembered Experiences and Revisit Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered...

  6. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  7. Time functions revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  8. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  9. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Older Patients and Thyroid Disease DEFINITION: WHAT DO THE FOLLOWING PATIENTS OVER THE ... Nodules in Children and Adolescents Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Resources Older Patients and Thyroid Disease Brochure PDF ...

  10. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  11. Development of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive ... of any allergies you may have or other problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 ... I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin ...

  15. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fatigue Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the test. You should also drink plenty of water to help flush the radioactive material out of ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief periods of time ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... capturing images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for ... Often, two separate uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor of any recent illnesses, medical conditions, allergies, medications you’re taking and whether you’ve had ... thyroid gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other ... performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ...

  5. HIV and thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Alan A; Bhangoo, Amrit

    2013-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are associated with dysfunction of many endocrine organs and their axis. HIV infectivity leads to altered metabolism, poor oral intake and increased prevalence of weight loss and wasting which may have a role in thyroid dysfunction. Overt thyroid dysfunction occurs at similar rates as the general population while subclinical disease such as nonthyroidal illness (sick euthyroid syndrome), subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated low T4 levels are more frequent. Moreover, HAART therapy can complicate thyroid function further through drug interactions and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this review we report the common thyroid dysfunctions associated with HIV before and after HAART therapy. We discuss presentation, diagnostic work up, treatment and follow up in each condition.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of abnormality, such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, there may be some discomfort from having to ...

  7. MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary thyroid carcinoma belongs to orphan diseases affecting a small part of the population. Multicenter trials are required to elaborate a diagnostic algorithm, to define treatment policy, and to predict an outcome.

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your examination, blood tests may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. ... device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer in a small ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive ... images does not necessarily mean there was a problem with the exam or that something abnormal was ...

  11. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... a very important role in controlling the body's metabolism . It does this by producing thyroid hormones , primarily ...

  12. Thyroid hemiagenesis with immunthyropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.

    1999-01-01

    A case of Graves' disease occurring in a patient with hemiagenesis is presented. The detection of the rare occurrence of a congential hemiagenesis is often made by either clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or anatomical abnormalities such as nodular goiter. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning and ultrasonography of an absent lobe. Anti-thyroid antibody studies documented the presence of Graves' disease within the remaining lobe. (orig.) [de

  13. Papillary thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, C; Asschenfeldt, P; Sørensen, J A

    1994-01-01

    The age influence on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma was analyzed in a group of 67 patients. A marked decline in cause-specific survival was found for patients older than 60 years of age at the time of diagnosis. In order to find a tumor-biological explanation of the prognostic...... invasion and distant metastases. The results indicate that 60 years of age the time of diagnosis may be the "prognostic break-point" for papillary thyroid carcinoma....

  14. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density...

  15. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  16. Thyroid hormone receptors in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in energy homeostasis throughout life. Thyroid hormone production and secretion by the thyroid gland is regulated via the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Thyroid hormone has to be transported into the cell, where it can bind to the thyroid hormone

  17. Revisiting Plummer Vinson Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pernicious anemia, thyroid disease, Sjogren's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.[7,9,10]. Iron replacement is recommended at least until normalization of the hematocrit and ferritin levels. Apart from endoscopic dilatation, argon plasma coagulation therapy of esophageal.

  18. Effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy with and without alendronate on biochemical markers of bone turnover in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasińska, Teresa; Borowska, Anna; Wichary, Hanna; Dec, Renata

    2012-01-01

     Immunosuppression with glucocorticoids is the method of choice in the treatment of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). However, glucocorticoid therapy may have side effects, among others, it affects bone metabolism.  The aim of the study was to compare the effect of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) with and without alendronate on bone turnover markers in patients with GO with normal and reduced bone mineral density (BMD).  The study included 53 patients with GO and 20 sex- and age‑matched healthy controls. Twenty patients with normal BMD (17 women, 3 men, aged 45 ±1.0 years) received only MPPT (8 g intravenously during 4 weeks). The remaining patients, with reduced BMD, were randomly assigned either to MPPT without alendronate (10 women, 2 men, aged 47 ±1.0 years) or MPPT with alendronate (18 women, 3 men, aged 47 ±1.0 years). BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck was assessed using dual energy X‑ray absorptiometry  (DEXA) before treatment. The markers of bone formation (serum osteocalcin, carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen [PICP], alkaline phospatase) and the markers of bone resorption (serum carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen [ICTP], cross‑linked C‑terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [CTX], serum calcium [Ca] and potassium [P], as well as urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline, Ca, and P) were determined before and after treatment.  MPPT caused a decrease in bone formation markers and an increase in some bone resorption markers. MPPT with alendronate decreased bone formation and bone resorption markers.  A negative effect of MPPT on bone turnover is observed both in patients with GO with normal and with reduced BMD. Simultaneous use of MPPT and alendronate in patients with GO and reduced BMD suppresses bone resorption caused by methylprednisolone.

  19. Dysfunction of thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid hormone transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrugger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential in processes of growth and development especially in the development of the central nervous system. Malfunction in thyroid hormone synthesis or decrease in the availability of thyroid hormones can lead to diseases as for example congenital hypothyroidism. In this thesis genetic variations (mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene, mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene) as well as exogenic factors (endocrine disrupters) were examined, leading to d...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Page Dong YH, Fu DG. Autoimmune thyroid disease: mechanism, genetics and current knowledge. Eur Rev Med ... Tomer Y. Cutting edge: the etiology of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011 Oct;41(2): ...

  1. Clinical studies on thyroid diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on some aspects of thyroid disease: prevention of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), diagnosis of related conditions as autoimmune hypophysitis in autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease), and treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT).

  2. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  3. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  4. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  5. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  6. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical ...

  7. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  8. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  9. Reframing in dentistry: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kamatham, Rekalakshmi; Challa, Ramasubbareddy; Asokan, Sharath

    2013-01-01

    The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child's behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  10. EAMJ Jan. Thyroid.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... age-related population because thyroid diseases significantly affect fertility rate and autoimmune thyroid disease tend to remit during pregnancy. (2,4). Numerous hormonal changes and metabolic demands occur in pregnancy, resulting in complex changes in maternal thyroid function, yet normal.

  11. Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisa Izić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

  12. Thyroid Disorders in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    to enhance thyroid-targeted expression of sodium/iodide symporter. J Clin Endocrinol. Metab 89(5): 2344-2350. Mariotti, S, Cambuli, VM (2007) Cardiovascular risk in elderly hypothyroid patients. Thyroid 17. (11): 1067-1073. Mariotti, S, Franceschi, C, Cossarizza, A, Pinchera, A. (1995) The aging thyroid. Endocr Rev 16(6):.

  13. Thyroid disease in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Panayota; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George

    2011-09-01

    Several changes in thyroid hormone secretion, metabolism, and action occur with the increase in age. Aging is often associated with a decrease in serum thyroid stimulating hormone and T3 levels, whereas serum free T4 levels usually remain unchanged. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is higher in the elderly as compared to the younger population. In elderly individuals the non-specific clinical manifestations of thyroid hormone excess or deprivation can cause confusion in the clinical setup; while some of the symptoms of thyroid disease are similar to those in younger patients, it is not uncommon for both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism to be manifested in subtle ways in older patients, often mimicking symptoms of aging or masquerading as diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or nervous system. In addition, diagnosis of thyroid disorders is commonly complicated, due to chronic, non-thyroidal illness or medication therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment of overt thyroid disorders is crucial, since these disorders are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly, usually due to common coexistent diseases such as diminished cardiovascular reserve. Treatment of subclinical thyroid disease should also be considered, based on a combination of age, symptoms and risk factors in the individual patients. In addition, both prevalence and aggressiveness of thyroid cancer increase with age. This review summarizes the changes of thyroid function, as well as the clinical manifestations and treatment of thyroid disorders with advancing age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kradinov, A.I.; Fesenko, V.P.; Kabalich, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size [ru

  16. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  17. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  18. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  19. Subacute Thyroiditis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANAN YILDIZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case of subacute thyroiditis occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy in a 33-years-old pregnant patient. Thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy is a rare condition and occurs in 0.1 to 0.4% of all pregnancies. Graves' Disease and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis constitute the majority of emerging thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Subacute thyroiditis may also cause temporary thyrotoxicosis. Although the majority of the patients recover without treatment, complications in the pregnancy should be considered and each patient must be evaluated individually. As a result, differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy and treatment plan should be done well and subacute thyroiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 1-1

  20. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  3. Molecular pathology and thyroid FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, D N; Glaysher, S

    2017-12-01

    This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies. This review describes practical examples of molecular techniques as applied to thyroid FNA in routine clinical practice and the value of molecular diagnostics in thyroid FNA. It describes the range of molecular abnormalities identified in thyroid nodules and thyroid cancers with some practical applications of molecular methods to diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPARγ rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  5. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  6. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis and hashimotofs thyroiditis (HT) are the two main forms of autoimmune thyroiditis among which the latter is most frequent. A vast majority of cases of papillary carcinoma and primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) arise in the setting of HT. A case of 32.year.old female who presented with thyroid ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  9. Primary thyroid lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur-Roszak, M.; Litwiniuk, M.; Lacka, K.

    2007-01-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease with heterogeneous histological and clinical characteristics. As a result, diagnosis and subsequent management of the disease is difficult. PTL occurs most commonly in the thyroid glands with a background of Hashimotos thyroiditis. The clinical presentation was usually an enlarging neck mass squeezing the surrounding structures. Most patients can be diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by immuno phenotypic analysis, obviating the need for open surgical biopsy. Main histopathologic subtypes are either diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Patients with localised, low-grade MALT lymphomas may be treated with surgery. Postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy is necessary in some patients. Systemic chemotherapy is the optimal treatment for DLBCL. In this group surgery may be used for palliative debulking to alleviate obstructive symptoms. Prognosis for MALT lymphoma is good. Diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients have poor prognosis (5-yr survival <50%). What should be stressed here is that patients with rapidly growing nodular goitre with or without cervical adenopathy should always be examined for primary thyroid lymphoma. (authors)

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the patient's body. In contrast, nuclear medicine procedures use a ... off a small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays. Special cameras ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of the Thyroid Scan ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  15. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  17. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  18. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas; Holmer, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin....... We show that the “brachiopod fold hypothesis,” which argues that brachiopods are transversely “folded” across the ontogenetic anterior–posterior axis, should be rejected at least with respect to the craniiforms. The data now suggest that the Craniiformea may be a derived group within......), such as a through-gut and missing hinge articulation, may thus be secondarily derived characters of the Craniiformea within the Rhynchonelliformea....

  19. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  20. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  1. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  2. 2009 American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P

    2010-08-01

    The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.

  3. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  4. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    also indicate thyroid-disruptive properties of phthalates, but the effect of certain phthalates seems to be stimulative on TH production, contrary to most other groups of chemicals. Thyroid disruption may be caused by a variety of mechanisms, as different chemicals interfere with the hypothalamic......-pituitary-thyroid axis at different levels. Mechanisms of action may involve the sodium-iodide symporter, thyroid peroxidase enzyme, receptors for THs or TSH, transport proteins or cellular uptake mechanisms. The peripheral metabolism of the THs can be affected through effects on iodothyronine deiodinases or hepatic...... enzymes. Even small changes in thyroid homeostasis may adversely affect human health, and especially fetal neurological development may be vulnerable. It is therefore urgent to clarify whether the animal data showing effects of chemicals on thyroid function can be extended to humans....

  5. Thyroid dysfunction and rheumatic diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Delamere, J P; Scott, D L; Felix-Davies, D D

    1982-01-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms developing during the treatment of thyroid disease were studied in 150 patients; 17 developed a symptom complex of early morning stiffness together with shoulder girdle pain and weakness; similar symptoms were seen in only 3 of 100 controls. A prospective study of 16 patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis followed during the first 6 months of penicillamine therapy showed no changes in thyroid function tests. It is suggested that changing or abnormal thyroid s...

  6. Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Loudon, M M; Day, R E; Duke, E M

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen children with Down's syndrome, living in the community, were examined for clinical or laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction. Three were hypothyroid and one was hyperthyroid. Twenty eight (29%) had thyroid autoantibodies. Autoimmune conditions were present in first or second degree relatives of 35 (30%) of the children, and in 17 (15%) this was a thyroid disorder. The families of normal control children also showed a 30% incidence of overt autoimmune conditions, an...

  7. Parathyroid transplantation in thyroid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Barczyński, Marcin; Gołkowski, Filip; Nawrot, Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid surgery is rare. Its prevalence is reported to be below 1–2% if surgery is performed by experienced thyroid surgeons. Parathyroid identification and preservation in situ with good vascular supply is the mainstay of safe thyroid surgery. However, if the parathyroid glands are damaged, autotransplantation should be undertaken to preserve their function. Parathyroid transplantation can be considered in three distinct modes of application: (I) fresh ...

  8. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...... hormone involvement in thermogenesis and regulation of uncoupling proteins. In this review, we have focused on leptin in relation to thyroid pathophysiology....

  9. The clinician and the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.

    1991-01-01

    The goiter prevalence in iodine-deficient regions is up to 25%-54%. The most frequent disease in these endemic areas is non-toxic goiter, which is, however, oftentimes connected with autonomously functioning thyroid tissue leading to borderline or overt hyperthyroidism. Other thyroid diseases like cancer, thyroiditis and hypothyroidism play only a miner role in a thyroid clinic, while cases of Graves' disease may be observed more frequently. The most cost-effective tools to evaluate thyroid patients are the hand, ear and mouth of the thyroid clinician. The differential diagnosis of thyroid disorders may be evaluated by a battery of diagnostic tools like in-vitro tests and high performance imaging modalities. Once the diagnosis is established, the appropriate therapeutic procedures (drugs, radioiodine, surgery) have to be chosen. This review should be considered as a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. In addition, special problems concerning elderly patients and pregnant women are discussed, including the differential diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (orig.)

  10. HYPOTHYROIDISM FOLLOWING THYROID SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lankarani

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Postsurgical hypothyroidism and its incidence has not been fully investigated. In this study, the incidence of hypothyroidism and its possible risk factors at Shariati Hospital was assessed. One hundred and two patients with benign thyroid diseases, who had undergone thyroidectomy, were investigated with regards to thyroid function profile during period of one year after the operation every three months with post-operative sample as the baseline. Hypothyroidism was developed in 36 patients (35.2% on average 5 ± 3.2 months after surgery. Factors such as increased age, operation type, histopathologic type, underlying disease, lymphocytic infiltration and use of levothyroxine before surgery were associated with the increased incidence of hypothyroidism. It seems that use of indicators such as Graves' disease and lymphocytic infiltration in pathologic specimens should be helpful in projecting the potential occurrence of hypothyroidism in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

  11. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Gouriprasanna; Mugesh, G

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, generated by thyroid oxidase enzymes, is a crucial substrate for the thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the thyroid gland. It is believed that the $H_2O_2$ generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, the control of hydrogen peroxide concentration is one of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthe...

  12. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Takavar A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Usin...

  13. Thyroid Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Calsolaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptor compounds are exogenous agents able to interfere with a gland function, exerting their action across different functional passages, from the synthesis to the metabolism and binding to receptors of the hormone produced. Several issues, such as different levels and time of exposure and different action across different ages as well as gender, make the study of endocrine disruptors still a challenge. The thyroid is very sensitive to the action of disruptors, and considering the importance of a correct thyroid function for physical and cognitive functioning, addressing this topic should be considered a priority. In this review, we examined the most recent studies, many of them concentrating on maternal and child exposure, conducted to assess the impact of industrial chemicals which showed an influence on thyroid function. So far, the number of studies conducted on that topic is not sufficient to provide solid conclusions and lead to homogeneous guidelines. The lack of uniformity is certainly due to differences in areas and populations examined, the different conditions of exposures and the remarkable inter-subject variability. Nonetheless, the European Commission for Health and Food Safety is implementing recommendations to ensure that substances identified as endocrine disruptors will be withdrawn from the market.

  14. Radiation and thyroid neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConahey, W.M.; Hayles, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck, and upper thorax of infants, children, and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years, external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis, and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scatter radiation. The use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice, and its value was attested by many. Concern about the adverse effects was not initially appreciated, primarily because of the long periods of time between the radiation and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions

  15. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Substernal Thyroid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H. Regal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum. They preserve the connection between the thoracic and cervical portion and receive their blood supply from the neck.2,3 In 1940, the seminal report of Wakeley and Mulvany divided intrathoracic thyroid masses into 3 types; (1”Small substernal extension” of a mainly cervical mass, (2 “Partial” intrathoracic, in which the major portion of the mass is situated within the thorax, and (3”Complete” in which all of the mass lies within the thoracic cavity.

  17. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    Metastatic Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  18. Thyroid size and thyroid function during pregnancy: an analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of all available studies of thyroid size and function in pregnancy reveals that thyroid size, estimated by inspection and palpation or measured more accurately by ultrasonography, increases in pregnancy in areas of iodine deficiency but not in those with sufficient iodine. The increase

  19. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid malignancy: Experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To review the profile of thyroid disease in patients with goitre presenting to the Department of Surgery at Polokwane Mankweng Hospital Complex (PMHC), Limpopo, SA, to characterise the pattern of malignancy in patients with goitre, and to determine the most common thyroid cancer. Method. A 6-year retrospective study ...

  20. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horster, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.) [de

  1. Revisiting The Depleted Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Reggie

    2018-04-01

    This article revisits Donald Capps's book The Depleted Self (The depleted self: sin in a narcissistic age. Fortress Press, Minneapolis, 1993), which grew out of his 1990 Schaff Lectures at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. In these lectures Capps proposed that the theology of guilt had dominated much of post-Reformation discourse. But with the growing prevalence of the narcissistic personality in the late twentieth century, the theology of guilt no longer adequately expressed humanity's sense of "wrongness" before God. Late twentieth-century persons sense this disjunction between God and self through shame dynamics. Narcissists are not "full" of themselves, as popular perspectives might indicate. Instead, they are empty, depleted selves. Psychologists suggest this stems from lack of emotional stimulation and the absence of mirroring in the early stages of life. The narcissist's search for attention and affirmation takes craving, paranoid, manipulative, or phallic forms and is essentially a desperate attempt to fill the internal emptiness. Capps suggests that two narratives from the Gospels are helpful here: the story of the woman with the alabaster jar and the story of Jesus's dialogue with Mary and John at Calvary. These stories provide us with clues as to how depleted selves experienced mirroring and the potential for internal peace in community with Jesus.

  2. Magnetic moments revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, I.S.; Khanna, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of core polarization, isobar currents and meson-exchange processes gives a satisfactory understanding of the ground-state magnetic moments in closed-shell-plus (or minus)-one nuclei, A = 3, 15, 17, 39 and 41. Ever since the earliest days of the nuclear shell model the understanding of magnetic moments of nuclear states of supposedly simple configurations, such as doubly closed LS shells +-1 nucleon, has been a challenge for theorists. The experimental moments, which in most cases are known with extraordinary precision, show a small yet significant departure from the single-particle Schmidt values. The departure, however, is difficult to evaluate precisely since, as will be seen, it results from a sensitive cancellation between several competing corrections each of which can be as large as the observed discrepancy. This, then, is the continuing fascination of magnetic moments. In this contribution, we revisit the subjet principally to identify the role played by isobar currents, which are of much concern at this conference. But in so doing we warn quite strongly of the dangers of considering just isobar currents in isolation; equal consideration must be given to competing processes which in this context are the mundane nuclear structure effects, such as core polarization, and the more popular meson-exchange currents

  3. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  4. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  5. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (PHashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. The effect of excessive iodine diet on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuhua; Li Yaming

    2009-01-01

    The modify of the thyroid cell structure can be induced by excessive iodine diet. Then the disordered thyroid function can result in a number of thyroid disease. The radionucline thyroid imaging play an important role in diagnoses of thyroid. Amplify on the effect of excessive diet on thyroid function will be worthy instructing what preparation should do before doing the thyroid nuclide imaging. (authors)

  7. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  8. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-09

    thirds of the subjects in this study. The serum TSH concentration is a reliable screening test for thyroid dysfunction in the elderly, but is less useful if used to identify biochemical thyroid disease. An elevated TSH concentration is a ...

  9. Plasma fibronectin and thyroid function.

    OpenAIRE

    Graninger, W; Pirich, K; Derfler, K; Waldhäusl, W

    1985-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations up to 85 mg/100 ml were found in hyperthyroid patients. There was a significant correlation between free thyroxine index and plasma fibronectin values. Hypothyroid patients had low to normal fibronectin concentrations. Parallel decreases of thyroid hormones and plasma fibronectin concentrations were noted during treatment with thiamazole. A direct effect of thyroid hormones on fibronectin synthesis seems probable.

  10. Laboratory investigations in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of in vitro tests for diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor is negligible. However, monitoring the adequacy of thyroxin replacement and assess the functional aspects of metastatic disease is necessary using the routinely available hormonal tests. Serum thyroglobulin as a tumor marker for monitoring metastatic disease is a well-established and indispensable procedure in all thyroid clinics worldwide

  11. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  12. Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolism to significantly increase. This is called hyperthyroidism. Hashimoto’s disease and Grave’s Disease are two common causes ... the dietitian? Celiac Disease and Thyroid Conditions | continued Hashimoto’s Disease (Also called Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis) •Your body’s ...

  13. Scintigraphic visualization of 'Blocking' thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonova, A.; Kostadinova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: An important problem in nuclear endocrinology is 'blocking' of thyroid gland, which necessitates postpone of the investigation, adverse clinical effect of stopping medications and a delay of making diagnosis. The aim of the study was to introduce and to determine the clinical value of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI in patients (Pts) with 'blocked thyroid'. In 365 Pts (aged 38-75 years), indicated for a thyroid scintigraphy after proper preparation, an investigation was performed with 74 MBq 99mTc-pertechnetate, 20 min. p.i. In 14 of them (3.8%), the thyroid was 'blocked' and additional scintigraphy was done with 370-555 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, 15 and 120 min.p.i. It was estimated that in all Pts there was a visualization of thyroid. In 1 of them, a large 'hot' nodule was visualized in the early and late image. Later on a differentiated thyroid carcinoma was proved histologically. In the rest of the patients 'cold' nodules with different size were visualized, eventually as a result of cysts. As a conclusion we consider, that a scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI is a useful tool in Pts with 'blocked' thyroid. In addition an evaluation of the thyroid nodule could be done and therefore- a recommendation for therapy

  14. Subconjunctival orbital fat prolapse and thyroid associated orbitopathy: a clinical association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzistefanou KI

    2017-02-01

    amid other clinical manifestations of TAO. It is a nonspecific sign developing most commonly among patients with a relatively advanced age at presentation. Awareness of this association may alert to the diagnosis of thyroid orbitopathy and reassure the patient and physician as to the benign character of the lesion. Keywords: subconjunctival orbital fat prolapse, elderly, age-related, Graves ophthalmopathy, thyroid associated orbitopathy, autoimmune thyroidopathy

  15. Thyroid disease in pregnancy in 2011: Thyroid function--effects on mother and baby unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, Anthony P

    2011-12-06

    The complex relationship between pregnancy and thyroid function, and its clinical effect on mother and baby, continued to stimulate research in 2011. Key advances were made on three important issues: how long maternal thyroid function affects fetal thyroid hormone levels; whether thyroid autoimmunity affects pregnancy outcome; and the prevalence of permanent hypothyroidism after postpartum thyroiditis.

  16. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Marys Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Radiofrequency ablation is a new non-surgical treatment modality for patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using radiofrequency ablation. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus

  17. Radioiodine therapy of thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Over half a century, treatment of thyroid autonomy with an oral dose of iodine-131 has proven to be effective. The optimum management strategy for the patient is, however, still a matter of debate. The article provides an overview of the pathogenesis of functional autonomy and its clinical relevance. According to the guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic, radioiodine treatment is considered the most comfortable and economical approach to the treatment of the toxic nodular goitre. Some differences in the preparation procedures in the guidelines of the American and the German Society of Nuclear Medicine are discussed with respect to therapy results and the subtypes of thyroid autonomy. The results of studies are summarised concerning changes in thyroid function and thyroid volume after a course of radioiodine treatment. Therapy-related risks, such as immunogenic hypothyroidism or thyroid cancer, are discussed. 131 I treatment of functional autonomy and hyperthyroidism is considered an effective and safe procedure. (orig.)

  18. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    the fields of nutrition, metabolism and endocrinology. Leptin is accepted as an adipose signal, and even though the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified, leptin, in addition to the thyroid hormones, is believed to be involved in regulation during the switch from the fed to the starved state....... It is not clear whether leptin and the melanocortin pathways interact with the thyroid axis under physiological conditions other than during starvation or in response to severe illness, both states in which the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis may be severely suppressed. In addition to the suggested central...... relationship between leptin and thyroid hormones, there might also be a peripheral relationship although this effect is not clear. Both thyroid hormones and leptin might be involved in the adaptive thermogenesis through mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and heat production because both thyroxine...

  19. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Thyroid Hemiagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Sakurai

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis is a very rare anomaly. We herein report a case with right thyroid lobe agenesis, which was incidentally found during the assessment of primary hyperparathyroidism. A 42-year-old male presenting with urinary lithiasis was suspected of having primary hyperparathyroidism, and had elevated levels of both serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone. Both computed tomography and ultrasonography demonstrated the absence of right thyroid lobe and a mass of 1 cm in diameter at the left lower pole of the thyroid. The patient underwent lower left parathyroidectomy, which confirmed the right thyroid hemiagenesis, as well as the absence of both upper and lower right parathyroid glands. The resected left lower parathyroid gland was pathologically diagnosed as adenoma. The postoperative course was favourable and he was discharged on the 2nd day after surgery, without complications.

  20. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  1. Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimaraes Coelho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among all the adaptations of cancer cells, their ability to change metabolism from the oxidative to the glycolytic phenotype is a hallmark called the Warburg effect. Studies on tumor metabolism show that improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis are necessary to maintain rapid cell proliferation, tumor progression, and resistance to cell death. Thyroid neoplasms are common endocrine tumors that are more prevalent in women and elderly individuals. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the Past decades, and recent findings describing the metabolic profiles of thyroid tumors have emerged. Currently, several drugs are in development or clinical trials that target the altered metabolic pathways of tumors are undergoing. We present a review of the metabolic reprogramming in cancerous thyroid tissues with a focus on the factors that promote enhanced glycolysis and the possible identification of promising metabolic targets in thyroid cancer.

  2. Metabolic Reprogramming in Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Raquel Guimaraes; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Carvalho, Denise P.

    2018-01-01

    Among all the adaptations of cancer cells, their ability to change metabolism from the oxidative to the glycolytic phenotype is a hallmark called the Warburg effect. Studies on tumor metabolism show that improved glycolysis and glutaminolysis are necessary to maintain rapid cell proliferation, tumor progression, and resistance to cell death. Thyroid neoplasms are common endocrine tumors that are more prevalent in women and elderly individuals. The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in the Past decades, and recent findings describing the metabolic profiles of thyroid tumors have emerged. Currently, several drugs are in development or clinical trials that target the altered metabolic pathways of tumors are undergoing. We present a review of the metabolic reprogramming in cancerous thyroid tissues with a focus on the factors that promote enhanced glycolysis and the possible identification of promising metabolic targets in thyroid cancer. PMID:29629339

  3. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...... disruption of the developing fetus may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Evidence is reviewed for the following groups of chemicals: polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, flame retardants, pesticides, perfluorinated chemicals, phthalates, bisphenol A and ultraviolet filters. Chemicals may exert...... thyroid effects through a variety of mechanisms of action, and some publications have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of specific (groups of) chemicals. SUMMARY: A large variety of ubiquitous chemicals have been shown to have thyroid-disrupting properties, and the combination of mechanistic...

  4. Kuyper and Apartheid: A revisiting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Kuyper and Apartheid: A revisiting. Patrick Baskwell (Brandon, Florida, USA) .... conflicts. Such was the tradition of apocalyptic fanaticism which – secularised and revivified – was inherited by Lenin and by Hitler. (Cohn 1961:309-310). 3. FERTILE SOIL. This amalgamation ..... Israel did for the Arabs. The first Boer nationalist ...

  5. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  6. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available , there is little information on optical phase aberrations and no study to date on the propagation parameters of the laser beam, but has rather remained rooted in the domain of ray optics. Researchers revisit the spinning pipe gas lens in this paper with new...

  7. A remote coal deposit revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen-Kofoed, Jørgen A.; Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Petersen, Henrik I.

    2012-01-01

    In 1908, members of the “Danmark Expedition” discovered a coal deposit in a very remote area in western Germania Land, close to the margin of the inland ice in northeast Greenland. The deposit was, however, neither sampled nor described, and was revisited in 2009 for the first time since its...

  8. HISTOPATHOLOGIC PATTERN OF THYROID DISEASE B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-01

    Oct 1, 2003 ... The major risk factor predisposing to thyroid cancer is exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly during the first two decades of life. Certain thyroid diseases such as nodular colloid goiter and autoimmune thyroid diseases (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) have been implicated as predisposing factors. Unlike the ...

  9. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  10. Stitch Abscess Masquerading as Recurrent Thyroid Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent thyroid cancer after remnant ablation is a known entity in follow up of differentiated thyroid cancer. It is however unusual for a stitch abscess to present as a recurrent thyroid cancer. We highlight the diagnostic dilemma of a stitch abscess masquerading as a recurrent thyroid cancer in a young female adult in the ...

  11. Carcinome anaplasique de la thyroide | Lachkhem | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Thyroid anaplasic carcinoma is a rare variety of thyroid cancer and one of the most aggressive tumors known to affect humans. It accounts for less than 2%of thyroid cancers and it is often extremelymalignant and rapidly fatal. Material and methods: It is a retrospective study of 12 cases of thyroid anaplasic ...

  12. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  13. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Tormenta tiroidea Thyroid storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Leal Curí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tormenta tiroidea es una de las situaciones más críticas entre las emergencias endocrinas y tiene una significativa mortalidad. La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis es la enfermedad de Graves y el factor precipitante que predomina es la infección. Clínicamente se caracteriza por la disfunción de varios sistemas (termorregulador, nervioso central, gastrointestinal y cardiovascular, con niveles de hormonas tiroideas libres o totales por encima de los valores normales. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque multidisciplinario, e incluye medidas de soporte en unidades de cuidados intensivos, normalización de la temperatura corporal, reducción de la producción y liberación de hormonas tiroideas, con antitiroideos de síntesis y yodo respectivamente, bloqueo de los efectos periféricos mediante la administración de beta-bloqueadores, y corrección del factor desencadenante. Una vez que el paciente se encuentra estable es necesario planificar una terapia definitiva que impida la recurrencia futura de la crisis tirotóxica.The thyroid storm is one of the most critical situations in the endocrine emergencies and exhibits a significant mortality rate. The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease and the predominant precipitating factor is infection. The clinical characteristics are dysfunction of several systems (heat-regulator, central nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular, and levels of total or free thyroid hormones that exceed the normal values. The treatment must be multidisciplinary and include support measures in intensive care units, normalization of body temperature, reduction of the production and the release of thyroid hormones by using synthesis and iodine anti-thyroid products respectively, blockade of the peripheral effects through administration of Beta-blockers and correction of the unleashing factor. Once the patients are stabilized, it is necessary to plan the final therapy that will prevent the

  15. Retrosternal thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, A.R.; Sarkar, Sudeep

    1999-01-01

    Computerized axial tomography scans permit proper distinction between primary and secondary goitres and help in preoperative planning. Advances in anesthetic techniques and the use of small-caliber endotracheal tubes facilitate proper perioperative management, even for patients with significant respiratory compression symptoms. A tracheotomy is rarely necessary. Aggressive surgical therapy for retrosternal goitres avoids life-threatening situations and results in minimal morbidity and practically zero mortality when performed by a surgeon experienced in managing such patients. Radioactive iodine therapy is used in the treatment of metastases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma if they concentrate 131 I

  16. Thyroid diseases and Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A Raza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the month of Ramadan, patients with thyroid diseases, most of the time, do not need treatment adjustments and can fast safely without any health hazards. Patients with hypothyroidism taking thyroxine can take their tablets on an empty stomach at bedtime instead of half an hour before Sehr. Patients with hyperthyroidism, on methimazole/carbimazole can continue their dose in once or twice daily regimes, while those on propylthiouracil need to be switched. Hyperthyroid patients with severe symptoms should start treatment immediately and can avoid fast for few days after a consultation with their religious scholar.

  17. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  18. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  19. The Features of the Clinical Course and Treatment of Moderately Severe Graves’ Ophthalmopathy in Patients with Graves’ Disease in Response to Catamnesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E K Fattakhova

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the course of Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO, following immunosuppressive therapy and the spontaneous course of the disease in patients with Graves’ disease (GD. Design. Randomized study with three-year follow-up. Patients. 150 euthyroid patients with moderately severe GO. Intervention. In group 1 (n = 52 patients received glucocorticoids (GC alone (prednisolone per os for 5 months, starting dose, 50—80 mg/d; or intravenous, 500—1000 mg/d, given during 3 days weekly; 5—6 cycles in all. Group 2 (n = 51 treated by GC in combination with orbital radiotherapy (16—20 Gy. None of 47 patients of group 3 treated with immunosuppressive therapy either due to contraindications to corticosteroids, or refusal of patients (spontaneous course of GO. Measurements: The activity of GO was scored by the method of Mourits et al., 1997, (Clinical Activity Score, CAS and confirmed by the assessment of serum sICAM-1 (soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and uGAGs (the urinary excretion of glycosaminoglycans. Results. Group 2 was characterized with the earliest establishment of the inactive GO (CAS J 2 (in 2.7 ± 1.4 months after beginning of the treatment (p < 0.05, and the lowest frequency of deteriorations (p < 0,05. In the end of observation the “burnt out” stage of GO (fibrosis was revealed in 98% of patients of group 2, that statistically differs from two other groups (p < 0.001. Group 3, in this respect, statistically did not differ from group 1 (45% vs 38%, P = 0.39, detected by comparison of CAS values, uGAGs, sICAM-1, obtained in inactive GO. Conclusions. 1 the absence of statistical verified differences of parameters, obtained in the inactive GO in groups 3 and 1 allow to use active observation at the planning of GO treatment; 2 the most effective strategy of treatment of moderately severe GO should be considered combined immunosuppressive therapy. Key words: graves’disease, ophthalmopathy, hyperthyroidism.

  20. Izmit Foreshocks Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Bulut, F.

    2016-12-01

    Much of what we know about the initiation of earthquakes comes from the temporal and spatial relationship of foreshocks to the initiation point of the mainshock. The 1999 Mw 7.6 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake was preceded by a 44 minute-long foreshock sequence. Bouchon et al. (Science, 2011) analyzed the foreshocks using a single seismic station, UCG, located to the north of the east-west fault, and concluded on the basis of waveform similarity that the foreshocks repeatedly re-ruptured the same fault patch, driven by slow slip at the base of the crust. We revisit the foreshock sequence using seismograms from 9 additional stations that recorded the four largest foreshocks (Mw 2.0 to 2.8) to better characterize spatial and temporal evolution of the foreshock sequence and their relationship to the mainshock hypocenter. Cross-correlation timing and hypocentroid location with hypoDD reveals a systematic west-to-east propagation of the four largest foreshocks toward the mainshock hypocenter. Foreshock rupture dimensions estimated using spectral ratios imply no major overlap for the first three foreshocks. The centroid of 4th and largest foreshock continues the eastward migration, but lies within the circular source area of the 3rd. The 3rd, however, has a low stress drop and strong directivity to the west . The mainshock hypocenter locates on the eastern edge of foreshock 4. We also re-analyzed waveform similarity of all 18 foreshocks recorded at UCG by removing the common mode signal and clustering the residual seismogram using the correlation coefficient as the distance metric. The smaller foreshocks cluster with the larger events in time order, sometimes as foreshocks and more commonly as aftershocks. These observations show that the Izmit foreshock sequence is consistent with a stress-transfer driven cascade, moving systematically to the east along the fault and that there is no observational requirement for creep as a driving mechanism.

  1. Epitope recognition patterns of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Gardas, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are markers of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but naturally occurring TPOAb are also detectable in healthy, euthyroid individuals. In AITD, circulating TPOAb react mainly with two immunodominant regions (IDR), IDR...

  2. Thyroid Cancer: Current Molecular Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giusti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid cancer is a rare oncological entity, representing no more than 1% of all human malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been demonstrated a sharp increase in incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, equally occurring in both sexes. So far, multiple genetic alterations have been identified in differentiated thyroid carcinoma, leading to investigate the clinical utility of genetic studies. In particular, molecular genetic approaches searching for gene mutations in the material collected by fine needle ago-biopsy may have a particular utility in small nodules and in those specimens with an indeterminate cytology. The expansion of knowledge about genetic mutations occurring in different thyroid tumors has characterized recent years, allowing the identification of a correlation between specific mutations and phenotypic characteristics of thyroid cancers, essential for their prognosis. This review will briefly report on the histological features and the new entity represented by thyroid microcarcinoma and will focus on both environmental and genetic aspects associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer.

  3. Thyroid function during critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economidou, Foteini; Douka, Evangelia; Tzanela, Marinella; Nanas, Serafeim; Kotanidou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic support of the critically ill patient is a relatively new target of active research and little is as yet known about the effects of critical illness on metabolism. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome, also known as the low T3 syndrome or euthyroid sick syndrome, describes a condition characterized by abnormal thyroid function tests encountered in patients with acute or chronic systemic illnesses. The laboratory parameters of this syndrome include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and high levels of reverse T3, with normal or low levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This condition may affect 60 to 70% of critically ill patients. The changes in serum thyroid hormone levels in the critically ill patient seem to result from alterations in the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones, in TSH regulation, in the binding of thyroid hormone to transport-protein and in receptor binding and intracellular uptake. Medications also have a very important role in these alterations. Hormonal changes can be seen within the first hours of critical illness and, interestingly, these changes correlate with final outcome. Data on the beneficial effect of thyroid hormone treatment on outcome in critically ill patients are so far controversial. Thyroid function generally returns to normal as the acute illness resolves.

  4. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  5. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  6. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. A case of synchronous hurthle cell adenoma of thyroid and para thyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Tohidi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous hurthle cell adenoma of thyroid and para thyroid adenoma is very rare .Here we dicuss a 46 year old woman who presented with a thyroid nodule. Thyroid function test was normal but she had mild hypercalcemia. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodule was done that it was suspecious to follicular neoplasm or follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer .Then the patient underwent thyroidectomy. In surgical specimen hurthle cell adenoma of thyroid and parathyroid adenoma was confirmed.Measurment of serum calcium is recommended in patients who are candidate for thyroid surgery.

  8. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  9. Use of Ultrasound in the Management of Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, John I.; Solorzano, Carmen C.

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the utility of ultrasound in evaluating thyroid nodules, staging thyroid cancer, determining the extent of surgery needed in thyroid cancer patients, and the surveillance of patients treated for thyroid cancer.

  10. Serum BAFF and thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Fang, Wen-Fang; Hsiao, Chia-Jung; Chagnaadorj, Amarzaya; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Tang, Kam-Tsun; Cheng, Chao-Wen

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the association of serum B-lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) levels with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in a Chinese population. We enrolled 221 patients with AITD [170 patients with Graves' disease (GD), 51 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)], and 124 healthy controls. Serum BAFF levels, thyroid function and thyroid autoantibody (TAb) levels, including of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHRAb), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (Anti-TPO Ab), and antithyroglobulin antibody (ATA), were measured at baseline. Serum BAFF levels were higher in the GD, HT, and AITD groups than in the control group. Significant correlations were observed between BAFF and TSHRAb levels (r=0.238, p=0.018), between BAFF and Anti-TPO Ab levels (p=0.038), and between BAFF and ATA titers (p=0.025) in women but not in men. In addition, serum BAFF levels were significantly associated with free thyroxine (r=0.430, p=0.004) and TSHRAb (r=0.495, p=0.001) levels in women with active GD but not in those with inactive GD. Serum BAFF levels are increased in GD, HT, and AITD. The correlation between serum BAFF and TAb levels exhibits a dimorphic pattern, particularly in active GD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  12. Thyroid Tubercle of Zuckerkandl: importance in thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ), which is the remant of the lateral thyroid process, is an important anatomic structure that serves as a reliable landmark for the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery. Furthermore, removal of the TZ is critical for the adequate performance of a total thyroidectomy. However, there is little mention of the TZ in surgical textbooks or papers. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 138 consecutive thyroid surgeries. The presence of the TZ, its size, and relationship to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 211 thyroid lobes were included in the study. The TZ was identified in 61.1% of all thyroid lobes. The median size was 8 mm (range = 3-40 mm). A TZ was more commonly identified on the right (69.6%) than on the left side (53.2%) (P = .02). The recurrent laryngeal nerve was found deep to the TZ in 98.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: A TZ is present in the majority of thyroid lobes. Awareness of the TZ is critical in performing an adequate total thyroidectomy, and is very useful as a landmark for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  13. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  14. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  15. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  16. Clinical presentation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of thyroid cancer (TC) as seen at the Nuclear Medicine Department, where the patients investigated prior to diagnosis of disease are clinically suspected to harbor malignancy and mostly referred for scintigraphic investigations are presented

  17. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  18. Radiological patterns of thyroid calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jun; Sim, Do Chul; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the various patterns of calcification demonstrated in the anterior and lateral neck roentgenograms of 213 unselected patients with thyroid enlargement. The patterns of thyroid calcifications were correlated with clinical, surgical and histological findings. The results were as follows: 1. Of 213 cases of thyroid enlargement, 180 cases were benign and 168 cases were female. 2. The calcification rate was high in the chronic thyroid enlargement. 3. The incidence of calcification was 30.2% in the malignancy and 17.2% in the benign disease. There was no calcification in the Hashimoto's disease. 4. The nodular calcification was demonstrated in the both benign and malignant disease but curvilinear calcification was predominantly seen in benign disease.

  19. Parathyroid transplantation in thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Nawrot, Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid surgery is rare. Its prevalence is reported to be below 1–2% if surgery is performed by experienced thyroid surgeons. Parathyroid identification and preservation in situ with good vascular supply is the mainstay of safe thyroid surgery. However, if the parathyroid glands are damaged, autotransplantation should be undertaken to preserve their function. Parathyroid transplantation can be considered in three distinct modes of application: (I) fresh parathyroid tissue autotransplantation during thyroidectomy in order to reduce the risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism; (II) cryopreserved parathyroid tissue autotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism; (III) parathyroid allotransplantation in patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism when cryopreserved parathyroid tissue is not available for grafting. Nowadays, allotransplantation of cultured parathyroid cells without immunosuppression should be taken into consideration in selected patients as an alternative to calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in management of permanent hypoparathyroidism. This paper is aimed to provide a review of current status of various parathyroid transplantation techniques in thyroid surgery. PMID:29142845

  20. Leadership and Management Theories Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to revisit and analyze key contributions to the understanding of leadership and management. As a part of the discussion a role perspective that allows for additional and/or integrated leader dimensions, including a change-centered, will be outlined. Seemingly, a major challenge on the substantive level is the integration of soft and hard managerial functions, while the concepts used in presenting these should at least in transition be able to contain a distinction bet...

  1. Leadership and Management Theories Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to revisit and analyze key contributions to the understanding of leadership and to discuss the relevance of maintaining a distinct line of demarcation between leadership and management. As a part of the discussion a role perspective that allows for additional and/or integrated leader dimensions, including a change-centered, will be outlined. Seemingly, a major challenge on the substantive level is the integration of soft and hard managerial functions, while the conce...

  2. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus.

  3. Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  4. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  5. pattern of subclinical thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Marri, M.H.; Qureshi, A.H.; Qamar, M.A.; Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) in local population visiting a hospital laboratory for thyroid function tests. Design: It was a hospital - based study carried in consecutive patients who reported for thyroid function tests in the hospital laboratory. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in combined military Hospital, Quetta during June 1999 to September 2000. Subject and methods: Serum samples of 917 patients living in Quetta and its surrounding were analysed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) free thyroxin (FT4), and total tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration using chemiluminescence technique on hormone auto analyser (LIA-Mat - Sangtech Germany). Results: Out of 917 patients, 287 (23%) were found to be having SCTD while overt thyroid disease was found in 288 (31%) patients. Prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCO) and sub-clinical hyperthyroidism (sce) was found to be almost equal with a profound female preponderance in both the groups. SCO was more common in children (<12 years of age). Conclusion: Almost every fourth patient reporting for thyroid function tests was diagnosed as having SCTD - a disease entity that is still not well known and that poses diagnostic and management problems for the pathologists and clinicians. (author)

  6. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    , especially, is easily overlooked at autopsy as there are no macroscopic changes and often no prior symptoms or history of thyroid disease pointing towards this condition. Analyses of thyroid hormones are unreliable in predicting endocrine status in life. Routine microscopy of the thyroid gland is therefore...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... advocated in cases of sudden unexpected death in order to diagnose thyroid disease, in particular silent (painless) thyroiditis....

  7. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  8. Thyroid sonomorphology, thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid function: new epidemiological data in unselected German employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döbert, N; Balzer, K; Diener, J; Wegscheider, K; Vaupel, R; Grünwald, F

    2008-01-01

    Employees of Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH underwent thyroid screening in 2006 to assess new data about the prevalence of irregular sonomorphological pattern, elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO AB) and thyroid function in an unselected adult German population. The examination included 700 unselected employees. Blood samples were analyzed for serum TSH and TPO AB, and ultrasound of the thyroid was performed. In 40.7% of the participants (n = 285) an irregular sonomorphological pattern was detected: goiter in 13.7%, nodules in 35.6%, nodular goiter in 8.6% and a hypoechogenic pattern of the thyroid gland in 20.4%. Serum TSH was increased in 3.9% and decreased in 0.6%. Elevated TPO AB values were observed in 13%. Only 1.4% (n = 10) showed elevated TPO AB combined with a TSH increase. Sonomorphological abnormalities were associated with increased TPO AB in 7.1%. Elevated TPO AB was observed significantly more often in combination with sonomorphological pathology (54.9%) than without (45.1%) (p = 0.003). Sonomorphological disorders are still very common in Germany and our results are comparable with previous screening examinations. Elevated TPO AB correlated significantly with the sonomorphological pattern of nodules and goiter. This may reflect an improved iodine supply or a hypertrophic stage of autoimmune thyroiditis in some cases.

  9. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  10. Thyroid morphology in lethal non-thyroidal illness: a post-mortem study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. de Jongh (Felix); A.C. Jobsis; J.W.F. Elte (Jan Willem)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is associated with alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism. Whether morphological changes of the thyroid gland accompany NTI is unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe thyroid morphology in patients with

  11. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon

    1991-01-01

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  12. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  13. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  14. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases....... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  15. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T 4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  16. Clinical concepts on thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland which are so severe that require admission to intensive care units (ICU) frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC) and thyrotoxic storm (TS), including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database on September 2013. Data Selection and Data Extraction: Reviews, original articles, and case reports on "myxedematous coma," "HC," "thyroid storm," "TS," "massive goiter," "huge goiter," "prevalence," "etiology," "diagnosis," "therapy," and "prognosis" were selected. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone is rare conditions, which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are high-dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia); treatment of hypothermia; often, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose of iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques - e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  17. CLINICAL CONCEPTS ON THYROID EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo ePontecorvi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC and thyrotoxic storm (TS, including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency.Data source. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database to September 2013.Data selection and Data extraction. Reviews, original articles and case reports on myxedematous coma, hypothyroid coma, thyroid storm, thyrotoxic storm, massive goiter, huge goiter, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis were selected.Data synthesis and conclusions. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone are rare conditions which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are: high dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia; treatment of hypothermia; not rarely, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  18. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  19. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  20. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  2. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  3. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  4. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  5. Challenges in Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests in Pregnant Women with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval. The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH. Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases.

  6. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Karadağ; Egemen Doner; Baki Adapınar

    2011-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  7. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Szyma?ski, ?ukasz; Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma.

  8. Thyrotoxic thyroiditis after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitzer, J.B.; Paolozzi, F.P.; Gottlieb, A.J.; Zamkoff, K.W.; Chung, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation has been associated with a variety of abnormalities. Among these are tardive hypothyroidism and an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer. Although acute thyroiditis has been known to complicate radioactive iodine 131 therapy, it has rarely been associated with external beam irradiation. Thyrotoxic painless thyroiditis developed in two patients after mantle-field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

  9. Thyroid Dysplasia in Wistar Hannover GALAS Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Klaus; Ernst, Rainer; Fankhauser, Heinz; Hardisty, Jerry F.; Heider, Wolfram; Stevens, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid dysplasia was recognized in WistarHan GALAS rats and confirmed as a heritable congenital disorder. The gene or genes involved were not identified, but homozygous animals with thyroid dysplasia also exhibited stunted growth, had reduced pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) and were hypothyroid. Heterozygous animals exhibited thyroid dysplasia with normal thyroid hormonal homeostasis and no difference in the incidence of preneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in oncogenicity studies.

  10. IMPORTANCE OF THYROID FUNCTION TEST IN DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Thyroid disorder and Diabetes are both hormone and endocrine and problems. When thyroid disease occurs in someone with diabetes, it can make blood glucose control more difficult. The incidence and occurrence of thyroid diseases in general population is increasing more and more day by day . As the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid both is more in India, correlation of these two diseases was studied in this study. MA...

  11. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishdorj, Ts

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  12. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  13. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  14. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  15. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  16. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  17. The evolution of thyroid function tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid gland disturbances are the second most common endocrine disorder after diabetes mellitus. Given that approximately 200 million people in the world have some form of thyroid disease, it is no wonder that thyroid function tests,. i.e. thyrotropin and free thyroxine (T4), currently account for a significant portion of the ...

  18. Thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingyu; Zhang Xinguo; Xu Liyang; Liu Ming; Zhang Yongtian; Jin Weiya

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method and result of thyroid artery embolization as a new therapy for hyperthyroidism. Methods: Twenty-two patients with hyperthyroidism underwent selective thyroid artery embolization. Totally 52 thyroid arteries were embolized with microspheres. The indications to this therapy were following: hyperthyroid patients having indications to surgical and 131 I therapy, clinically being difficult to complete the preparation for subtotal thyroidectomy and having high risk for surgical process because of their huge thyroid gland. Results: Serum level of thyroid hormones dropped significantly [median T3 from 8.8 nmol/L (4.3-43.0 nmol/L) to 4.0 nmol/L (1.1-9.2 nmol/L), median T4 from 206.4 nmol/L (77.4-748.2 nmol/L) to 144.5 nmol/L (25.8-279.9 nmol/L), P 131 I treatment of hyperthyroidism. A long term follow-up study is still needed

  19. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  20. [Smoking and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu, Ioana Cristina; Arghir, Oana Cristina; Circo, E

    2010-01-01

    The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis are heterogeneous entities by the functional, lesional and evolutive point of view. Ethiopathogenic factors involved in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis are genetical factors, combines with environmental factors, hormonal factors, infectious factors etc. The exact role of smoking on the autoimmune mechanism is unclear, but smoking is known to have an antithyroid effect. Our study tries to estimate the influence of smoking on serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies, in a group of patients with various clinical forms of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. We studied a group consists of 310 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, hospitalised in the Endocrinology Department of Constanta County Hospital, between January 2006 - December 2009. We detected serum values of antithyroidperoxidase antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies of our patients. We also followed the age, sex and presence of smoking in our study group. For statistical processing of the data we use Student's t-test. In our study group 24.28% of patients were smokers. Serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the smokers patients, compared with the nonsmokers patients. Serum levels of antithyroglobulin antibodies were significantly increased (p < 0.01) in smokers patients, compared with those who were nonsmokers. Smoking increased the serum levels of antithyroid antibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

  1. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P.; Kotlyarov, Peter M.; Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V.; Alexandrov, Yury K.

    2010-01-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  2. Impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of pathological incidental thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eric; Heffron, Cynthia; Murphy, Matthew; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of incidental thyroid cancers. We conducted a retrospective review of 713 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomies. Incidental thyroid cancer was defined as an unexpected cancer discovered on pathological examination outside the index nodule undergoing preoperative cytology. We excluded 65 cases because of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, and 68 because of nonincidental cancer within the index nodule. Among the remaining 580 cases, there were 43 cases (7.4%) of incidental thyroid cancers. Incidental thyroid cancers were significantly associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis (relative risk = 2.5; p = .03). Sixteen of 56 patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis had Graves' disease, none of whom had incidental thyroid cancer. The risk of incidental thyroid cancer associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis was significantly higher in non-Graves' than patients with Graves' disease (p = .05). The risk of incidental thyroid cancer is significantly increased in patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis. Moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with Graves' disease seems to have a lower risk of incidental thyroid cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 122-127, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Thyroid tumors after irradiation; Tumeurs de la thyroide apres irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlumberger, M. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1995-12-31

    Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of thyroid tumors after external irradiation during childhood. These studies have shown a long latency and have pointed out risk factors, related either to the subject (young age, female sex) or to the radiation (dose, fractionation, protection). Irradiation by Iodine 131 in adulthood does not seen to increase the risk of thyroid tumor but in childhood data are too scarce to allow any conclusion. Similarly, the risks following low radiation doses and/or protected radiation exposure are still matter of debate. (author). 41 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Leadership and Management Theories Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to revisit and analyze key contributions to the understanding of leadership and management. As a part of the discussion a role perspective that allows for additional and/or integrated leader dimensions, including a change-centered, will be outlined. Seemingly, a major...... challenge on the substantive level is the integration of soft and hard managerial functions, while the concepts used in presenting these should at least in transition be able to contain a distinction between hard, soft, and general practices....

  5. Hong Kong's Consumption Function Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Li-gang Liu; Laurent Pauwels; Andrew Tsang

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the relationship among consumption, income and wealth using Hong Kong data. We find that the permanent income hypothesis is weakly supported by Hong Kong¡¦s consumption data prior to 1997, but it is not supported for the sample period after 1997 and the whole sample period spanning from 1984 to 2006. Furthermore, we find that both anticipated and unanticipated income and wealth effects have influences on Hong Kong¡¦s consumption. While temporary tax changes may have some i...

  6. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  7. Systemic Sarcoidosis with Thyroid Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Wang, Xin; Ohkiba, Noriaki; Murooka, Nozomi; Akizuki, Norikazu; Inazawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-15

    A 66-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with iritis, visited our hospital due to general malaise. A blood analysis revealed hypercalcemia. Computed tomography revealed mediastinal and hilar lymph node hyperplasia. Moreover, 67 Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated strong accumulation in the lesions, suggesting sarcoidosis. A core needle biopsy (CNB) of the hypoechoic areas of the thyroid was performed because the patient refused to undergo a bronchoscopic examination. The scattering of slightly acidophilic epithelioid cell granulomas was observed in the pathological examination of the biopsy specimen. Based on this finding, the patient was diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Although sarcoidosis rarely involves the thyroid gland, in the present case, thyroid CNB was an alternative diagnostic method that allowed a pathological diagnosis to be obtained.

  8. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Pradhan, S.A.; D'Cruz, A.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a biologically distinct form of thyroid cancer and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid neoplasms. Twenty percent of MTC can occur in a familial setting either by itself or as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasm syndromes. A disciplined approach is necessary in the work-up of these patients to rule out coexistent endocrine tumors (pheochromocytomas and parathyroid). Cacitonin is a sensitive tumor marker secreted by MTC that is of prognostic value and important in the follow-up of patients. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a total thyroidectomy and centre compartment clearance being the minimum for patients without cervical adenopathy. Radiotherapy has a limited role and is only indicated as a palliative measure in patients with advanced/metastatic disease not amenable to surgery

  9. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  10. [AMIODARONE AND THE THYROID FUNCTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Tomislav; Punda, Marija; Franceschi, Maja; Staniĉić, Josip; Granić, Roko; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone is a benzofuran derivative that contains up to 40% of iodine. Amiodarone is used for treatment and prevention of life threatening supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The effects on thyroid gland vary from abnormalities in thyroid function tests to overt amiodarone induced hypothyroidism (AIH) and thyrotoxicosis (AIT). Patients with AIH are treated with L-thyroxine and may continue treatment with amiodarone. Two different forms of AIT have to be distinguished: amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism (AIT I) and thyroiditis (AIT II). AIT I is treated with antithyroid drugs, while total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 are used for definitive treatment. AIT II is treated with glucocorticoids. Patients with AIT have to stop treatment with amiodarone. Dronedarone is a less potent antiarrhythmic agent with structural and pharmacological properties similar to amiodarone. Dronedarone is devoid of iodine with fewer adverse effects and therefore it may be used in high risk patients for development of AIT or AIH.

  11. The Study on the Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho

    1982-01-01

    Several recent advances in our knowledge of thyroid physiology have broad application to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. For in the thyroid, more than other end-ocrine organs, pathophysiology can be translated directly into the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Graves' disease is a syndrome including goiter with hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos and dermatopathy. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease is not yet clearly identified, but various autoantibodies to the thyroid gland and immunapathalogic studied indicate that autoimmune processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diagnosis and management of Graves' disease are largely dependent on radionuclide technique as radioimmunoassay, radioactive iodine therapy and so on. Several laboratory tests are also developed to determine the remission of this disease including TRH stimulation test, T 3 , suppression test and detection of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. Autoimmune thyroiditis is almost certainly a primary immunologic disease and the incidence tends to increase recently, mainly due to the application of biopsy technique is thyroid diseases. Thyroid nodules have been a great challenge to physicians because of the possibility of malignancy. But recently, cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate provides a very simple and also reliable diagnostic method in patients with thyroid nodules. In 163 patients with thyroid nodules, only 19.3% was revealed to be malignant. Therefore cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate and thyroid biopsy should be included in the diagnosis of nodular patients prior to surgical intervention. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory findings and therapeutic modalities of various thyroid diseases on the basis of over 80 researches performed during the past 20 years at radioisotope clinic, Seoul National University Hospital.

  12. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Tanseem, A.; Nazir, I.; Nagra, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of thyroid dysfunction in infertile women referred for thyroid evaluation. Age matched infertile (n=140 each) and fertile women (n=152 each) referred to CENUM for thyroid evaluation were investigated for incidence of hyperthyroidism (TSH 20 IU/L). Serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3) and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and TSH by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Most of the infertile women (89.3%), like control women (93.4%), were euthyroid. The difference of overall thyroid dysfunction was not statistically significant in infertile and control women (10.7% vs. 7.9%; p=0.395). The same was true for incidence of hyperthyroidism (4.3% vs. 5.3%; p=0.701) as well as hypothyroidism (6.4% vs. 2.6%; p=0.104). In infertile women, the incidence of hypothyroidism (6.4%) was slightly higher as compared to hyperthyroidism (4.3%). In euthyroid women of both groups, mean FT4, FT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (p 2.5 mIU/L compared to fertile women (31.2% vs. 15.6%; p 20 IU/L) than control women (7.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.05). Increased incidence of high normal TSH and raised TPO-Ab titer indicate relatively more frequent occurrence of compensated thyroid function in infertile women than normal women of reproductive age. This necessitates considering them a subgroup of women in which all aspects of pituitary-thyroid axis should be thoroughly investigated than merely TSH testing. (author)

  13. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  14. Carcinoembryonic antigen in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissel, M.; Hoefer, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the usefulness of determining the serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a specific tumor marker in thyroid cancer, CEA serum levels were measured (enzymeimmunoassay, Abbott-Kit) repeatedly at the routine followup checks performed at various intervals after total thyroidectomy, in 65 patients with papillary, 82 with follicular, 25 with mixed type (papillary/follicular), 8 with anaplastic, and in 18 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. The postoperative observation period of these patients ranged from 2 to 36 months. Calcitonin serum levels were additionally determined in patients with medullary carcinoma (radioimmunoassay kit of Immuno-Nuclear Corp.). In the family of one patient with medullary carcinoma we also had an opportunity to investigate, within the framework of family screening (pentagastrin tests, etc.), the value of preoperative CEA determination. In the patients with ''non-medullary'' histological types of thyroid cancer, the maximum CEA serum concentration was 9.8 ng/ml. 6% of the patients with papillary, 9% of the patients with follicular, and 8% of those with mixed type thyroid cancer had serum levels above the upper limit of our normal range (5 ng/ml). All patients with anaplastic carcinoma had values below 3 ng/ml. The values quoted represent maximal values and were confirmed at various follow-up checks. However, 1 year after thyroidectomy, a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma developed an adenocarcinoma of the rectum: The CEA levels measured in this patient were: 4.2 ng/ml 3 weeks after thyroidectomy, 8.4 ng/ml 6 months later, and 37 ng/ml 1 week before operation on the rectum. In none of the other patients with elevated CEA levels were metastases of thyroid cancer, or any other malignancy, detected. (orig.) [de

  15. Disorders of the equine thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuhaus, Babetta A

    2011-04-01

    Regulatory control of the thyroid gland in horses is similar to other species. Clinical signs of hypothyroidism in adult horses are minimal. Several drugs and physiologic and pathophysiological states can cause circulating thyroid hormone concentrations to be low without actual pathology of the thyroid gland. Thus, nonthyroidal factors must be ruled out before a diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be made. Thyroid hormone supplementation seems to be well tolerated, even in euthyroid horses. Neonatal foals have very high circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, and deficiencies result in significant clinical signs. Unlike in adults, two syndromes of hypothyroidism are well described in foals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Clinical Observation on Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Yang; Shin, Yong Tae; Cho, Bo Yun; Kim, Byung Kuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1978-01-01

    Clinical features of 147 patients with biopsy-proven thyroid carcinomas were investigated from January, 1972 to April, 1978 at the Seoul National University Hospital with the following results. 1) The incidence of thyroid carcinomas according to their histopathological classification revealed 76.2% of papillary carcinoma, 19.0% of follicular carcinoma, and 3 cases of occult sclerozing carcinoma, 1 case of giant cell carcinoma and 1 case of metastatic melanoma. 2) The ratio of male to female patients was 1:8.3 and showed no difference between papillary and follicular carcinomas. 3) The age distribution showed the peak incidence in the fourth decade (29.3%) followed by the fifth and sixth decades. 4) The average duration of illness from the onset of symptoms was about 5 years while it was 4.4 years and 7.6 years in the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively. 5) The diameter of the thyroid masses was smaller than 5 cm in 53.6% of the patients, from 5 cm to 10 cm in 40.0% and larger than 10 cm in 6.4%. 6) In 36.4% of the patients with thyroid carcinomas the thyroid masses were fixed to adjacent tissues. 7) Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was noted in 40.0% of the total cases, and in 45.2% and 17.6% of the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively, while the lung and bone metastases were found in 10.0% and 4.4% in each type respectively. 8) 88.9% of the patients showed cold areas in the thyroid scans using 131 I. 9) Typical psammoma bodies were observed in 21.3% of the cases in the microscopic examination of the pathological specimens. 10) The initial diagnosis of thyroid malignancy could be made before histological confirmation in 64.5% of the patients. 11) The clinical staging slightly modified from Schulz method revealed 43.6% of the patients in stage I, 26.4% in stage II, 20.9% in stage III and 9.1% in stage IV. 12) The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was noted in 4 cases, with nodular goiter in 3 cases, and with follicular adenoma

  17. Clinical Observation on Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seon Yang; Shin, Yong Tae; Cho, Bo Yun; Kim, Byung Kuk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Clinical features of 147 patients with biopsy-proven thyroid carcinomas were investigated from January, 1972 to April, 1978 at the Seoul National University Hospital with the following results. 1) The incidence of thyroid carcinomas according to their histopathological classification revealed 76.2% of papillary carcinoma, 19.0% of follicular carcinoma, and 3 cases of occult sclerozing carcinoma, 1 case of giant cell carcinoma and 1 case of metastatic melanoma. 2) The ratio of male to female patients was 1:8.3 and showed no difference between papillary and follicular carcinomas. 3) The age distribution showed the peak incidence in the fourth decade (29.3%) followed by the fifth and sixth decades. 4) The average duration of illness from the onset of symptoms was about 5 years while it was 4.4 years and 7.6 years in the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively. 5) The diameter of the thyroid masses was smaller than 5 cm in 53.6% of the patients, from 5 cm to 10 cm in 40.0% and larger than 10 cm in 6.4%. 6) In 36.4% of the patients with thyroid carcinomas the thyroid masses were fixed to adjacent tissues. 7) Metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was noted in 40.0% of the total cases, and in 45.2% and 17.6% of the papillary and follicular carcinomas respectively, while the lung and bone metastases were found in 10.0% and 4.4% in each type respectively. 8) 88.9% of the patients showed cold areas in the thyroid scans using {sup 131}I. 9) Typical psammoma bodies were observed in 21.3% of the cases in the microscopic examination of the pathological specimens. 10) The initial diagnosis of thyroid malignancy could be made before histological confirmation in 64.5% of the patients. 11) The clinical staging slightly modified from Schulz method revealed 43.6% of the patients in stage I, 26.4% in stage II, 20.9% in stage III and 9.1% in stage IV. 12) The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was noted in 4 cases, with nodular goiter in 3 cases, and with follicular

  18. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhalia Bakerywala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  19. Epigenetic modulators of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Díaz-Naya, Lucía; Martín Nieto, Alicia; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro

    2017-01-01

    There are some well known factors involved in the etiology of thyroid cancer, including iodine deficiency, radiation exposure at early ages, or some genetic changes. However, epigenetic modulators that may contribute to development of these tumors and be helpful to for both their diagnosis and treatment have recently been discovered. The currently known changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs in each type of thyroid carcinoma are reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  1. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: does the association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis affect the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Muradás Girardi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant thyroid neoplasm. The effect of the concurrent presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinicopathological parameters in thyroid papillary carcinoma cases, based on an historical institutional cohort analysis. METHODS: Cross-sectional study obtained from a historical cohort, including all cases submitted to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma in a single institution during an 11-year period study. RESULTS: A total of 417 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were enrolled; 148 (35.4% also had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A female predominance among cases associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis was observed. The thyroid tumor, in cases associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, had a smaller mean diameter, lower frequency of extra-thyroid extension, and earlier clinicopathological staging. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases are associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There are associations among these cases with several histopathological factors already recognized for their prognostic value, which by themselves could impact outcomes.

  2. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases by computed tomography and 123I thyroidal uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    Understanding the iodine kinetics in the thyroid is useful for the diagnosis of a patient with diffuse thyroid disease. In this study, 9 controls and 50 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, we evaluated diffuse thyroid diseases with 123 I thyroidal uptake and volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content measured by computed tomography. There was no significant correlation between volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content of the thyroid and 123 I thyroidal uptake. The thyroid volume in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly larger than that in the control group. The thyroid iodine concentration in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly smaller than that in the control group. The thyroid net iodine content in Hashimoto's disease was significantly smaller than that in the control group. Although most of the patients with Graves' disease had more increased radioiodine thyroidal uptake than the control group, there was no significant difference between them in the mean of the thyroid net iodine content. But the variance of net iodine contents in the former was significantly larger than that in the latter. The thyroid net iodine content was very low in all patients with very high thyroglobulin hemaggrugated antibody (TGHA) value although it was nearly normal in some patients with normal TGHA value. It was suggested that iodine concentration and net iodine content might be determined not only by iodine uptake but also by release and/or leakage of iodine compounds from the thyroid, which might depend on some antithyroid antibodies. (author)

  3. Molecular regulation of thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Margaret C

    2010-10-01

    For de-novo thyroid hormone synthesis ex vivo, thyroid follicular cells require a serum-free medium supplying nutrients, iodide, thyroid-stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (or insulin). Under these conditions, T3 and T4 are secreted but so are other factors such as growth factors, plasminogen activators, their inhibitors known as serpins, and so on. What is the function of these factors? Do thyroid cells respond to them or are these paracrine/endocrine factors? The purpose of this review is to highlight the current developments in the identification and role of the signalling pathways that regulate thyroid growth and function and the putative role of endogenous thyroid proteases in regulating this. The roles of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositol 3 kinases and integrins in mediating growth and function in thyroid cancer cells and the roles of plasminogen activators, their receptors and the downstream signalling pathways they modulate have been developed. Discoveries of novel proteases, expressed in thyroid cancers, may be useful in diagnosis. The signalling pathways regulating thyroid activity are examined and the roles of follicular cell products in maintaining thyroid homeostasis evaluated. The possibility that thyroid cell products other than T3 and T4 may circulate and have extrathyroidal effects is proposed.

  4. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  5. INTRODUCTION Thyroid lymphoma is a rare form of thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-07

    Jul 7, 2004 ... At the time of writing, our patient had been followed up for 16 ... subtypes can be seen and therapeutic approaches must be done. We report two ... treatment is total thyroidectomy and/or involved-field radiation therapy. As with other forms of lymphoma, the choice of treatment for thyroid lymphoma depends.

  6. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  7. Scintigraphic And Ultrasonic Determinations of Thyroid Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsono; Ismanto; Kunto, W; Hayati, N; Irma, S H

    1996-01-01

    A study has been done on the determination of thyroid volume by scintigraphic method in comparison to ultrasonographic technique, which involved a healthy woman volunteer, 5 women patients and a man patient with thyroid diseases. Scintigraphic examination upon the patient's thyroid was performed using a gamma camera 20 minutes following the injection of 55.5 Mbq (1.5 mCi) Tc-99m pertechnetate. A computer, with a dedicated program, coupled to the gamma camera was employed in the calculation of thyroid volume based on the scintigraphic data. Subsequent to the scintigraphic study, ultrasonographic determination of thyroid volume was then carried out. Correlation test that was applied to the outcome of the two methods of thyroid volume determination resulted in an excellent coefficient of correlation, R, which was 0.99. This showed a very good correlation between these two different techniques of thyroid volume determination

  8. 42 CFR 488.30 - Revisit user fee for revisit surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions § 488.30 Revisit user fee for revisit surveys. (a) Definitions. As used in this section, the following definitions apply: Certification (both initial and recertification) means those activities as... allegation of noncompliance, as defined in § 488.1. Provider of services, provider, or supplier has the...

  9. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A. B. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine thyroid status in recurrent miscarriage Sudanese women and to determine the association between thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. The study included patients attending obstetrics and gynecology unit at Khartoum teaching hospital and Omdurman New hospital since June 2008 to Jan 2009, these patients were complaining of vaginal bleeding. Sixty, apparently healthy pregnant women with history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages during the first trimester, their ages ranged between 20 and 45 years were selected as target group. Forty healthy, normal pregnant women of the same gestational age and known to reach term and had healthy labor, patients with age ranged between 17 and 41 years were selected from (SAEC), referral clinic center at Khartoum Teaching and Omdurman New Hospitals as control group. The two groups were physically examined and their thyroid glands were seen by the physician. Questionnaires were completed for all the subjects. Patients with metabolic or endocrinologic disorders, genital organ anamoly, uterine myoma, mal nourishment or exposed to toxic substances were excluded from the study. Five ml of venous blood samples were collected from the target and control subjects. Thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies (TT 4 , TT 3 , FT 4 , FT 3 , TSH, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab) were measured for the two groups (target and control ) using RIA technique. The results of this study showed that there was a significant decrease decrease in the concentrations of thyroid hormones (TT 4 and TT 3 ) in the target group (p-value = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) compared with the control group. Moreover, there was a significant elevation in the concentration of TSH in the target group (p- value = 0.0001). The free T-4 concentration was lower but not significant in the target group (p-value=0.075), FT 3 level was similar in both groups (p-value = 0.591). The presence of abnormal high concentrations of TT 4 in control and target groups

  10. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum

  11. Growth and development in a child with resistance to thyroid hormone and ectopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Natasha; Hall, Kate; Neas, Katherine; Potter, Howard; Wiltshire, Esko

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone is an uncommon problem, which has rarely been associated with thyroid dysgenesis. We report a case with both thyroid gland ectopy and resistance to thyroid hormone and, thus, a reduced capacity to produce and respond to thyroid hormone. The patient presented at 2 years of age with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and elevation in both thyroxine and thyrotropin. We document her response to therapy with thyroxine, with particular regard to her growth and development. Persistent elevation of thyrotropin is commonly recognized during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. Resistance to thyroid hormone may be an important additional diagnosis to consider in cases where thyrotropin remains persistently elevated.

  12. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable for thyr......Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system...

  14. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an independent risk factor for papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarova, Barbora; Hajtman, Andrej

    2017-09-14

    The link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma has long been a topic of controversy. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis coexistence in histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. In a retrospective study, the clinicohistopathologic data of 2117 patients (1738 females/379 males), who underwent total or partial thyroidectomy for thyroid gland disorder at a single institution from the 1st of January 2005 to the 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Thyroid carcinoma was detected in 318 cases (15%) and microcarcinoma (thyroid cancer ≤10mm in diameter) was found in permanent sections in 169 cases (8%). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was detected in 318 (15%) patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly more often associated with thyroid carcinoma and microcarcinoma compare to benign condition (p=0.048, p=0.00014, respectively). Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma/thyroid microcarcinoma did not affect tumor size (p=0.251, p=0.098, respectively), or tumor multifocality (p=0.831, p=0.957, respectively). Bilateral thyroid microcarcinoma was significantly more often detected when Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed (p=0.041), but presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis did not affect bilateral occurrence of thyroid carcinoma (p=0.731). Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with significantly increased risk of developing thyroid carcinoma, especially thyroid microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Thyrotoxicosis Associated with a Hypopharyngeal Toxic Nodular Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Imran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly which may be either asymptomatic or present with thyroid dysfunction as well as pressure symptoms. Here we present a novel case of thyrotoxicosis associated with a hypopharyngeal multinodular thyroid in a female. Removal of the ectopic thyroid led to normalization of the thyroid status.

  16. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Gurleyik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH, very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves’ disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe.

  17. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The large amount of iodide released by metabolism of amiodarone inhibits thyroid hormone biosynthesis (the Wolff-Chaikoff. Divisions of Endocrinology and Cardiology and Medical Informatics, Groote. Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town. Ian Louis Ross, MB ChB, FCP (SA), Cert Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  18. Thyroid albumin originates from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Veenboer, G. J.; van Dijk, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Iodoalbumin has been found in the goiter of Dutch goats with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect. Immunohistochemical studies showed that in the goiter the percentage of follicles containing albumin was higher than that in normal thyroid glands. In the albumin-containing follicles of normal and

  19. Peripheral markers of thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulla; Nygaard, Birte; Winther Jensen, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    ). This was performed to obtain unaltered serum TSH levels during the trial and between the two treatment groups. Blood sampling was performed 24 h after the last intake of thyroid hormone medication. RESULTS: TSH remained unaltered between the groups ((median) 0.83 vs 1.18 mU/l in T4/T3 combination and T4 monotherapy...

  20. Functional scintigraphy of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Emrich, D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain more diagnostic information by thyroid scintigraphy we used a gamma camera with a high resolution collimator and a computer. This led to an improvement of thyroid scintigrams and their documentation. Additionally it allowed to obtain values for global and regional uptake of pertechnetate before and under suppression. The usefulness of this method was proven by investigation of 50 individuals with normal thyroid function and 32 euthyroid patients with pathological suppressibility in an area of iodine deficiency. In normals global thyroid uptake and its suppression correlated with the FT 4 I and Δ TSH after TRH in dependence of their iodine excretion. Three types of pathological reaction under suppression could be delineated: 1. pure focal autonomy, 2. generalized (disseminated) autonomy, 3. combined focal and disseminated autonomy. The means of Δ TSH decreased stepwise from group 1 to 3 indicating increasing autonomy. The method is predominantly helpful to detect autonomy in euthyroid goitre. It is superior to qualitative evaluation of scintigrams. Additionally it is useful for decisions in therapy, especially for functionally orientated operation. (orig.) [de

  1. DNA Methylation in Thyroid Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Worsham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer with 1,690 deaths each year. There are four main types of which the papillary and follicular types together account for >90% followed by medullary cancers with 3% to 5% and anaplastic carcinomas making up

  2. Recent tendency in diagnosis of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tatsuno, Ikuro

    1979-01-01

    Various new approaches have been recently investigated in diagnosis of thyroid diseases with the progress of nuclear medicine. sup(99m)TcO 4 - has become a routinely used radiopharmaceutical in thyroid scan. sup(99m)TcO 4 - thyroid uptake was evaluated by using thyroid-t-high ratio. 123 I thyroid scan is more valuable than 131 I scan because of its short half time and low radiation exposure. We use 123 I particulary in functional analysis of thyroid hot nodule. 201 Tl scans were performed in patients with cold nodule. All thyroid cancer patients showed 201 Tl positive accumulation in thyroid nodule. However, even in benign diseases 201 Tl was accumulated. 201 Tl scan will be most effectively used in detecting the metastatic lesions from thyroid cancer. Serum rT 3 concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method. Serum TBG concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method and T 4 /TBG ratio was evaluated. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody titer in thyroid diseases was evaluated by RIA method. It was more objective than widely used tanned red cell hemagglutinin method. (author)

  3. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  4. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  5. Clinical outcomes of radiotherapy as initial local therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy and predictors of the need for post-radiotherapy decompressive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Roshan S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal initial local treatment for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO is not fully characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the clinical outcomes of RT as initial local therapy for GO and define predictors of the need for post-RT salvage bony decompressive surgery. Methods 91 patients with active GO and without prior surgery were treated with RT as initial local therapy between 01/1999 and 12/2010, with a median follow-up period of 18.3 months (range 3.7 - 142 months. RT dose was 24 Gy in 12 fractions. 44 patients (48.4% had prior use of steroids, with 31 (34.1% being on steroids at the initiation of RT. The most common presenting symptoms were diplopia (79%, proptosis (71% and soft tissue signs (62%. Results 84 patients (92.3% experienced stabilization or improvement of GO symptoms. 58 patients (64% experienced improvement in their symptoms. 19 patients (20.9% underwent salvage post-RT bony decompressive surgery. Smoking status and total symptom score at 4 months were independent predictors of post-RT bony decompression with odds ratios of 3.23 (95% CI 1.03 – 10.2 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.06 – 2.4, respectively. Persistent objective vision loss at 4 months post-RT was the most important symptom type in predicting salvage decompression. Chronic dry eye occurred in 9 patients (9.9% and cataracts developed in 4 patients (4.4%. Conclusions RT is effective and well tolerated as initial local therapy for active GO, with only 21% of patients requiring decompressive surgery post RT. Most patients experience stabilization or improvement of GO symptoms, but moderate to significant response occurs in the minority of patients. Smoking status and total symptom severity at 4 months, primarily persistent objective vision loss, are the primary determinants of the need for post-RT salvage bony decompression. Patients who smoke or present with predominantly vision loss symptoms should be

  6. Evaluation of rectus extraocular muscles using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy for assessment of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hong; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Li, Jing; Chen, Qinghua (Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)), Email: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com; Ai, Likun (Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China))

    2012-02-15

    Background. It is important to assess the activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) for planning optimal treatment strategy. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) is a technique for assessment of microcirculation status. The correlation between disease activity and the microcirculation characteristics of extraocular muscles (EOMs) has been demonstrated in GO. Purpose. To investigate the changes of rectus EOMs in patients with active vs. inactive GO using DCE-MRI, and to evaluate the value of DCE-MRI in assessing the activity of GO. Material and Methods. Rectus EOMs of 20 healthy controls, 18 patients with active GO, and 16 patients with inactive GO were studied. The signal intensity (SI) of rectus EOMs on T{sub 2}W images was evaluated. Regions of interest were placed on each rectus on DCE-MRI images. The DCE-MRI parameters including time to peak enhancement (T{sub peak}), enhancement ratio (ER), and wash-out ratio (WR) were calculated. Results. There were significant differences in SI and T{sub peak}, ER and WR values among the three groups (P = 0.000). However, there was no significant difference in SI between the active and inactive groups (P = 0.07). Tpeak values of each rectus were significantly increased in inactive group compared with the active group (P < 0.05). ER and WR values of the inferior rectus and WR values of the superior rectus in inactive group were significantly lower than those in active group (P < 0.05). There was significant correlation between clinical activity score (CAS) and minimum Tpeak (minT{sub peak}), maximum ER (maxER) and maximum WR (maxWR) (P < 0.001). The cut-off values of minT{sub peak}, maxER and maxWR were 156.98s, 1.31 and 13.50% respectively, giving positive predictive values of 68.00%, 88.90%, and 94.44% for the assessment of disease activity. Conclusion. DCE-MRI could demonstrate the micro circulatory changes of rectus EOMs in both active and inactive GO, and this MRI method is a useful tool in differentiating

  7. Interrelationships between age, thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid function in patients with sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.; Touber, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that during the natural history of sporadic nontoxic goiter (SNG), a diffuse goiter precedes a multinodular goiter with gradual development of autonomous thyroid function. A cross-sectional survey of 102 consecutive patients with SNG (seven male, 95 female) was performed.

  8. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and....../or metastases to produce thyroid hormone. CASE: A 68-year-old male, with weight loss and palpitations, was diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis. A later MRI, due to persistent shoulder pain, revealed multiple bone metastases. A biopsy was diagnostic for follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and total...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...

  9. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-dominated and centrally controlled technologies that were the main focus of the 1970s and 1980s studies. Yet this study concludes that there is general support for the reinforcement framework in the contemporary application of mobile technology in public sector home care.......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  10. The Levy sections theorem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram; Matsushita, Raul; Silva, Sergio Da

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the Levy sections theorem. We extend the scope of the theorem to time series and apply it to historical daily returns of selected dollar exchange rates. The elevated kurtosis usually observed in such series is then explained by their volatility patterns. And the duration of exchange rate pegs explains the extra elevated kurtosis in the exchange rates of emerging markets. In the end, our extension of the theorem provides an approach that is simpler than the more common explicit modelling of fat tails and dependence. Our main purpose is to build up a technique based on the sections that allows one to artificially remove the fat tails and dependence present in a data set. By analysing data through the lenses of the Levy sections theorem one can find common patterns in otherwise very different data sets

  11. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  12. American Thyroid Association Guide to investigating thyroid hormone economy and action in rodent and cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonio C; Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W; Kopp, Peter A; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S; Simonides, Warner S; Weiss, Roy E; Williams, Graham R

    2014-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes.

  13. Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Vita, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that in most industrialized countries autoimmune disorders, including chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, are increasing. This increase parallels the one regarding differentiated thyroid cancer, the increment of which is mainly due to the papillary histotype. A number of studies have pointed to an association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid cancer. The upward trend of these two thyroid diseases is sustained by certain environmental factors, such as polluting substances acting as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Herein we will review the experimental and clinical literature that highlights the effects of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting chemicals in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease or differentiated thyroid cancer. Stakeholders, starting from policymarkers, should become more sensitive to the consequences for the thyroid resulting from exposure to EDC. Indeed, the economic burden resulting from such consequences has not been quantified thus far.

  14. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  15. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  16. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  17. Ionizing radiation influence on thyroid iodine metabolism in hypothyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadol'nik, L.I.; Valentyukevich, O.I.; Netsetskaya, Z.V.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of inhibition effect mercazalylum on thyroid after irradiation that apparent in decrease of rate hypertrophy, increase of blood thyroid hormone level and increase thyroid concentration of total, protein binding and free iodine was shown. (authors)

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ... Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During ...

  19. What You Need to Know about Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Thyroid Cancer This booklet is about thyroid cancer. Learning about ...

  20. Radioiodine therapy of benign thyroid disorders: functional thyroid autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkelmann, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 15 years, several concepts have been developed to further improve the outcome of radioiodine therapy in functional thyroid autonomy. Results of radioiodine therapy in functional autonomy are considerably better than in Graves' disease. All of the currently-applied concepts offer healing rates of 75-100%, but they differ considerably in the hypothyreosis rates attained. The target volume can be precisely determined by sonography only in unifocal autonomy. In the case of multifocal and disseminated autonomy, the entire thyroid is taken as the target volume and the focal dose is reduced ('dosimetric compromise'). TcTUs-based dose concepts calculate the functionally autonomous volume from the TcTUs and replace the target volume by sonography, in the TcTUs-adapted dose concepts, sonographic target volume is left and the focal dose varied in dependence of the suppression uptake. The objective is to attain a high rate of success with a low rate of hypothyreosis. (orig.)

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies, and expert consensus.

  2. Clinical And Pathological Implications Of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders And Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, L L; Ferreira, R C; Marcello, M A; Vassallo, J; Ward, L S

    2011-01-01

    Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer (DTC) have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an a...

  3. Vulnerability of the developing brain to thyroid abnormalities: environmental insults to the thyroid system.

    OpenAIRE

    Porterfield, S P

    1994-01-01

    Neurologic development follows orderly patterns that can be severely disturbed when thyroid hormones are deficient or excessive. Should this occur at appropriate development periods, irreversible neurologic damage can result. The nature of the deficits depends upon the specific development period and the severity of the thyroid disturbance. PCBs and dioxins are structurally similar to the thyroid hormones. Their binding characteristics are similar to those of thyroid hormones and all three gr...

  4. Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and Screening for Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Adlan; Lakdasa D. Premawardhana

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) is a common disorder which causes considerable morbidity in affected women. The availability of effective treatment for hypothyroid PPTD, the occurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies and the need to identify subjects who develop long term hypothyroidism, has prompted discussion about screening for this disorder. There is currently no consensus about screening as investigations hitherto have been variable in their design, definitions and assay f...

  5. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  6. Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virili, Camilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota is essential for the host to ensure digestive and immunologic homeostasis. When microbiota homeostasis is impaired and dysbiosis occurs, the malfunction of epithelial barrier leads to intestinal and systemic disorders, chiefly immunologic and metabolic. The role of the intestinal tract is crucial in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, and hormones, including exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines as well as micronutrients involved in thyroid homeostasis. However, the link between thyroid homeostasis and microbiota composition is not yet completely ascertained. A pathogenetic link with dysbiosis has been described in different autoimmune disorders but not yet fully elucidated in autoimmune thyroid disease which represents the most frequent of them. Anyway, it has been suggested that intestinal dysbiosis may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, often of autoimmune origin, were respectively associated to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and to changes in microbiota composition. Whether some steps of this thyroid network may be affected by intestinal microbiota composition is briefly discussed below.

  7. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... benign thyroid nodule. None of the patients had uptake on a radionuclide scan. Patients underwent one ILP session. A needle was positioned in the thyroid nodule with US guidance, and the laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Patients were treated for 287-1,200 seconds with an output power...... of 1-3 W. ILP was performed with continuous US guidance and terminated when the echogenic changes were stationary. Thyroid nodule volume and thyroid function were evaluated before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. During the same period, 15 untreated patients (control group) were followed up...

  8. Thyroid nodular disease: an emerging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, E; Pirola, I; Gandossi, E; Delbarba, A; Cappelli, C

    2008-03-01

    As a consequence of increasing application of ultrasound technology, the detection of asymptomatic thyroid nodules has generally increased. In fact, ultrasound epidemiological studies report that two third of subjects have at least a thyroid nodule, instead of 4-7% detected by clinicians. These evidences suggest the need of a rational approach to the thyroid nodule ''epidemia''. The question of whether clinically unapparent thyroid lesions should be assessed by cytology is still unresolved and, moreover, the clinical significance of nonpalpable (diameter <10 mm) thyroid carcinoma is still a matter of discussion. Aim of this work is to delineate a rational approach to thyroid nodules, taking in account literature data, the most recent guidelines and our clinical experience.

  9. [Thymoma and autoimmune thyroiditis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkane, A; Bellamy, J; Leroy-Terquem, E; Levy, R

    2003-09-01

    We report an association between a thymus tumor and autoimmune thyroiditis. This association is probably related to loss of immune control secondary to loss of thymus integrity. A 48-year-old woman was hospitalized for thoracic pain. Her past history included thyroiditis treated by L-thyroxin for two years. The chest x-ray demonstrated a mediastinal opacity which was confirmed by computed tomography. Surgical resection was performed and histological analysis of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of lympho-epithelial thymoma. Thyroid immunity tests demonstrated the presence of anti-peroxidase antibodies confirming the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Chest x-ray and CT-scan are indicated in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis to search for a thymic mass. Conversely, search for autoimmune thyroiditis is warranted in patients with an identified thymic mass.

  10. Thyroid function and thyroid size in normal pregnant women living in an iodine replete area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Endert, E.; Ross, A.; Hogerzeil, H. V.; Smits, N. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The interpretation of the changes in thyroid hormone concentrations during normal pregnancy is a matter of debate involving, in some geographical regions, enhanced thyroid activity in early pregnancy and a hypothyroid state in the third trimester. A clinically detectable increase in thyroid size has

  11. Pathological evaluation of thyroid glands in Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Xiao Haipeng; Cheng Wei; Yang Jianyong; Chen Guorui; Ling Qibo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphology of thyroid specimen after thyroid arteries embolization. In order to select appropriate size of embolizing granules, the diameters of thyroid arteries in Graves' disease were measured. Methods: Multiple slides of embolized thyroid tissues from superior pole, body and inferior pole of the resected thyroid glands were made. After being embedded and stained, pathological morphology was observed and diameters of arteries in various parts of thyroid glands were measured under microscopy. Results: Pathological examination of thyroid glands showed that superior and inferior thyroid arteries and most of their branches were embolized with ischemic necrosis and fibrosis in the embolized thyroid tissue. Follicular epithelium appeared as flat or cubic shapes with colloid reduction. Average diameter of main branches of superior artery was 440-550 μm and that of inferior artery was 300-375 μm. The diameters of capillary network in the thyroid body was 120-250 μm, and the non-embolized ones was 40-110 μm. The diameter of isthmus was 130-150 μm. Conclusions: Pathological morphology of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization showed that the excretion of thyroid glands would be decreased and equivalents to subtotal thyroidectomy

  12. Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome due to mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene (THRA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tylki-Szymanska, A.; Acuna Hidalgo, R.; Krajewska-Walasek, M.; Lecka-Ambroziak, A.; Steehouwer, M.; Gilissen, C.F.; Brunner, H.G.; Jurecka, A.; Rozdzynska-Swiatkowska, A.; Hoischen, A.; Chrzanowska, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Resistance to thyroid hormone is characterised by a lack of response of peripheral tissues to the active form of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3). In about 85% of cases, a mutation in THRB, the gene coding for thyroid receptor beta (TRbeta), is the cause of this disorder. Recently,

  13. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during

  14. Thyroid disease in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Ji Ye; Jeong, Sun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Thyroid imaging in pediatric patients is indicated for the evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) during newborn screening or for a palpable thyroid mass. The primary imaging modalities for newborn screening are ultrasonography (US) and radionuclide scintigraphy. US is useful as a first-line test for the diagnosis of thyroid abnormalities and lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients. In addition, US can be used to guide the aspiration of detected nodules and to support the evaluation of the lymph nodes.

  15. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  16. Encephalopathy Associated With Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    li A. Raouf; Gianluca Tamagno

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are immune-endocrine disorders affecting the thyroid gland and, eventually, also a number of other systemic targets, including the brain and the nervous system. Encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (EAATD) is a rare, heterogeneous condition arising from the background of an ATD. It is characterised by neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms with acute or sub-acute onset, and virtually any neurological or psychiatric symptom can appear. ...

  17. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  18. Etiology of thyroid cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkar, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, although a relatively rare tumor, is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. The identification of genetic factors important in the pathogesis of thyroid cancer could provide molecular tools for a better differential diagnosis between the different histotypes. Characterisation of mechanisms by which mutated proteins transduce mitogenic and de-differentiating signals might suggest novel therapeutic approaches for controlling cell growth and restoring thyroid differentiated functions

  19. Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Ali, Syed Z

    2011-04-01

    Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA) is a rare primary thyroid neoplasm. Ever since its initial descriptions, controversy has surrounded the lesion, particularly in regard to its malignant potential and most appropriate terminology. HTA shares many features with medullary thyroid carcinoma and particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, making it an especially treacherous lesion on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). This manuscript reviews the history and pathologic features of HTA, with particular attention to cytologic findings and differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Basu; Anjali Mohapatra

    2012-01-01

    There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ's disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin – angiotensin – aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ...

  1. Lingual thyroid - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Abicalaf, Ricardo Souza; Pimentel, Claudia Andreia Rabay; Santos, Leynalze Ramos; Soares, Aldemir Humberto; Gois Filho, Jose Francisco de; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino de; Rapoport, Abrao

    1997-01-01

    The authors report two cases of lingual thyroid, an uncommon developmental anomaly of embryogenesis characterized by a failure of the normal migration of thyroid tissue to the neck, with presence of the thyroid gland in the mid-line of the tongue base between circumvallate papillae and the epiglottis. The lesions may appear at nay time from birth to old age and have a predilection for females. The embryology, incidence, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods and management are discussed. (author)

  2. Thyroid Disorders in Accra, Ghana: A Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-six (43.4%) of the neoplastic thyroid disorders were malignant with a prevalence of 0.18 among thy-roid samples and annual incidence of 9.40 cases. The commonest thyroid cancer was papillary car-cinoma 40(60.6 %), with a mean age of 38.3 SD=16.1 years, majority, 34 (82.9%), were women. A wide spectrum of ...

  3. Thyroid radiofrequency ablation: Updates on innovative devices and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Chung, Sae Rom; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Auh Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Section, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-known, effective, and safe method for treating benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. Thyroid-dedicated devices and basic techniques for thyroid RFA were introduced by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) in 2012. Thyroid RFA has now been adopted worldwide, with subsequent advances in devices and techniques. To optimize the treatment efficacy and patient safety, understanding the basic and advanced RFA techniques and selecting the optimal treatment strategy are critical. The goal of this review is to therefore provide updates and analysis of current devices and advanced techniques for RFA treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers.

  4. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantisani, Vito; Lodise, Pietro; Grazhdani, Hektor; Mancuso, Ester; Maggini, Elena; Di Rocco, Giorgio; D’Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Calliada, Fabrizio; Redler, Adriano; Ricci, Paolo; Catalano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed

  5. Ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of thyroid pathology. Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantisani, Vito, E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Lodise, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.lodise@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Grazhdani, Hektor, E-mail: he1graz@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Mancuso, Ester, E-mail: ester.mancuso@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Maggini, Elena, E-mail: elenamaggini@yahoo.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Di Rocco, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgiodirocco@virgilio.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); D’Ambrosio, Ferdinando, E-mail: ferdinando.dambrosio@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia (Italy); Redler, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.redler@uniroma1.it [Department of Surgical Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Ricci, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.ricci@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Catalano, Carlo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Thyroid pathology including thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases represents often a diagnosing challenge for clinicians. US, although highly accurate in identifying thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid diseases, is still not sufficiently accurate to evaluate them. US-elastography has been introduced in order to further increase US accuracy in many fields and eventually for thyroid disease. The aim of the present paper it to provide an update of the literature on different available techniques and the results reported both for thyroid nodules differentiation and for diffuse thyroid disease evaluation. Advantages and limitations of elastography are also discussed.

  6. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  7. Experience in a specialist thyroid surgery unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    al-Suliman, N N; Ryttov, N F; Qvist, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a demographic study of thyroid diseases and thyroid surgical activity, to analyse the results of one department that has specialised in thyroid surgery during an 11-year period, and to try to define those groups of patients at increased risk of complications and untoward...... catchment area composed of five municipalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual number of operations for goitre, waiting time to operation, incidence of complications, and sequelae. RESULTS: In the demographic study the number of patients operated on for benign thyroid diseases declined from about 50 cases...

  8. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  10. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risheng eMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO.Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  11. Thyroid Autoimmunity in Girls with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Borowiec, Ada; Kucharska, Anna; Chacewicz, Karolina; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Demkow, Urszula; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with increased incidence of autoimmune diseases, especially those of the thyroid gland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity among pediatric patients with Turner syndrome. The study was retrospective and included 41 girls with Turner syndrome aged 6-18 years. Free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab) antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, and karyotype were investigated. The correlation between karyotype and incidence of thyroid autoimmunity was also examined. Eleven patients (26.8%) were positive for TPO-Ab and/or TG-Ab. Three girls from that subgroup were euthyroid, 5 had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 3 were diagnosed with overt hypothyroidism. Out of these 11 patients affected by thyroid autoimmunity, 6 girls had mosaic karyotype with X-isochromosome (n = 4) or with deletions (n = 2), and 5 had the 45,X karyotype. The study findings confirmed a high incidence of thyroid autoimmunity in girls with Turner syndrome, but we failed to observe an association between the incidence of thyroid autoimmunity and karyotype. We conclude that it is important to monitor thyroid function in patients with Turner syndrome because they are prone to develop hypothyroidism.

  12. Associations between Systemic Sclerosis and Thyroid Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed scientific literature about the association of systemic sclerosis (SSc and thyroid disorders. A high incidence, and prevalence, of new cases of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and/or hypothyroidism have been shown in sclerodermic patients (overall in the female gender. An association among a Th1 immune-predominance, low vitamin D levels, and AT have been also shown in SSc patients. Cases of Graves’ disease (GD have been described in SSc patients, too, according with the higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity. It has been also shown a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC, in association with AT, in SSc patients. However, in order to confirm results about GD and thyroid cancer, studies in larger number of patients with SSc are needed. During the follow-up of SSc patients it would be appropriate to monitor carefully their thyroid status. The abovementioned data strongly suggest a periodic thyroid function follow-up in female SSc patients [showing a borderline high (although in the normal range thyroid-stimulating hormone level, antithyroid peroxidase antibody positivity, and a small thyroid with a hypoechoic pattern], and, when necessary, appropriate treatments. In conclusion, most of the studies show an association among SSc, AT, and hypothyroidism, such as an increased prevalence of TC overall in SSc patients with AT. Only few cases of GD have been also described in SSc.

  13. Thyroid functions in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Ismail, A.A.; Awadeen, M.R.; Abbas, E.Z.; Farag, M.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment of the thyroid-pituitary axis was performed in uncontrolled (20 cases) and controlled (22 cases) insulin-dependent young diabetics who were university students attending the university hospital. A third age-matching group (21 normal subjects) was also investigated. The plasma glucose level was determined after fasting as well as 2 hours after an oral glucose meal (50 g). Thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodeothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed by RIA. The data obtained showed a lowered level of T 3 and T 4 and a raised level of TSH in uncontrolled young diabetics as compared to corresponding values for age matching normals. The group of controlled diabetics showed near normal T 3 and increased T 4 levels, but still lower than normal. TSH levels dropped significantly to the normal level. (author)

  14. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  15. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  16. Thyroglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carol; Tennant, Sarah; Perros, Petros

    2015-04-15

    Identification of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is becoming increasingly common. Patients usually have an excellent prognosis. Most undergo total thyroidectomy, radioiodine ablation and treatment with suppressive doses of levothyroxine. Patients require long term follow-up which includes measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). Interpretation of serum Tg requires knowledge of the concurrent thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, as secretion is TSH dependant, and an awareness of the limitations of the methods used to measure it. These limitations include the heterogeneity of Tg in serum, the ability of assays to recognise forms of Tg secreted by a tumour, assay biases and not least the potential for interference in immunoassays for Tg from endogenous thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in patient serum. This review considers what the clinician wants to know and how Tg results can be interpreted in light of an awareness of assay limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Insular carcinoma of the thyroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J; Cerpa, F; Domínguez, M; Franco, C; Jadresic, A; Pérez, G; Phillippi, V

    1999-03-01

    We report 5 cases of insular carcinoma of the thyroid. Most patients were females (80%) with an age range of 28 to 75 years. Treatment consisted of total or near total thyroidectomy plus modified cervical lymph node dissection in cases with lymph node metastasis. This was followed by radioiodine therapy and external radiation therapy in patients with residual disease. None of the patients had distant metastasis. However, three patients with involvement of the perithyroid soft tissue died within 4 years of the diagnosis. The other two patients are alive without evidence of disease. This type of thyroid carcinoma has an aggresive clinical course with frequent extension to the adjacent soft tissue associated to poor outcomes.

  18. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  19. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, A.

    1988-01-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed

  20. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt