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Sample records for thyroid gland arising

  1. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  2. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  3. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  4. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2006-01-01

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

  5. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

  6. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

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    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  7. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  8. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  9. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  10. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  11. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  12. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  13. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

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    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  14. Pathological evaluation of thyroid glands in Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Xiao Haipeng; Cheng Wei; Yang Jianyong; Chen Guorui; Ling Qibo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphology of thyroid specimen after thyroid arteries embolization. In order to select appropriate size of embolizing granules, the diameters of thyroid arteries in Graves' disease were measured. Methods: Multiple slides of embolized thyroid tissues from superior pole, body and inferior pole of the resected thyroid glands were made. After being embedded and stained, pathological morphology was observed and diameters of arteries in various parts of thyroid glands were measured under microscopy. Results: Pathological examination of thyroid glands showed that superior and inferior thyroid arteries and most of their branches were embolized with ischemic necrosis and fibrosis in the embolized thyroid tissue. Follicular epithelium appeared as flat or cubic shapes with colloid reduction. Average diameter of main branches of superior artery was 440-550 μm and that of inferior artery was 300-375 μm. The diameters of capillary network in the thyroid body was 120-250 μm, and the non-embolized ones was 40-110 μm. The diameter of isthmus was 130-150 μm. Conclusions: Pathological morphology of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization showed that the excretion of thyroid glands would be decreased and equivalents to subtotal thyroidectomy

  15. [Isolated thyroid gland sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsteger, W; Lind, P; Beham, A; Költringer, P; Eber, O

    1989-04-29

    A case of isolated sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland, associated with hyperthyroidism, is reported in a 28-year-old male patient whose thyroid was removed for hyperthyroid multinodular goitre. Histology revealed a regressive adenoma and sarcoidosis in non-adenomatous thyroid residue. Further diagnosis, therapeutic management and a 3-year follow-up did not disclose any specific changes or involvement of other tissues. Isolated thyroidal sarcoidosis with hyperthyroid alterations are extremely rare and mostly chance findings; simultaneous occurrence of thyroid sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism may be a symptom of gland infiltration for which an adequate explanation is still lacking.

  16. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  17. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  18. Ultrasound assessment of thyroid gland volume in diabetic patients without overt thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, Christopher C; Adeyekun, Ademola A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are known to mutually influence each other. Thyroid disease can worsen glycaemic control in diabetes, and patients with diabetes mellitus have increased incidence of thyroid disorders such as increase in size, compared to the normal population. The aim of the study was to sonographically assess thyroid gland volume in Nigerian adult diabetic patients and compare with apparently healthy adults (controls). The study setting was the Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Nigeria. The thyroid gland in 120 diabetic subjects and equal number of apparently healthy controls was scanned with a 5-12 MHz linear transducer of a SONOACE X4 Machine. Thyroid gland volume was assessed. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Diabetics had significantly increased thyroid volume compared to age matched male and female control subjects (11.5 ± 5.2 cm3 vs 7.4 ± 1.9 cm3; Pthyroid volume among diabetics. Diabetics have higher thyroid gland dimensions, compared to apparently healthy subjects. Gland proliferation from circulating insulin may play a role. This is not influenced by gender.

  19. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  20. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, A.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  1. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  2. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  3. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  4. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

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    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  5. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  6. Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Song Yiyang; Chen Qin; Chen Yannan

    2000-01-01

    A new dosimeter of 125 I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125 I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125 I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 10 6 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

  7. Less aggressive disease in patients with primary squamous cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland and coexisting lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asik, Mehmet; Binnetoglu, Emine; Sen, Hacer; Gunes, Fahri; Muratli, Asli; Kankaya, Duygu; Uysal, Fatma; Sahin, Mustafa; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Infrequently, primary SCC of the thyroid gland is accompanied by other thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Recently, studies have demonstrated that differentiated thyroid cancer with coexisting HT has a better prognosis. However, the prognosis of patients with primary SCC of the thyroid gland and coexistent HT has not been clearly identified. We compared the clinical characteristics and disease stages of patients with primary SCC with and without lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). We reviewed reports of primary SCC of the thyroid gland published in the English literature. We identified 46 papers that included 17 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland with LT and 77 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland without LT. Lymph node metastasis and local invasion rates did not differ between these two groups. Distant metastases were absent in patients with LT, and were observed in 13 (16.9%) patients without LT. A greater proportion of patients without LT had advanced stage disease (stage IV A-B-C) than patients with LT (p thyroid gland and coexisting LT had lower tumour-node-metastasis stage and frequency of distant metastasis than those without LT. Lymphocytic infiltration in patients with SCC appears to limit tumour growth and distant metastases.

  8. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in study of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinadinovic, J.; Ratkovic, S.; Kraincanic, M.

    1982-01-01

    A correlation was found between microstructural and biochemical changes of the thyroid gland and proton magnetic relaxation of tissue water. A significant increase of both relaxation times (T1, T2) was noted in thyroid tissue of rats treated with antithyroid drugs (PTU, C104) or TSH and was inversely correlated with thyroglobulin content in the gland and its morphological structure. When the treatment with PTU or C104 was interrupted, the relaxation times returned to normal values. These changes were in close correlation with the involution of structural changes in the thyroid gland and reaccumulation of follicular colloid (Tg). After T4, T3 or iodine treatment the relaxation times in the stimulated gland decreased following an increase of Tg content in the gland. It was observed that the relaxation times of the thyroid tissue of rats are in strong negative correlation with Tg concentration. Normal values for T1 in rat (530 msec) and guinea-pig (700 msec) thyroid glands are quite different. These species differences are related to the microstructural properties of thyroid glands, i.e. to the composition, structure, and degree of aggregation of follicular colloid (Tg). Finally, the NMR method could be applied in physiological and pathological examinations of the thyroid gland

  10. [The thyroid gland in emotional and pain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I Z

    1987-01-01

    The reaction of wild rodent thyroid gland on emotional and painful stress appearing as a result of animal's catching has been studied. The thyroid activity has been shown to raise considerably during the primary stage of stress reaction. Later on the function of the gland normalizes in animals without trauma and in traumatized animals it becomes weaker. The complete normalization of the thyroid function in traumatized animals coincides with osteal regeneration according to time.

  11. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  12. Quantitative assessment of thyroid gland elasticity with shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Bayramoglu, Zuhal; Caliskan, Emine; Sari, Zeynep Nur Akyol; Adaletli, Ibrahim

    2018-01-18

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common autoimmune thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. Measurement of thyroid gland size is an essential component in evaluation and follow-up of thyroid pathologies. Along with size, tissue elasticity is becoming a more commonly used parameter in evaluation of parenchyma in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess thyroid parenchyma elasticity by shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; and compare the elasticity values to a normal control group. In this study; thyroid glands of 59 patients with a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis based on ultrasonographic and biochemical features, and 26 healthy volunteers without autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid function disorders, were evaluated with shear-wave elastography. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were further subdivided into three categories based on gray-scale ultrasonography findings as focal thyroiditis (grade 1), diffuse thyroiditis (grade 2), and fibrotic thyroid gland (grade 3). Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 59) had significantly higher elasticity values (14. 9 kPa; IQR 12.9-17.8 kPa) than control subjects (10.6 kPa; IQR 9.0-11.3 kPa) (p thyroiditis, 23 patients had focal thyroiditis involving less than 50% of the gland categorized as grade 1, 24 patients had diffuse involvement of the thyroid gland categorized as grade 2, and 12 patients had marked hyperechoic septations and pseudonodular appearance categorized as grade 3 on gray-scale ultrasound. Based on elastography, grade 3 patients had significantly higher elasticity values (19.7 kPa; IQR 17.8-21.5 kPa) than patients with grade 2 (15.5 kPa; IQR 14.5-17.8 kPa) and grade 1 thyroiditis (12.8 kPa; IQR 11.9-13.1 kPa) (p thyroiditis had significantly higher elasticity values than those with grade 1 thyroiditis (p thyroiditis. Our results indicate that shear-wave elastography could be used to evaluate the degree of

  13. A Cross-sectional Morphometric Study of Thyroid Glands in Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrish Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is an organ with a highly variable morphology. Despite several studies having been done to assess its measurements, a consensus has not been arrived at as to what constitutes a ‘normal’ thyroid. Aim: To determine the dimensions of the normal thyroid gland obtained from cadavers of South Indian region and to derive the mean and standard deviations of the measurements of the gland in the given population, thus contributing to the existing data. We also aimed to study three common but not constant components of the thyroid gland, namely Pyramidal Lobe (PL, Tubercle of Zukerkandl (TZ and Levator Glandulae Thyroideae (LGT. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on thyroid glands obtained from cadavers of South Indian region. Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained. Sixty thyroid glands were obtained from cadavers received for either routine dissection or autopsies. The thyroid glands were studied after adequate exposure and fixing in formalin. Dimensions were measured using Vernier calipers. Specimens with anomalies like absent isthmus etc were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using the MedCalc Version 17.0 software. Results: The average dimensions of the lobes were: height 3.83 cm, width 2.62 cm, and thickness 2.69 cm. The average dimensions of the isthmus were: height 1.38 cm, width 1.36 cm and thickness 1.29 cm. The average dimensions of the pyramidal lobe were: height 2.03 cm, width at the base 1.91 cm and thickness 1.16 cm. Pyramidal lobe was present in 60% of cases. Levator glandulae thyroideae was observable in three cases (5%. Significant correlation was found between the dimensions of right and left lobes and regression equations were calculated. Conclusion: The dimensions of the thyroid gland are very variable. Knowledge of the wide ranging variations and measurements will be of help to surgeons and radiologists in correct interpretation, diagnosis and treatment of

  14. Thyroid gland involvement in advanced laryngeal cancer: association with clinical and pathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilly, Ohad; Raz, Raanan; Vaisbuch, Yona; Strenov, Yulia; Segal, Karl; Koren, Rumelia; Shvero, Jacob

    2012-11-01

    Indications for thyroidectomy during laryngectomy are controversial. We examined whether clinicopathologic features can predict thyroid gland involvement, and the prognostic effect of thyroid gland involvement in patients undergoing total laryngectomy. The study set out to review preoperative assessment, operation findings, pathologic findings, and follow-up data. Thyroid gland involvement was found in 11 of 53 patients (21%) undergoing total laryngectomy and thyroidectomy. Preoperative work-up failed to predict thyroid gland involvement. Thyroid gland involvement was associated with salvage procedures (p = .025), paratracheal metastases (p = .003), and poor overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.74, p = .008). Thyroid gland involvement in patients undergoing total laryngectomy is frequent and is associated with poor prognosis. Preoperative assessment failed to predict thyroid gland involvement. We believe that thyroidectomy should be considered in cases with paratracheal lymphatic spread irrespective of tumor location within the larynx. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. TTH biological effect and thyrocyte binding in functional states of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    It was established in experiments made in vitro on the thyroid glands of intact animals and also on hyperplastic, functionally atrophied and inflamed thyroid glands that tritiated TTH actively incorporated into thyroid gland cells of the control animals and raised the rate of thyroxin secretion. Under the conditions of experimental hyperplasia, atrophy and thyroiditis of the thyroid gland, the hormonogenic reaction of thyrocytes and the nature of TTH binding by them was greatly disturbed. The thyrocytes of the hyperplastic and inflamed thyroid tissue did not accept the labelled TTH and did not react to its administration by intensification of thyroxin secretion. The thyrocytes of the functionally atrophied thyroid gland tissue actively bound the tritiated TTH and enhanced thyroxin secretion

  16. Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Gwun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Goo, Dong Erk; Choi, Deuk Lin; Yang, Seung Boo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X π/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm 3 , left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm 3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm 3 , respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p 3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

  17. Bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Degosserie, Jonathan; Heymans, Charlotte; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Parfenov, Vladislav A; Sun, Yi; Wang, Qi; Akhmedova, Suraya A; Sviridova, Irina K; Sergeeva, Natalia S; Frank, Georgy A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Pierreux, Christophe E; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2017-08-18

    Bioprinting can be defined as additive biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) tissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids, capable of self-assembly, as building blocks. The thyroid gland, a relatively simple endocrine organ, is suitable for testing the proposed bioprinting technology. Here we report the bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct from embryonic tissue spheroids as a proof of concept. Based on the self-assembly principle, we generated thyroid tissue starting from thyroid spheroids (TS) and allantoic spheroids (AS) as a source of thyrocytes and endothelial cells (EC), respectively. Inspired by mathematical modeling of spheroid fusion, we used an original 3D bioprinter to print TS in close association with AS within a collagen hydrogel. During the culture, closely placed embryonic tissue spheroids fused into a single integral construct, EC from AS invaded and vascularized TS, and epithelial cells from the TS progressively formed follicles. In this experimental setting, we observed formation of a capillary network around follicular cells, as observed during in utero thyroid development when thyroid epithelium controls the recruitment, invasion and expansion of EC around follicles. To prove that EC from AS are responsible for vascularization of the thyroid gland construct, we depleted endogenous EC from TS before bioprinting. EC from AS completely revascularized depleted thyroid tissue. The cultured bioprinted construct was functional as it could normalize blood thyroxine levels and body temperature after grafting under the kidney capsule of hypothyroid mice. Bioprinting of functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct represents a further advance in bioprinting technology, exploring the self-assembling properties of tissue spheroids.

  18. Tuberculosis Of The Thyroid Gland In A Nigeria Female: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    reviewed. Conclusion: Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling especially in a patient with Koch's disease. Keywords: Thyroid gland, Tuberculosis,. Radiological imaging, Nigeria. Correspondence to: DR C O MADUFORO increasing swelling on the anterior neck.

  19. IgG4-positive extranodal marginal zone lymphoma arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: clinicopathological and cytogenetic features of a hitherto undescribed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Char-Loo; Ong, Yew-Kwang; Tan, Soo-Yong; Ng, Siok-Bian

    2016-05-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis was recently divided into IgG4-plasma cell-rich and IgG4-plasma cell-poor subtypes. The former, also known as IgG4 thyroiditis, is associated with clinical, serological, sonographic and morphological features that are distinctive from those of the non-IgG4 subgroup. We describe an interesting case of IgG4-positive mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma arising in a background of IgG4 thyroiditis. The thyroid gland showed typical features of IgG4 thyroiditis, including characteristic patterns of fibrosis. A dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate diffusely involved the entire gland without formation of a destructive tumour mass. Lymphoepithelial lesions were prominent. There were abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells, with the IgG4/IgG ratio exceeding 40%. The IgG4-positive plasma cells were monotypic for kappa light chain, and there was monoclonal IGH rearrangement. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed IGH translocation without translocation of MALT1, bcl-10, or FOXP1. This represents the first case of IgG4-producing MALT lymphoma associated with IgG4 thyroiditis. IGH translocation with an unknown partner gene was identified. We suggest the performance of serum and immunohistochemical investigations for IgG and IgG4 in all cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis to diagnose IgG4 thyroiditis. In addition, clonality assays and light chain studies are useful to exclude a low-grade lymphoma arising in this context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Isotopic ratios of 129I/127I in mammalian thyroid glands in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.; Hatano, T.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic ratios of 129 I/ 127 I in cattle thyroid glands collected from various areas of Japan were measured by neutron activation analysis with combustion pre-treatment. Pig and human thyroid glands were also analyzed by the same method. The iodine isotopic ratio in cattle thyroid glands in Japan is comparable with that observed in Europe. The isotopic ratio in human thyroid glands in Japan is remarkably lower than that in Europe, which has been reported to be comparable to that of cattle. The isotopic ratio in pig thyroid glands is also lower than that in cattle. (author) 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is development and routine daily practice of the radionuclide method for tracking of the thyroid gland functional status and structure. 168 patients with various thyroid diseases were examined. Nuclear medicine examination is held by gamma camera (Siemens and ADAK). 74 MBq 99m Tc-pertechnetate is injected intravenous. The activity of full and empty syringe is measured. Static scintigrams of full and empty syringes and injection place and duration 10 seconds are carried out. On 20 th minute a static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with a duration of 300 seconds in front position is held. The individual dose calibration factor is calculated. The functional status of thyroid gland as well as its structural changes is determined. In addition, the relationships between the accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the salivary glands and thyroid are determined. 168 patients are studied, 97 of them are with euthyroidism, 71 with hyperthyroidism and 19 - with hypothyroidism. The nuclear medicine diagnostic method provides information about functional and structural condition of the thyroid gland. The study is determining for decision to conduct the metabolic brachytherapy of hyperthyroid conditions

  3. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases: harmful, beneficial or innocent for the thyroid gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD.

  4. A histological autopsy study of the thyroid gland in HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore postulated the thyroid gland would be involved in AIDS patients. This study focused on the histologic appearances of the thyroid gland in HIV and AIDS patients on post mortem. The findings will provide evidence based recommendations on the management of thyroid diseases in the HIV infected in Zambia.

  5. Scintigraphic evaluation of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A. K.; Hassan, M.A.; Miah, M.S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Total 2287 patients who undergone thyroid scintigraphy in Nuclear Medicine Centre, Khulna from January 1998 to December 2000 were retrospectively studied to evaluate the congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland. Scintigraphy showed thyroid anomalies in 11 patients (0.48%). The presenting features and thyroid function tests were analyzed and a detailed study was performed. Of these 11 cases, 7 patients (63.6%) had ectopic thyroid gland and site of ectopic was found to be lingual in 4 cases, sublingual in 2 cases and pre laryngeal in 1 case, 3 patients (27.3%) with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 1 patient (9.1%) with athyreosis. Biochemically 3 cases were hypothyroid of which 2 had ectopic thyroid and 1 with athyreosis. 1 patient was hyperthyroid with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 7 were euthyroid. Females were more affected than males, the ratio being 4.5:1. (authors) 2 tabs. 12 refs

  6. Ultrasonographic assessment of the thyroid gland structure in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Stolarska, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is still not fully elucidated and seems to be multifactorial. It has been suggested that genetic, immunological and environmental factors participate in IBD development. IBD extraintestinal manifestations include rheumatic, metabolic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, urologic, pulmonary, neurological, hematological and thromboembolic complications. Thyroid gland diseases have not been confirmed as extraintestinal manifestations of IBD. However, it is known that some thyroid diseases share an immunological background with IBD, and that dysfunction of the thyroid gland may induce gastrointestinal symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the gold standard for evaluation of thyroid gland morphology. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of abnormalities in the structure of the thyroid gland in IBD patients and to compare it to the control group. The study group consisted of 199 consecutive IBD patients (80 CD patients and 119 UC patients) hospitalized at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The control group consisted of 42 healthy volunteers and patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The most common finding in the ultrasound examination in IBD patients were tumors. Tumors, which were smaller than or equal to 10 mm were present in 11.5% of IBD patients; and tumors larger than 10 mm were present in 13.1%. These results show that small tumors (less than 10 mm in diameter) of the thyroid gland are more frequent among patients with CD and UC compared to the control group (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Additionally, enlargement of the thyroid gland occurs more often in UC patients compared to the control group (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the frequency of thyroid abnormalities between UC and CD patients. In patients with inflammatory

  7. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  8. The size of thyroid gland measured by scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K. O.; Choe, Y. K.; Park, C. Y.; Choi, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Normal size of thyroid gland in Korean male and female were aimed to study through color scanning using radioactive materials. The measurement of the size of thyroid gland is necessary not only for standardization of Korean subjects but also to the dose determination of radioactive iodine treatment and evaluation of thyroid disease. There had been no available data in regarding Korean euthyroid size in literature. In 119 subjects from the age of 19 years to 60 tears, who have normal thyroid function and no history of any thyroid disorder, the length, the width and the area of thyroid gland were measured in scan images. The weight of thyroid gland was calculated by Allen-Goodwin's formula. The thyroid scan was obtained by Picker Color Magna-Scanner, in 24 hours after ingestion of 50μCi sodium iodide 1-131. Results; In males, 16 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.5 cm, area-9.1 cm 2 , weight-14.7 gr in right lobe, length-4.7 cm, width-2.3 cm, area-7.6 cm 2 , weight-11.1 gr in left lobe, total area-16.7 cm 2 , and total weight-25.8 gr. In females, 103 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.4 cm, area-9.4 cm 2 , weight-15.2 gr in the right lobe, length-4.6 cm, width-2.2 cm, area-7.9 cm 2 , weight-11.6 gr in left lobe, total area-17.3 cm 2 , total weight-26.8 gr. The right lobe was larger in the above mean values of size than the left: 11% longer in length, 8% wider in width, 18% broader in area and 30% heavier in weight in mean values. The difference of sizes between two lobes was statistically significant. There was no significant difference comparison with English written literature

  9. Solitary fibrous tumor arising in an intrathoracic goiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The histological appearance and immunohistochemical reaction pattern of SFT is characteristic. The entity should be considered when dealing with a spindle cell lesion in the thyroid gland. All cases of this site of origin reported have had a benign clinical course. As only a small number of cases......BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor most often found in the mediastinal pleura. Nineteen cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been reported. We report a case of SFT of the thyroid gland with immunohistochemical and cytogenetic investigation. SUMMARY: A 58...

  10. Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, T. V.; Smolenskaya, N. A.; Rafeenko, S.M.; Rekechinskaya, N.V.; Krupnik, Ye.V.; Aladieva, L.A.; Krupnik, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were

  11. Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rosik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

  12. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Glatstein, E.; Marsa, G.W.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 5 1 / 2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  13. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  14. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, K V; Knutstad, K; Olsen, D R; Fosså, S D

    2011-06-09

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively thyroid gland receivingthyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  15. A Histological Autopsy Study of the Thyroid gland in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the histological appearances of adult thyroid glands in patients who died of HIV related diseases at UTH in the period 2010 to 2012. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive retrospective study of adult thyroid glands collected at autopsy during the period 2010 ...

  16. Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Hwa; Cho, Won Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Chunan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r{sup 2}=0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

  17. Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Hwa; Cho, Won Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r 2 =0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

  18. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min; Kwak, Seo Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall

  19. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal

  20. Predictors of transient congenital hypothyroidism in children with eutopic thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Soon Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeCongenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation. Recently, the detection of CH cases with eutopic thyroid gland has increased due to neonatal screening programs. In this study, we aimed to identify and evaluate predictive factors that could distinguish between permanent and transient CH in patients with eutopic thyroid gland.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 100 children diagnosed with CH and with eutopic thyroid gland. All subjects were treated with levothyroxine and underwent re-evaluation after 3 years of age.ResultsOf the 100 CH patients, 35 (35.0% were diagnosed with permanent CH (PCH and 65 (65.0% were diagnosed with transient CH (TCH. The initial thyroid stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower in the TCH subjects than in PCH subjects. In addition, the mean doses of levothyroxine (µg/kg/day at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year of treatment were significantly lower in subjects with TCH than in PCH subjects with eutopic thyroid gland. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, the optimal cutoff dose of levothyroxine at 3 years of 2.76 µg/kg/day could predict TCH, and was associated with 87.3% sensitivity and 67.6% specificity, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.769.ConclusionThe levothyroxine dose requirement during treatment period has a predictive role in differentiating TCH from PCH in CH patients with eutopic thyroid gland.

  1. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  2. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery for papillary carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Chisato; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Fujii, Natsumi; Tsuruta, Tomoyuki; Morita, Naruhiko; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Teshima, Masanori; Kanzawa, Maki; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-15

    Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extremely rare entity accounting for only 1% of all reported ectopic thyroids. Here, we report a case of carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid, which has been successfully managed by transoral resection and bilateral neck dissections. A lingual mass 4-cm in diameter with calcification was incidentally detected by computed tomography at medical check-up. No thyroid tissue was observed in normal position. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph node in his right neck was diagnosed as Class III and thyroglobulin level of the specimen was 459ng/ml. Due to the difficulty in performing FNA of the lingual masses, right neck dissection was performed in advance for diagnostic purpose. Pathological examination showed existence of large and small follicular thyroid tissues in several lymph nodes, suggesting lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. Two months after the initial surgery, video-assisted transoral resection of lingual thyroid with simultaneous left neck dissection was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Papillary carcinoma was found in the lingual thyroid and thyroid tissues were also found in left cervical lymph nodes. Video-assisted transoral resection was useful for the treatment of thyroid cancer arising in lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Gland Pathologies After Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy to Treat Malignancy During Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollert, André, E-mail: andre.lollert@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Gies, Christina; Laudemann, Katharina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Faber, Jörg [Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Jacob-Heutmann, Dorothee [Department of Radio-oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); König, Jochem [Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Düber, Christoph; Staatz, Gundula [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between treatment of malignancy by radiation therapy during childhood and the occurrence of thyroid gland pathologies detected by ultrasonography in follow-up examinations. Methods and Materials: Reductions of thyroid gland volume below 2 standard deviations of the weight-specific mean value, occurrence of ultrasonographically detectable thyroid gland pathologies, and hypothyroidism were retrospectively assessed in 103 children and adolescents 7 months to 20 years of age (median: 7 years of age) at baseline (1997-2013) treated with chemoradiation therapy (with the thyroid gland dose assessable) or with chemotherapy alone and followed by ultrasonography and laboratory examinations through 2014 (median follow-up time: 48 months). Results: A relevant reduction of thyroid gland volume was significantly correlated with thyroid gland dose in univariate (P<.001) and multivariate analyses for doses above 2 Gy. Odds ratios were 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-9.2; P=.046) for medium doses (2-25 Gy) and 14.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-160; P=.027) for high doses (>25 Gy). Thyroid gland dose was significantly higher in patients with thyroid gland pathologies during follow-up (P=.03). Univariate analysis revealed significant correlations between hypothyroidism and thyroid gland dose (P<.001). Conclusions: Ultrasonographically detectable changes, that is, volume reductions, pathologies, and hypothyroidism, after malignancy treatment during childhood are associated with thyroid gland dose. Both ultrasonography and laboratory follow-up examinations should be performed regularly after tumor therapy during childhood, especially if the treatment included radiation therapy.

  4. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine/Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease.

  6. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease

  7. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13 cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600 ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  8. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Mustafa; Ergen, Arzu; Unal, Aysegul; Bese, Nuran

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid gland is one of the radiosensitive endocrine organs in the body. It has been shown that direct irradiation of thyroid with total doses of 26 to 30 Gy can lead to functional abnormalities. In this study, irradiation doses on thyroid gland of the patients who received postoperative chest-wall/breast and regional nodal irradiation were assessed. Retrospective analyses of treatment plans from 122 breast cancer patients who were treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) planning was performed. All patients received irradiation to supraclavicular/level III lymph nodes in addition to chest-wall/breast. A total dose of 46 Gy was delivered in 25 days to supraclavicular/level III lymph node region while a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered to whole breast/chest-wall. Thyroid gland was contoured on 2-5 mm thickness of computed tomography scans. Absolute thyroid volume, mean thyroid doses were calculated. The mean thyroid volume of all patients was 16.7 cc (min: 1.9 cc, max: 41.6 cc). The mean irradiation dose on was 22.5 Gy (0.32 Gy-46.5 Gy). The level of dose was higher than 26 Gy in 44% of the patients. In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  9. [Immunohistochemical profile of angiogenesis in the thyroid gland in various thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurua, N Z; Gogiashvili, L E; Tsagareli, Z G

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study - to determine the feature of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) expression in the thyroid gland (TG) in various thyroid diseases. Material - thyroid tissue (operative material) with histologically confirmed diagnosis: 10 - follicular adenoma, 17 - multinodular goiter, 8 - thyroiditis Hashimoto, 8 - papillary carcinoma, 10 - intact (normal) thyroid samples (forensic autopsy). The immunohistochemical study of the material showed the following results: the increase of the Hürtle cells population 40 % or more indicates a hyperthyroidism tendency despite TSH+ receptor status. Under the thyroid pathology TSH and VEGF expression appears in thyrocytes and also in microvascular endothelial cells. VEGF expression is below the norm in the Hashimoto thyroiditis. VEGF is involved not only in angiogenesis, but in pathophysiological shifts in thyroid tissue. Microvessel density (MVD) and TSH positive receptor status under the thyroid pathology testify the absence of the endothelial cells transformation, however, this index can not serve as a biopothential prognostic marker of thyroid disease.

  10. The determination of the volume of the thyroid gland by a new ultrasonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu; Hazama, Ryuji; Kurata, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Ito, Kunihiko.

    1984-01-01

    A newly developed high-resolution ultrasonic scanner for determining the volume of the thyroid gland was employed in 1983's health screening for A-bomb survivors in Nishiyama district (Nagasaki), and effects of radiation on the thyroid gland were examined. Thirty-one inhabitants who have been living in Nishiyama district since the A-bombing were selected as subjects (Nishiyama group) and their sex- and age-matched persons were selected as controls (control group). Regarding the incidence of chronic thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and hypothyroidism, there was no significant difference between the groups. The volume of the thyroid gland was 14.6+-6.2 ml in the Nishiyama group and 13.1+-4.0 ml in the control group; the average volume of the thyroid gland was a little higher in the Nishiyama group than in the control group, but this was not statistically significant. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... brain, as well as for many other aspects of pregnancy and fetal growth. ... gland and reproductive status (pregnant vs. non- pregnant) in camels. ... The left and right lobe of the thyroid gland from pregnant and non- pregnant ...

  12. Quantitative analysis of 3 dimensional volumetry and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, In Chul; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Sung Mok

    2015-01-01

    To analyze three-dimensional (3D) volume and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography (CT) for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 121 subjects who underwent neck CT between March 2013 and February 2014 were included in this study. These subjects were divided into the following two groups: 1) control group (n = 76); 2) Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (n = 45). Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. On contrast-enhanced images, the 3D volume of thyroid gland was semi-automatically calculated. On CT histogram, attenuation number, mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of thyroid gland were calculated. These values were compared between the two groups. Total 3D volume of thyroid gland was 14.9 ± 4.8 cm 3 in the control group, which was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than that (19.2 ± 8 cm 3 ) in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group. On CT histogram, the mean, median, SD, and CV of thyroid gland on non-enhanced images were 95.8, 99.3, 21.7, and 0.226, respectively, in the control group and 72.2, 72.6, 19.6, and 0.28 in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (p < 0.05). Histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced images were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Median at cut-off value of 83 revealed the largest Az value (Az: 0.905; 95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.951; sensitivity: 84.4%; specificity: 85.5%). The Hashimoto's thyroiditis group had larger volume but lower CT attenuation number with more prominent parenchymal heterogeneity of thyroid gland than the control group

  13. Quantitative analysis of 3 dimensional volumetry and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, In Chul; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kim, Mi Kyung [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Mok [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To analyze three-dimensional (3D) volume and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography (CT) for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 121 subjects who underwent neck CT between March 2013 and February 2014 were included in this study. These subjects were divided into the following two groups: 1) control group (n = 76); 2) Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (n = 45). Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. On contrast-enhanced images, the 3D volume of thyroid gland was semi-automatically calculated. On CT histogram, attenuation number, mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of thyroid gland were calculated. These values were compared between the two groups. Total 3D volume of thyroid gland was 14.9 ± 4.8 cm{sup 3} in the control group, which was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than that (19.2 ± 8 cm{sup 3}) in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group. On CT histogram, the mean, median, SD, and CV of thyroid gland on non-enhanced images were 95.8, 99.3, 21.7, and 0.226, respectively, in the control group and 72.2, 72.6, 19.6, and 0.28 in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (p < 0.05). Histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced images were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Median at cut-off value of 83 revealed the largest Az value (Az: 0.905; 95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.951; sensitivity: 84.4%; specificity: 85.5%). The Hashimoto's thyroiditis group had larger volume but lower CT attenuation number with more prominent parenchymal heterogeneity of thyroid gland than the control group.

  14. First reported case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louis C; Green, Jennifer B

    2011-06-01

    Unilateral Graves' disease is a rare disease variant that can occur in a bilobar thyroid gland. We report the first documented case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland and review the pertinent literature. A 48-year-old man presented in June 2010 with thyrotoxicosis. I-131 radioisotope uptake was elevated at 33.4%, and scintigraphy revealed that uptake of the radioisotope was uniformly increased in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed a non-nodular, enlarged, and heterogeneous left lobe; Doppler investigation of the lobe showed hypervascularity classically seen in Graves' disease. The right lobe of the thyroid, on the other hand, appeared homogeneous and hypovascular on ultrasonography. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin was significantly elevated at 191% (reference range disease was the most likely diagnosis. As has occasionally been described in the literature, unilateral involvement of the thyroid gland is a rare presentation of Graves' disease. Pre-existing functional or structural differences (either congenital or acquired) between the two lobes may contribute to this rare presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of unilateral Graves' disease presenting in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland. Although the pathophysiology of unilateral Graves's disease has not been clearly elucidated, clinicians should be aware that Graves' disease can present unilaterally in either lobe of the thyroid gland.

  15. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  16. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  17. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzebińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid.

  18. Histological and histometrical changes of ostrich thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal changes of ostrich thyroid structure in Tehran, which has a hot summer and a relatively cold winter, were studied. The study was conducted on thyroid glands of 20 ostriches in two groups (summer and winter group). The samples were collected by autopsy with a maximum of 0.5 cm thickness and were fixed in ...

  19. [Features of the functioning of the thyroid gland in HIV-infected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, E V; Liashchenko, O Ia

    2013-01-01

    In the article analyzed the current literature, devoted to the peculiarities of functioning of the thyroid gland in patients with HIV infection. Based on the analysis of literature data bases demonstrated the structure of thyroid function disorders in HIV-infected, as well as the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the structure of thyroid function is dominated by hypothyroidism, euthyroid pathological syndrome, Graves' disease, for which the opportunistic infections are triggers immune activation. It should be noted that the step of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is accompanied by the development of inflammatory and neoplastic processes in the thyroid gland. Convincingly demonstrated the negative impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive for the development of thyroid dysfunction, in connection which the expediency of forming risk groups and the timely correction of the projected thyroid diseases.

  20. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  1. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daal, W.A.J. van.

    1981-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  2. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, KV; Knutstad, K; Olsen, DR; Fosså, SD

    2011-01-01

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm 3 ) receiving respectively < 30 Gy and ≥ 30 Gy were calculated (Vol < 30 and Vol ≥ 30) and analyzed. No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving < 30 Gy in Controls was almost 2.5 times greater than the comparable figure in Cases. We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland

  3. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  4. Detection of the involvement of salivary glands in autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland by using Ttc-99m MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Söylemez ¹

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the involvement in the salivary glands of the patients with Graves’ Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis and controls by detecting the changes of Tc-99m Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI uptake. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. 19 patients with Graves’ disease (6 men, 13 women, 28 Hashimoto Thyroiditis patients (5 men, 23 women and 11 euthyroid controls (4 men, 7 women were evaluated retrospectively. Uptake values of parotid and submandibular glands were calculated by drawing elliptical ROIs (region of interest and using the formula for uptake calculation. Result: In all three groups, in parotis glands, a statistical significant difference between Tc-99m MIBI uptake was not detected. The Tc-99m MIBI upateke values in submandibular glands were statistically different among patients with Graves’Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis, as well as in Control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We concluded that the different uptake values of Tc-99m-MIBI in submandibular glands in Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis as compared to the control group patient would be results of the histopathological features, such as autoimmunity, high mitochondria number and inflammatory reaction. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 67-73

  5. An analysis of preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism associated with thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuaki; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1996-01-01

    Recently hyperparathyroidism associated with some thyroid diseases, especially nonmedually thyroid carcinoma has been payed attention to. In this study we analyzed 12 cases of hyperparathyroidism (6 cases independent of thyroid diseases and 6 cases associated with thyroid diseases) and estimated the affect of association with thyroid diseases on the preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands. The results of preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands in cases independent of thyroid diseases were relatively satisfactory. On the other hand, the preoperative localization in cases associated with thyroid diseases came to false result in about half of them. It was far from satisfactory. Association of thyroid diseases strongly affected the preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism. Conventional imaging such as ultrasonography, CT, MRI and 201 Tl- 99m TC subtraction scintigraphy alone were not satisfactory. Now 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy is expected to be one of reliable imaging methods for progress in the preoperative localization. (author)

  6. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  7. Technetium-99m high resolution tomographic imaging in the thyroid gland diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitblat, A; Ben-Horin, C [Barzilai Nedical Center, Ashkelon (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    In the experiments with the thyroid phantom and first studies of patients with hyperthyroidism it was proved that in combining SPECT imaging technique and high resolution ability of pinhole collimator (commonly used for conventional scintigraphy of the thyroid) it is possible to obtain quantitative information concerning the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid tissue , not available tom the planar imaging. The following applications of the the method are expected: 1) Estimation of the thyroid dimensions and volume for the accurate dosimetry of the following Iodine-131 - therapy. 2) Determination of the location of the thyroid in the neck , occurrences of the retrotracheal, retrolaryngeal and retrostemal extension of the goiter. 3) Estimation of the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid gland . 4) Locations and dimensions of cold nodules in the thyroid tissue . Some of these applications are illustrated in our studies of the patients with different thyroid gland diseases (authors).

  8. First description of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, János; Csikó, György; Pásztor, István; Bölcskey-Molnár, Antal; Albert, Mihály

    2010-03-01

    Postmortem examination of the carcass of an approximately 10-year-old male Red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ) was performed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, showed follicular structure, and shifted the base of the heart caudally. Histology revealed differently shaped and sized follicles in the thyroid gland. Based on the macroscopic appearance and histopathological changes of the thyroid gland, the pathological process was established as a papillary-cystic carcinoma. Neoplasia of the endocrine organs, especially of the thyroid gland, is rare in reptiles. The current case seems to be the first report of thyroid carcinoma in a Red-eared slider.

  9. Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoguang; Zeng Guiying; Ren Dongqing; Fang Henghu; Su Xiaoming; Huang Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m -1 , 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodo- thyronine (T 3 ) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T 3 , T 4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

  10. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods. From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically......Introduction. Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...

  12. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ([ 125 I]iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM]. Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status

  13. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ertan; Elboğa, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Between June 2011 and June 2012,461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level) that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed.Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (pbody surface area of the subjects of both sexes (pcountry.

  14. Macroscopic Study of the Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in Bangladeshi People: A Postmortem Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrul Amin Mohammad Hasanul Banna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The position and size of isthmus of thyroid gland varies considerably in human with age, sex, physiologic state, race and geographical location and sometimes the isthmus may be absent. So this study was designed to find out the macroscopic differences in isthmus of thyroid gland of different age and sex groups in Bangladeshi people. Objective: To record the macroscopic characteristics of isthmus of thyroid gland with advancing age in both sexes with a view to help establishing normal standard of Bangladeshi people. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 54 autopsied human thyroid glands aged 5 to 65 years. Thyroid glands were collected from unclaimed dead bodies autopsied in the morgue of Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College, Sylhet. The collected specimens were divided into groups –– A (20 years and below, B (21 to 50 years and C (50 years and above. All specimens were examined morphologically by careful gross dissection method. Results: The isthmus was absent in 5.56% cases. In most of the cases (35.29% it was against the 1st–4th tracheal rings. There was significant difference in length between Group A and Group C (p<0.05 and in breadth between Group A and Group C and between Group B and Group C (p<0.05. No significant difference was found in length, breadth and thickness of isthmus of the thyroid gland between males and females. Conclusion: The presence or absence, positional change and variation in gross dimension of isthmus of thyroid gland were evident in human. The macroscopic difference was found with increasing age but not with sex.

  15. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; McNeill, D.A.; Spangler, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131 I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 μCi 131 I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131 I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131 I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  16. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, Shaukat A.; Shah, Munawar H.; Jamal, Qamar; Meo, Sultan A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

  17. Late simultaneous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the submandibular and thyroid glands seven years after radical nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammed S; White, Sharon J; Oommen, George; Birney, Esther; Majumdar, Samit

    2010-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.

  18. Endocrine intervention during irradiation does not prevent damage to the thyroid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; van Dijk, J. E.; Rodermond, H.; Vansenne, F.; Endert, E.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Haveman, J.; Vulsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation to the head-neck region may damage the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma. Outcomes of radiation protection by lowering plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have thus far been ambiguous. Our aim was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of inhibiting the

  19. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  20. The thyroid gland state in the children after the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, V.A.; Ehpshtejn, E.V.; Zurnadzhi, Yu.N.; Tron'ko, N.D.; Markov, V.V.; Rybakov, S.I.; Bogdanova, T.I.; Debelenko, L.V.; Imshinetskij, P.D.; Bozhok, Yu.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the postaccident early examination (May-July 1986), the dose-dependence hypertyroxinemia with the reactive reduction of TTg was determined. The dependence of T 4 level in the blood from the age of the children was found out during the three year observation. The thyroid gland of the children having had the contact with the ionizing radiation reacted by increasing the hormone secretion on this situation, it was the most strongly pronounced in the early children. The thyroid-cancer morbidity in the Ukrainian children has been increasing. The determined decrease of the latent period in the thyroid-cancer development of the Ukrainian children is connected with the summation of the effects from the influence of radionuclids, chemical factors (nitrates pesticides, inductry poisons) on the thyroid gland as well as the iodine deficit in the goiter endemic territories. 6 tabs

  1. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used

  2. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.

  3. Thyroid gland rupture caused by blunt trauma to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hirotaka; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2016-02-19

    Thyroid rupture following blunt trauma is extremely rare, and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. However, hemorrhage and hematoma subsequently causes severe tracheal compression and respiratory distress. A 71-year-old Japanese woman visited our emergency room with a complaint of increasing right-sided neck pain at the thyroid cartilage level after she tripped and accidentally hit her neck against a pole 3 h back. On admission, her vital signs were stable. There was no swelling or subcutaneous emphysema. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed mild laryngeal edema, although there was no impairment in vocal fold mobility on either side. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed rupture of the right lobe of the thyroid gland accompanied by a large hematoma extending from the neck to the mediastinum. Under general anesthesia, the right lobe was resected and the hematoma was evacuated. Only a few isolated cases of thyroid rupture caused by blunt neck trauma have been reported in patients with normal thyroid glands and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. When suspected, CT should be performed to confirm the diagnosis determine the optimal treatment.

  4. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  5. Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Iguchi, Atsuko; Matsuo, Chikashi; Otawa, Kouichi; Nakamura, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

  6. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  7. Hydatid cyst disease of the thyroid gland: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Demircan, Firat; Sogutcu, Nilgun

    2015-04-01

    Hydatid cyst disease may develop in any organ of the body, most frequently in the liver and lung, but occasionally can affect other organs such as the thyroid gland. Although the prevalence of thyroidal cyst disease varies by region, literature data suggest that it ranges between 0% and 3.4%. The aim of this report was to share 2 cases with thyroid hydatid cyst. Two female patients aged 26 and 57 years were admitted to our outpatient clinic with different complaints. While the first case presented with front of the neck swelling and pain, the second case presented with hoarseness, sore throat, and neck swelling. Both patients were living in a rural area in the southeastern region of Turkey and had had a long history of animal contact. Both patients had undergone previous surgeries for hydatid cyst disease. Both patients presented with a clinical picture consistent with typical multinodular goiter, and both underwent total thyroidectomy after detailed examinations and tests. The exact diagnosis was made after histopathologic examination in both patients. They both had a negative indirect hemagglutination test studied from blood samples. They both have had no recurrences during a 4-year follow-up. In conclusion, although thyroid gland is rarely affected, hydatid cyst disease should not be overlooked in differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of thyroid gland in patients who live in regions where hydatid cyst disease is endemic and who had hydatid cysts in other regions of their body.

  8. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  9. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Michael; Sin Manhong; Pang, Shuk-fan

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = π/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

  10. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm 2 , in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  11. Calcitonin-negative primary neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonmedullary" in humans is a rare tumor that arises primarily in the thyroid gland and may be mistaken for medullary thyroid carcinoma; it is characterized by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of ...

  12. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to Т3 and Т4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to Т3 and Т4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  13. Changes in the thyroid gland under fluoric poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H

    1930-01-01

    Thyroid gland changes are studied in animals subjected to chronic poisoning by ingestion of small doses of alkaline fluorides or fluorosilicates. Because goiters are frequent in this area of the country, control animals were included in the experimental groups. Test results on 14 fluorinated animals (guinea-pigs) are tabulated. Death occurred in 19 to 94 days (average 53). All animals showed changes in the gland, the interstitial tissue. The changes here were rapid, but may be slower with smaller doses. All control animals were found to be healthy. Macroscopic changes occurred in the pituitary body in cases of fluorosis. The different endocrine glands react differently to fluoric poisoning. The pituitary gland is difficult to study because this gland varies with age, sex, pregnancy, etc. of the subject. Use was therefore made of adult guinea-pigs 6 to 8 months old, which had died of fluorosis. Their pituitary body was compared to that of control animals of the same age and sex. Results are tabulated, showing a shrinking of the gland in the test animals, to an average of 1.7 mm (after poisoning).

  14. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  15. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, S.P.; Karamoskos, P.; Schlicht, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common

  16. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenjia; Che, Kaijun; Wu, Vincent W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  17. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, V S; Sizova, Ye A; Miroshnikov, S A; Notova, S V; Zavaleyeva, S M

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted on 15 male Wistar rats, which were injected intramuscularly with copper nanoparticle lyosols at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight once a week for 3 months. Thyroid gland was removed 7 days after the last injection and was studied using histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical methods (demonstration of Ki-67 and caspase-3). Animals of the control group (n = 15) were administered distilled water at the same time intervals. It was found that after 1, 2, 3 and 4 injections of copper nanoparticles, the thyroid gland contained an increased number of large cyst-like follicles, while the average thyrocyte height of and the volume of their nuclei were reduced, which indicate a decline in hormone production. After 12 injections of copper nanoparticles, the hyperplastic thyroid gland demonstrated small follicles lined with columnar epithelium, which contained no or small amount of the colloid. The number of mitotically dividing thyrocytes was increased. Parafollicular cells demonstrated an apoptotic dominant. Morphological data suggest goitrogenic effect of multiple doses of copper nanopartides. The data received indicating the readiness of the thyroid cells to the programmed death and its possible depression (absence of signs of thyrocyte apoptosis) at different stages of the experiment confirm the modulating effect of copper on apoptosis.

  18. Ultrasonographic localization of the thyroid gland for its optimal shielding prior to lateral cephalometric radiography: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurmerinta, Kirsti; Rice, David; Suomalainen, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Lateral cephalometric radiography is a common radiographic examination technique in children. The exclusion of the thyroid gland from the primary X-ray beam is important especially with children. However, patient treatment might require displaying the four most cranial cervical vertebrae (C1–C4) for the assessment of cervical vertebral maturation. Our aim was to present a safe way to display C1–C4 and exclude the thyroid gland from the X-ray beam during lateral cephalometric radiography. Methods: The thyroid glands of 25, 7- to 12-year-old patients were localized by ultrasound examination and shielded prior to lateral cephalometric radiography. A roentgen-positive mark was taped on the patient's skin at the level of most cranial level of the thyroid gland in the midsagittal plane. After exposure, each lateral cephalometric radiograph (LCR) was analyzed for the visibility of the cervical vertebrae. The distance between the ear post and the highest edge of the thyroid shield (TS) at the lateral part of the neck was measured and compared with the distance between the centre of the radiological external auditory meatus, and a roentgen-positive mark was made on the LCR. Results: 68% of the LCRs displayed C1–C4, and the rest of them displayed C1–C3. In all of the patients, the highest edge of the TS in the lateral parts of the neck was located in a higher position than the actual most cranial level of the thyroid gland. Conclusions: Despite localizing the thyroid gland prior to lateral cephalometric radiography, simultaneous visualization of C1–C4 and exclusion of the thyroid gland from the primary X-ray beam during lateral cephalometric radiography might not be completely possible in children because of the design and poor fitness of the TS. PMID:26764584

  19. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae

    2009-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  20. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun

    2012-01-01

    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  1. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p thyroid cell proliferation. The differences between ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant thyroid tumors could support the theory of alternative transcription of the preproghrelin gene and independent production of ghrelin and obestatin.

  2. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  3. Combination - breast cancer and thyroid gland cancer in the Semipalatinsk region of the Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandybaev, M.N.; Adylkhanov, T.A.; Aliev, B.Kh.; Zejnelova, L.T.; Musinov, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    It was analysed data of medicine analysis on study of combination breast and thyroid gland cancer. The paper presents results obtained by personnel of the Semipalatinsk Cancer Clinic. The obtained data indicate that breast cancer morbidity within Semipalatinsk region significantly surpass that of the whole Republic of Kazakhstan. Within 1991-2004, thyroid gland cancer has increased by factor of three. At the same time, decrease of death rate was indicated for the ills of both locations. Decrease of lifetime in ills with breast and thyroid gland cancer resulted in more frequent registration in them initially-multiple malignant tumors. Syntrochronous initially-multiple malignant tumors of breast occur 6 times rare than meta-chronous cancer and have bad prediction of survivability. (author)

  4. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Lutz

    2011-10-18

    The trace element selenium is an essential micronutrient that is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Most of the known selenoproteins are expressed in the thyroid gland, including some with still unknown functions. Among the well-characterized selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, enzymes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism, regulation of redox state and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium content in selenium-sensitive tissues such as the liver, kidney or muscle and expression of nonessential selenoproteins, such as the glutathione peroxidases GPx1 and GPx3, is controlled by nutritional supply. The thyroid gland is, however, largely independent from dietary selenium intake and thyroid selenoproteins are preferentially expressed. As a consequence, no explicit effects on thyroid hormone profiles are observed in healthy individuals undergoing selenium supplementation. However, low selenium status correlates with risk of goiter and multiple nodules in European women. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that selenium-deficient patients with autoimmune thyroid disease benefit from selenium supplementation, although the data are conflicting and many parameters must still be defined. The baseline selenium status of an individual could constitute the most important parameter modifying the outcome of selenium supplementation, which might primarily disrupt self-amplifying cycles of the endocrine-immune system interface rectifying the interaction of lymphocytes with thyroid autoantigens. Selenium deficiency is likely to constitute a risk factor for a feedforward derangement of the immune system-thyroid interaction, while selenium supplementation appears to dampen the self-amplifying nature of this derailed interaction.

  5. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3±11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1±10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2±12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2±1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  7. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  8. The state of «the pituitary gland - thyroid gland system» in the young men with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yurchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of «the pituitary gland-thyroid gland system» in the patients with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue (UDCT 83 young men of the call up age (18.2±0.4 y.o. were examined. The control group consisted of 26 practically healthy young men of the same age (18.5±0.2 y.o.. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT was diagnosed in 32.5 % of the men with UDCT. The rate of the internal (visceral phenotypical signs of UDCT in this group was significantly higher than in the men with UDCT but without thyroid problems.

  9. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Thyroid Association ® Postpartum Thyroiditis www.thyroid.org What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that ... as they should. What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is a general term that refers ...

  10. Evaluation of thyroid gland as an organ at risk after breast cancer radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, L; Ghorbani, M; Teshnizi, S Hosseini; Roozbeh, N; Seif, F; Bayatiani, M Reza; Knaup, C; Amraee, A

    2018-05-14

    Radiotherapy can often lead to thyroid dysfunction. Some studies demonstrated that treatment of breast cancer by RT can expose thyroid gland to high doses of radiation. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate consideration of thyroid gland as an organ at risk. In this systematic review and meta-analysis to select initial studies, a comprehensive search by two independent reviewers was performed. Electronical databases following: Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier, Embase, ProQuest and Persian databases such as Iranmedex, Magiran, and SID were searched. All searches were restricted to English language between 1985 and 2017. A random effect meta-analysis is applied to estimate pooled effect size across initial studies. Funnel plot with Egger's test is used to assess potential publication bias. Totally, five studies (478 samples) were included in meta-analysis. The meta-analyses of result showed that thyroid gland is affected by radiotherapy significantly and the TSH increased after radiotherapy (z = 2.68, P = 0.007). The pooled estimate of difference mean for TSH was 0.90 (95% CI 0.24, 1.55). In studies among patients with breast cancer RT, hypothyroidism was reported more than other thyroid disorders. There was not showed possibility publication bias among studies (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that thyroid gland is affected by radiotherapy significantly and the TSH increased after radiotherapy. Protecting thyroid gland during radiation and follow-up of patients with breast cancer RT are suggested for the assessment of thyroid gland dysfunction.

  11. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  12. Criteria to form a > of thyroid gland diseases appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'jeva, N.Yi.; Tkachenko, G.Yi.; Astap'jeva, O.M.; Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Rozdyil's'kij, S.Yi.; Vasil'jev, L.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report and discuss the results of clinical study of the thyroid gland and hormonal thyroid state in 100 male patients who had taken part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects. The revealed changes in the thyroid homeostasis state depending the terms of observation and enlargement of the thyroid gland (stage 1 - 2) in 32% of the patients suggest of appearance of predisposing factors to development of the thyroid gland pathologic conditions. Criteria to form a > of thyropathy appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects were determined

  13. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported

  14. Protein metabolism in hypo- and hyperstimulated rat thyroid glands. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic-Hournac, M.; Delbauffe, D.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of degradation of total thyroidal proteins is modified in differently stimulated glands. It is slowed down in hypostimulated thyroids and accelerated in hyperstimulated ones. Comparative evaluation of the rates degradation (either in absolute terms - DPM/mg of tissue or as specific activity) of different proteins shows that a modified hormonal state affects the degradation of thyroglobulin much more significantly than the degradation of non-thyroglobulin proteins. In the absence of thyrotropic hormone (TSH) the degradation of throglobulin is almost completely inhibited, while with excess of hormone it is dramatically accelerated. Comparing the TSH action on the synthesis with its effect on the degradation of thyroglobulin, it appears that it has a much stronger effect on the process of degradation than on the process of synthesis. This means that TSH significantly modifies the turnover of thyroglobulin. This effect of TSH leads, in chronically hypo- or hyperstimulated glands to the new levels of colloidal thyroglobulin which are highly increased in hypostimulated and significantly decreased in hyperstimulated glands. These results are in perfect agreement with the classical morphological description of hypo- and hyperstimulated glands. (orig.) [de

  15. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  16. Effect of action of fractioned ionizing radiation in small dose on thyroid gland of rats

    OpenAIRE

    О. О. Prykhodko; V. V. Lizogubov; V. S. Usenko

    2005-01-01

    The effect of fractionated X-irradiation by 0.25 Gy dose to rat thyroid gland was studied . It was shown the decrease of thyrocyte proliferative activity that can induce the late effect of pathogenesis to thyroid land and biochemical pathways that control by thyroid hormones. Additional effect by any mutagenic factor may induce thyroid tumor development.

  17. ULTRASOUND EVALUATION OF THYROID DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battula

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To differentiate cystic lesions from solid lesions. 2. The possibility to differentiate the intrinsic thyroid lesions from those arising from adjoining structures. 3. To evaluate the neoplasms and to differentiate benign from malignant lesions by USG characteristics and to correlate with FNAC reports. 4. Role of USG in rapidly growing thyroid lesions: To differentiate haemorrhage into the cystic lesions and rapidly growing malignant tumours. 5. Compare the results of our study with similar studies available in the present literature. MATERIALS & METHODS This study included 75 patients who attended outpatient departments of the Endocrinology, Medical and Surgical Units and also those who were inpatients. RESULTS Broadly pathological conditions of thyroid glands can be divided into nodular and diffuse thyroid diseases. Among Nodular Diseases Majority are benign, only few are malignant. Characteristics of benign lesions are: 1. Well-differentiated margins. 2. Thin complete peripheral sonolucent halo. 3. Coarse peripheral calcifications. Characteristics of malignant nodules are: 1. Ill-defined margins. 2. Thick incomplete peripheral halo. 3. Fine punctuate calcifications. Diffuse Thyroid Diseases 1. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: Painless diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland usually in women with coarse echotexture and no normal gland tissue. There may be discrete hypoechoic nodules within it with cervical lymphadenopathy. 2. Goitres: a Simple diffuse goitre: Symmetrical enlargement of gland without tenderness or bruit or lymphadenopathy, T3, T4 and TSH are within normal limits and no thyroid autoantibodies in the serum. a Diffuse Toxic goitre: Diffuse enlargement of gland with increased vascularity on colour Doppler study. b Multinodular goitre: Multiple hypoechoic nodule within normal thyroid parenchyma. c Colloid goitre: Present as single or multiple swellings in the thyroid gland. CONCLUSION USG is the fast and cost effective

  18. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  19. Determination of the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland in an endemic goiter area by computed tomography (CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, K.; Berg-Schlosser, F.; Herbert, K.

    1986-04-01

    We determined the CT density of the thyroid gland in 60 patients with normal thyroids and 176 patients with various thyroid disorders. The density was 75+-6.2 H.U. in normal thyroids, which was markedly higher than in goiters (66+-6.0 H.U.), while there was a considerable further decrease in patients with immunogenic hyperthyrodism, the density being 48.5+-7.9 H.U. The thyroids of patients with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism differed from these by virtue of a significantly greater density, 79.8+-12.5 H.U. The clinical importance of CT investigation of the thyroid is its ability to distinguish rapidly between immunogenic hyperthyroidism without ocular symptoms and the (mostly iodine induced) nonimmunogenic form. There is a linear correlation between CT density and iodine concentration in the thyroid tissue; this was determined in surgical specimens from 17 patients. Iodine concentration in the thyroid, as well as the iodine content of the whole gland, can thus be calculated from the measured CT density at any time by estimating the volume of the gland with ultrasound and combining this value with the measured iodine concentration. The results correlate well with those found using the X-ray fluorescence method.

  20. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  1. [Effects of chronic experimental stress and endogenous opioids on histophysiological parameters of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperov, R A; Glumova, V A; Riashchikov, S N; Proshutina, N E

    1992-01-01

    In adult rabbits stress was modelled by electrostimulation of the hypothalamus ventromedial nucleus (15-hour-long session during 30 days) and medulla's raphe big nucleus which is one of the central places of the opioid peptides synthesis was irritated. It is revealed, that under stress thyroid gland responds by serum T3 increase in comparison with control animals with statistically significant variability of the T4 profile. Chronicity of the emotional agitation involves destructive changes in the thyroid parenchyma the hurting effect of the negative emotional factor is expressed less during opioid peptides complex activation. It is suggested that there are its own stress-limiting mechanisms in thyroid gland.

  2. Is thyroid gland an organ at risk in breast cancer patients treated with locoregional radiotherapy? Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Mutahir Ali; Al Asiri, Mushabbab; Bayoumi, Yasser; Stanciu, Laura G; Al Johani, Naji; Al Saeed, Eyad Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Aim was to evaluate the dose distribution within the thyroid gland its association with hypothyroidism in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving supraclavicular (SC) radiation therapy (RT). Consecutive 40 BC patients with baseline normal thyroid function tests (TFTs), were randomized into two groups: (a) Adjuvant chest wall/breast with SC-RT (20 patients) and (b) control group (adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only); 20 patients. The thyroid gland was contoured for each patient. Each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH), mean thyroid volume, the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50), and Dmean (average dose in whole volume of thyroid) were then estimated. TFTs were performed at the time of the last follow-up and compared. Mean thyroid volume of cohort was 19.6 cm(3) (4.02-93.52) and Dmean of thyroid gland in SC-RT and control group was 25.8 Gy (16.4-52.2) and 5.6 Gy (0.7-12.8), respectively. Median values of V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50 were 54%, 51%, 42.8%, 30.8%, 27.8%, and 7.64%, respectively, in SC-RT as compared to control group (V5;4.9%, V10;2.4%, V20;1.75%, V301%, V40;0%, and V50;0%, respectively) with P thyroid function whereas four patients (10%) had hypothyroidism; 3/20 (15%) patients in SC-RT and 1/20 (5%) in control group with P thyroid volume (P = 0.03). The risk of hypothyroidism in BC patients after SC-RT depends on the thyroid gland volume and V30 >50% and the risk can be minimized by thyroid gland shielding during RT.

  3. Automated MicroSPECT/MicroCT Image Analysis of the Mouse Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Hollingsworth, Brynn; Scarberry, Daniel; Shen, Daniel H; Powell, Kimerly; Smart, Sean C; Beech, John; Sheng, Xiaochao; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Menq, Chia-Hsiang; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2017-11-01

    The ability of thyroid follicular cells to take up iodine enables the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) for imaging and targeted killing of RAI-avid thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. To facilitate identifying novel strategies to improve 131 I therapeutic efficacy for patients with RAI refractory disease, it is desired to optimize image acquisition and analysis for preclinical mouse models of thyroid cancer. A customized mouse cradle was designed and used for microSPECT/CT image acquisition at 1 hour (t1) and 24 hours (t24) post injection of 123 I, which mainly reflect RAI influx/efflux equilibrium and RAI retention in the thyroid, respectively. FVB/N mice with normal thyroid glands and TgBRAF V600E mice with thyroid tumors were imaged. In-house CTViewer software was developed to streamline image analysis with new capabilities, along with display of 3D voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity in MATLAB. The customized mouse cradle facilitates consistent tissue configuration among image acquisitions such that rigid body registration can be applied to align serial images of the same mouse via the in-house CTViewer software. CTViewer is designed specifically to streamline SPECT/CT image analysis with functions tailored to quantify thyroid radioiodine uptake. Automatic segmentation of thyroid volumes of interest (VOI) from adjacent salivary glands in t1 images is enabled by superimposing the thyroid VOI from the t24 image onto the corresponding aligned t1 image. The extent of heterogeneity in 123 I accumulation within thyroid VOIs can be visualized by 3D display of voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity. MicroSPECT/CT image acquisition and analysis for thyroidal RAI uptake is greatly improved by the cradle and the CTViewer software, respectively. Furthermore, the approach of superimposing thyroid VOIs from t24 images to select thyroid VOIs on corresponding aligned t1 images can be applied to studies in which the target tissue has differential radiotracer retention

  4. Hypothyroidism being caused by chronic autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwajkosz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the endocrine system are extremely important problems in Poland and around the world. According to the data presented by the Central Statistical Office in Poland in 2006, 22 % of the population suffered from thyroid disorders.  Hypothyroidism is usually caused by chronic autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland. It is one of the most common disorders of the thyroid concerning approximately 2% of the adult population. This disorder is related to higher risk of overweight and obesity due to decreased total body metabolism. Furthermore, it predisposes to dyslipidaemia thus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Relative quantification of indium-111 pentetreotide and gallium-68 DOTATOC uptake in the thyroid gland and association with thyroid pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincke, Thomas; Singer, Joerg; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama; Paschke, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    Recent data suggest that increased somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression is detectable in several thyroid diseases. This raises the question as to the specificity and pathophysiologic relevance of these findings. Therefore, we systematically evaluated Indium-111 (In-111) pentetreotide scintigraphies and Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-Octreotide (DOTATOC) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for thyroid radiotracer uptake. Relative binding of In-111 pentetreotide in the thyroid was measured by region of interest (ROI) technique in 4-hour and 24-hour post-injection (p.i.) planar images of 73 patients undergoing In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET scans of 77 patients were analyzed by ROI technique applied to coronal slices of 1 cm (0.39 inch) thickness with highest uptake in the thyroid region. A basal indium In-111 and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake was found in normal thyroid glands. Hot nodules, disseminated thyroid autonomy, and most cases of active Hashimoto's disease as well as goiters and nodular thyroids showed increased In-111 pentetreotide and/or Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake. Higher relative In-111 pentetreotide uptake in the 24-hour p.i. images as compared to the 4-hour p.i. images except for patients after thyroidectomy indicates specific receptor binding in the thyroid. The increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in active Hashimoto's disease is most likely related to the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. However, the physiologic or pathophysiologic relevance of the increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in normal thyroid glands, hot and cold nodules, and goiters and nodular thyroids remain to be determined.

  6. Change of dynamics of development of a thyroid gland at children of school age of the both Gomel' and Mogilev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorovich, M.V.; Loban, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The given work estimates dynamics of development of a thyroid gland depending on age and anthopometrical parameters at children of school age. Results of work can be used in the further researches on the given subjects, for diagnostics of pathologies of a thyroid gland and their prevention, forecasting of groups of risk of diseases by a thyroid gland of children of school age and teenagers depending on development of anatomic, anthopometrical and age data. (authors)

  7. [Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats during various phases of the estral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliner, L I; Ledovskaia, S M

    1975-08-01

    The functional state of the thyroid gland and the concentration of thyroid hormones in the peripheral blood were studied in 20 mature female albino rats during their estral cycle. Evaluation of the thyroid functional state was made according to data of histological, morphological (the diameter of folliculi, the height of the thyroid epithelium) and histochemical analysis (determination of NAD and NADP-dehydrogenase, succinatedehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, peroxydase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) as well as biochemical determination of iodine bound with protein (IBP) in the blood plasma and investigation of the ratio of the parameters in question under conditions of the sex cycle. The cyclic changes of the morphological state of the thyroid gland attended by the phases of the estral cycle were revealed. The activation of the organ was observed in proestrus and estrus which was evidenced by high levels of activity of the enzymes under study, high concentration of IBP in the blood and increased height of thyreocytes. A decreased function of the thyroid parenchyma was observed at the period of metaestrus-diestrus.

  8. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.; Barden, Adam O.; VanMiddlesworth, Lester

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  9. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125 I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  10. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of [ 131 I] and [99mTc]pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter

  11. [Serum thyroxine-binding protein for determining the functional state of the thyroid gland in pregnant women with endemic goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol'kova, O A; Cheremukhin, V I

    1975-01-01

    A determination was made of the hormone-forming capacity of the thyroid gland in pregnent women under conditions of goiter endemic at various periods of pregnancy by trimesters (123-in healthy pregnant women, 206-with euthyroid goiter of the I degree, 271-or II degree, 90-of the II degree, and 4-of the IV degree). A method of zonal electrophoresis in the medinal-veronal buffer was applied. Thyrofixin with I131 isotope (made in the USSR) was used. With increase of the periods of pregnancy and the degree of euthyroid hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and goiter the thyroid gland function became elevated irrespective of age.

  12. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.; Land, C.; Hartshorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound

  13. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by

  14. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones ...

  15. The effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland function in healthy volunteers in a 4-week oral toxicity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers AC; Koppeschaar HPF; Isselt JW van; Slob W; Schothorst RC; Mensinga TjT; Meulenbelt J; ARO-UMC; VIC; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Increased nitrate intake might affect the thyroid gland function in humans, as has been observed in animals. The reason is that the nitrate-ion (NO3-) inhibits the iodide (I-) transport into the thyroid gland because it shares the same transport mechanism. This inhibition could lead to a decrease in

  16. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  17. Multi-immunoreaction-based dual-color capillary electrophoresis for enhanced diagnostic reliability of thyroid gland disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nain; Kim, Su-Kang; Kang, Seong Ho

    2017-08-04

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion plays a critical role in regulating thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones (i.e., thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)). A novel multi-immunoreaction-based dual-color capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique was investigated in this study to assess its reliability in diagnosing thyroid gland disease via simultaneous detection of TSH, T3, and T4 in a single run of CE. Compared to the conventional immunoreaction technique, multi-immunoreaction of biotinylated streptavidin antibodies increased the selectivity and sensitivity for individual hormones in human blood samples. Dual-color laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection-based CE performed in a running buffer of 25mM Na 2 B 4 O 7 -NaOH (pH 9.3) allowed for fast, simultaneous quantitative analysis of three target thyroid hormones using different excited wavelengths within 3.2min. This process had excellent sensitivity and detection limits of 0.05-5.32 fM. The results showed 1000-100,000 times higher detection sensitivity than previous methods. Method validation with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for application with human blood samples showed that the CE method was not significantly different at the 98% confidence level. Therefore, the developed CE-LIF method has the advantages of high detection sensitivity, faster analysis time, and smaller sample amount compared to the conventional methods The combined multi-immunoreaction and dual-color CE-LIF method should have increased diagnostic reliability for thyroid gland disease compared to conventional methods based on its highly sensitive detection of thyroid hormones using a single injection and high-throughput screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Hyun Sin; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid carcinogenesis is traditionally thought to originate 'de novo'. However, it is debatable whether a malignant transformation can possibly arise from a benign thyroid nodule, as suggested for the malignant transformation of a thyroid adenoma. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have been performed addressing the malignant transformation of nodular hyperplasia in the thyroid gland. Here, we report a case of nodular hyperplasia with focally malignant degeneration

  19. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  20. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  1. Probable reasons of thyroid gland diseases in people suffered from Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poverennyj, A.M.; Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ideas about the thyroid gland diseases development in people suffered from the Chernobyl accident explaining the absence of straight dose dependence of pathologies raise from the irradiation were elaborated. It is supposed that the probable reason for a number of these pathologies can be the unadecvate and inopportune preventive iodine administration. A simple immunological method of autoimmune thyroiditis diagnostics was developed which informativity is comparable with the method of ultra-sound diagnosis

  2. Modification of Ca2+ - exchange in blood cells of cattles with radioiodine damage of thyroid gland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.S.; Kobyalko, V.O.; Shevchenko, T.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Astasheva, N.P.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing of Ca 2+ concentration in cytoplasm and of the rate of 45 Ca iflux into cows erythrocytes in 19-24 month efter Chernobyl accident was revealed. Correlation between Ca 2+ concentration in cytoplasm of erythrocytes and thyroxin content in plasma of cows with radioiodine damage of thyroid gland was found. Reduction of the rate of 45 Ga influx into erythrocytes in cows with radiation doses of 20-60 By on thyroid gland was shown in later time after accident (3-5 years). Changes in Ca 2+ permeability through membranes of erythrocytes and neutrophiles after injection of 131 I into calfs in doses of 300 Gy and more on thyroid gland was found

  3. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  4. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of thyroid gland status on the thyroglobulin cutoff level in washout fluid from cervical lymph nodes of patients with recurrent/metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Yi, Ha Woo; Kim, Bong Kyun; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-04-01

    The influence of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroidectomy status on Tg in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) washout fluid is unclear. A total of 282 lymph nodes were prospectively subjected to FNAC, fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-Tg measurement, and frozen and permanent biopsies. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of several predetermined FNA-Tg cutoff values for recurrence/metastasis in lymph nodes according to thyroidectomy status. The diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg varied according to thyroidectomy status. The optimized cutoff value of FNA-Tg was 2.2 ng/mL. However, among FNAC-negative lymph nodes, the FNA-Tg cutoff value of 0.9 ng/mL showed better diagnostic performance in patients with a thyroid gland. An FNA-Tg/serum-Tg cutoff ratio of 1 showed the best diagnostic performance in patients without a thyroid gland. Applying the optimal cutoff values of FNA-Tg according to thyroid gland status and serum Tg level facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of neck lymph node recurrences/metastases in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1705-E1712, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Correa, Samanda C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  7. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  8. INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1 POSSIBLE DEPENDENCE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME OF NODULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE THYROID GLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekvava, M; Dundua, T; Kobulia, M; Javashvili, L; Giorgadze, E

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of the thyroid gland is a widespread problem nowadays. Recently there has been a notable coincidence between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland. Hence, it is interesting to reveal the connection between these two diseases. It is possible that insulin-like growth factor system (IGF), namely IGF 1 is connecting link between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland, because IGF1 stimulates growth and proliferation of cells in the body. We have investigated18-82 years of age 71 patients. group 1 n27- subjects with thyroid nodular disease, and metabolic syndrome, group 2 n31- subjects with thyroid nodular disease and without metabolic syndrome. group 3 n13 - subjects with metabolic syndrome and no thyroid pathology. In all groups were assessed thyroid structural data, defined parameters of carbohydrate metabolism, thyroid function and blood concentration of IGF1. In patients with hyperinsulinemia IGF 1 was noted in normal or reduced concentration. In I group IGF1 was normal in 70,4% (n=19), decreased in 29,6% (n=8), In II group was normal in 77,4 % (n=24), decreased in 22,6% (n=7) and in III group was normal in 76,9% (n=10), decreased in 23,1% (n=3). Increase of IGF 1 in patients with thyroid nodular disease patients was not noted. Statistically significant connection between IGF1 and thyroid nodules was not revealed. For the further investigation of this connection we plan to measure IGF1 in the thyroid histological samples in the future studies.

  9. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  10. Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodonawa, Masahiko; Tanaka, Sohkichi; Kohno, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Zenichiro; Tamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro.

    1987-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  11. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  12. The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, R.; Horne, T.; Barr, J.; Ramot, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

  13. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  14. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  15. May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-11-20

    The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (pdisease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (pthyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor.

  16. [Incidence of anaplastic tumor in structure of other histologic forms of the thyroid gland cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu A; Gorbenko, V N; Vas'ko, A R; Kikhtenko, E V; Gargin, V V

    2014-01-01

    The degrees of invasiveness, proliferative activity, morphofunctional activity of nuclei in the thyroidal gland tumors were studied, while analyzing material, obtained in 1343 patients, suffering thyroidal gland cancer (THGC) and operated on in 2000-2013 yrs. Morphological point quantity of malignancy (as a criterion of the tumor progression grade) and mitotic activity in cellular population were determined in various kinds of THGC. Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma) type of THGC is the most malignant one. There were determined a spindle-like, giant-cell and squamous-cell forms of undifferentiated THGC. The presence of sites of differentiated cancer in 33% of histological preparations witnesses the interrelationship with the earlier existed pathological process.

  17. Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I/sup 13/+H1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemova, E P [Tashkentskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR). Kafedra Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1976-03-01

    I/sup 131/ injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th to 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T/sub 3/+T/sub 4/. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth.

  18. ULTRASOUND SCREENING OF THYROID GLAND AMONG A SECTION OF POPULATION IN CENTRAL KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Chirathalattu Babu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases are commonest endocrine disorders in India. Studies have shown that one in ten adults in India suffer from hypothyroidism. But it is often underdiagnosed and goes undetected for years. The present study was intended to perform thyroid ultrasound screening among a section of Thrissur population for evaluating the prevalence, various patterns of thyroid pathologies, its age and sex relation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ultrasound screening for thyroid gland was done for 100 individuals selected from a skewed population of St. Joseph’s Church, Kuriachira, Thrissur, Kerala between Nov. 16– Nov. 30 of 2016. RESULTS Among 100 individuals, 51 were found to have thyroid diseases. Among these 51, various patterns of thyroid diseases were noted; thyroiditis (17, multinodular goitre (12, benign nodules (17 and atypical nodules (7. 47 out of 73 females and 4 out of 27 males had thyroid abnormalities. The study also demonstrated that prevalence of thyroid disease was more in the age group of 60-70 years (78.5%. CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid diseases (5 in 10 in the study population. Association with increasing age and female predisposition for thyroid diseases also noted.

  19. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  20. Diffusion-weighed MR of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease: assessment of disease activity and prediction of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Sadek, Ahmed Galal; Gaballa, Gada

    2010-06-01

    To assess the activity and clinical course of Graves' disease with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fifty-one patients with Graves' disease and 25 volunteers underwent diffusion MR imaging of the thyroid gland using a single shot echo-planar imaging with b-factor of 0, 300 and 600 second/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the thyroid gland were calculated. Patients with active Graves' disease included untreated patients at initial diagnosis (n = 12), patients under antithyroid drugs (n = 11), and patients in relapse after withdrawal of therapy (n = 13). Patients with inactive disease had a remission of hyperthyroidism (n = 15). The mean ADC values of thyroid gland with active Graves' disease was 0.65 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients at initial diagnosis, 0.81 +/- 0.02 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients undergoing antithyroid drug and 0.72 +/- 0.07 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism. The mean ADC of patients with remission was 0.94 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second and for normal volunteer was 1.06 +/- 0.08 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second. There was significant difference in the ADC value of patients with active disease and remission (P = .001). The cutoff ADC value used for differentiating patients with active disease from patients with remission was 0.82 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second. The mean ADC value of thyroid gland had positive correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (r = 0.87, P = .001) and negative correlation with serum T4 (r = -0.82, P = .001) and serum T3 (r = -0.71, P = .001). The ADC value of the thyroid gland is a promising non invasive parameter for diagnosis of different clinical stages of Graves' disease. Hence it can be used to assess the activity and predict the outcome of patients during and after medical treatment. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

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    Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

    2009-03-01

    present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

  2. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  3. Postnatal fate of the ultimobranchial remnants in the rat thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Victoria; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Conde, Esperanza; Bernabé, Reyes; Sampedro, Consuelo; Martín-Lacave, Inés

    2013-07-01

    The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs in the postnatal rat, from birth to old-age. To accomplish that objective, a systematic morphometric and incidental study of the UBF has been carried out in 110 Wistar rats of different ages and both sexes, divided into three groups: 1) young rats (5-90-day-old); 2) adult rats (6-15-month-old), and 3) old rats (18-24-month-old). The glands were serially sectioned and immunostained for calcitonin at five equidistant levels. According to our results, UBFs were observed in all thyroid glands but a more exhaustive sampling was occasionally necessary in male rats. In young rats, immature UBFs predominantly appeared whereas in adult rats, mature UBFs with cystic appearance and variable luminal content prevailed. We frequently found spontaneous anomalous UBFs in old rats, which we have termed as "ultimobranchial cystadenomata." Additionally, in young rats, UBF areas significantly increased with age and they were larger when compared to that of normal thyroid follicles. Likewise, in adult rats, UBFs were significantly larger than normal thyroid follicles but only in female rats. In general, UBFs in females were also significantly larger than those found in male rats. Finally, all these differences related to UBFs together with a higher incidence in females of UB cystadenomata suggest a sexual dimorphism in regard to the destiny of these embryonic remnants during postnatal thyroid development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  5. Mechanistic explanations for the elevated susceptibility of the perinatal thyroid gland to radiogenic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Mahlum, D.D.; Dagle, G.E.; Daniel, J.L.; Goldman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Results from laboratory experiments and epidemiologic studies suggest that the thyroid gland is more susceptible to radiogenic cancer during the late prenatal or early postnatal periods than in adulthood. We have evaluated several endpoints in the course of experiments in which rats, at ages ranging from late gestation to adulthood, were exposed to graded doses of 131 I. Morphologic responses at sequential times after exposure were evaluated in one series of experiments. Cell death, degeneration, fibrosis of the gland were the predominant findings after exposure of weanlings or adults, but inhibition of thyroid growth and differentiation was the characteristic change after perinatal exposure. The degree of maturation and dosimetric factors are involved in this differential morphologic response, and also result in age-dependent physiologic differences in the postexposure period

  6. Effect of environmental temperature on radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of rats during ontogenetic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samel, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of young rats, aged 1 to 30 days, was studied at nest temperature (35degC) and at the temperature of the animal room (24degC). In animals younger than two weeks 131 I uptake was significantly lower at 24degC than at nest temperature. In older animals, these temperature differences did not result in significantly different uptake values. It is suggested that short-term cold does not activate the pituitary-thyroid gland axis in younger animals with unstable body temperature, and that functional changes in the circulatory system might be responsible for the differences observed in 131 I uptake. (author)

  7. Congenital hypothyroidism due to ectopic sublingual thyroid gland in Prader-Willi Syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, Sarah; Fintini, Danilo; Grugni, Graziano; Boiani, Arianna; Convertino, Alessio; Crinò, Antonino

    2017-09-22

    Thyroid gland disorders are variably associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Many of the clinical features in newborns with PWS are similar to those found in congenital hypothyroidism (CH). We report a case of a girl with CH and PWS. At the age of 9 months CH caused by an ectopic sublingual thyroid was diagnosed, and hormone replacement therapy was started. In spite of this treatment a decrease in growth velocity, weight excess and delayed development were observed. At the age of 9 years PWS was suspected on the basis of phenotype and genetic tests confirmed a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. This is the second reported case of hypothyroidism due to an ectopic sublingual thyroid gland in PWS suggesting that, although rare, an association between CH and PWS may exist. In our case diagnosis of PWS was delayed because mental retardation, hypotonia, obesity and short stature were initially attributed to hypothyroidism. In this context PWS should be considered in obese children with CH who do not improve adequately with l-thyroxine therapy. Also, thyroid function in all PWS children should be assessed regularly in order to avoid delayed diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  9. Migratory Fish Bone in the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EnHao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Foreign body stuck in the throat is a common emergency case, which can be removed by the endoscopic treatment. Fish bones are one of the common observed foreign bodies in the pharynx or cervical esophagus. Fish bones have a risk of damaging the mucosa when lodged in the upper digestive tract. Foreign bodies of fish bones located outside the laryngopharyngeal tissue are relatively unusual, and it is even more rare that they remain in the thyroid. It may cause local infection, abscess formation, large blood vessels rupture, and other serious life-threatening complications when the position of the fish bone migrates to the neck. We present a unique case of a 31-year-old woman in whom a fish bone was found in the thyroid. The fish bone had been removed successfully two months after the onset of symptoms. The relevant literature is reviewed and summarized. Case Presentation. A foreign body which is located in the neck area by swallowing is usually found in the emergency case. One of the commonest foreign bodies is the fish bone. The common presenting symptoms include foreign body (FB sensation and or a sharp pain during swallowing. But we report a rare case in which a migratory fish bone stuck in the thyroid gland was found after 3 months. We retrieved previous literature and made a summary. Conclusions. Fish bones are not easy to be found as a foreign body. Surgeons should be aware that fish bones can become lodged in the thyroid gland. Combined with the history should be a wary fish bone to migrate to the case of the thyroid, to avoid misdiagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, we can take ultrasound, computerized tomographic scanning (CT, and other tests.

  10. Thyroid Gland Metastasis from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Besli, Dilara; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Genc, Volkan

    The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a metastatic disease, although it is richly supplied with blood. The metastases may originate from various primary sites, mainly kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast. Thyroid metastasis from cervical carcinomas is extremely rare; and only a few cases have been previously reported in the literature. In patient with thyroid nodules and an oncological history, the possibility of thyroid metastasis should be seriously considered. Despite the rarity of the metastasis of cervical carcinoma to the thyroid, it is difficult to say appropriate treatment approach for these lesions. When managing such patients, decision-making should balance the possibility of gaining long-term survival against estimation of the aggressiveness of the disease and its possible complications. Here, a case of thyroid metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with cervical mass and difficulty in swallowing and its treatment is reported.

  11. Primary mucinous carcinoma of thyroid gland with prominent signet-ring-cell differentiation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1,2 Qie-Re Guli,3 Xiao-Cui Ming,3 Hai-Tao Zhou,3 Yong-Jie Cui,3 Yue-Feng Jiang,1,2 Di Zhang,1,2 Yang Liu1,2 1Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, China; 2Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China; 3Department of Pathology, The People’s Hospital of Tacheng Region, Tacheng, China Purpose: This study reports a case of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with signet-ring-cell differentiation, and reviews the literature to evaluate its real incidence and the prognosis of these patients.Patients and methods: A 74-year-old Chinese woman, presenting with a mass in the right lobe of thyroid gland, came to the hospital. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, accompanied with right neck lymphadenectasis and airway deviation caused by tumor compression. Thyroid imaging suggested a thyroid malignant tumor and suspicious lymph node metastasis. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by the tumor cells arranged in small nests or trabeculae with an abundant extracellular mucoid matrix. The tumor cells formed diffuse invasion among thyroid follicles. In the peripheral regions, prominent signet-ring-cells formed a sheet-like structure and extended into the extrathyroidal fat tissue. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and PAX8, while they were focally positive for pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and weakly expressed thyroglobulin. Results: Based on the histological features and immunohistochemical profile, a diagnosis of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with signet-ring-cell differentiation was rendered.Conclusion: Using a panel of immunohistochemical markers may be helpful for differential diagnosis and for determining whether the tumor is primary or not. Keywords: mucinous carcinoma, primary thyroid cancer

  12. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (Pthyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Studies on 129I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glubrecht, H.; Kiselnic, L.; Handl, J.; Kuehn, W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and 129 I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I 2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH 3 I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I 2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 600 0 C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H 2 SO 4 and heated at 110 0 C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of 129 I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

  14. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - ... Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James BC, Nagar S, Grogan RH. Surgery ...

  15. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  16. [ANALYSIS OF THE SURGICAL TREATMENT RESULTS IN THE THYROID GLAND DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarashchenko, Yu N; Bolgov, M Yu

    2015-08-01

    The results of surgical treatment of the thyroid gland diseases were analyzed, including the specific morbidity rate, cosmetic effect of the operation, stationary treatment of patients duration, the operation radicalism. Improvement of the operation methods and introduction of modern electric surgical instruments have permitted to reduce the operation duration, the surgical access length, the rate of postoperative hypocalcaemia occurrence, duration of the patients stationary treatment.

  17. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  19. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  20. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body breaks down food and either uses that energy immediately or stores it for the future. In other words, our thyroid hormones regulate our body's metabolism. Another gland, called the pituitary gland, actually controls how well the thyroid works. The pituitary gland ...

  1. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. Vorozhtsova; M. R. Mukhamedov; M. A. Cherkasova; V. N. Latypova

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck ...

  2. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Maria, Lyra [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)]. E-mail: mlyra@pindos.uoa.gr; Aristides, Antoniou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Lambros, Vlahos [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  3. NFE2-Related Transcription Factor 2 Coordinates Antioxidant Defense with Thyroglobulin Production and Iodination in the Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziros, Panos G; Habeos, Ioannis G; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Ntalampyra, Eleni; Somm, Emmanuel; Renaud, Cédric O; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W; Santisteban, Pilar; Carrasco, Nancy; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Amendola, Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Rossich, Luciano; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J; Refetoff, Samuel; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P

    2018-06-01

    The thyroid gland has a special relationship with oxidative stress. While generation of oxidative substances is part of normal iodide metabolism during thyroid hormone synthesis, the gland must also defend itself against excessive oxidation in order to maintain normal function. Antioxidant and detoxification enzymes aid thyroid cells to maintain homeostasis by ameliorating oxidative insults, including during exposure to excess iodide, but the factors that coordinate their expression with the cellular redox status are not known. The antioxidant response system comprising the ubiquitously expressed NFE2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) and its redox-sensitive cytoplasmic inhibitor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) defends tissues against oxidative stress, thereby protecting against pathologies that relate to DNA, protein, and/or lipid oxidative damage. Thus, it was hypothesized that Nrf2 should also have important roles in maintaining thyroid homeostasis. Ubiquitous and thyroid-specific male C57BL6J Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice were studied. Plasma and thyroids were harvested for evaluation of thyroid function tests by radioimmunoassays and of gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. Nrf2-KO and Keap1-KO clones of the PCCL3 rat thyroid follicular cell line were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and were used for gene and protein expression studies. Software-predicted Nrf2 binding sites on the thyroglobulin enhancer were validated by site-directed in vitro mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The study shows that Nrf2 mediates antioxidant transcriptional responses in thyroid cells and protects the thyroid from oxidation induced by iodide overload. Surprisingly, it was also found that Nrf2 has a dramatic impact on both the basal abundance and the thyrotropin-inducible intrathyroidal abundance of thyroglobulin (Tg), the precursor protein of thyroid hormones. This effect is mediated

  4. The effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on structural functional state of thyroid gland. Communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashova, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve rabbits were used to study the ultrastructure of thyroid cells after mercazolilum administration during 2.5 month (1 mg/kg of the body mass) to intact and exposed to total x-ray radiation at the total dose of 0.75 Gy animals. Prolonged administration of mercazolilum to intact rabbits causes the development of considerable morpho functional changes in the thyroid gland suggesting disturbances of thyroid secretion. 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal thyroid 's ultrastructure restores almost completely. Mercazolilum administration to the irradiated rabbits prevents the development of structural disturbances in the thyroid epithelium characteristic for the action of separate factors. Thyroid ultrastructure in rabbits 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal in similar to that observed at irradiation only. Normalization of thyroid ultrastructure at administration of mercazolilum to the irradiated animals suggest that inhibition of thyroid activity after the exposure to radiation is reversible and can be due to disturbances in thyroid homeostasis regulation

  5. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Lima, Marco A.F.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Correa, Samanda C.A.; Silva, Ademir X.; Brito, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging tests to: determine if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the ...

  7. Iodine-131 in milk 1961-62 and in thyroid glands of cattle and sheep 1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvinden, T.; Lillegraven, A.

    1976-03-01

    Cases of late effects from radioactive iodine uptake in children have renewed interest in this contaminant. I-131 data collected in Norway during periods following the nuclear weapons test series in 1961 and 1962 have been re-examined and collated with more recent data on natural iodine in the milk and thyroid glands from domestic animals. Some of the measured values may be interpreted as indications of an inverse relationship between the level of natural iodine and the uptake of I-131, but the material is too small and inconsistent to draw any conclusions. Obviously the uptake and concentration of I-131 in animal milk and thyroid glands are influenced by many factors besides the fallout amounts; at present it is not possible to determine their relative importance and set up a satisfactory model for the I-131 uptake. (Auth.)

  8. [Effect of emotional-algesic stress on the hormonal function of thyroid and parathyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuripka, V I; Belokon', L E; Iakushev, V S

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on 215 Wistar rats have revealed that the state of the endured stress is an essential factor inducing disturbance in functioning of the hypothalamus-adenohypophysis-thyroid gland system accompanied by disturbance in regulation of the thyrotropin and triiodothyronine formation under conditions of myocardium necrosis development.

  9. Outcome following simultaneous bilateral thyroid lobectomy for treatment of thyroid gland carcinoma in dogs: 15 cases (1994-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Joanne L; Worley, Deanna R; Withrow, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome of resection of simultaneous discrete bilateral mobile thyroid gland carcinomas (TGCs) in dogs. Retrospective case series. 15 dogs with resected simultaneous discrete bilateral mobile TGCs. Medical records (from 1994 to 2010) were searched for dogs with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Information collected included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, tumor mobility (mobile tumor identified by movement ≥ 1 cm in all planes during palpation), complications, adjuvant treatments, and outcome. Mobile, discrete, bilateral TGCs were removed in all dogs. Among the 15 dogs, complete parathyroidectomies were necessary in 9; parathyroid tissue was reimplanted in 4 and preserved in 2. Complications included hemorrhage and laryngeal nerve trauma, but without serious consequences. Thirteen dogs received calcitriol with or without supplemental calcium after surgery. In the immediate postoperative period, hypocalcemia developed and was corrected in 11 dogs. At the end of the study, 7 dogs continued to receive calcitriol with or without supplemental calcium, and 8 dogs required long-term thyroid hormone treatment. Six dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy. Local tumor recurrence or de novo distant metastasis was not detected at each dog's last follow-up examination. Median survival time was 38.3 months. Three dogs were lost to follow-up, 8 survived (4.3 to 77 months after surgery), and 4 died of unrelated causes. In dogs with TGCs undergoing bilateral thyroid lobectomies, a successful outcome can be expected, even when parathyroid gland tissue cannot be preserved. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in treatment outcome was not clearly defined.

  10. Case of fibrosarcoma of the thyroid gland. Many years after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Yasuhiko; Nagasako, Ren [Shimane Central Hospital, Shimane (Japan); Tasaka, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kayoko

    1983-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrosarcoma of the thyroid gland is very rare. Only 5 cases of this tumor have been reported in Japan. Recently, we diagnosed a thyroid fibro sarcoma in a 46-year-old woman. It started as a papillary cystadenoma 26 years ago, followed by the appearance of papillary adenocarcinoma 6 years later. At that time most of the tumor was removed, except for a small portion which had invaded the trachea, and 5,000 rads of /sup 60/Co was given postoperatively to her neck. The tumor was quiescent for 18 years and then fibrosarcoma appeared in the same region. We think that this tumor may be a radiation-induced sarcoma.

  11. Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma with papillary carcinoma of thyreoglossal duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Simultaneous presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma in thyroidal gland with papillary carcinoma association in thyroglossal duct is quite rare. The questions like where the original site of primary process, is where metastasis is, what the cause of coexisting of these diseasesis present a diagnostic dilemma. Case report. We presented a case of a 53-year old female patient, with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and symptoms of subclinical hypothyreosis and nodal changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland, according to clinical investigation. Morphological examination of thyroidal gland, ultrasound examination and scintigraphy with technetium (Tc confirmed the existence of nonhomogenic tissue with parenchyma nodular changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland that weakly bonded Tc. Fine needle biopsy in nodal changes, with cytological analyses showed no evidence of atypical thyreocites. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the increased values of anti-microsomal antibodies, the high levels of thyreogobulin 117 ng/ml and TSH 6.29 μIU/ml. The operation near by the nodular change in the right lobe of thyroidal gland revealed pyramidal lobe spread in the thyroglossal duct. Total thyroidectomia was done with the elimination of thyroglossal duct. Final patohystological findings showed papillary carcinoma in the nodal changes pT2, N0 and in the thyroglossal duct with the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the residual parenchyme of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the whole body scintigraphy with iodine 131 (131I did not reveal accumulation of 131I in the body, while the fixation in the neck was 1%. After that, the patient was treated with thyroxin with suppressionsubstitution doses. Conclusion. Abnormality in embrional development of thyroidal tissue might be the source of thyroidal carcinoma or the way of spreading of metastasis of primary thyroidal carcinoma from thyroid

  12. Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1976-01-01

    Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of radioactive iodine onto plant leaves, elimination factor from the leaves, transfer of this nuclide to milk and the consumption of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture. Uptake of the stable iodine was estimated. (auth.)

  13. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Metastatic Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  14. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  15. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  16. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; da Silva, R.S.; Turyn, D.; Dellacha, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125 I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125 I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125 I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na 125 I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na 125 I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125 I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125 I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125 I-hGH or 125 I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  17. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  18. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the thyroid gland - examining and discussing possible longitudinal health effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaum, Petra M; Lang, Jessica; Esser, André; Schettgen, Thomas; Neulen, Joseph; Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Many previous studies have dealt with the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the thyroid gland, but their findings are inconsistent. One problem of these studies has been their use of cross-sectional designs. The aim of the current study is to investigate longitudinal effects of PCBs on the thyroid gland, focusing on: morphological changes in thyroid tissue (i.e. thyroid volume), changes in thyroid hormones and in thyroid antibodies. A total of 122 individuals (Mage=44.7) were examined over a period of four years (t(1) until t(4)). Medical history was collected via interviews, an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine plasma PCB levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TGab) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRab). Rank correlation coefficients and mixed effect models were performed controlling for age and total lipids. There were negative correlations between higher chlorinated biphenyls and fT3, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. We also found an interaction effect of higher-chlorinated PCBs over time for fT4 as well as TSHRab. In case of high exposure, a decrease in fT4 and an increase in TSHRab level were found over time. In regards to the other variables, our findings yielded no clear results in the examined time period. This is the first study to shows a PCB-related effect on fT3, fT4 and TSHRab over a four year period. The data also suggest that morphological and antibody findings remain inconsistent and do not allow for unambiguous interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-18

    BRAF Gene Mutation; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; RAS Family Gene Mutation; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7

  20. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland. Methods—TEC nucleoli were investigated in fine needle biopsy specimens from 10 controls, 39 patients with Grave's disease, 15 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 56 with benign, and 15 with malignant tumours of the thyroid. A one step silver staining method was applied. In most cases serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as goitre size were determined. In every case 100 TECs were evaluated for the mean numbers of nucleoli and for the average number of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) per nucleus. Results—NORs were activated in all patients, but not in controls. The numbers of AgNORs in patients with Grave's disease were closely correlated with thyroxine or triiodothyronine, or both, concentrations and with the size of the thyroid. In patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis about 30% of TECs nucleoli did not contain AgNORs, whereas others were heavily impregnated with silver. Compared with controls and benign tumours, the nucleoli of carcinomatous TECs were larger and irregular in shape. The mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in malignant cells was higher than that in their benign counterparts. Conclusions—The mechanism by which NORs are activated in TECs varies depending on the type of lesion. The higher AgNOR score in TECs from malignant tumours can be used to distinguish them from their benign counterparts. Images PMID:16696083

  1. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic features and the diagnostic role of core needle biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ok Kyu; Koo, Ja Seung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The aims of this study were to present the ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the thyroid gland and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Eight patients with nine metastatic RCC nodules in the thyroid glands who were treated from January 2002 to March 2015 in a single tertiary hospital were consecutively selected and retrospectively reviewed. US features and clinical history were obtained from the institution’s medical database. FNA was performed nine times on eight nodules and CNB was performed six times on six nodules. The diagnostic utility of FNA and CNB was evaluated. All nine nodules showed mass formation without diffuse thyroid involvement. On ultrasonography, metastatic RCC nodules were solid (100%), hypoechoic (100%), and ovalshaped nodules with a well-defined smooth margin (88.9%) and increased vascularity (100%, with 55% showing extensive vascularity). No calcifications were noted in any nodules. Lymph node metastasis and direct extension to nearby structures beyond the thyroid gland were not found. One FNA (11%) was able to confirm metastatic RCC, whereas all six CNBs confirmed metastatic RCC. Metastatic RCC appears as oval-shaped hypoechoic solid nodules with well-defined smooth margins, no calcifications, and increased vascularity on ultrasonography. Characteristic US features along with a previous history of RCC should raise clinical suspicion, and CNB should be performed to make an accurate diagnosis.

  2. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, E.R. [School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: emmaroserush@hotmail.com; Thompson, N.A. [School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed.

  3. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.R.; Thompson, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed

  4. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the ...

  5. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  6. Primary synovial sarcoma of the thyroid gland: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, François

    2014-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrangement). The patient experienced immediate local relapse in close contact with large vessels and the thyroid cartilage and was referred to our institution. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy led to a minor response that authorized secondary conservative surgery. Because of microscopically incomplete resection, adjuvant radiotherapy was chosen and is ongoing 10 months after initial surgery. The prognosis of thyroid SVS is associated with a high risk for local and metastatic relapses. Pretreatment diagnosis is fundamental and may benefit from molecular analysis. Margin-free monobloc surgical excision is the best chance for cure, but adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy deserve to be discussed.

  7. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurys Boudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SVS of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrangement. The patient experienced immediate local relapse in close contact with large vessels and the thyroid cartilage and was referred to our institution. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy led to a minor response that authorized secondary conservative surgery. Because of microscopically incomplete resection, adjuvant radiotherapy was chosen and is ongoing 10 months after initial surgery. The prognosis of thyroid SVS is associated with a high risk for local and metastatic relapses. Pretreatment diagnosis is fundamental and may benefit from molecular analysis. Margin-free monobloc surgical excision is the best chance for cure, but adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy deserve to be discussed.

  8. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinga, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  9. Measurement of Thyroid Dose by TLD arising from Radiotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients from Supraclavicular Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading global cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Radiotherapy plays a significant role in treatment of breast cancer and reduces locoregional recurrence and eventually improves survival. The treatment fields applied for breast cancer treatment include: tangential, axillary, supraclavicular and internal mammary fields. Objective: In the present study, due to the presence of sensitive organ such as thyroid inside the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose and its effective factors were investigated. Materials and Methods: Thyroid dose of 31 female patients of breast cancer with involved supraclavicular lymph nodes which had undergone radiotherapy were measured. For each patient, three TLD-100 chips were placed on their thyroid gland surface, and thyroid doses of patients were measured. The variables of the study include shield shape, the time of patient’s setup, the technologists’ experience and qualification. Finally, the results were analyzed by ANOVA test using SPSS 11.5 software. Results: The average age of the patients was 46±10 years. The average of thyroid dose of the patients was 140±45 mGy (ranged 288.2 and 80.8 in single fraction. There was a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and shield shape. There was also a significant relationship between the thyroid dose and the patient’s setup time. Conclusion: Beside organ at risk such as thyroid which is in the supraclavicular field, thyroid dose possibility should be reduced. For solving this problem, an appropriate shield shape, the appropriate time of the patient’s setup, etc. could be considered.

  10. Modifications of transaxillary approach in endoscopic da Vinci-assisted thyroid and parathyroid gland surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be

  11. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  12. Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, A.; Meduri, G.; Calcagni, M.L.; Marozzi, P.; Ficola, U.; Vaccaro, A.; Rubini, G.; Attard, M.; Li Puma, M.; Ricci, R.; Corsello, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent 201 Tl (74 MBq), 99m Tc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. 201 Tl and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79±0.41 and 1.81±0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than 201 Tl (2.06±0.54 vs 1.79± 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.)

  13. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to know the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck in order to minimize the rate of thyroid surgery morbidity, especially the lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves. The aim of this study was the identification of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts and their histological confirmation. Twenty cadaver parts were used to simulate thyroidectomies. During dissection, the thyroid glands and eventual parathyroid glands were isolated and then submitted to histological study. Twenty cadaver parts (anterior cervical organs) were used for macroscopic dissection during which 48 fragments that corresponded to eventual parathyroid glands were isolated, 35 of which were effectively confirmed through histological observation to be parathyroid glands. The 20 cadaver parts were then divided into three groups according to the number of histologically confirmed parathyroid glands. In the first group, composed of 11 cases, all eventual parathyroid glands were confirmed. In the second group, composed of six cases, only some glands were confirmed. In the third group, composed of three cases, none of the possible glands were confirmed. In seven of the 20 isolated thyroid glands, eight parathyroid glands were identified during histological study: four subcapsular, three extra-capsular, one intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical relation in the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. The knowledge of the anatomy of the central visceral compartment of the neck and its most frequent variations reduces but doesn't eliminate thyroid surgery morbidity, especially parathyroid iatrogenic excision, difficulty which has been demonstrated during the dissection of cadaver parts.

  14. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cancela e Penna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options.

  15. Diffuse Thyroid Metastasis From Lung Cancer Mimicking Thyroiditis on 99mTc-Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Gao, Shan; Feng, Jinteng; Wang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangjian

    2017-09-01

    Possible thyroiditis was suspected in a 56-year-old man who initially presented sore throat because laboratory examinations revealed decreased serum thyroid hormone and the Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake by the thyroid gland. However, subsequent examination demonstrated that the absence of pertechnetate activity in the thyroid was due to complete replacement of thyroid gland by the metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, which was unknown at the initial presentation.

  16. Case of concurrent Riedel's thyroiditis, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Taek; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, So Hun; Hong, Seong Bin; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong; Chu, Young Chae

    2013-03-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a fibroinflammatory process that partially destroys the gland and extends into adjacent neck structures. Its clinical manifestation can mask an accompanying thyroid neoplasm and can mimic invasive thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, diagnosis can be difficult prior to surgical removal of the thyroid, and histopathologic examination of the thyroid is necessary for a definite diagnosis. The concurrent presence of RT and other thyroid diseases has been reported. However, to our knowledge, the association of RT with acute suppurative thyroiditis and micropapillary carcinoma has not been reported. We report a rare case of concurrent RT, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma in a 48-year-old patient.

  17. Lingual thyroid causing dysphonia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio José Tincani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lingual thyroid gland is a rare clinical entity that is caused by the failure of the thyroid gland to descend to a normal cervical location during embryogenesis. The occurrence of an ectopic thyroid gland located at the base of the tongue may cause problems for the patient, with symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, upper airway obstruction or even hemorrhage at any time from infancy through adulthood. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of lingual thyroid gland in a 41-year-old female patient. The embryology and diagnosis of ectopic thyroid are discussed and its management is outlined. Features of the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation are described with attention to the clinical findings, laboratory tests, thyroid scan and computed tomography imaging studies employed in the confirmation of diagnosis and planning of appropriate treatment. The history of the condition is reviewed and a treatment strategy is outlined. Surgical excision of the gland is reserved for cases of gland enlargement that result in compromised airways (dysphagia or dysphonia or recurrent hemorrhage.

  18. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  19. A carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid arising in close association with solid cell nests: evidence for a precursor lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Stéphane; Lobrinus, Johannes-Alexander; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Becker, Minerva; Zare, Maryam; Granger, Perrine; Pusztaszeri, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland, morphologically and immunohistologically similar to a thymic carcinoma, whose histogenesis is still debated. Hypotheses include an origin from ectopic thymic tissue, vestige of the thymopharyngeal duct, or branchial pouch remnants from which solid cell nests (SC-nests) originate. The diagnosis of CASTLE may be treacherous due to its rarity and its propensity to mimic other poorly differentiated tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma. We present a case of CASTLE in a 58-year-old man initially diagnosed as a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma both on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and on biopsy, arising in close association with SC-nests. A thorough literature review, with special emphasis on its diagnosis and histogenesis of CASTLE, was also conducted. Magnetic resonance images revealed a 4.0-cm cervical mass on the left side of the trachea, involving the lateral middle/inferior portion of the left lobe of the thyroid gland. FNAC was performed with a diagnosis of "malignant cells, consistent with squamous cell carcinoma." A histological evaluation of the resected specimen revealed a malignant proliferation of cells, focally exhibiting a squamoid appearance, which were immunopositive for CD5 and p63. A diagnosis of CASTLE was made. The tumor was located in direct continuity with SC-Nests, and the cell morphology of both the SC-nests and CASTLE was very similar with merging. Moreover, the immunohistochemical expression profiles of most markers useful in the diagnosis of CASTLE were identical in the SC-nests. The inclusion of CASTLE in the differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated tumors of the thyroid region and the use of ancillary studies are essential to diagnose this rare entity associated with a relatively favorable prognosis. The close association of CASTLE with SC-nests opens the way to a new scenario for studies of its histogenesis.

  20. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  1. The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Collette; Casey, Ruth; Bell, Marcia; Bergin, Diane; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the typical sonographic features of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism after radioiodine therapy (RIT). Thirty patients (21 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 53 y (standard deviation [SD] ± 11.3) and with previous Graves' disease who had been successfully treated with RIT were enrolled in the study. All were hypothyroid or euthyroid after treatment. The thyroid ultrasound was carried out by a single experienced operator with an 8-MHz linear transducer. Volume, vascularity, echogenicity and echotexture of the glands were noted. The presence of nodules and lymph nodes was also documented. The mean volumes of the right lobe were 2.4 mL ± 2.9 SD (0.6-14) and the left lobe were 1.8 mL ± 1.9 SD (0.4-9.1), with a mean total volume of 4.2 mL ± 4.7 SD (1.3-19.1). Of those who had a pre-treatment ultrasound (23%), the percentage reduction in volume was 87% (p < 0.05); 93% of the glands were hypovascular, with the remaining 7% showing normal vascularity. The glands were hyperechoic and of coarse echotexture. Overall, the sonographic features of the post-RIT gland included a significantly reduced mean total volume of 4.2 mL, hypovascularity, coarse echotexture and hyperechogenicity. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Keun; Woo, Seung-Hoon; Park, Junoh; Kim, Min-Ji; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: “primary,” “squamous,” “carcinoma,” “cancer,” and “thyroid.” Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 24–90) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.0–23.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by Kaplan–Meier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized

  3. [Thyroid and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, K A; Lehnert, H

    2018-05-17

    During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy. With reference to the period prior to pregnancy, the article discusses iodide supplementation, preconceptional examination of thyroid gland metabolism and the importance of thyroid gland functional disorders for fertility and fulfilling the desire to have children. With a view to the period during pregnancy, the effect of hypothyroxinemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism as well as the effects of their treatment on the development of the child are explained. Finally, a description is given of what must be paid attention to in the breast-feeding period and in postpartum thyroiditis.

  4. Activity of the thyroid and the pituitary gland in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri Heckel and Xiphophorus maculatus Günther during the development of the gonopodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1959-01-01

    A description is given of the activity of the thyroid and of the pituitary gland during the development of the gonopodium in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri (Heckel) and Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther). During this process the thyroid gland and the

  5. Applied anatomy of a new approach of endoscopic technique in thyroid gland surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Xie, Yong-jun; Xu, Yi-quan; Li, Chao; Liu, Xing-guo

    2012-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and safety of transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy by studying the anatomical approach and adjacent structures. A total of 5 embalmed adult cadavers from Chengdu Medical College were dissected layer by layer in the cervical region, pharyngeal region, and mandible region, according to transtracheal assisted sublingual approach that was verified from the anatomical approach and planes. A total of 15 embalmed adult cadavers were dissected by arterial vascular casting technique, imaging scanning technique, and thin layer cryotomy. Then the vessel and anatomical structures of thyroid surgical region were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Three-dimensional visualization of larynx artery was reconstructed by Autodesk 3ds Max 2010(32). Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach for totally endoscopic thyroidectomy was simulated on 5 embalmed adult cadavers. The sublingual observed access was located in the middle of sublingual region. The geniohyoid muscle, mylohyoid seam, and submental triangle were divided in turn in the middle to reach the plane under the plastima muscles. Superficial cervical fascia, anterior body of hyoid bone, and infrahyoid muscles were passed in sequence to reach thyroid gland surgical region. The transtracheal operational access was placed from the cavitas oris propria, isthmus faucium, subepiglottic region, laryngeal pharynx, and intermediate laryngeal cavit, and then passed from the top down in order to reach pars cervicalis tracheae where a sagittal incision was made in the anterior wall of cartilagines tracheales to reach a ascertained surgical region. Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy is anatomically feasible and safe and can be useful in thyroid gland surgery.

  6. Management of Graves' disease during pregnancy: the key role of fetal thyroid gland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luton, Dominique; Le Gac, Isabelle; Vuillard, Edith; Castanet, Mireille; Guibourdenche, Jean; Noel, Michèle; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Léger, Juliane; Boissinot, Christine; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Garel, Catherine; Tébeka, Brigitte; Oury, Jean-François; Czernichow, Paul; Polak, Michel

    2005-11-01

    Fetuses from mothers with Graves' disease may experience hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism due to transplacental transfer of antithyroid drugs (ATD) or anti-TSH receptor antibodies, respectively. Little is known about the fetal consequences. Early diagnosis is essential to successful management. We investigated a new approach to the fetal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and validated the usefulness of fetal thyroid ultrasonograms. Seventy-two mothers with past or present Graves' disease and their fetuses were monitored monthly from 22 wk gestation. Fetal thyroid size and Doppler signals, and fetal bone maturation were determined on ultrasonograms, and thyroid function was evaluated at birth. Thyroid function and ATD dosage were monitored in the mothers. The 31 fetuses whose mothers were anti-TSH receptor antibody negative and took no ATDs during late pregnancy had normal test results. Of the 41 other fetuses, 30 had normal test results at 32 wk, 29 were euthyroid at birth, and one had moderate hypothyroidism on cord blood tests. In the remaining 11 fetuses, goiter was visualized by ultrasonography at 32 wk, and fetal thyroid dysfunction was diagnosed and treated; there was one death, in a late referral, and 10 good outcomes with normal or slightly altered thyroid function at birth. The sensitivity and specificity of fetal thyroid ultrasound at 32 wk for the diagnosis of clinically relevant fetal thyroid dysfunction were 92 and 100%, respectively. In pregnant women with past or current Graves' disease, ultrasonography of the fetal thyroid gland by an experienced ultrasonographer is an excellent diagnostic tool. This tool in conjunction with close teamwork among internists, endocrinologists, obstetricians, echographists, and pediatricians can ensure normal fetal thyroid function.

  7. Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooijen, M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

  8. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  9. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  10. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  11. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment.

  12. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  13. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishdorj, Ts

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  14. Radiation damage to thyroid gland may be the reason of increase in frequency of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, Yu.E.; Shinkarkina, A.P.; Poverennyj, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution of autoimmune thyroidities in the patients with diseases of blood system was investigated. Attribute of autoimmune thyroidities was revealed by the detection of antimicrosomal antibodies. It was established that the autoimmune thyroidities are more often in patients with various hematological diseases than in control group. It is supposed that the increase in frequency of some hematological diseases in residents suffered from the Chernobyl accident can be defined not only by the influence of the radiation on blood system, but also can be connected with damage to thyroid glands [ru

  15. Dual ectopic thyroid: A case report with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, A.; Seam, R. K.; Gupta, M.; Raj Sharma, D.; Bhardwaj, P.

    2011-01-01

    The ectopic thyroid gland is a rare entity which is mostly found along the line of descent of the thyroid gland. Most of the patients present with midline swelling and usually seek medical attention. Dual ectopic thyroid gland is even rarer. The clinical examination and different imaging modalities establish its diagnosis. Radionuclide studies are highly sensitive and specific in demonstrating the functional tissues in patients with ectopic thyroid, thereby guiding further management. The authors reported a case of ectopic thyroid gland in a girl with midline neck swelling initially, subsequently lost to follow-up. She again presented with enlarged swelling after a period of three years with dual ectopic thyroid in the neck region on thyroid scan. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated that progression in the size of ectopic glands was due to neglect in treatment.

  16. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  17. Graves' disease in an adolescent with dual congenital ectopia and no orthotopic thyroid gland identified by Tc-99m-pertechnetate SPET/CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Xue, Yan-Li; Shen, Chen-Tian; Zhu, Rui-Sen; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case of Graves' disease in an adolescent with lingual and prelaryngeal dual congenital ectopia and no orthotopic thyroid gland identified by technetium-99m-pertechnetate (99mTcO-4) SPET/CT imaging in a 15 years old boy. After 8 weeks treatment with methimazole, Graves' disease subsided. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed the normal colloid and normal follicular cells without an atypia or lymphoid elements, suggesting a benign ectopic thyroid gland. In conclusion, there is no report in the literature with DETT lingual and prelaryngeal absence of orthotopic thyroid tissue and Graves' disease as in our case. This case also highlights the potential ascendancy of 99mTcO-4 SPET/CT in diagnosing the DETT.

  18. Atypical Pharyngeal Pouch Arising Bilaterally between the Hyoid Bone and Thyroid Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal diverticuli are a common cause of dysphagia; they are associated with various morbidities and a decreased quality of life. There are several different types of the diverticuli, and they are divided based on the anatomical location of origin relative to the cricopharyngeal muscle; these include Zenker’s, Killian-Jamieson’s, and Laimer’s diverticula. The authors present a unique case of pharyngoesophageal diverticulum that has not been previously described. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 12-month history of dysphagia and odynophagia for solids. Barium swallow revealed bilateral moderately sized diverticuli that altered in size during the different phases of swallow. CT scan of the neck with oral contrast further identified the anatomy of the diverticuli, arising between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. Discussion. An external transcervical approach was utilised to successfully repair the diverticuli. Subsequent cricopharyngeal spasm was treated with botulinum toxin, and the patient recovered with no ongoing symptoms. The barium swallow study is a commonly utilised initial investigation as it is easy to perform and safe and has good diagnostic value. Definitive management usually involves either endoscopic or open surgery. This case depicts a unique case of a pharyngeal diverticulum arising between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  19. Structural organization of the thyroid gland and interrenal tissue with reference to endocrine parenchyma in short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first investigations of the thyroid gland and interrenal tissue with reference to the endocrine parenchyma of short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma were subjected to histological analysis. Specimens were collected during the fishing season (October to November 2013 from the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Under a light microscope, the thyroid gland of R. brachysoma was distinctly found located within the branchial region. Within this gland, it consists of several follicles among afferent brachial arteries. Each follicle exclusively contained a colloid that was surrounded by a simple, cuboidal, follicle epithelium. Histological study showed that the localization of interrenal tissue was in the anterior kidney. This tissue was composed of two parts based on the structural compositions and cell types; (i the stromal compartment was constituted of various interrenal cells and (ii the interstitial compartment contained the connective tissue, leucocytes and blood sinuses, with reference to the lymphatic tissue.

  20. Effect of selenium on the thyroid gland antioxidative metabolisms in rat model by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Seok; Choi, Jun Hyeok; JUng, Do Young; Kim, Jang Oh; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Selenium (Se), which is natural materials existing was known as an important component of selenoprotein, one of the important proteins responsible for the redox pump of a living body. Selenium was orally administered to Rat and irradiated with 10 Gy of radiation. Then, the thyroid gland was used as a target organ for 1 day, 7 days and 21 days to investigate the radiation protection effect of selenium (Se) through changes of blood components, thyroid hormones (T3, T4), antioxidant enzyme (GPx) activity and thyroid tissue changes. As a result, there was a significant protective effect of hematopoietic immune system(hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil, platelet)(p<0.05). The activity of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), the antioxidant enzyme, and the activity of the target organ, thyroid hormone (T3, T4), also showed significant activity changes (p<0.05). In the observation of tissue changes, it was confirmed that there was a protective effect of thyroid cell damage which caused the cell necrosis by radiation treatment. Therefore, it is considered that selenium(Se) can be utilized as a radiation defense agent by inducing immunogenic activity effect of a living body.

  1. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

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    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  2. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  3. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the thyroid gland – examining and discussing possible longitudinal health effects in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaum, Petra M., E-mail: pgaum@ukaachen.de [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Lang, Jessica; Esser, André; Schettgen, Thomas [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Neulen, Joseph [Clinic for Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Background: Many previous studies have dealt with the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the thyroid gland, but their findings are inconsistent. One problem of these studies has been their use of cross-sectional designs. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to investigate longitudinal effects of PCBs on the thyroid gland, focusing on: morphological changes in thyroid tissue (i.e. thyroid volume), changes in thyroid hormones and in thyroid antibodies. Methods: A total of 122 individuals (M{sub age}=44.7) were examined over a period of four years (t{sup 1} until t{sup 4}). Medical history was collected via interviews, an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine plasma PCB levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TGab) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRab). Rank correlation coefficients and mixed effect models were performed controlling for age and total lipids. Results: There were negative correlations between higher chlorinated biphenyls and fT3, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. We also found an interaction effect of higher-chlorinated PCBs over time for fT4 as well as TSHRab. In case of high exposure, a decrease in fT4 and an increase in TSHRab level were found over time. In regards to the other variables, our findings yielded no clear results in the examined time period. Conclusion: This is the first study to shows a PCB-related effect on fT3, fT4 and TSHRab over a four year period. The data also suggest that morphological and antibody findings remain inconsistent and do not allow for unambiguous interpretation. - Highlights: • This is a longitudinal study which includes data from four cross sections. • Higher-chlorinated biphenyls are negatively correlated with fT3. • There are interactions of time and higher-chlorinated biphenyls to TSHRab and fT4.

  4. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Mueller, H.

    1984-01-01

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(μg/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  5. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Quantification in the Evaluation of Thyroid Elasticity in Pediatric Patients With Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Serap; Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Kara, Cengiz; Can Yilmaz, Gulay; Aydin, H Murat; Elmali, Muzaffer; Tomak, Leman; Saglam, Dilek

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the parenchymal elasticity of the thyroid gland with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in pediatric patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and to compare it with healthy volunteers. Twenty-six patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and 26 healthy volunteers between 6 and 17 years were included. The shear wave velocity (SWV) values of both thyroid lobes in both groups were evaluated. The age and sex characteristics of the controls and patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were similar. The SWV of the thyroid gland in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (mean ± SD, 1.67 ± 0.63 m/s) was significantly higher than that in the control group (1.30 ± 0.13 m/s; P thyroid lobes in both groups. A receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed an optimal cutoff value of 1.41 m/s, with 73.1% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, a 79.2 % positive predictive value, and a 75.0% negative predictive value (area under the curve, 0.806; P Hashimoto thyroiditis, there was a positive correlation between the SWV values versus anti-thyroperoxidase (Pearson r = 0.46; P = .038). There were no correlations between age, body mass index, thyroid function test results, and anti-thyroglobulin values and versus SWV values. Also, no significant differences were seen between the groups for gland size, gland vascularity, and l-thyroxine treatment. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography showed a significant difference in the stiffness of the thyroid gland between children with Hashimoto thyroiditis and the healthy group. Using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography immediately after a standard ultrasound evaluation may predict chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Thyroid dysfunction after radiation therapy to the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Toshinori; Hirota, Saeko; Obayashi, Kayoko; Takada, Yoshiki; Kimura, Shuji; Yoshida, Shoji.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the thyroid were investigated in 102 patients treated by radiation therapy to the neck. All patients had radiation ports which included the thyroid gland. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were elevated in 41 cases and the cumulative elevation rate was 52.1% in 5 years. The high frequency of elevated serum TSH levels observed in patients whose thyroid glands were included within the radiation fields (74.1%) was statistically significant compared to those whose thyroid glands were only partially included (23.4%). Among the patients whose entire thyroid glands were included within the radiation field, combination with chemotherapy increased the frequency of elevated serum TSH levels, but the increase was not statistically significant. Among 36 laryngeal cancer patients treated by only radiation therapy through a portal encompassing part of the thyroid, 4 (14%) were found to have elevated serum TSH levels. We advocate routine monitoring of thyroid functions after radiation therapy to the neck. (author)

  7. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  8. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kimura, S.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131 I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131 I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131 I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject

  9. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice; Avaliacao dos efeitos do laser em baixa intensidade na regiao da glandula tireoide de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm{sup 2}, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  10. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  11. Metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland: a case diagnosed on fine-needle aspirate by a combined cytological, immunocytochemical, and molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Malapelle, Umberto; Carlomagno, Chiara; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with cytological evaluation reliably diagnoses primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. However, identifying the primary origin of a metastatic process involving the thyroid gland is challenging. In particular, metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland is very rare. In this case report, a right lobe solid thyroid nodule in a 66-year-old male was aspirated. FNA cytology showed necrosis and atypical tall columnar cells; since, the patient at age 60 had undergone surgery for a sigmoid-rectal cancer metastasizing to the liver and subsequently to the lung, a suspicion of metastasis from colon cancer was raised. This was corroborated by cell-block immunocytochemistry showing a cytokeratin (CK) 7 negative/CK20-positive staining pattern; thyreoglobulin and TTF-1 were both negative. Since KRAS codon 12/13 mutations frequently occur in colon cancer, whereas they are extremely uncommon in primary thyroid tumors, DNA was extracted from the aspirated cells, and KRAS mutational analysis was carried out. The codon 12 G12D mutation was found; the same mutation was evident in the primary cancer of the colon and in its liver and lung metastasis. Thus, a combined cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach unquestionably correlated metastatic adenocarcinoma cells aspirated from the thyroid to a colo-rectal origin. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  13. CT detection of thyroid pyramidal lobe in preoperative patients with thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Won; Kim, Dong Won

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL) is a normal variant of the thyroid gland, but few imaging studies of TPL have been published. The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency, location, size (length, maximal AP diameter, maximal transverse diameter), and upper end level of TPL with its separation from the main thyroid gland on preoperative neck CT and to compare them with operative findings in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of neck CT for detection TPL. 46 patients, who underwent preoperative neck CT before thyroidectomy, were included in the study. The frequency, location, size, and upper end level of TPL with its separation from the main thyroid gland on the neck CT was analyzed by a single radiologist. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of neck CT for detecting TPL was 77.8%, 89.5%, 91.3%, 73.9% and 82.6%. There was a significant difference in maximal AP diameter, location, upper end level, and its separation from main thyroid gland between CT and operative findings (p 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of neck CT for detecting TPL was high, and the neck CT may be useful for evaluating TPL in the suprahyoid neck.

  14. Detection of high levels of European bat lyssavirus type-1 viral RNA in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected Eptesicus fuscus bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Vos, A; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Freuling, C; Neubert, L; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Franka, R; Rupprecht, C E

    2009-08-01

    Two common bat lyssavirus species have been identified in many European countries: European bat lyssavirus type-1 and -2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2). Only limited knowledge on the susceptibility of the natural EBLV-hosts, insectivorous bats, to lyssavirus infection is available. Our study was undertaken to evaluate the susceptibility and pathology associated with an EBLV-1 infection in Eptesicus fuscus following different routes of virus inoculation including intracranial (n = 6), intramuscular (n = 14), oral (n = 7) and intranasal (n = 7). Blood and saliva samples were collected from all bats on a monthly basis. Four bats inoculated intracranially developed rabies with a mean of 11 days to death, whilst seven bats inoculated intramuscularly developed rabies, with an extended incubation period prior to death. We did not observe any mortality in the oral (p.o.) or intranasal (i.n.) groups and both groups had detectable levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (data not shown). Virus shedding was demonstrated in the saliva by virus isolation and the detection of viral RNA in ill bats, particularly immediately prior to the development of disease. In addition, the presence of virus and viral RNA was detected in the thyroid gland in bats challenged experimentally with EBLV-1, which exceeded that detected in all other extra-neural tissue. The significance of detecting EBLV-1 in the thyroid gland of rabid bats is not well understood. We speculate that the infection of the thyroid gland may cause subacute thyroiditis, a transient form of thyroiditis causing hyperthyroidism, resulting in changes in adrenocortical activity that could lead to hormonal dysfunction, thereby distinguishing the clinical presentation of rabies in the rabid host.

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  16. Fibrosis of the thyroid gland caused by an IgG4-related sclerosing disease: three years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriot, P; Amraoui, A; Rousseau, E; Malvaux, P; Dechambre, S; Delcourt, A

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-RSD) represents a recently identified inflammatory disorder in which infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells causes fibrosis in organs. While IgG4-RSD is well documented in the pancreas and other organs, it is poorly characterized in the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 48-year-old female with a fibrotic thyroid mass associated with a retroperitoneal fibrosis. Diagnosed early as Riedel disease, the high serum IgG4, immunohistopathology and decreased fibrosis with corticosteroid therapy, finally confirm for the first time, the origin of IgG4-RSD fibrosis of the thyroid.

  17. Thyroid hemiagenesis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrocinio, Heliane Modesto do; Kikkawa, Mitiko; Cuzziol, Egidio; Oliveira, Luiz Antonio Nunes de

    1995-01-01

    The absence of one lobe of the thyroid gland is named thyroid hemiagenesis; the left is affected more frequently and in 50% is associated with isthmus agenesis. Predominant in women, in the 38-47% have alteration in the function, of which hyperthyroidism is more frequently. In this case, it is observed that the ultrasound is very important to define the hemiagenesis of thyroid gland. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  18. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  19. Does ultrasonographic volume of the thyroid gland correlate with difficult intubation? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ceyda Meco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland done by surgeons could let us foresee airway management challenges. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of thyroid-related parameters assessed preoperatively by surgeons via ultrasonography and chest X-ray on intubation conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thyroid surgery were enrolled. Thyromental distance, Mallampati score, neck circumference and range of neck movement were evaluated before the operation. Thyroid volume, signs of invasion or compression and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray were also noted. The intubation conditions were assessed with Cormack and Lehane score and the intubation difficulty scale. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 15.0 software. RESULTS: The mean thyroid volume of the patients was 26.38 ± 14 mL. The median intubation difficulty scale was 1 (0-2. Thyromental distance (p = 0.011; r = 0.36; 95% CI 0.582-0.088, Mallampati score (p = 0.041; r = 0.29; 95% CI 0.013-0.526, compression or invasion signs (p = 0.041; r = 0.28; 95% CI 0.006-0.521 and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray (p = 0.041; r = 0.52; 95% CI 0.268-0.702 were correlated with intubation difficulty scale. Also patients were classified into two groups related to their intubation difficulty scale (Group I, n = 19: intubation difficulty scale = 0; Group II, n = 31: 1 < intubation difficulty scale ≤ 5 and difficult intubation predictors and thyroid-related parameters were compared. Only Mallampati score was significantly different between groups (p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: The thyroid volume is not associated with difficult intubation. However clinical assessment parameters may predict difficult intubation.

  20. correlation between cytology and thyroid function test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-10-01

    Oct 1, 2006 ... the hormones tri-iodothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4, which are in turn regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Diseases of the thyroid gland usually result in thyroid enlargement (goiter) which can be due to infections, cystic changes, autoimmune diseases, ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  2. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Konno, M; Sato, T; Matsuura, N

    1980-10-01

    We studied two cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children. A 9-year-old girl and an 11-year-old girl had thyroid masses in otherwise nonpalpable thyroid glands. Scintiscan showed hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The former patient had elevated values for T4 and T3, and plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level failed to respond to stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), whereas the latter patient had normal values for T4, and T3 and plasma TSH response to TRH was normal. After the surgical removal of nodules, scintiscan exhibited radioactivity in the contralateral lobe of the thyroid gland in the former and in the ectopic thyroid tissue in the latter. Results of microscopic examinations of thyroid nodules were consistent with adenomatous goiter.

  3. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  4. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  5. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Thyroid, Presenting Like Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of uterine cancer to the head and neck is extremely rare. We report what we believe to be the first documented case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland. An 80-year-old woman was referred to the otolaryngology service with a rapidly growing neck mass. The mass appeared to originate from the thyroid gland. Her clinical presentation was consistent with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A tracheostomy was performed. An open biopsy established the diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, consistent with a gynecologic primary. The patient had undergone a hysterectomy 5 years prior for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The thyroid tumor histology and immunophenotype corresponded well with her prior endometrial carcinoma, indicating that the thyroid mass was a metastasis from the endometrial primary. Radiotherapy appears to offer good local disease control in this rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastatic to the thyroid.

  6. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  7. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  8. Endocrine glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  9. Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.H.; Oslapas, R.; Calandra, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation

  10. [Activity of the hypophyseal-thyroid gland system in relation to the funcitonal state of the sex glands. Report I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N; Samsonova, V M

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on intact female rats; it was revealed that the content of protein-bound iodine (PBI) in the blood depended on the stage of the estral cycle. It was decreased at the metestrus and diestrus stages. Castration produced an even greater reduction in the blood PBI content. The blood PBI content proved to elevate in administration of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) to castrated rats. The TSH content in the hypophysis increased at the metestrus and diestrus stages and decreased at the proestrus and estrus stages. The relationship was reverse in the case with the blood TTH content. Castration was followed by a marked increase in the TSH content in the hypophysis accompanied by a reduction in the blood hormone level. The TSH concentration in the hypophysis decreased and in the blood increased under the effect of EDP in castrated animals. The data obtained indicated that the interrelationship between the thyroid gland and the sex glands was realized at the level of the hypophysis, and possibly, of the hypothalamus.

  11. On-line transmission electron microscopic image analysis of chromatin texture for differentiation of thyroid gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Schäffer, R; Harms, H; Aus, H M

    1987-06-01

    Nuclei of the cells from the thyroid gland were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope by direct TV scanning and on-line image processing. The method uses the advantages of a visual-perception model to detect structures in noisy and low-contrast images. The features analyzed include area, a form factor and texture parameters from the second derivative stage. Three tumor-free thyroid tissues, three follicular adenomas, three follicular carcinomas and three papillary carcinomas were studied. The computer-aided cytophotometric method showed that the most significant differences were the statistics of the chromatin texture features of homogeneity and regularity. These findings document the possibility of an automated differentiation of tumors at the ultrastructural level.

  12. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, H.; Hassan, AME.; Basama, N. K.; Mohamed, W.A.S.; Eltayeb, N. H.; Elsayed, B. B.

    2012-12-01

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T 4 ) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T 3 ). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T 4 ), tri iodine thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  13. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid gland: A case report with ultrasonography and CT features, cytological findings and histopathological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare tumor. It is believed to originate from ectopic thymus tissue within the thyroid gland or from branchial pouch remnants that differentiate along the thymic line. A few reports of SETTLE have been presented, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no case report in which detailed preoperative imaging features of SETTLE have been described. In addition, there are no case reports of SETTLE in Korean patients. Thus, we report a case of SETTLE with detailed preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography features, cytological findings and histopathological results.

  14. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid gland: A case report with ultrasonography and CT features, cytological findings and histopathological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare tumor. It is believed to originate from ectopic thymus tissue within the thyroid gland or from branchial pouch remnants that differentiate along the thymic line. A few reports of SETTLE have been presented, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no case report in which detailed preoperative imaging features of SETTLE have been described. In addition, there are no case reports of SETTLE in Korean patients. Thus, we report a case of SETTLE with detailed preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography features, cytological findings and histopathological results

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  16. Partial thyroid arterial embolization for the treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Piasecki, Piotr; Zięcina, Piotr; Frankowska, Emilia; Jaroszuk, Andrzej; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Bogusławska-Walecka, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive thyroid gland in patients that are unable to tolerate or accept standard therapy is a common clinical problem. Aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of partial thyroid arterial embolization in patients with hyperthyroidism. Material/methods: From May 2004 to November 2005 partial thyroid gland embolization was performed in 15 patients. Mean thyroid gland volume was 162 ml. Embolization of one to three thyriod arteries was performed with the mixture of Histoacryl and Lipiodol. Selective angiography was performed after embolization to ensure that the targeted arteries were completely occluded. Follow-up study covered 12 patients. Results: The embolization procedure was well tolerated by all patients. Three days after embolization fT3 and fT4 levels were higher than before the procedure. Further laboratory tests showed quick reversal to near-normal or normal levels of thyroid hormones. 12 weeks follow-up showed: normal serum levels of fT3, fT4 and TSH in 9 of 12 patients (75%), hyperthyroidism in 3 of 12 patients (25%), goiter volume reduction of approximately 32% of its original volume (from 13 to 76.3%), mean thyroid gland volume of 94 ml. One year after embolization 7 of 12 patients required thyreostatic drugs. At two and four years follow-up thyreostatics doses were significantly lower and thyroid tissue was fibrotic. Conclusions: Based on our results the treatment of the thyroid gland goiters using arterial thyroid gland partial embolization may be offered as an effective alternative for patients who will not or cannot accept standard therapy.

  17. MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, S.; Ueda, M.; Shibata, A.; Takayama, F.; Momose, M.; Yamashita, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study MR findings for clues to the diagnosis of lingual thyroid. Material and methods: MR findings and clinical and scintigraphic data of 5 cases of lingual thyroid were reviewed and the MR findings were compared to those of 16 cases of other submucosal lesions in the base of the tongue. Results: Four of the 5 patients with lingual thyroid were women and all had hypothyroidism. MR imaging depicted lingual thyroid in the midline in the base of the tongue (n=5) and additional ectopic thyroid glands in the floor of the mouth (n=2) or between the right and left sternohyoid muscles (n=1). Ectopic thyroid glands appeared isointense or hyperintense relative to muscle tissue on T1-weighted images and showed slight or fair contrast enhancement. All glands had low to intermediate T2 signal, which was also seen in 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma. All ectopic thyroid glands had well-defined margins, whereas malignant tumors tended to have ill-defined margins and to invade the surrounding structures. All but the 5 cases of lingual thyroid had an MR-demonstrable thyroid gland in the normal cervical position. Conclusion: A well-defined mass of low-intermediate T2 signal in the midline base of the tongue, neither with invasive tendency nor with a cervical thyroid gland in the normal site on MR imaging, may strongly indicate lingual thyroid

  18. MR imaging of the lingual thyroid. Comparison to other submucosal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, S.; Ueda, M.; Shibata, A.; Takayama, F.; Momose, M.; Yamashita, K. [Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Matsumoto (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-03-01

    Purpose: To study MR findings for clues to the diagnosis of lingual thyroid. Material and methods: MR findings and clinical and scintigraphic data of 5 cases of lingual thyroid were reviewed and the MR findings were compared to those of 16 cases of other submucosal lesions in the base of the tongue. Results: Four of the 5 patients with lingual thyroid were women and all had hypothyroidism. MR imaging depicted lingual thyroid in the midline in the base of the tongue (n=5) and additional ectopic thyroid glands in the floor of the mouth (n=2) or between the right and left sternohyoid muscles (n=1). Ectopic thyroid glands appeared isointense or hyperintense relative to muscle tissue on T1-weighted images and showed slight or fair contrast enhancement. All glands had low to intermediate T2 signal, which was also seen in 1 case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 1 case of adenoid cystic carcinoma. All ectopic thyroid glands had well-defined margins, whereas malignant tumors tended to have ill-defined margins and to invade the surrounding structures. All but the 5 cases of lingual thyroid had an MR-demonstrable thyroid gland in the normal cervical position. Conclusion: A well-defined mass of low-intermediate T2 signal in the midline base of the tongue, neither with invasive tendency nor with a cervical thyroid gland in the normal site on MR imaging, may strongly indicate lingual thyroid.

  19. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Magda H. A. Nasreldin; Eman A. Ibrahim; Somaia A. Saad El-Din

    2016-01-01

    Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a cl...

  20. Thyroid and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Namba, Hiroyuki; Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-11-01

    The topic 'Thyroid and Radiation' is both an old and new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymph nodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed. (author) 50 refs.

  1. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  3. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  4. [Atypical subacute thyroiditis in combination with Grave's disease:Diagnostic difficulties in a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouridou, Emmanouela; Planck, Tereza; Uddman, Erik; Lantz, Mikael

    2018-04-13

    Subacute thyroiditis is a common inflammatory disorder of the thyroid gland, possibly of viral etiology, that typically presents with neck pain, fever and tenderness on palpation of the thyroid gland. Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb). The development of Graves´ disease and subacute thyroiditis simultaneously is an uncommon condition and only a few cases have been reported. In this article we present a case of a 46-year old woman diagnosed with Graves´ disease who was started on thiamazole and weeks later developed high fever. Several differential diagnoses were considered such as infection, lymphoma and vasculitis due to thiamazole. Finally, the fine needle aspiration of the thyroid gland displayed histopathological features of subacute thyroiditis. Remarkably, our patient did not have neck pain or tenderness on palpation of the thyroid gland and overall the clinical presentation of subacute thyroiditis was atypical. Thus, subacute thyroiditis may be considered as a potential cause of fever of unknown origin.

  5. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation.

  6. Graves disease and papillary thyroid cancer: An association that can be missed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omari, Ahmad A.; Haddad, Fares H.; Malkawi, Omar M.; Khushman, Haytham M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequently found in association with Graves' disease. Papillary carcinoma can arise from these nodules. We report a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with classical features of Graves disease. Technetium 99 scintigraphy revealed diffuse goiter with a cold nodule over the isthmus. Papillary thyroid cancer was suggested by the enlarging thyroid gland, and by the presence of cold nodule, and was proven by fine needle aspiration biopsy of this nodule. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology of thyroid specimen after total thyroidectomy, which also showed local invasion; metastatic work up revealed pulmonary and liver metastasis. Despite treatment by total thyroidectomy, twice radioactive iodine I131 ablation and levothyroxine replacement in a thyroid stimulating hormone suppressive dose, he still harbors metastases with elevated thyroglobulin level. This case should raise the index of suspicion of the treating physician to consider similar association, and to prompt early diagnosis and surgical treatment to prevent dreadful consequences that might adversely affect the outcome. (author)

  7. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

  8. Remarkable Presentation: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Arising from Chronic Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib G. Zalzal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma rarely develops from chronic hyperthyroidism. Although acute hyperthyroidism can develop prior to anaplastic transformation, chronic hyperthyroidism was thought to be a protective measure against thyroid malignancy. Methods. A 79-year-old female presented acutely to the hospital with dyspnea. She had been taking methimazole for chronic hyperthyroidism due to toxic thyroid nodules, previously biopsied as benign. Upon admission, imaging showed tracheal compression, requiring a total thyroidectomy with tracheostomy for airway management. Results. Pathology demonstrated undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The patient passed away shortly after hospital discharge. Despite treatment with methimazole for many years, abrupt enlargement of her toxic multinodular goiter was consistent with malignant transformation. Chronic hyperthyroidism and toxic nodules are rarely associated with thyroid malignancy, with only one previous report documenting association with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion. Progressive thyroid enlargement and acute worsening of previously controlled hyperthyroidism should promote concern for disease regardless of baseline thyroid function.

  9. [Riedel thyroiditis: two cases report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongjin; Wang, Junguo

    2014-10-01

    Riedel thyroiditis is a benign disease, which is often self-limited. Examinations, such as CT and histologic diagnosis can distinguish it from malignant neoplasms and hashimoto's thyroiditis. Riedel thyroiditis is an uncommon form of chronic thyroiditis in which the thyroid gland is replaced by fibrous tissue. It can be cured by surgery and medicine.

  10. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, R.A.D.; Maia, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers. - Highlights: ► Two thyroid phantoms were developed (OSCT and OSAP) with different types of acrylics. ► Thyroid glands were represented anthropomorphically in the both phantoms. ► Different prototypes of thyroid were built of simulate healthy or unhealthy glands. ► Images indicate that anthropomorphic phantoms correctly simulate the thyroid gland

  11. Thyroid Radiation Dose and Other Risk Factors of Thyroid Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue S; Hawkins, Mike; Guibout, Catherine; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Pacquement, Hélène; Diop, Fara; Kalhouche, Amar; Benadjaoud, Mohamedamine; Winter, David; Jackson, Angela; Bezin Mai-Quynh, Giao; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Veres, Cristina; Munzer, Martine; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Deutsch, Eric; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; Rubino, Carole

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation. This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response. We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered. Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI, 1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1). Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

  12. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  13. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  14. Co-occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with long-standing hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Seong Keun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Jung, Woo Jin; Kahng, Dong Hwahn; Kim, In Ju

    2013-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common affliction of the thyroid gland, accounting for 70% to 80% of all thyroid cancers, whereas mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. The simultaneous occurrence of both malignancies is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with both PTC and MALT lymphoma in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. An 81-year-old female patient was first admitted with goiter and hoarseness, which was attributed to an ultrasonographic thyroid nodule. Subsequent fine-needle aspirate, interpreted as suspicious of papillary thyroid cancer, prompted total thyroidectomy. MALT lymphoma was an incidental postsurgical finding, coexisting with PTC in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although the development of MALT lymphoma is very rare, patients with longstanding Hashimoto thyroiditis should undergo careful surveillance for both malignancies.

  15. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  16. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo Silveira, Ernesto Manuel; Eirin Aranno, Juana Elisa

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  17. Silent Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Silent or painless thyroiditis is a frequent cause of transient hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by recent onset of symptoms in a patient with a normal to modestly enlarged and firm thyroid gland. The hallmarks of the disease are the absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness and a markedly reduced radioiodine uptake. Histologically, the gland is characterized by an important lymphocytic infiltration, occasionally to the point of lymphoid follicle formation. However, other indices of an autoimmune cause are usually absent. The disease appears to have a predilection for the postpartum period. Relapses may occur with subsequent pregnancies. Otherwise, the course is usually benign and transient, requiring moderate doses of β-adrenergic blocking agents for symptomatic relief. No pathogenetic factors are known, but the disease may conceivably have an autoimmune basis, particularly in the postpartum patient. PMID:21278944

  18. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goleva, O.G.; Paster, Yi.P.; Lyubchenko, T.A.; Kholodna, L.S.; Paster, Je.U.; Donyich, S.F.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (≤ 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  19. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

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    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  20. Thyroid fractional deposition and half life of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Minoru

    1974-01-01

    In order to measure the absorbed dose of radioiodine in the thyroid gland, which was incorporated by halation or ingestion, iodine intake (fa), 131 I thyroid uptake rate(fw), 131 I thyroid uptake rate compared to the rate in the whole body (f 2 ) and the half life of iodine in the thyroid gland(Teff) were examined. Thyroid fractional deposition of 131 I was compared between Japanese and European. The rate of 131 I which moved from the blood into the thyroid gland in children (f 2 ') and the effect of the iodine in meals on 131 I thyroid uptake (fw) were also studied. In Japanese, f 2 was 0.28 and the mean Teff was 6.9 +- 0.7 days in 11 Japanese adults. There was an individual difference in these biological parameter and the values in adults were different from those in children. A little difference in value between Japanese and European suggested to be caused by the greater amount of stable iodine in meals in Japanese. (Serizawa, K.)

  1. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  2. Congenital thyroid hemiagenesis with multinodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhartiya, SK; Verma, A; Basu, S; Shukla, VK

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare form of thyroid dysgenesis characterized by an absence of half of the thyroid gland. Developmental hemi-thyroid anomalies can result from either an abnormal descent or an agenesis of one lobe of the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with history of a longstanding gradually progressive thyroid swelling without any complication. An ultrasonographic examination diagnosed the absence of the left thyroid lobe and enlargement of the right lobe, which was confirmed on a computed tomography (CT) angiogram and a radionuclide scan of the neck. A cytological examination showed nodular goiter with cystic degeneration. Right subtotal thyroidectomy was performed and histopathological examination confirmed adenomatous goiter with degenerative changes. We report the rarity of the condition and emphasize the role of a comprehensive radiological, cytological, and radionuclide algorithm for an accurate preoperative diagnosis and subsequent management

  3. Atrophic thyroiditis in long-term Segment III beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, L.C.; Norrdin, R.W.; Benjamin, S.A.; Brewster, R.D.; Brooks, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with progressive thyroid atrophy is described in CRHL beagles. Depressed thyroid function was present in many of these dogs, as evidenced by clinical signs of hypothyroidism, elevation of serum cholesterol levels, depressed serum triiodothyronine levels, and alteration of basophils of the antero-medial region and/or unilateral or bilateral obliteration of the thyroid glands by neoplasia. Microscopic changes in the thyroid glands included lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyroid follicular atrophy, adenomatous hyperplasia of follicula cells and C-cells, and follicular cells neoplasia. This disease occurred with no sex predisposition in dogs 2 through 11 years of age. The disease does not appear to be influenced by previous radiation exposure but may be familial. In contrast to thyroid disease in some other beagle colonies, the disease in CRHL beagles more closely resembles atrophic thyroiditis of man rather than human Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging ... to: determine if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ...

  7. The role of thyroid scanning in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Cooke, S.G.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide thyroid imaging was performed in 872 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism. Of these, 84% were found to have diffuse toxic hyperplasia (Graves' disease), while 12% had autonomously functioning nodules (Plummer's disease), 3% had Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland, and in the remaining 1%, either a clear diagnosis could not be established or the hyperthyroidism was due to thyroiditis or the Jod-Basedow phenomenon. It was found that a thyroid scan seldom provides additional diagnostic information in patients with Graves' disease when a diffuse goitre is present. However, if patients are to be treated with radioiodine ( 131 I), thyroid imaging with tracer quantitation can replace a 24-h 131 I uptake measurement, this having the advantages that the patients are required to attend only once, and that the gland size can be measured. In addition, visual confirmation of tracer uptake by the thyroid is obtained and patients with thyroiditis will not receive inappropriate therapy. When single or multiple thyroid nodules are palpated, a thyroid scan is crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis, as it is not otherwise possible to differentiate between Plummer's disease and Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland. Indeed, in 20 of our 63 patients (32%) with single autonomously functioning nodules, the initial clinical assessment had been incorrect. (orig.)

  8. [Painless thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ken; Fujikawa, Megumi; Bandai, Sachiko

    2006-12-01

    Painless thyroiditis is characterized by painless low-uptake thyrotoxicosis (thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism). Destructive damage of the thyroid has been thought to be the mechanism for self-limited thyrotoxicosis. However, hydrolysis of thyroglobulin must be responsible for the release of excessive thyroid hormone. Low-uptake of iodine and excessive release of thyroid hormone suggest the uncoupling of hormone synthesis and hormone secretion in the thyroid gland. Suppressed serum TSH level, various cytokines or growth factors including TGFbeta1, and thyroglobulin itself may be responsible for the suppressed hormone synthesis. The mechanism for persistent hormone release despite suppressed hormone synthesis should be clarified. Quantitative TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin assay is helpful for the differential diagnosis of painless thyroiditis and Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  9. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  10. Is visual assessment of thyroid attenuation on unenhanced CT of the chest useful for detecting hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldjian, P D; Chen, T

    2016-11-01

    To determine if visual assessment of the attenuation of morphologically normal appearing thyroid glands on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest is useful for identifying patients with decreased thyroid function. This was a retrospective study of 765 patients who underwent both unenhanced CT of the chest and thyroid function tests performed within 1 year of the CT examination. Attenuation of the thyroid gland was visually assessed in each patient relative to the attenuation of the surrounding muscles to categorise the gland as "low attenuation" (attenuation similar to surrounding muscles) or "high attenuation" (attenuation greater than surrounding muscles). Thyroid attenuation was quantitatively measured in each case to determine the validity of the visual assessment. Results of thyroid function tests were used to classify thyroid function as hypothyroid, euthyroid, or hyperthyroid. Data were analysed to determine the relationship between visual assessment of thyroid attenuation and status of thyroid function. Thyroid glands of low attenuation were present in 4.2% (32/765) of the patients. Nearly half (47%) of the patients with low-attenuation thyroids had hypofunctioning thyroid glands. Compared to patients with high-attenuation thyroids, patients with low-attenuation thyroids were significantly more likely to have decreased thyroid function (clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism) and significantly less likely to be euthyroid (p<0.0001). Quantitative measurement of thyroid attenuation confirmed the validity of the visual assessment. Low attenuation of an otherwise normal-appearing thyroid gland on unenhanced CT of the chest is strongly associated with decreased thyroid function. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preoperative localization of supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Kano, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Uchida, Kazuharu; Yamada, Nobuo; Kawai, Machio; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    The undetectable supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands have a high risk of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism, especially in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Preoperative image diagnosis, CT scan, echogram and 201 TlCl scintigram were very useful for detecting supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands in our 132 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Among these methods the scintigraphy showed the highest detection rate of the glands located in the thyroid gland and those located between the thyroid gland and trachea. The echography was useful in detecting the glands in the thyroid gland, but could not offer easy visualization those located in the mediastinum. Even the ectopic parathyroid glands, weighing more than 500 mg were identifiable at about 90% when all the methods were applied routinely. In our experience, four patients had a supernumerary gland which was detected by the preoperative image diagnostic procedures at the initial surgery. One patient had a supernumerary gland in the mediastinum which was detected by image diagnosis after the initial operation and was removed at reoperation. (author)

  12. Scintigraphy and ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yoshio; Nagakura, Hozumi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Fukunari, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Kunihiko; Higashi, Tomomitsu.

    1987-01-01

    We reported the usefulness of scintigraphy and ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases. The scintigraphy were useful information in the determination of functioning adenoma, location of ectopic thyroid glands and appearance of lang and bone metastasis of thyroid carcinoma. As ultrasonography were able to be observation of internal structure of thyroid gland, that maight be used to determined associated nodular lesions in diffuse goiter and differentiation between benign and malignant tumor in nodular goiter. In observation of calcifications of goiter, soft X rays apparatus were usefull tool. US, as initial diagnostic test before scintiscanning, provided useful information and minimized radiation exposure. (author)

  13. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, S.M.; Alexander, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro

  14. Association of active human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, A; Cistjakovs, M; Gravelsina, S; Chapenko, S; Roga, S; Cunskis, E; Nora-Krukle, Z; Groma, V; Ventina, I; Murovska, M

    2017-01-01

    Viral infections frequently have been cited as important environmental factors implicated in the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HHV-6 infection in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. This study included 45 patients (42 female and 3 male; median age 47.00 IQR 38.50-57.00) with histologically, laboratory, and clinically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis, as well as 30 autopsied subjects (26 female and 4 male; median age 58.50, IQR 51.50-67.00) without thyroid pathologies and 30 healthy blood donors (25 female and 5 male; median age 33.50, IQR 27.75-44.25) as controls. Results were obtained by applying molecular virology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The presence of persistent HHV-6 infection in AIT patients was significantly higher (p 0.0058) than in the control group (44/45 (98%) vs. 23/30 (77%), respectively). Also, a significantly higher frequency of HHV-6 activation marker (U79/80 mRNA) was found in patients' thyroid gland tissue samples with AIT in comparison with the control group (18/44 (41%) vs. 1/17 (6%), respectively; p 0.0118). The median HHV-6 load was found to be higher in patients with active viral infection than in patients without it (2147, IQR 971-4188 vs. 551, IQR 145-1589 copies/1×10 6 cells; p 0.003). The presence of HHV-6 antigen expression was demonstrated in intrafollicular cellular clusters and immunohistochemistry indicated thyrocytes in the follicle wall. These findings provide evidence of strong HHV-6 infection association with AIT development. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  16. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, S.C.; Rijn, R.R. van; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van; Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van; Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M.; Santen, H.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with 131 I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to 131 I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of 131 I - on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with 131 I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after 131 I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with 131 I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous 131 I-MIBG therapy or current T4 treatment. No

  18. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  19. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  20. F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.-J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the case of a 86-year-old male patient with a rapidly growing nodule within the right lobe of the thyroid gland, which after hemithyroidectomy, turned out to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland. In addition, Hashimoto's thyroiditis was reported in the thyroid tissue adjacent to the MALT lymphoma. During follow-up a second nodule emerged within the left lobe and, because of evidence of MALT lymphoma recurrence, F-18-FDG-PET was performed. F-18-FDG-PET imaged a clearly in-creased accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus. Thus, no differences in the degree of hypermetabolism could be imaged between the nodule and the adjacent thyroid tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report about F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Literature search revealed only a few cases of MALT lymphomas in locations other than the thyroid gland that were studied with F-18-FDG-PET. In no case was F-18 FDG accumulation seen in the MALT lesions. However, clear F-18 FDG accumulation was reported in some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is concluded that the intensive F-18-FDG accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus of the presented case was due to the coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Consequently, F-18-FDG-PET imaging does not seem to be indicated in a patient with MALT lymphoma and known Hashimoto's thyroiditis in order to evaluate the status of the MALT lymphoma. (author)

  1. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus

  2. Persistence of a circadian rhythmicity for thyroid hormones in plasma and thyroid of hibernating male Rana ridibunda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, E R; Delmotte, N M; Darras, V M

    1983-06-01

    The presence and circadian rhythmicity of thyroid hormones was studied in plasma and the thyroid gland of male Rana ridibunda before and during hibernation. Hibernating January frogs do have a lower T3 and T4 content of their thyroid gland whereas plasma levels of T3 are maintained and of T4 increased compared to fed September or October frogs. It seems likely that the increased photoperiod in January will be responsible for this increased T4 secretion, since controlled laboratory experiments performed in December did not reveal any influence of low temperature on circulating T3 or T4 levels. Also feeding does not influence circulating levels and thyroid content of thyroid hormones in frogs kept at room temperature during the month of January. A circadian rhythmicity of T3 and T4 in the thyroid gland is present in fed October frogs and in non fed December frogs acclimated at 5 degrees C for 12 days with an acrophase for T3 at approximately 1500 h and for T4 at around 1900 h, whereas in plasma only T3 does have circadian variations (acrophase about midnight) but not T4. When December frogs are acclimated to room temperature for 12 days, frogs are active again, but do not eat and have a lower body weight than frogs hibernating at 5 degrees C. Their T3 content of the thyroid gland has disappeared, but T4 thyroid content and plasma levels of T3 and T4 are maintained. As in hibernating frogs, no circadian variations in T4 plasma concentrations are present whereas the circadian thyroid T4 rhythm disappears. At the same time a dampening in rhythmicity for plasma T3 as judged by the significantly lower amplitude occurs. It is concluded that the persistence of circulating levels of thyroid hormones and of a circadian cyclicity for T3 in plasma in non feeding hibernating frogs may reflect the special metabolic state e.g. availability of food reserves in these animals.

  3. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient mice. Genetically engineered models of papillary and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (PTC and ATC) are immunocompetent; however, slow and stochastic tumor development hinders high-throughput testing. Novel models of PTC and ATC in which tumors arise rapidly and synchronously in immunocompetent mice would facilitate the investigation of novel therapeutics and approaches. Methods: We characterized and utilized mouse cell lines derived from PTC and ATC tumors arising in genetically engineered mice with thyroid-specific expression of endogenous BrafV600E/WT and deletion of either Trp53 (p53) or Pten. These murine thyroid cancer cells were transduced with luciferase- and GFP-expressing lentivirus and implanted into the thyroid glands of immunocompetent syngeneic B6129SF1/J mice in which the growth characteristics were assessed. Results: Large locally aggressive thyroid tumors form within one week of implantation. Tumors recapitulate their histologic subtype, including well-differentiated PTC and ATC, and exhibit CD3+, CD8+, B220+, and CD163+ immune cell infiltration. Tumor progression can be followed in vivo using luciferase and ex vivo using GFP. Metastatic spread is not detected at early time points. Conclusions: We describe the development of the next generation of murine orthotopic thyroid cancer models. The implantation of genetically defined murine BRAF-mutated PTC and ATC cell lines into syngeneic mice results in rapid and synchronous tumor formation. This

  4. Ultrasound Measurements of Thyroid Gland Volume at 36 Weeks' Corrected Gestational Age in Extremely Preterm Infants Born before 28 Weeks' Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sze May; Turner, Mark A; Avula, Shivaram

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging tool and provides good evaluation of thyroid anatomy, location, vascularisation, and echogenicity. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function and thyroid volume in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks' gestation evaluated at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age (CGA) compared to term infants' normative data in the literature. In this largest prospective UK study of extremely premature infants born at less than 28 weeks' gestation, thyroid volume measurement was assessed at 36 weeks' CGA. Fifty-five extremely preterm infants (28 males) who were born before 28 weeks' gestation were recruited to the study. All infants had ultrasound assessment of the thyroid gland at 36 weeks' CGA. We also prospectively measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT 4 ) in all infants at the time of recruitment (within 5 days of birth), at days 14, 21, and 28, and at 36 weeks' CGA. The mean thyroid volume was measured at 0.57 mL (SD ±0.18). There was no association between mean thyroid volume and thyroid function (TSH or FT 4 ). No associations were found between mean thyroid volume and gestation or birth weight in these infants. Our findings provide a reference range with a mean thyroid volume of 0.57 mL (SD ±0.18) in this extremely preterm age group if less than 28 weeks' gestation. Thyroid volume at birth can vary from country to country due to variations in iodine intake as well as gestational age.

  5. Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyl Sheikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA and maxillary occlusal radiography.Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507.Results: The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 Χ 10 -2 mGy and 0.4 mRads (4.0 Χ 10 -2 mGy, respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 Χ 10 -2 mGy and 0.15 mRads (1.5 Χ 10 -3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.

  6. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.C. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santen, H.M. van [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to {sup 131}I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of {sup 131}I{sup -} on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after {sup 131}I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous {sup 131}I

  7. 2018 European Thyroid Association (ETA) Guidelines for the Management of Amiodarone-Associated Thyroid Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi; Bogazzi, Fausto; Chiovato, Luca; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Links, Thera P; Vanderpump, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Treatment with amiodarone is associated with changes in thyroid function tests, but also with thyroid dysfunction (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, AIH, and amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, AIT). Both AIH and AIT may develop in apparently normal thyroid glands or in the presence of underlying thyroid abnormalities. AIH does not require amiodarone withdrawal, and is treated with levothyroxine replacement if overt, whereas subclinical forms may be followed without treatment. Two main types of AIT are recognized: type 1 AIT (AIT 1), a form of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism occurring in nodular goitres or latent Graves disease, and type 2 AIT (AIT 2), resulting from destructive thyroiditis in a normal thyroid gland. Mixed/indefinite forms exist due to both pathogenic mechanisms. AIT 1 is best treated with thionamides that may be combined for a few weeks with sodium perchlorate to make the thyroid gland more sensitive to thionamides. AIT 2 is treated with oral glucocorticoids. Once euthyroidism has been restored, AIT 2 patients are followed up without treatment, whereas AIT 1 patients should be treated with thyroidectomy or radioiodine. Mixed/indefinite forms of AIT are treated with thionamides. Oral glucocorticoids can be added from the beginning if a precise diagnosis is uncertain, or after a few weeks if response to thionamides alone is poor. The decision to continue or to stop amiodarone in AIT should be individualized in relation to cardiovascular risk stratification and taken jointly by specialist cardiologists and endocrinologists. In the presence of rapidly deteriorating cardiac conditions, emergency thyroidectomy may be required for all forms of AIT.

  8. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement of thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease...

  9. Increased sensitivity of thyroid hormone-mediated signaling despite prolonged fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bridget; Scheibner, Michael; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Jaques, John T; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) can increase cellular metabolism. Food deprivation in mammals is typically associated with reduced thyroid gland responsiveness, in an effort to suppress cellular metabolism and abate starvation. However, in prolonged-fasted, elephant seal pups, cellular TH-mediated proteins are up-regulated and TH levels are maintained with fasting duration. The function and contribution of the thyroid gland to this apparent paradox is unknown and physiologically perplexing. Here we show that the thyroid gland remains responsive during prolonged food deprivation, and that its function and production of TH increase with fasting duration in elephant seals. We discovered that our modeled plasma TH data in response to exogenous thyroid stimulating hormone predicted cellular signaling, which was corroborated independently by the enzyme expression data. The data suggest that the regulation and function of the thyroid gland in the northern elephant seal is atypical for a fasted animal, and can be better described as, "adaptive fasting". Furthermore, the modeling data help substantiate the in vivo responses measured, providing unique insight on hormone clearance, production rates, and thyroid gland responsiveness. Because these unique endocrine responses occur simultaneously with a nearly strict reliance on the oxidation of lipid, these findings provide an intriguing model to better understand the TH-mediated reliance on lipid metabolism that is not otherwise present in morbidly obese humans. When coupled with cellular, tissue-specific responses, these data provide a more integrated assessment of thyroidal status that can be extrapolated for many fasting/food deprived mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaenepoel, L.; Demeester-Mirkine, N.; Sacre, R.; Jockheer, M.H.; van Geertruyden, J.

    1982-07-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland.

  11. Concurrent intrathyroidal thymus and parathyroid in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Velimezis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient’s history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland. While each individual entity has been well documented, this is one of the few reports in which concurrent presentation is reported. Given the fact that both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid are derivatives of the same embryonic structure (i.e. the third pharyngeal pouch, it is speculated that the present condition resulted from a failure in separation and migration during organogenesis.

  12. Effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.F.; Norris, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was tested in vitro. Thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages I (premetamorphic larvae), II (onset of climax), and VII (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. Exogenous TSH reduced the cumulative uptake of 125 I in vitro by thyroids from stage I larvae after 24 and 48 hr. The capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (T4) in vitro was used subsequently as a measure of their responsiveness to TSH. Baseline levels of T4 release in vitro were variable but did not differ significantly among developmental stages. A low dose of bTSH (5 X 10(-6) IU/ml) did not increase in vitro T4 release compared with that of controls. A larger dose (5 X 10(-4) IU/ml) caused greater increases in T4 release from thyroids of stage II and VII subjects than from those of controls. This dose produced only a small response by thyroids from captivity-control subjects. The results suggest that the thyroids of Ambystoma increase in their capacity to respond to TSH during the process of metamorphosis

  13. Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Massive Amyloid Deposition in a Parathyroid Gland Associated with Amyloid Goiter: A Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Mimic on Intra-operative Frozen Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kirk; Diaz, Jason; Hagemann, Ian S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2018-06-01

    Clinical examples of amyloid deposition in parathyroid glands are exceedingly rare and usually present as an incidental finding in a patient with amyloid goiter. Here, we present the first histologically documented case of parathyroid amyloid deposition that presented as a mass. The patient did not have hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid gland was submitted for intra-operative frozen section and concern for medullary thyroid carcinoma was raised. An important histologic clue arguing against medullary thyroid carcinoma was the evenly dispersed nature of the amyloid. Histologic perinuclear clearing and parathyroid hormone immunohistochemistry confirmed parathyroid origin on permanent sections. The patient was also found to have associated amyloid goiter. Mass spectrometry of the amyloid showed it to be composed of kappa light chains. On further work-up, the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Awareness of parathyroid amyloid deposition is important as it is a histologic mimic of medullary thyroid carcinoma, especially on frozen section. Amyloid typing with evaluation for multiple myeloma in any patient with kappa or lambda light chain restriction is also important.

  14. Double thyroid ectopia (with incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma) (2010: 8b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal); Martins, Mariluz [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Andre, Saudade [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Pathology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a long-standing history of a slow-growing left submandibular mass. Imaging was diagnostic as it disclosed an absent orthotopic thyroid gland and heterogeneous masses, with both solid and cystic components, as well as calcifications in the left sublingual/submandibular space and in the left paramedian aspect of the tongue base, consistent with double thyroid ectopia, originating from central and lateral thyroid anlages, respectively. Pathology confirmed an ectopic thyroid goiter in the left submandibular space with an incidental papillary microcarcinoma. Scintigraphy also demonstrated ectopic thyroid tissue in the left tongue base. (orig.)

  15. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinosarcoma and Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma: PET CT Imaging Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Genc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a patient who was diagnosed with a concurrent primary tumor by 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET imaging performed for staging of an endometrial cancer. FDG uptake was detected in the uterus, where the primary cancer was located, and in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. The biopsy sample from the hypermetabolic nodular lesion in thyroid gland revealed intermediate cytology according to Bethesda Classification. The patient underwent hysterectomy and thyroidectomy. An endometrial carcinoma in the uterus and a multicentric thyroid papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland were diagnosed.

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  17. Hodgkin's disease: thyroid dysfunction following external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Shimaoka, K.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid gland is commonly included in the field of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma and with head and neck tumors. The radiation dose for malignant diseases varies considerably depending on the purpose of treatment and the institutional policies. A substantial number of these patients are developing subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. The risk of developing hypothyroidism after a moderate radiation dose of 2000 to 4500 rads has been reported to be 10 to 20 percent. In addition, subclinical hypothyroidism is induced further in one third of the patients. There are also suggestions that external irradiation of the thyroid gland in patients with malignant lymphomas, as well as internal irradiation with radioiodine of the normal and hyperthyroid human thyroid glands, would induce elevations of serum antithyroid autoantibody titers. However, only a few cases of Graves disease following irradiation to the thyroid gland have been reported. We encountered a young woman who received radiation therapy to the mantle field for her Hodgkin's disease and developed hypothyroxinemia without overt signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, followed by appearance of nodular goiter and then full-blown Graves disease

  18. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellabarba, Diego

    1983-01-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  19. Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naço, M; Çeliku, E; Llukaçaj, A; Shehaj, J; Kameniku, R

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with toxic adenoma scheduled for surgery right lobectomy and isthmectomy of thyroid gland. During the examination before surgery, patient was diagnosed for the first time as having with Wolff – Parkinson – White (WPW) syndrome. In the operating room, after the induction of anesthesia, the electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex tachycardia with a rate of 180 beats/min, which was diagnosed as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient was treated immediately with antiarrhythmic drugs: adenosine iv three times (at doses of 6 mg, 12mg, 12mg bolus) and esmolol iv twice (at doses 28.5 mg). This approach resulted in disappearance of the delta wave and tachycardia for the whole surgery period. In this case report we discuss the role of induction of anesthesia and presence of toxic adenoma in a patient with WPW. PMID:19561784

  20. Critical assessment of the test of 131I radioiodine uptake in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Roehling, S.; Vana, S.; Zamrazil, V.

    1979-01-01

    The value of radioiodine 131 I uptake by the thyroid gland was studied to differentiate the functional disorders of the thyroid gland by analysing a smaller group of patients using the classical method and the computer method for the evaluation of 2500 determinations. The conclusion may be drawn that the uptake of radioiodine was caused by a disturbance of the thyroid gland function only in a minority of cases whereas in the others it is dependent on the intake of iodine or of goitrogens. It is therefore not suitable as a screening method for the diagnosis of thyroid gland diseases. It is, however, useful for the differentation of various types of hyperthyroidism. (author)

  1. [Serum cortisol level variations in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck-Gassama; Ndoye, O; Mbodj, M; Akala, A; Cisse, F; Niang, M; Ndoye, R

    2000-01-01

    This work studies the thyroid disorders impact on adrenals glands by measuring total cortisol. Radioimmunoassays of thyroid hormones and cortisol were performed in 108 subjects, aged 20-52 years, with thyroid diseases. Our results show low cortisol values (80.35 nmol/L) in 4.77% of hyperthyroids, high values in 3.57% of hyperthyroids (1348.18 nmol/L) and 12.5% of hypothyroids (969.05 nmol/L). In hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormone stimulates the secretion of 11 ceto metabolites biologically inactive, unable to slow pituitary activity, inducing an increased production of endogene cortisol. Excessive catabolism can lead to the exhausting of overstimulated adrenal glands, and therefore to a decreased cortisol. In hypothyroidism, high cortisol results of increase cortisol half life and decrease of metabolic clearance. Control mechanisms often allow normal cortisol values. These alterations in functional activity of adrenal glands, seen in nearly 10% of these subjects, sometimes command a specific attitude in diagnosis and therapy.

  2. A safe transoral surgical approach to parapharyngeal tumor arising from deep lobe of parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuele Casale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of parapharyngeal tumor is surgical, but the approach remains a challenge. Attention should be paid to avoidance intra-operative bleeding or cranial nerves damage. We report a case of a 67-year-old male complaining of left-ear fullness. A submucosal mass arising from the lateral wall of oropharynx on the left side was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging detected a mass arising from the parotid gland, in particular from the deep lobe, and a fine needle biopsy was compatible with “Warthin tumor.” We performed a mini-invasive transoral approach under magnification, previous isolation of homolateral vessels. The decision on which surgical approach to be used is determined by site, size vascularity, and histology of the tumor. A literature review of the main surgical approaches was performed. We performed a combined transoral dissection under magnification with cervicotomic exposure of the neck vascular bundle allowing to dissect the tumor and manage any intra-operative complications.

  3. Possibilities of 99mTc-MIBI for imaging of the thyroid parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mluchkov, N.; Mluchkov, Kh.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid parenchyma imaging is very important as an evidence of residual part of the gland in case of thyroidectomy. The determination of the mass of this part and its function is crucial at the substituting hormonal therapy. Also at cases of thyroid carcinomas the differential diagnosis of recurrences of radiation and/or postoperative fibrosis is difficult. The thyroid imaging by 131 I and by 99m Tc-pertechnetates is not always possible because of gland blockage from medicines, thyroid hormones and foods with high iodine content. The aim of this study was to establish if 99m Tc-MIBI could depict the thyroid parenchyma without being influenced by gland blockage giving a real image of it. A comparative scintigraphic study has been carried out at 58 patients with different thyroid diseases using 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 131 I and 99m Tc-MIBI. There were 17 patients with diffuse goiter, 27 with nodules (23 of normal activity and 4 with cold nodules), 3 patients with retrosternal goiter and 11 with thyroid carcinoma after surgery intervention. The visualization of the thyroid parenchyma with 99m Tc-MIBI was better than that with 99 0 m Tc-pertechnetate and no dependent on suppression of the gland. All nodules showed 99m Tc-MIBI uptake with the same intensity as the surrounding normal gland tissue. The scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MIBI was of no value for differential diagnosis of nodules. 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy could be successfully applied at patients with retrosternal thyroid goiter and for detecting a thyroid rest at patients with thyroid cancer after surgery intervention. (author)

  4. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  5. Incidence rate of symptomatic painless thyroiditis presenting with thyrotoxicosis in Denmark as evaluated by consecutive thyroid scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Frederik; Bergmann, Natasha; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Painless thyroiditis (PT) is a transient kind of thyrotoxicosis, with lack of uptake on a thyroid scintigraphy in a non-tender thyroid gland, elevated anti-TPO antibodies, no fever, no history of increased iodine intake, and a normal sedimentation rate. The prevalence of PT varies hugely...

  6. Thyroid function after mantle irradiation in Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E. Jr.; Adler, R.A.; Clark, P.; Brinck-Johnsen, T.; Tulloh, M.E.; Colten, T.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid function of 64 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received mantle irradiation during the period 1966 to 1976 was studied. More than two-thirds (44 to 64) had some thyroid dysfunction. Twenty had mild dysfunction manifested by an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Twenty had what could be termed compensated hypothyroidism while four were overtly hypothyroid. The severity of dysfunction was not related to age, sex, or chemotherapy. We found, however, that decreased thyroid function was inversely proportional to the length of time between a diagnostic lymphangiogram and the radiation therapy. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the iodine load of the lymphangiogram renders the thyroid gland more radiosensitive. Thyroxine suppression of the thyroid gland during the period from the lymphangiogram through the termination of radiation therapy is suggested as a means of avoiding thyroid injury

  7. Typical and atypical (silent) subacute thyroiditis in a wife and husband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.; Caplan, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Typical subacute thyroiditis was diagnosed in a woman. Three weeks later, signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism developed in her husband. Although the right lobe of his thyroid gland was slightly enlarged, pain and tenderness were absent throughout the course of his illness. The free thyroxine equivalent (FTE) value and the sedimentation rate were elevated; the low uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland was consistent with ''silent'' subacute thyroiditis. We postulate that a common etiology, probably viral, was operative in both cases. Nine additional cases of hyperthyroidism with low levels of thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine are described. The thyroid glands of these patients were normal or slightly enlarged. Antithyroglobulin antibody levels determined in seven patients were not substantially elevated. The clinical course of these patients was characteristic of ''silent'' subacute thyroiditis. Although the origin of the syndrome remains unclear, the disease is self-limited and therapy, if any, is supportive

  8. Typical and atypical (silent) subacute thyroiditis in a wife and husband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.; Caplan, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Typical subacute thyroiditis was diagnosed in a woman. Three weeks later, signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism developed in her husband. Although the right lobe of his thyroid gland was slightly enlarged, pain and tenderness were absent throughout the course of his illness. The free thyroxine equivalent (FTE) value and the sedimentation rate were elevated; the low uptake of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland was consistent with ''silent'' subacute thyroiditis. We postulate that a common etiology, probably viral, was operative in both cases. Nine additional cases of hyperthyroidism with low levels of thyroidal uptake of radioactive iodine are described. The thyroid glands of these patients were normal or slightly enlarged. Antithyroglobulin antibody levels determined in seven patients were not substantially elevated. The clinical course of these patients was characteristic of ''silent'' subacute thyroiditis. Although the origin of the syndrome remains unclear, the disease is self-limited and therapy, if any, is supportive.

  9. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  10. A Case of Severe and Recurrent Painless Thyroiditis Requiring Thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Takei, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshihiko; Ito, Tokiko; Ito, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Yumita, Wataru; Suzuki, Satoru; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report a case of severe and recurrent painless thyroiditis requiring thyroidectomy. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 47-year-old man who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis was found to have extremely low radioactive iodine uptake, negative TSH receptor antibodies, and normal C-reactive protein; these findings suggested a diagnosis of painless thyroiditis. Due to the severity and recurrence of thyrotoxicosis, surgical resection of the thyroid gland was performed to prevent a thyrotoxic storm. Histological examination revealed typical lymphoid infiltration of the thyroid gland. Conclusion This case illustrates that a patient with painless thyroiditis was successfully treated with surgery. PMID:23182952

  11. Investigation of Acoustic Structure Quantification in the Diagnosis of Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisang; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Chul-Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, A Leum; Lee, Heon

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) to diagnose thyroiditis. The echogenicity of 439 thyroid lobes, as determined using ASQ, was quantified and analyzed retrospectively. Thyroiditis was categorized into five subgroups. The results were presented in a modified chi-square histogram as the mode, average, ratio, blue mode, and blue average. We determined the cutoff values of ASQ from ROC analysis to detect and differentiate thyroiditis from a normal thyroid gland. We obtained data on the sensitivity and specificity of the cutoff values to distinguish between euthyroid patients with thyroiditis and patients with a normal thyroid gland. The mean ASQ values for patients with thyroiditis were statistically significantly greater than those for patients with a normal thyroid gland (p thyroiditis, the cutoff values were greater than 0.27 for the ratio, greater than 116.7 for the mean, and greater than 130.7 for the blue average. The sensitivities and specificities were as follows: 84.0% and 96.6% for the ratio, 85.3% and 83.0%, for the average, and 79.1% and 93.2% for the blue average, respectively. The ASQ parameters were successful in distinguishing patients with thyroiditis from patients with a normal thyroid gland, with likelihood ratios of 24.7 for the ratio, 5.0 for the average, and 11.6 for the blue average. With the use of the aforementioned cutoff values, the sensitivities and specificities for distinguishing between patients with thyroiditis and euthyroid patients without thyroiditis were 77.05% and 94.92% for the ratio, 85.25% and 82.20% for the average, and 77.05% and 92.37% for the blue average, respectively. ASQ can provide objective and quantitative analysis of thyroid echogenicity. ASQ parameters were successful in distinguishing between patients with thyroiditis and individuals without thyroiditis, with likelihood ratios of 24.7 for the ratio, 5.0 for the average, and 11.6 for the blue average.

  12. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreldin, Magda H A; Ibrahim, Eman A; Saad El-Din, Somaia A

    2016-01-01

    Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of malignant thyroid tumor with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination revealed that it was compatible with third/fourth branchial pouch-derived anomaly composed of mature cartilage and thymic and parathyroid tissues for clinical and radiological correlations.

  13. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda H. A. Nasreldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of malignant thyroid tumor with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination revealed that it was compatible with third/fourth branchial pouch-derived anomaly composed of mature cartilage and thymic and parathyroid tissues for clinical and radiological correlations.

  14. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  15. Simultaneous branchial cleft and thyroid disorders may present a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane L; Veivers, David; Sidhu, Stan B; Sywak, Mark S; Shun, Albert; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2005-09-01

    Cysts, sinuses or abscesses arising from second, third or fourth branchial cleft remnants may lie either within the body of, or in close proximity to the thyroid gland. Given their infrequent nature they may pose both diagnostic and management challenges for the treating surgeon when they occur in association with thyroid disorders. This is a case series. All patients with concomitant thyroid disorders and a branchial cleft anomaly treated in the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit in the 10-year period 1994-2003 comprised the study group. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, surgical management, definitive histology and outcomes were documented. Six patients were identified with an age range of 3-76 years and a male : female ratio of 1:5. Five branchial cleft anomalies were left sided, one was right sided. Two patients had second cleft anomalies, both of which were initially thought to represent metastatic lymph nodes in association with thyroid cancer. A further two patients had third cleft abnormalities presenting as suppurative thyroiditis. The final two patients had fourth cleft abnormalities causing intraoperative management problems. Branchial cleft remnants and anomalies are rare but may occur in association with thyroid disease. They may pose a diagnostic and management dilemma either preoperatively, when mistaken for metastatic thyroid cancer, or intraoperatively when mistaken for a thyroid nodule.

  16. Gross, histological and histomorphometric studies on the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lining the follicles are squamous to low cuboidal cells with basally located round or spherical nucleus. The area of the nucleus of the male thyroid gland (380.06 ± 20.484μm) was slightly greater than that of the female (366.09 ± 29.45μm). For the epithelial height and follicular diameter, the female thyroid gland showed a ...

  17. Radiation exposure of lens, thyroid gland and testis in anthropomorphic phantom during CT examination and its protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Suhua; Weng Zhigen; Wu Caifa

    1995-01-01

    The SMN-I anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate patients and to estimate the radiation exposure of lens, thyroid gland and testes during CT examination according to hospital routine managements. The results show that the X-ray radiation doses received by the organs mentioned above are different in good and no protection shelter. Therefore, during CT examination it's of great significance to take a good protective shelter for organs which are near the CT scanning areas

  18. The thyroid gland in postmenopausal women: physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of most thyroid diseases: hypothyroidism, nodular goitre, and cancer is highest among postmenopausal and elderly women. The diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in this group of patients is difficult because the symptoms can be nonspecific or common with menopausal and ageing complaints. In the interpretation of thyroid function tests the physiological changes in secretion and metabolism of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones must be considered, as well as the influence of comorbidities. Unrecognised thyroid dysfunction leads to increased: cardiovascular risk, bone fractures, cognitive impairment, depression, and mortality. Therapy of thyroid dysfunction is different in postmenopausal and elderly women than in young people; hypothyroidism should be treated with caution, because high doses of L-thyroxine can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and increased bone turnover, and hyperthyroidism should be preferentially treated with radioiodine. Thyroid status beneficially influencing longevity relates to low thyroid function. Thyroid nodules and cancer often affect women over 50 years old; the diagnostic and therapeutic approach is the same as in the general population, but the surgical risk and cancer prognosis is worse than in young patients.

  19. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes

    2000-01-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Michihiro; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A ( P aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  1. Effect of radioiodine irradiation of thyroid gland in vitro with a dose of 4-5 Gy on iodide transport in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paster, Yi.P.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of ouabain on the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptake in thyroid gland preliminarily irradiated by radioiodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy) in vitro. Newborn pig thyroid tissue was incubated in a medium, containing 37 kBq/ml of 131-iodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), washed and achieved by collagenase dissociation. Thyrocytes were incubated with thyrotropin (100.0 mE/ml), ouabain (0.1 mol/l), and 125-iodide (0.4 kBq/ml). Then cells were washed, stored at 4 degree C for 60 days, and the 125-iodide uptake was assessed. Ouabain depressed both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes in vitro. After preliminary radioiodine irradiation of the thyroid tissue (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), ouabain stimulated both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes

  2. Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Features of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hyuk; Kim, Mie Young; Rho, Eun Jin; Yi, Jeong Geun; Han, Chun Hwan [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hee Yong [Choong Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Color Doppler ultrasonographic(US) features of 28 patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis were evaluated with regard to echo and color-flow patterns. Correlation of color-flow pattern with thyroid function was performed. All 28 patients showed varying degrees of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland and a heterogeneous echo pattern.Color-flow pattern of increased blood flow. Low to moderate, focally increased blood flow was seen in 26 patients(92.8%). Of these 26 patients, 24 patients showed subclinical hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Two patients who showed hyperthyroidism showed several pieces of focally increased color flow, Which was noted during both systole and diastole. Diffuse, multifocal color-flow throughout thyroid gland was seen in two patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis: one with clinical hypothyroidism and the other with subclinical hypothyroidism. Even though Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed variable color-flow patterns, we believe that heterogenous parenchymal echopattern with low or moderately increased flow is a rather characteristic feature of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we suggest that color Doppler US provides additional information for evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  3. Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Features of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hyuk; Kim, Mie Young; Rho, Eun Jin; Yi, Jeong Geun; Han, Chun Hwan; Hwang, Hee Yong

    1995-01-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonographic(US) features of 28 patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis were evaluated with regard to echo and color-flow patterns. Correlation of color-flow pattern with thyroid function was performed. All 28 patients showed varying degrees of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland and a heterogeneous echo pattern.Color-flow pattern of increased blood flow. Low to moderate, focally increased blood flow was seen in 26 patients(92.8%). Of these 26 patients, 24 patients showed subclinical hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Two patients who showed hyperthyroidism showed several pieces of focally increased color flow, Which was noted during both systole and diastole. Diffuse, multifocal color-flow throughout thyroid gland was seen in two patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis: one with clinical hypothyroidism and the other with subclinical hypothyroidism. Even though Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed variable color-flow patterns, we believe that heterogenous parenchymal echopattern with low or moderately increased flow is a rather characteristic feature of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we suggest that color Doppler US provides additional information for evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  4. Radiation and risk for thyroid cancer: atypical findings of a community thyroid recall program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, W.; Miller, M.; Sanislow, C.; Fishbeck, W.

    1982-01-01

    Screening of 553 persons for thyroid disease by scan and physical exam was performed. Group I (245) had documented irradiation, with most (85%) receiving 300 R for lymphoid hyperplasia. Group II (308) had only a history of prior irradiation. Abnormal glands were found in 17 of 245 (7%) of Group I with 7 of 245 (3%) having nodular disease. No cancers were found in six of eight (75%) persons with nodular disease having surgery. Abnormal glands were found in 45/308 (14.6%) of Group II with 16/308 (5.2%) having nodular disease. Twelve of 16 (75%) with nodular disease from Group II had surgery and three thyroid cancers were found; in addition, one person from this group had a history of prior surgery for thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer in Group I was 0%, Group II was 1.3%, and the combined incidence was 0.7%. The relatively low incidence of thyroid cancer observed is attributed to the relatively late average age at time of irradiation; 22 years for Group 1, 13 years for Group II

  5. Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kawicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland – they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones’ activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient’s body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1 and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium. Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the

  6. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    2015-01-02

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic

  7. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Related Articles and Media Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Thyroid Scan and Uptake Ultrasound-Guided ...

  8. Association of Xerostomia and Ultrasonographic Features of the Major Salivary Glands After Radioactive Iodine Ablation for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo Roh, Sang; Wook Kim, Dong; Jin Baek, Hye

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between xerostomia and sonographic features of the major salivary glands after patients undergo radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 256 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, RIA, and neck ultrasound examinations. Changes in the ultrasound features of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIA were evaluated retrospectively by a single radiologist, on the basis of direct comparison of sonograms obtained before and after RIA. Clinical data, including the presence of xerostomia, were investigated retrospectively by the same radiologist via a review of the electronic medical records. For 111 of the 256 patients (43.4%), ultrasound examination revealed changes in the major salivary glands after RIA. The presence of xerostomia was undetermined in 85 of the 256 patients. Among the remaining 171 patients, the frequency of xerostomia was 36.8% (63/171). When patients with xerostomia were compared with those without xerostomia, no statistically significant differences in patient sex and age, the dose of RIA received, or the number of RIA sessions were noted (p > 0.05). Considering the changes in the ultrasound features of the major salivary glands after RIA, no statistically significant association was found between xerostomia and the number of involved major salivary glands or the presence of an involved submandibular gland (p > 0.05). In this study, ultrasound was unhelpful for evaluating xerostomia after RIA in patients with PTC.

  9. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  10. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in Differentiation Between Graves' Disease and Painless Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd Allah, Sieza Samir; El-Said, Amr Abd El-Hamid

    2017-01-01

    To assess the role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis. A prospective study was conducted among 37 consecutive patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis (25 female and 12 male; mean age of 44 years) and 15 ageand sex-matched controls. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in patients and controls. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the thyroid gland was calculated and correlated with Tc-99m uptake and thyroid function tests of the patients. There was a significant difference in the ADC value of the thyroid gland between patients and the control group ( P =0.001). The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease was 2.03±0.28×10 -3 mm 2 /sec, and in patients with painless thyroiditis 1.46±0.22×10 -3 mm 2 /sec, respectively. There was a significant difference in the ADC values between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis ( P =0.001). When the ADC value of 1.45×10 -3 mm 2 /sec was used as a threshold value for differentiating Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis, the best result was obtained with area under the curve of 0.934, accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity of 95.8%, and specificity of 61.5%. The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in patients positively correlated with serum TRAb and Tc-99m uptake ( r =0.57, P =0.001 and r =0.74, P =0.001, respectively). We concluded that ADC values of the thyroid gland can be used to differentiate Graves' disease from painless thyroiditis in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis.

  11. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis...

  12. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  13. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  14. IgG4-related Mikulicz's disease associated with thyroiditis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujiao; Du, Yi; Li, Kaijun; He, Jianfeng

    2014-03-01

    To report an unusual case of IgG4-related Mikulicz's disease associated with thyroiditis. We describe a 25-year-old Chinese man who presented with bilateral, painless swellings of the lachrymal glands, parotid glands, and thyroid nodules. The patient underwent left-sided dacryoadenectomy and the diagnosis of IgG4-related Mikulicz's disease was pathologically confirmed. The size of the right-sided lachrymal gland and parotid glands recovered fundamentally after one month of glucocorticoid therapy. IgG4-related Mikulicz's disease associated with thyroiditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral swellings of lachrymal glands, salivary glands, and thyroid nodules. Surgical excision is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure the pathological diagnosis. Glucocorticoid therapy should be considered in association with surgery after removal.

  15. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  16. The Emerging Cell Biology of Thyroid Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Minsky, Noga C.; Ma, Risheng

    2011-01-01

    Context: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the property of self-renewal and give rise to highly specialized cells under appropriate local conditions. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases, including those of the thyroid gland. Evidence Acquisition: This review focuses on the progress that has been made in thyroid stem cell research including an overview of cellular and molecular events (most of which were drawn from the period 1990–2011) and discusses the remaining problems encountered in their differentiation. Evidence Synthesis: Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells, based on normal developmental processes, have generated thyroid-like cells but without full thyrocyte function. However, agents have been identified, including activin A, insulin, and IGF-I, which are able to stimulate the generation of thyroid-like cells in vitro. In addition, thyroid stem/progenitor cells have been identified within the normal thyroid gland and within thyroid cancers. Conclusions: Advances in thyroid stem cell biology are providing not only insight into thyroid development but may offer therapeutic potential in thyroid cancer and future thyroid cell replacement therapy. PMID:21778219

  17. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Ovesen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Depending on the availability of iodine, the thyroid gland is able to enhance or limit the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. When compensation fails, as in severely iodine-deficient populations, hypothyroidism and developmental brain damage will be the dominating disorders. This is, out...... of all comparison, the most serious association between disease and the level of iodine intake in a population. In less severe iodine deficiency, the normal thyroid gland is able to adapt and keep thyroid hormone production within the normal range. However, the prolonged thyroid hyperactivity associated...... with such adaptation leads to thyroid growth, and during follicular cell proliferation there is a tendency to mutations leading to multifocal autonomous growth and function. In populations with mild and moderate iodine deficiency, such multifocal autonomous thyroid function is a common cause of hyperthyroidism...

  18. The age transformations of thyroid size at the children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymova, L.G.; Karpilov, G.M.; Ostapenko, V.A.; Chegerova, T.I.

    1994-01-01

    Statistical data processing of the screen investigates of 1638 children and teenagers from the Slavgorod's area of the Mogilev Region is conducted. Ultrasonic diagnostics was used to determine the quantitative objective laws of the thyroid gland volume changes depending on age of the surveyed persons. It was used the method of the standard statistical analysis of data, which was received with the screen survey of the healthy children and children from contamination region. Thyroid gland biometrics was conducted by the Toshiba SSA-240A ultrasonic scanner by Brunn et al. technique. Linear dependence of total volume, volume of a left and right share of the thyroid gland from age and floor surveyed was established. Comparison this results with data, received from 'clean' regions, as well as in Germany and Sweden too, permits to expand representation about age changes of the thyroid gland volume and leads to a conclusion, that the increase of the thyroid gland volume at teenagers in the most degree is defined by iodine insufficiency. For girls the thyroid gland volume are more, than for boys in all age groups, and it was detected excess of volume of a right share in comparison with volume of a left share, which is more expressed at girls too

  19. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  20. Primary Echinococcus Cyst of the Thyroid: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yildirim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis, although eradicated in many countries, is still widespread in communities where agriculture is dominant. Cystic hydatidosis is a significant public health problem in the regions with endemic echinococcosis. The hydatid cysts tend to form in the liver or lung, but may also be found in other organs of the body such as brain, heart, and bone, while thyroid gland involvement is rather rare. A 25 year old male presented with solitaire goiter. Laboratory tests and thyroid profile proved normal. Surgical exploration revealed hydatid cyst in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Examination of the nodule showed it to be a solitary primary thyroid hydatid cyst.

  1. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Presented with Pain and Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ergenç, Hasan; Yaylacı, Selçuk; Arpacı, Dilek; Varım, Ceyhun; Tamer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is an atypical form of the Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis whichis characterized with pain and fever in the thyroid gland. In this letter presentation, our aimis to present a case who is 49 years old female patient whose clinical presentation was inaccordance with sub-acute thyroiditis; however, who was detected having thyroid autoantibodypositivity and whom we diagnosed with the Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.Keywords: Hashimoto Thyroiditis, painful, treatme...

  2. Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in Differentiation Between Graves’ Disease and Painless Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; El-Said, Amr Abd El-hamid

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To assess the role of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in differentiation between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis. Material/Methods A prospective study was conducted among 37 consecutive patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis (25 female and 12 male; mean age of 44 years) and 15 ageand sex-matched controls. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in patients and controls. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the thyroid gland was calculated and correlated with Tc-99m uptake and thyroid function tests of the patients. Results There was a significant difference in the ADC value of the thyroid gland between patients and the control group (P=0.001). The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in Graves’ disease was 2.03±0.28×10–3 mm2/sec, and in patients with painless thyroiditis 1.46±0.22×10–3 mm2/sec, respectively. There was a significant difference in the ADC values between Graves’ disease and painless thyroiditis (P=0.001). When the ADC value of 1.45×10–3 mm2/sec was used as a threshold value for differentiating Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis, the best result was obtained with area under the curve of 0.934, accuracy of 83.8%, sensitivity of 95.8%, and specificity of 61.5%. The mean ADC value of the thyroid gland in patients positively correlated with serum TRAb and Tc-99m uptake (r=0.57, P=0.001 and r=0.74, P=0.001, respectively). Conclusions We concluded that ADC values of the thyroid gland can be used to differentiate Graves’ disease from painless thyroiditis in patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis. PMID:29662585

  3. Hypothyroidism in patients after thyroid elimination by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, S.; Nemec, J.; Reisenauer, R.

    1979-01-01

    Patients after elimination of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I develop hypothyroidism only slowly, the peripheral parameters lagging behind the protein bound iodine especially till the fiftieth day after elimination. In young patients the Achilles tendon reflex and the preejection period lag behind symmetrically, in older patients the effect of the supply of thyroid hormones to the skeletal muscles disappear faster, whereas the heart retains the reserves of the thyroid hormones or systems dependent on thyroid hormones affecting the rapidity of myocardial contraction for a relatively longer period of time. Thus, in older patients after elimination of the thyroid gland with radioiodine 131 I the Achilles tendon reflex is a better criterion of hypothyroidism than the preejection period of heart contraction. (author)

  4. Follow-up of a case of subacute thyroiditis with uncommon thyroid {sup 99m}Tc uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Chengjiang, E-mail: 10518093zz@163.com [Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Hospital of Medical College. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2013-07-01

    Thyroidal 99mTc uptake in the acute thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is always inhibited. However, a patient with SAT had signs in the right-side thyroid gland with transient thyrotoxicosis and slightly high 99mTc uptake levels in the right lobe, low 99mTc uptake in the left lobe, and normal overall uptake. Histological examination showed cellular destruction and granulomatous inflammatory changes in the right lobe, with marked interstitial fibrosis in the left lobe. The patient was thyrotrophin-receptor antibody (TRAb) positive. After a short course of prednisolone, SAT-like symptoms and signs improved. TRAb-positivity resolved spontaneously after 22 months, and TSH levels were slightly low for 22 months. Levels then kept normal in the following four years. In conclusion, high 99mTc uptake by the right lobe was due to the combined effects of TRAb and left thyroid gland fibrosis. (author)

  5. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  6. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  8. Thyroid Duplication and Papillary Carcinoma in an Ectopic Thyroid. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with a palpable tumor located in midline of the anterior neck above the hyoid bone, initially diagnosed as a thyroglossal duct cyst. Preliminary study of the lesion was conducted, both clinically and radiologically and cytologically. The tumor was removed through surgery by conventional technique. The paraffin biopsy defined the existence of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Despite this condition, the patient had thyroid gland in normal location. It is considered to be a curious case, combining the concepts of thyroid duplication and ectopic thyroid, with the presence, in this last one, of papillary carcinoma.

  9. Chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma: metabolic and morphologic changes on PET-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Ukihide [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Gamez, Cristina; Yeung, Henry W.D.; Macapinlac, Homer A. [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Dawood, Shaheenah; Cristofanilli, Massimo [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Breast Medical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    To investigate clinical implications of FDG uptake in the thyroid glands in patients with advanced breast carcinoma by comparing metabolic and morphologic patterns on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board waived the requirement for informed consent. A retrospective analysis was performed in 146 women (mean age 54 years) with advanced breast carcinoma who received systemic treatment. All patients underwent PET-CT before and after treatment. All PET-CT studies were reviewed in consensus by two reviewers. Morphologic changes including volume and mean parenchymal density of the thyroid glands were evaluated. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were determined to evaluate metabolic changes. These parameters were compared between patients with chronic thyroiditis who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy and those who did not. Of the 146 patients, 29 (20%) showed bilaterally diffuse uptake in the thyroid glands on the baseline PET-CT scan. The SUVmax showed a linear relationship with volume (r = 0.428, p = 0.021) and the mean parenchymal density (r = -0.385, p = 0.039) of the thyroid glands. In 21 of the 29 patients (72%) with hypothyroidism who received thyroid hormone replacement therapy, the volume, mean parenchymal density, SUVmax, and TLG of the thyroid glands showed no significant changes. In contrast, 8 of the 29 patients (28%) who did not receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy showed marked decreases in SUVmax and TLG. Diffuse thyroid uptake on PET-CT represents active inflammation caused by chronic thyroiditis in patients with advanced breast carcinoma. Diffuse thyroid uptake may also address the concern about subclinical hypothyroidism which develops into overt disease during follow-up. (orig.)

  10. Using Acoustic Structure Quantification During B-Mode Sonography for Evaluation of Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun Jung; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Chul-Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Jang Gyu; Jeong, Sun Hye

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of Acoustic Structure Quantification (ASQ; Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Nasushiobara, Japan) values in the diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis using B-mode sonography and to identify a cutoff ASQ level that differentiates Hashimoto thyroiditis from normal thyroid tissue. A total of 186 thyroid lobes with Hashimoto thyroiditis and normal thyroid glands underwent sonography with ASQ imaging. The quantitative results were reported in an echo amplitude analysis (Cm(2)) histogram with average, mode, ratio, standard deviation, blue mode, and blue average values. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic ability of the ASQ values in differentiating Hashimoto thyroiditis from normal thyroid tissue. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the ASQ values were obtained between 2 observers. Of the 186 thyroid lobes, 103 (55%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 83 (45%) were normal. There was a significant difference between the ASQ values of Hashimoto thyroiditis glands and those of normal glands (P thyroiditis were significantly greater than those in patients with normal thyroid glands. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the ratio, blue average, average, blue mode, mode, and standard deviation were: 0.936, 0.902, 0.893, 0.855, 0.846, and 0.842, respectively. The ratio cutoff value of 0.27 offered the best diagnostic performance, with sensitivity of 87.38% and specificity of 95.18%. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.86 to 0.94, which indicated substantial agreement between the observers. Acoustic Structure Quantification is a useful and promising sonographic method for diagnosing Hashimoto thyroiditis. Not only could it be a helpful tool for quantifying thyroid echogenicity, but it also would be useful for diagnosis of Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland. The extra thyroxine can cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as: Unexplained weight loss Increased perspiration Tremor ... seek medical care if you develop signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as: Sudden weight loss even though your ...

  12. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n=35 and a control group (group B, n=36. We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P<0.05. In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P<0.05. Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  14. Thyrotoxic thyroiditis after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitzer, J.B.; Paolozzi, F.P.; Gottlieb, A.J.; Zamkoff, K.W.; Chung, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation has been associated with a variety of abnormalities. Among these are tardive hypothyroidism and an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer. Although acute thyroiditis has been known to complicate radioactive iodine 131 therapy, it has rarely been associated with external beam irradiation. Thyrotoxic painless thyroiditis developed in two patients after mantle-field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

  15. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horster, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.) [de

  16. Thyroid leiomyosarcoma: presentation of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İlhan Şahin

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Leiomyosarcoma is a tumor which is rarely seen in the thyroid gland. The diagnosis may be difficult and the treatment is controversial. Objective: The objective of the study is to review the literature about a rare malignant disease of the thyroid gland which has high mortality. Methods: Two cases of thyroid leiomyosarcoma are presented and the previous 23 cases in the current literature are reviewed. Results: A total of 25 cases of thyroid leiomyosarcoma are reviewed; the most common complaint was rapidly growing anterior neck mass, and ten of the 25 patients had distant metastasis at the initial admission. Fifteen of the 25 patients died with the disease in the first 12 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of thyroid leiomyosarcoma is important and should be performed with other malignancies of the gland, especially with anaplastic carcinoma. The prognosis is poor and there is no consensus regarding the treatment.

  17. Concurrence of Grave's disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Takata, I; Taketani, T; Saida, K; Nakajima, H

    1977-01-01

    Early histological changes in the thyroid gland were examined in 30 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis, by means of needle biopsy. Based on the degree of lymphocytic infiltration and degenerative changes in follicular epithelium, results were classified into four groups. A: hyperplastic changes without cellular infiltration (6 patients, 20%); B: hyperplastic changes with areas of focal thyroiditis less than 30% of specimen (10 patients, 33%); C: those with 30 to 60% areas ot thyroiditis (10 patients, 33%); D: almost diffuse thyroiditis (4 patients, 13%). Moderate to severe lymphocytic thyroiditis was frequently present in the early stage of hyperplastic thyroid glands. The clinical significance of the 4 histological groups was evaluated. Neither clinical signs nor routine laboratory tests could differentiate these groups except group D, in which thyrotoxic signs were mild and transient. However, serum antithyroid antibodies tended to increase in accordance with severity of thyroiditis. The rate of remission was high in groups C and D, whereas relapse was frequent in group A. These results suggest that Grave's disease and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis are closely related in the early stage of thyrotoxicosis in children, and that the clinical course may be considerably altered by the degree of associated thyroiditis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 3 PMID:580172

  18. A new method of calculation of thyroid weight, using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Matsuo, Michimasa; Sugimura, Chie; Nishiyama, Shoji; Narabayashi, Isamu; Kimura, Shuji

    1983-01-01

    The weight of the thyroid gland is an important factor for determination of dose of the radioactive iodine that is used for the management of hyperthyroidism. Various methods employing scintigraphic image have been employed for estimation of the thyroid weight, but the error by these methods has been greater than 40 per cent. In this study, a new technique has been developed for more accurate estimation of the weight of the thyroid glands employing the distinctive system of three dimensional reconstruction with the simultaneous calculation of the volume of the thyroid using CT images. By this technique, the volume of thyroid phantom could be calculated with lesser than 9.4 per cent error. The proper interval of CT scan was 10 mm for satisfactory measurement. In 18 patients who have undergone thyroidectomy, the thyroid weight that had been estimated by our technique was compared with the actual weight of the excised specimen. There was a satisfactory correlation with 11.3 +- 7.5 per cent error. It has been concluded that our technique provides more accurate estimation of the weight of the thyroid glands than any other methods which have been previously employed. (author)

  19. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-01-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO 4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC 10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  20. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  1. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  2. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini; Sergio Suriano; Luca Mazzucchelli

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 9 9 m T c -pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissu...

  3. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  4. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  5. [Hyperthyroidism and carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardito, G; Mantovani, M; Vincenzoni, C; Guidi, M L; Corsello, S; Rabitti, C; Fadda, G; Di Giovanni, V

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in hyperthyroidism varies considerably from as low as 0.3% to as high as 16.6% with a higher rate in toxic nodular goiters. Occult thyroid carcinoma (thyroid carcinoma was 5.6% (23 cases). In detail, a neoplasm occurred in 5 cases of Graves' disease (specific incidence: 3.8%), in 13 cases of toxic nodular goiter (12.5%) and in 5 cases of hyperfunctioning adenomas (2.8%). 19 cancers were papillary (12 in toxic nodular goiter, 3 in Graves' disease, 4 in hyperfunctioning adenomas), three were follicular (1 in Graves' disease, 1 in toxic nodular goiter, 1 in hyperfunctioning adenomas) and 1 medullary in Graves' disease. A papillary carcinoma was diagnosed preoperatively on fine needle aspiration with ultrasonography in only two patients with Graves' disease and confirmed by postoperative histological examination on permanent section. We do not believe in the frozen-section examination intraoperatively because it's not diagnostical for follicular lesions and evaluates rarely capsular invasion. Twenty patients received total thyroidectomy and four of them also lymphoadenectomy. Three patients received emithyroidectomy: in two cases for occult papillary carcinoma and in the last case for local cancer invasion (T4N0M0). Twenty patients are alive and with no evidence of cancer recurrence. Mean follow-up is 59.6 months. Our retrospective study shows a progressive increase of the incidence of coexisting thyroid malignancy and hyperthyroidism especially in toxic nodular goiter, probably related to extended surgical indications. Our findings do confirm that, even in the presence of hyperthyroidism, all thyroid nodules require careful diagnostics for exclusion of malignancy.

  6. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  7. Age related changes in size of thyroid follicle in north Indian population: A histologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Malik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing number of cases of thyroid gland disorders nowadays, there are rising trends of thyroid gland surgeries and interventions which requires comprehensive data regarding the gland. This study was done to find out the changes in the size of the thyroid follicle in different age groups. The age groups were Group A - upto 20 years, Group B – 21-50 years and Group C – above 50 years. The study was conducted on 60 human thyroid glands in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with Department of Pathology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak in North Indian population. The diameter of the thyroid follicle was measured by Image Analyzer. The study revealed that the mean size of the thyroid follicle was found to be in Group A - 56.38±14.12 µm, Group B - 130.08±30.67 µm and Group C - 96.05±12.86 µm. The study concluded that the mean size of the thyroid follicle was found to be higher in Group B (21-50 years followed by Group C (above 50 years followed by Group A (below 20 years.

  8. Measurements of iodine uptake in thyroid after diagnostic administration of 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osko, J.; Pliszczynski, T.

    2003-01-01

    The measurements performed up to now, showed that the spectrometric measurements can be useful in selection of the patients who need special consideration during the 131 I diagnostics and treatment. The next step of the work will include the measurements of the real activity of 131 I in thyroid gland, after the therapeutic administration of radioiodine. A special collimator was designed for this purpose and the thyroid counter was calibrated using a phantom with inserts simulating different shapes of pathologically changed thyroid glands. It can be expected that the improvement of accuracy of the diagnostic measurements and better control of real activity of 131 I in thyroid gland after the therapeutic administration will contribute to the process of optimisation of radiation doses to the patients and medical personnel. (authors)

  9. Condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunina A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the condition of mammary glands in adolescent girls. Material and methods. The study included 867 girls (aged 12-18. The questioning, total clinical examination, hormonal analysis and ultrasound examination were conducted. Results. The investigation shows that girls had breast dysmorphies (macromastia, hypoplasia, striae, asymmetry etc.. The dysplasia of mammary glands was diagnosed in 26% patients with menstrual disorders, thyroid diseases, mastalgia and obesity. High estradiol, LH, TSH, insulin, cortisole, testosterone and low progesterone level are the most specific hormonal markers of mastopathy in adolescent girls. Conclusion. Thyroid disorders, breast asymmetric form, mastalgia, obesity are the indicators for observation and examination of mammary glands

  10. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  11. Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Features of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Hyuk; Kim, Mie Young; Rho, Eun Jin; Yi, Jeong Geun; Han, Chun Hwan [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hee Yong [Choong Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Color Doppler ultrasonographic(US) features of 28 patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis were evaluated with regard to echo and color-flow patterns. Correlation of color-flow pattern with thyroid function was performed. All 28 patients showed varying degrees of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland and a heterogeneous echo pattern.Color-flow pattern of increased blood flow. Low to moderate, focally increased blood flow was seen in 26 patients(92.8%). Of these 26 patients, 24 patients showed subclinical hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Two patients who showed hyperthyroidism showed several pieces of focally increased color flow, Which was noted during both systole and diastole. Diffuse, multifocal color-flow throughout thyroid gland was seen in two patients with Hashimato's thyroiditis: one with clinical hypothyroidism and the other with subclinical hypothyroidism. Even though Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed variable color-flow patterns, we believe that heterogenous parenchymal echopattern with low or moderately increased flow is a rather characteristic feature of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we suggest that color Doppler US provides additional information for evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  12. Nuclear medicine and thyroid disease - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Part 1 of this article discussed the anatomy, physiology and basic pathology of the thyroid gland. Techniques of thyroid scanning and a few clinical examples are shown part II Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society Of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and ...

  14. Structural alterations in tumor-draining lymph nodes before papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Andrew M; Massoll, Nicole A; Jolly, Lee Ann; Stack, Brendan C; Bodenner, Donald L; Franco, Aime T

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to define and characterize the thyroid tumor-draining lymph nodes in genetically engineered mice harboring thyroid-specific expression of oncogenic Braf V600E with and without Pten insufficiency. After intratumoral injection of methylene blue, the lymphatic drainage of the thyroid gland was visualized in real time. The thyroid gland/tumor was resected en bloc with the respiratory system for histological analysis. Although mice harboring Braf V600E mutations were smaller in body size compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates, the size of their thyroid glands and deep cervical lymph nodes were significantly larger. Additionally, the tumor-draining lymph nodes showed increased and enlarged lymphatic sinuses that were distributed throughout the cortex and medulla. Tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy and histiocytosis, but no frank metastases, were observed in all mice harboring Braf V600E mutations. The tumor-draining lymph nodes undergo significant structural alterations in immunocompetent mice, and this may represent a primer for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  16. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum

  17. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  18. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  19. Thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Polacco, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess is a rare condition, and consequently diagnosis is often delayed. Causes include 3rd and 4th branchial cleft anomalies, hematogenous spread of infection, trauma from esophageal foreign body, and fine needle aspiration. Thyroid abscesses carry potential morbidity with thyroid and parathyroid gland destruction, tracheal compression, tracheal or esophageal fistula, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and sepsis. The authors report a case of a 33-year old woman with a thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation. Thyroid abscess should be considered in patients presenting with anterior neck pain and swelling with a recent history of traumatic intubation, ultrasound or CT with contrast being the ideal diagnostic modalities.

  20. An Observation of Ultrasonographic Findings in Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Bae; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Byung Soo [Busan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-09-15

    The authors analyzed ultrasonographically the total 45 cases of thyroid disease verified by historical diagnosis, functional diagnosis, and morphological diagnosis at the Department of Radiology, Busan National University Hospital from June to September 1982. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In the sex distribution female was 38 cases (84.4%), and male 7 cases (15.6%). The second, third, and fourth decades of age (78.0%) were most prevalent. 2. Among the total 45 cases thyroid adenoma was 24 cases (53.3%), nodular hyperplasia cases (17.7%), thyroid carcinoma 7 cases (15.6%), diffuse hyperplsia 3 cases (6.7%), Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1 cases (2.2%), subacute thyroiditis 1 cases (2.2%), tuberculous thyroiditis 1 case (2.2%) in orders. 3. On ultrasonogram, total 24 cases of thyroid adenoma showed a single nodule in 24 cases (100.0%), smooth outer margin in 23 cases (95.8%), capsular echo in 23 cases (95.8%), pure cystic nodule in 4 cases (16.7%), and increased echogenicity in 17 cases (85.0%) among the 20 cases exclude that pure cystic nodules. 4. Total 7 cases of thyroid carcinoma showed no capsular echo in 4 cases (57.1%), irregular outer margin in 4 case (57.1%), no pure cystic nodule in all cases, and enlargement of metastatic lymphnode in 4 cases (57.1%). 5. Total 8 cases of nodular hyperplasia showed enlargement of thyroid gland and multiple nodule in 8 cases (100.0%), and increased echogenicity in 7 cases (87.5%). 6. Total 3 cases of diffuse hyperplasia showed enlargement of thyroid gland and increased echogenicity in 3 cases (100.0%). 7. Total 3 cases of thyroiditis showed decreased echogenicity in 3 cases (100.0%) and enlargement of thyroid gland in 2 cases (66.7%). 8. The cold area visualized on radionuclide scan could be differentiated from a solid mass and cystic one by ultrasonogram.

  1. Etiology of thyroid cancer: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkar, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, although a relatively rare tumor, is the most common cancer of the endocrine glands. The identification of genetic factors important in the pathogesis of thyroid cancer could provide molecular tools for a better differential diagnosis between the different histotypes. Characterisation of mechanisms by which mutated proteins transduce mitogenic and de-differentiating signals might suggest novel therapeutic approaches for controlling cell growth and restoring thyroid differentiated functions

  2. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Hartmann; Donnemiller, Eveline; Gabriel, Michael; Decristoforo, Clemens; Moncayo, Roy; Bale, Reto; Kovacs, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC ( 99m Tc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99m Tc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99m Tc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  3. Radioprotection of salivary glands by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic (amifostine) obtained in a rabbit animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohuslavizki, Karl H.; Klutmann, Susanne; Jenicke, Lars; Brenner, Winfried; Feyerabend, Bernd; Henze, Eberhard; Clausen, Malte

    1999-01-01

    Background: Impairment of salivary gland function following high-dose radioiodine treatment (HDRIT) is a well-recognized side effect of the treatment. Because differentiated thyroid cancer has an excellent prognosis, reduction of long-term side-effects is mandatory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of amifostine in a rabbit animal model. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in a total of 16 New Zealand White rabbits. Uptake of 99m Tc-pertechnetate was calculated in percentage of injected activity as a quantitative measure of both salivary gland and thyroid function. Reproducibility of salivary gland scintigraphy was evaluated in one rabbit without any intervention. Fifteen rabbits were studied prior to and up to 6 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment applying 2 GBq 131 I. Ten animals received 200 mg/kg amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 served as controls. Salivary glands were examined histopathologically. Results: Variation coefficient of parenchymal function was less than 3.8% in salivary glands. Prior to HDRIT, thyroid uptake was 0.417 ± 0.373% and 0.421 ± 0.241% in control and amifostine-treated rabbits, respectively. Four weeks after HDRIT, complete ablation of the thyroid was achieved in both groups. Prior to HDRIT, uptake of 99m Tc-pertechnetate in salivary glands of five control rabbits was not significantly different from ten amifostine-treated rabbits. In control rabbits 6 months after HDRIT, parenchymal function was reduced significantly (p 0.05) in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Histopathologically, marked lipomatosis was observed in control animals but was negligible in amifostine-treated animals. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine in this rabbit animal model. This corresponds to data obtained in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

  4. A minute focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma arising in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed with PCR after laser capture microdissection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Antonio Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. In this condition a distinction between an inflammatory lymphoid infiltrate and a low grade lymphoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis. Patient and methods We report a case of a minute focus of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZBCL, incidentally discovered in a 63-year-old man with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT and diagnosed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR after laser capture microdissection. The histological examination of surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of HT and showed a minute focus of dense lymphoid infiltrate (less than 4 mm in diameter, composed by centrocyte-like cells forming MALT balls. Immunoistochemistry was not useful. A microscopic focus of EMZBCL was suspected on the basis of morphological features. PCR assays revealed the rearrangement of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins only in the microdissected suspicious area, confirming the diagnosis of EMZBCL. Conclusion Our finding suggests that in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis a careful examination of the thyroid specimen is warranted, in order to disclose areas or small foci of lymphomatous transformation. Furthermore, in difficult cases with doubtful immunohistological findings, ancillary techniques, such as molecular studies, are necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

  5. Dendritic cells and veiled accessory macrophages : hormonal influences and autoimmune thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. Canning (Martha)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractImmune responses to thyroid specific autoantigens form the basis of autoimmune thyroid disease pathogenesis. Two polar forms of autoimmune reactivity of the thyroid gland exist in this disease spectrum: a catabolic form characterized by gradual inflammatory destruction of thyroid

  6. Changes of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Expressions in Thyroid Glands of Patients with Different Thyroid Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our aim was to analyze NAMPT expression in thyroid tissue derived from patients with Graves’ disease with (GD and without (GO orbitopathy, patients with toxic nodular goiters (TNG and thyroid cancers (TC, and healthy controls. Methods. 153 thyroid tissue samples of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy were collected. Previous therapy with steroids was an exclusion criterion. We collected clinicopathological data of all subjects and we assessed NAMPT expression using qPCR. Results. We found the highest NAMPT expression in the thyroids of patients with GO (n = 20 and cancers (n = 40. Also, there was statistically significant NAMPT overexpression in patients with TNG (n = 30. Relatively low NAMPT expression was found in GD patients (n = 21 and in the control group (n = 39. In one-way ANCOVA, we confirmed that NAMPT expression differs between subgroups and that it is not influenced by age, BMI, or sex of patients. Conclusions. Reported alteration of NAMPT expression might suggest its involvement in thyroid pathologies. Observed NAMPT overexpression in patients with GO and its relatively low levels in thyroids of patients with GD without eye changes do not confirm causal relationship between NAMPT level and orbitopathy, but this needs further investigation.

  7. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes [Universidade do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2000-04-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body {sup 99m} Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  8. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Otten (Marten Henk)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the

  9. Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanska, J.; Zimak, J.; Vosminkova, K.; Nemec, J.; Blazek, T.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.

    1998-01-01

    Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131 I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131 I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131 I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available

  10. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W.; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Padberg, Barbara-C.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  11. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HUMAN THYROID GLAND UNDER IODINE DEFICIENCY NODULAR GOITER: FROM HARMLESSNESS TO HAZARD DEPENDING ON COPPER AND IODINE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Falfushynska

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Excess of copper unbound to metallothionein in goitrous-changed tissue and high level of inorganic iodine could be the reason for elevated DNA fragmentation and increased lysosomal membrane permeability and activation of antioxidant defense. The main criterions of goiter formation were represented by low level of organificated iodine and high level of DNA damage in thyroid gland. KEY WORDS: iodine deficiency nodular colloidal goiter, iodine, copper, metallothioneins, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity

  12. The effect of lithium on thyroid function in patients with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kraszewska, Agnieszka; Abramowicz, Maria; Chłopocka-Woźniak, Maria; Sowiński, Jerzy; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Since 1963 lithium treatment has been the best proven long-term pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BD), both in the prevention of depressive and manic episodes, along with the reduction of the suicide risk. Thyroid gland and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis play a role in the pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment of BD. The influence of lithium on the thyroid gland is one of the key side effects in the long-term therapy with this drug. Lithium is accumulated in the th...

  13. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, Diane S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  14. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ersoy Callıoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented.

  15. Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Han, Moon Hee E-mail: hanmh@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Keon Ha; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) findings of primary thyroid lymphoma. Methods and material: The clinicopathological data and CT images of nine patients with primary thyroid lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The CT appearances were classified into three types: type 1, a solitary nodule surrounded by normal thyroid tissue; type 2, multiple nodules in the thyroid, and type 3, a homogeneously enlarged both thyroid glands with a reduced attenuation with or without peripheral thin hyperattenuating thyroid tissue. Results: All patients had a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. One patient showed type 1 pattern, three type 2, and five type 3. Six patients had homogeneous tumor isoattenuating to surrounding muscles. The tumors had a strong tendency to compress normal remnant thyroid and the surrounding structure without invasion. Conclusion: Primary thyroid lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when old female had a homogeneous thyroidal mass isoattenuating to muscles, which does not invade surrounding structures.

  16. Thyroid evaluation with radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is given therapeutically for the treatment of hypothyroidism and in goiterous conditions. When administered in full maintenance dosage, it interrupts the operation of the homeostatic mechanism that evokes excesses of thyrotropin (TSH) in response to various goiterogenic stimuli or impending thyroid failure, resulting in thyroid gland enlargement. All patients with treated thyroid cancer are maintained indefinitely on full replacement dosages of thyroid hormone to eliminate endogenous TSH and its trophic effect, thereby minimizing recurrence and growth of the tumor. A high-risk group of patients that were irradiated to the head and neck in childhood for various reasons are placed on thyroid hormone therapy prophylactically to turn off their endogenous TSH if they are found free of thyroid nodularity on initial evaluation. The adequacy of thyroid hormone therapy and the regularity of its intake can be ultimately evaluated by the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, where no TSH response indicates adequate therapy and a normal TSH response suggests inadequate or irregular treatment

  17. Hypothyroidism: The Thyroid and You | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism The Thyroid and You: Coping with a Common ... is made by the pituitary gland. What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid ...

  18. Radioprotection of salivary glands by S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic (amifostine) obtained in a rabbit animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, Karl H; Klutmann, Susanne; Jenicke, Lars; Brenner, Winfried; Feyerabend, Bernd; Henze, Eberhard; Clausen, Malte

    1999-08-01

    Background: Impairment of salivary gland function following high-dose radioiodine treatment (HDRIT) is a well-recognized side effect of the treatment. Because differentiated thyroid cancer has an excellent prognosis, reduction of long-term side-effects is mandatory. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of amifostine in a rabbit animal model. Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in a total of 16 New Zealand White rabbits. Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was calculated in percentage of injected activity as a quantitative measure of both salivary gland and thyroid function. Reproducibility of salivary gland scintigraphy was evaluated in one rabbit without any intervention. Fifteen rabbits were studied prior to and up to 6 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment applying 2 GBq {sup 131}I. Ten animals received 200 mg/kg amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy, and 5 served as controls. Salivary glands were examined histopathologically. Results: Variation coefficient of parenchymal function was less than 3.8% in salivary glands. Prior to HDRIT, thyroid uptake was 0.417 {+-} 0.373% and 0.421 {+-} 0.241% in control and amifostine-treated rabbits, respectively. Four weeks after HDRIT, complete ablation of the thyroid was achieved in both groups. Prior to HDRIT, uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate in salivary glands of five control rabbits was not significantly different from ten amifostine-treated rabbits. In control rabbits 6 months after HDRIT, parenchymal function was reduced significantly (p < 0.0001) by 75.3 {+-} 5.3% and 53.6 {+-} 17.4% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. In contrast, in amifostine-treated rabbits, parenchymal function was reduced by 10.6 {+-} 3.4% and 6.5 {+-} 4.3% (p > 0.05) in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Histopathologically, marked lipomatosis was observed in control animals but was negligible in amifostine-treated animals. Conclusion

  19. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  20. Soft tissue hematoma of the neck due to thyroid rupture with unusual mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tsukahara

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although hemorrhage from the thyroid gland without blunt trauma is rare, emergency physicians should regard possible thyroid gland rupture in patients with swelling of the neck or acute respiratory failure after direct/indirect trauma to the neck. Observation or operative management for limited or expanding hematoma are appropriately based on fundamental neck trauma principles.

  1. Radiation and thyroid neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConahey, W.M.; Hayles, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck, and upper thorax of infants, children, and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years, external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis, and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scatter radiation. The use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice, and its value was attested by many. Concern about the adverse effects was not initially appreciated, primarily because of the long periods of time between the radiation and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions

  2. Dependency of maximum goitrogenic response on some minimal level of thyroid hormone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, B.E.; Poon, R.

    1981-01-01

    Thyroidal activity was studied in chicks given dietary thiouracil in conjunction with daily doses of thyroxine and with diets adequate and deficient in iodine. DL-thyroxine administered at doses up to 1.0 microgram per day for 10 to 12 days had no effect or slightly increased thyroid weight. Both the epithelial and colloid components of the thyroid gland were increased in response to thiouracil and to thiouracil in combination with low dosages of exogenous thyroxine. Radioiodine uptake was increased above the control with thiouracil and with thiouracil in conjunction with .5 and 1.0 microgram DL-thyroxine given daily. Birds receiving thiouracil, with and without exogenous thyroxine, showed a different pattern of radioiodine uptake and release than the control birds. Thiouracil-treated birds showed a rapid uptake of iodine following its administration, which was followed by a rapid decline immediately after peak accumulation, whereas in control birds thyroidal radioiodine concentration reached a plateau at the maximum concentration attained. The goitrogenic response to thiouracil was much greater when the diet was supplemented with iodine than when the diet was iodine-deficient. Thyroids under iodine deficiency contained greater percentages of epithelial tissue than with iodine-supplemented diets. Thyroid glands of chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-supplemented diet contained much more colloid than glands from iodine-deficient chicks with or without thiouracil. DL-thyroxine at a dosage of .5 microgram per day to chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-adequate diet increased, whereas higher dosages decreased thyroidal colloid. It is concluded that some minimal concentration of thyroid hormone is required for maximum goitrogenic response. It is not clear whether the response is entirely due to an effect on thyrotropin production or whether there is an effect of thyroid hormone on the thyroid gland itself

  3. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  4. Nongoitrous autoimmune thyroiditis with facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jik Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of severe hypothyroidism with nongoitrous, autoimmune thyroiditis and pituitary hyperplasia in a 13-year-old boy, who presented with sudden palsy on the left side of his face. Prednisolone and antiviral medication was administered. However, the facial palsy did not improve completely. The medications were replaced with thyroxine, and the facial palsy recovered. Endocrinological testing showed severe hypothyroidism as follows: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level >100 µIU/mL, T4 of 1.04 µg/dL, T3 of 0.31 ng/mL, and free T4 of 0.07 ng/dL. Level of serum antithyroid peroxidase antibodies was 1,933.39 IU/mL, and that of antithyroglobulin antibodies was 848.16 IU/mL. Level of TSH receptor antibodies was >40 IU/L. Bioassay result for TSH receptor stimulating antibodies was negative. Thyroid sonography revealed no increase in the size or vascularity of the bilateral gland. Thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc showed decreased uptake, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an enlarged pituitary gland.

  5. Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Akiko T; Hirano, Shigeru; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Honda, Nobumitsu; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma. Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma. Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram. DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.

  6. Lingual thyroid - report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Abicalaf, Ricardo Souza; Pimentel, Claudia Andreia Rabay; Santos, Leynalze Ramos; Soares, Aldemir Humberto; Gois Filho, Jose Francisco de; Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino de; Rapoport, Abrao

    1997-01-01

    The authors report two cases of lingual thyroid, an uncommon developmental anomaly of embryogenesis characterized by a failure of the normal migration of thyroid tissue to the neck, with presence of the thyroid gland in the mid-line of the tongue base between circumvallate papillae and the epiglottis. The lesions may appear at nay time from birth to old age and have a predilection for females. The embryology, incidence, signs and symptoms, diagnostic methods and management are discussed. (author)

  7. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  8. Cytological diagnosis of thyroid nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long standing Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) causes shrinking and atrophy of the thyroid, but may also lead to diffuse enlargement of the gland and/or formation of nodules. These nodules should be differentiated from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and primary thyroidal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTL), which are possible complications of HT, and require pre-surgical diagnoses and different treatments. This study focuses on the role of fine-needle cytology (FNC) in the clinical surveillance and pre-surgical diagnosis of HT with diffuse and nodular enlargement of the gland in elderly patients. Methods Thirty-four elderly patients (≥ 65 yrs) with HT and diffuse or nodular enlargement of the thyroid underwent ultrasound (US)-guided FNC. Smears were routinely stained and evaluated; additional passes were used for flow cytometry (FC) assessment of lymphoid infiltrate in 6 cases. Results The cytological diagnosis was HT in 12 cases with prevalence of Hurtle cells in 2 cases, PTC in 1 case and PTL in 2 cases. FC assessed the reactive, non-lymphomatous nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in 5 cases and demonstrated light chain restriction, hence the lymphomatous nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in 2 cases of PTL. Conclusions FNC plays a key role in the clinical surveillance and pre-surgical diagnosis of diffuse enlargement and nodular presentation of HT in elderly patients. FNC can correctly diagnose HT, PTC and PTL indicating the need for surgery and its extension in suspicious or neoplastic cases, leaving other cases to the medical treatment and clinical surveillance. PMID:24266923

  9. Complications of acromegaly: thyroid and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    In acromegaly the long-term exposure to high growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels may result in specific complications in different human organs, including the thyroid gland and the colon. We will review here the evidence available regarding the characteristic thyroid and colon complications in acromegaly. This review summarizes the published data observing noncancerous structural abnormalities (thyroid nodules, colonic polyps) and thyroid and colon cancer in patients diagnosed with acromegaly. Thyroid micro-carcinomas are probably over-diagnosed among acromegalic patients. In regard to colon cancer, there is no sufficient data to suggest that colon cancer risk is higher in acromegaly compared to the general population.

  10. [Indications for surgery in thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, M R; Glod, M; Costea, I; Grigorovici, M; Diaconescu, S

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory processes of the thyroid represents a main proportion of the gland's pathology but the majority of them are treated by medical methods, surgery being indicated. In 14 cases (3%) from 464 operations for different thyroid conditions we have encountered authentic inflammatory lesions in 9 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (two associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and one with malignant lymphoma), two cases of Riedel's thyroiditis and respectively de Quervain thyoiditis, tuberculous thyroiditis and actynomicosis one case each. The common lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in Basedow's disease was not considered likewise as the inflammatory nespecific lesions encountered in benign and malignant pathology of the gland. The clinical and imagistic data, biological evaluation and titer of anticorps but particularly the paraffine examination together with intraoperative estimations are decisive for the diagnosis. Firm diagnosis of thyroiditis was rarely affirmed before operation, surgical indication being formulated on clinical criterions dominated by cancer suspicion. Among these are diffuse or (multi)nodular thyromegaly with a dominant nodule with recent appearance and rapid growing in temporal and geographic proximity of Chemobyl disaster, with hard consistence, celsian or compressive features and adenopathy. More added the imagistic signs but especially suspect aspects of the FNAB (follicular or with Hürthle cells smears) and also of the frozen sections. Certainty diagnosis was established by paraffine examination not always without hesitations or reexamination (Hashimoto's thyroiditis diagnosed in one case was finally a malignant lymphoma). Large removal decided after intraoperative findings induced for the most of patients a definitive hypothyroidism. All the diagnosis resources must be exhausted for the diagnosis of the inflammatory lesions of the thyroid to avoid unnecessary surgery. On the other side the chronic overstimulation by the TSH of the

  11. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses ...

  13. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  14. Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Fallahi, B.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Beiki, D.; Ansari-Gilani, K.; Saghari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high

  15. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  16. Resistant thyrotoxicosis: A case of sarcoidosis of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Yanamandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune endocrinopathies and, less commonly, thyroid autoimmune disease have been reported in patients with sarcoidosis. Similarities exist in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Concomitant sarcoidosis in the thyroid gland in patients with Graves′ disease may contribute to the resistance to antithyroid drugs and radioiodine therapy. We present the clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathologic findings of a patient with Graves′ disease who was unresponsive to medical management. This 37-year-old man presented with thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid hormone assays and 99m Technitium findings were consistent with Graves′ disease. He was also found to have hilar lymphadenopathy. Patient failed to achieve remission with high doses of antithyroid drugs and 2 sessions of radioiodine ablative therapy.Histopathology of lymph nodesdisclosed noncaseating granulomas, consistent with sarcoidosis. Patient′s thyrotoxicosis subsided only following steroid administration. The histopathology of the thyroid gland on aspiration and the subsidence of symptoms with steroids reiterate the possibility of thyroid sarcoidosis. This diagnosis needs biopsy for confirmation, which our patient didn′t consent for.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... camera heads are oriented at a 90 degree angle and placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves ... images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief periods of time ...