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  1. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  2. [Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-03

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus.

  3. Detection of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women: universal screening is justified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Lluís; Velasco, Inés; González, Stella; Morales, Francisco; Sánchez, Emilia; Lailla, José Maria; Martinez-Astorquiza, Txanton; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2012-11-01

    There is a controversy among different scientific societies in relation to the recommendations on whether universal screening for the detection of thyroid dysfunction during gestation should be performed or not. Although various studies have shown an association between subclinical hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia with obstetric problems and/or neurocognitive impairment in the offspring, no evidence on the possible positive effects of treatment of such conditions with thyroxin has been demonstrated so far. However, there is a general agreement about the need for treatment of clinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and the risks of not doing so. Because it is a common, easily diagnosed and effectively treated disorder without special risk, the working Group of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition and Spanish Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics recommends an early evaluation (before week 10) of thyroid function in all pregnant women. Given the complex physiology of thyroid function during pregnancy, hormone assessment should be performed according to reference values for each gestational trimester and generated locally in each reference laboratory. Thyrotropin determination would be sufficient for screening purposes and only if it is altered, free thyroxin or total thyroxin would be required. Adequate iodine nutrition is also highly recommended before and during pregnancy to contribute to a normal thyroid function in the pregnant women and fetus. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  5. [Thyroid dysfunction and amiodarone].

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    Lima, Jandira; Carvalho, Patrícia; Molina, M Auxiliadora; Rebelo, Marta; Dias, Patrícia; Vieira, José Diniz; Costa, José M Nascimento

    2013-02-01

    Although most patients remain clinically euthyroid, some develop amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism (HPEAI) or hypothyroidism (HPOAI). The authors present a retrospective analysis of ten patients with amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction. Six patients were female and mean amiodarone intake was 17.7 months. HPOIA was more common (six patients). From all the patients with HPEAI, two had type 2, one had type 1, and one had type 3 hyperthyroidism. Symptoms suggestive of thyroid dysfunction occurred in five patients, most of them with HPOAI. In HPEAI, the most frequent symptom was exacerbation of arrhythmia (three patients). Discontinuation of amiodarone and treatment with levothyroxine was chosen in 83.3% of the HPOAI cases, while thyonamide treatment with corticosteroids and without amiodarone was the option in 75% of the HPEAI cases. There were three deaths, all in patients with HPEAI. HPEAI is potentially fatal. The clinical picture may be vague, so the thyroid monitoring is mandatory.

  6. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  8. HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS AND VESTIBULAR DYSFUNCTION.

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    Chiarella, Giuseppe; Russo, Diego; Monzani, Fabio; Petrolo, Claudio; Fattori, Bruno; Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Cassandro, Ettore; Costante, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature concerning the relationship between Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and vestibular dysfunction. We used electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) to search and collect all published articles about the association between HT and vestibular disorders. Several observational and retrospective studies have postulated a relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and vestibular disorders. In most cases, an appropriate control group was lacking, and the impact of thyroid functional status could not precisely be established. In recent years, two well-designed prospective studies have provided convincing evidence that the association is not random. One article reported that patients with Ménière disease (MD) had a significantly higher prevalence of positive anti-thyroid autoantibody as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, more than half of MD patients had either positive anti-thyroid or non-organ-specific autoantibody titers, compared to less than 30% of both patients with unilateral vestibular paresis without cochlear involvement and healthy controls. Another study found that patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) had significantly higher serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and antithyroid autoantibody levels than healthy controls. Additionally, almost one-fifth of euthyroid patients with HT had signs of BPPV. The published results indicate that patients with MD or BPPV are potential candidates to also develop HT. Thus, in HT patients, the presence of even slight symptoms or signs potentially related to vestibular lesions should be carefully investigated. AITD = autoimmune thyroid disease; BPPV = benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; EH = endolymphatic hydrops; HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis; L-T 4 = L-thyroxine; MD = Ménière disease; PS = Pendred syndrome; Tg = thyroglobulin; TPO = thyroid peroxidase; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.

  9. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Tanseem, A.; Nazir, I.; Nagra, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of thyroid dysfunction in infertile women referred for thyroid evaluation. Age matched infertile (n=140 each) and fertile women (n=152 each) referred to CENUM for thyroid evaluation were investigated for incidence of hyperthyroidism (TSH 20 IU/L). Serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3) and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and TSH by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Most of the infertile women (89.3%), like control women (93.4%), were euthyroid. The difference of overall thyroid dysfunction was not statistically significant in infertile and control women (10.7% vs. 7.9%; p=0.395). The same was true for incidence of hyperthyroidism (4.3% vs. 5.3%; p=0.701) as well as hypothyroidism (6.4% vs. 2.6%; p=0.104). In infertile women, the incidence of hypothyroidism (6.4%) was slightly higher as compared to hyperthyroidism (4.3%). In euthyroid women of both groups, mean FT4, FT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (p 2.5 mIU/L compared to fertile women (31.2% vs. 15.6%; p 20 IU/L) than control women (7.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.05). Increased incidence of high normal TSH and raised TPO-Ab titer indicate relatively more frequent occurrence of compensated thyroid function in infertile women than normal women of reproductive age. This necessitates considering them a subgroup of women in which all aspects of pituitary-thyroid axis should be thoroughly investigated than merely TSH testing. (author)

  10. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

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    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

  11. Circulating leptin and thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Belsing, Tina; Brabant, Georg; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    and triiodothyronine are involved in the starvation-induced decrease in thermogenesis. Both rodent and human studies of leptin have failed to show any consistent relationship between thyroid function and serum leptin concentrations. However, leptin might have an important role in thyroid pathophysiology due to thyroid...

  12. Thyroid dysfunction in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-09

    Sep 9, 1997 ... medical or thyroid problems and current therapy. Blood was taken for ... outside the range 0.4 - 5 IJU/ml, a second sample was drawn and the TSH .... Many participants were on medications which are known potentially to .... Antithyroid antibodies were not .... Long-[I!i"m L-thyroltine therclpy is associated.

  13. Assessment of lipid metabolism in thyroid dysfunction

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    V. G. Kadzharyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 1. Actuality According to WHO Thyroid dysfunction is one of the most prevalent in humans and is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Hypothyroidism affects the mechanisms of potentiation of cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting the need to study the level of the blood lipids in all patients with thyroid dysfunction. 2. The purpose of this study. To define features of lipid metabolism, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland. 3. Material and methods. The study included 95 patients, mean age was 49,8 ± 12,9 years. 74 of them were women (78% and 21 - men (22%. In accordance with the purpose of the work 3 groups of subjects were formed. I-st group - 35 patients with hypothyroidism, mean age 52,5 ± 10,3 years, II-nd group - 37 patients with hyperthyroidism, the average age was 45,1 ± 13 years, III (control group - 23 patients with euthyroid, mean age 53,9 ± 14,8 years. Levels of TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, microsomal antibodies to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxidase were evaluated for total and biochemical analysis. To determine the type of hyperlipoproteinemia Fredrickson, 1967 recommendations were used. 4. Results of the study Lipid profile parameters in the I-st group compared with the control were even higher. Cholesterol increased up to 6,9% (p <0,005, Tg - 8,6% (p <0,005, β -DP - 6,8% (p <0,5, in comparison with the II-nd: cholesterol - 56% (p <0,005, TG - 55% (p <0,005 and β-PL 44% (p <0.5. In group II rates were lower than in the III- cholesterol - 8% (p <0,005, Tg 8,3% (p <0,005 and β-PL 6,5% (p <0,5. Patients from the I-st group had the following distribution of hyperlipidemia (Fredrickson, 1967.: I type - 10 patients (29%; IIb type - 15 subjects (43%; IIa type - 9 subjects (26%; IV type - 1 patient (2%. The correlation dependence of TSH and cholesterol (r = +0,37, p <0,05, TG (r = +0,25, p <0,05, β-PL (r = +0,74, p <0.05, TG AT (r = +0,55, p <0,05, the level of bilirubin (r = +0,29, p <0

  14. EFFECT OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN ANTENATAL MOTHERS

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    Anasooya Parail Sankaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the effect of thyroid dysfunction in antenatal mothers in Alappuzha one of the coastal areas in South Kerala over a period from January 2012 to January 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a descriptive study of the effect of thyroid dysfunction among pregnant ladies attending OBG Department in Government Medical College, Alappuzha, a rural medical college at coastal areas of Kerala over a period of 3 years. RESULTS The incidence is found to be maximum in the coastal area, i.e. 84.9%, but p-valve 0.625 is not statistically significant. Thyroid disorder is mostly seen in primigravida (57.8% and between the age of 20 and 25 yrs. (43.2% and the most commonly seen disorder among is subclinical hypothyroidism (73.7% (p valve <.005, which is statistically significant. There is significant increase in maternal complications like preeclampsia, (RR-8.54, p-value 0.014 recurrent abortion (RR-91.13, p-value 0.000, prolonged period of infertility (RR-55.16, p-value 0.000, anaemia (RR-11.37, p-value 0.003 is seen in subclinical hypothyroidism. The foetal complications seen are oligamnios (7.8%, MSAF (9.2%, foetal distress (12.1%, PROM (5.1% and FGR (10.9%. The neonates were admitted in NICU in view of NEC (1.5%, NNJ (24.1%, MAS (6.9%, TTNB (9.5% and HIE (2.9%. CONCLUSION The present study is intended to study the maternal and foetal effects of thyroid dysfunction. After the study, we concluded that there are many adverse maternal, foetal and neonatal effects in pregnancies complicated with thyroid dysfunction. In coastal area, the disease has got a high prevalence and hence there is a need for proper screening and early diagnosis. Proper treatment options are given to the patient.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetics seen at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type-2 diabetics in our environment is not known. This study was ... Thyroid dysfunction was present in 19 (29.7%) of 64 type 2 diabetics and 1 (2.8%) of 36 ... type 2 diabetes may equally predispose both groups to deranged ... of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. MATERIALS ...

  16. Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda | Galukande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda. ... The mean age of participants was 23 years, there were slightly more males 1.3:1. ... The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this cohort was low but falls in the range found elsewhere.

  17. Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome

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    Carlos Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50% resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS.

  18. Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody and Screening for Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

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    Mohamed A. Adlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD is a common disorder which causes considerable morbidity in affected women. The availability of effective treatment for hypothyroid PPTD, the occurrence of the disease in subsequent pregnancies and the need to identify subjects who develop long term hypothyroidism, has prompted discussion about screening for this disorder. There is currently no consensus about screening as investigations hitherto have been variable in their design, definitions and assay frequency and methodology. There is also a lack of consensus about a suitable screening tool although thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb is a leading contender. We present data about the use of TPOAb in early pregnancy and its value as a screening tool. Although its positive predictive value is moderate, its sensitivity and specificity when used in early pregnancy are comparable or better compared to other times during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Recent studies have also confirmed this strategy to be cost effective and to compare favourably with other screening strategies. We also explore the advantages of universal screening.

  19. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  20. Dronedarone and Amiodarone Induce Dyslipidemia and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats

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    Li-Qin Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amiodarone, a thyroid hormone-like molecule, can induce dyslipidemia and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of dronedarone on lipid metabolism and of both dronedarone and amiodarone on thyroid function and lipid metabolism remain unknown. Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 in each group: normal control (NC, amiodarone-treated (AMT, dronedarone-treated (DRT, rats treated with amiodarone combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine (AC, and rats treated with dronedarone combined with polyene phosphatidylcholine (DC. Rats were given amiodarone (120 mg/kg/d, dronedarone (120 mg/kg/d, and polyene phosphatidylcholine (200 mg/kg/d for 13 weeks. At the end of weeks 4, 8, 12, and 13, plasma-free triiodothyronine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c were determined. At the end of this protocol, rats were sacrificed and the thyroid glands were isolated, weighed, and examined histopathologically. The protein expression of Bcl-2 was measured by immunochemical staining. The mRNA expression of thyroglobulin (Tg, type-1 deiodinase (D1, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Compared with the NC group, FT3 and FT4 levels in the DRT and DC groups significantly increased at week 4 but declined thereafter. The AMT and AC groups had lower FT3 levels but comparable FT4 levels. The levels of TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c in the NC group were lower than those in the other groups whereas the LDL-c/HDL-c ratio was lowest in the AMT group. Bcl-2 expression significantly increased in the DRT group. The mRNA expression of Tg increased whereas the mRNA expression of D1 decreased. Dronedarone induced hyperthyroidism at the early stage and hypothyroidism at the late stage whereas amiodarone only caused hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Both dronedarone and

  1. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  2. Serum concentration of thyroxin and thyroid stimulating hormone in children suspected of thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Syed, Z.; Rasheed, H.; Aman, Z.; Yasmeen, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate serum concentration of free thyroxin (FT/sub 4/) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) as well as thyroid dysfunctions in children attending CENUM, Mayo Hospital Lahore. A total of 227 children (131 female and 96 male) were selected for this study. Their age range was 1 to 12 years (mean 7.6 +- 3.4 years). 45 (19.8%) children had goiter with significantly more frequency in female as compared to male children (28.2% V s 8.3%; p<0.05). More than 70% of the children had F/sub 4/ and TSH within their respective normal ranges (euthyroid). Thyroid dysfunctions were detected in 11.0% children (7.5% hypothyroidism; 3.5% hyperthyroidism). Only the incidence of hyperthyroidism was significantly more in goiterous children. There was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperthyroidism but hypothyroidism was significant (p<0.05) more common in female children. (author)

  3. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk of carotid atherosclerosis.

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    Hosu Kim

    Full Text Available The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on vascular atherosclerosis remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction and carotid plaques, which are an early surrogate marker of systemic atherosclerosis.The study included 21,342 adults with consistent thyroid hormonal status on serial thyroid function tests (TFTs and carotid artery duplex ultrasonography at a health screening center between 2007 and 2014. The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on baseline carotid plaques and newly developed carotid plaques during 5-year follow-up was determined by logistic regression analyses and GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations, respectively.Carotid plaques were more common in the subclinical hypothyroidism (55.6% than the euthyroidism (47.8% at baseline. However, in multivariable analysis, thyroid status was not a significant risk for the carotid plaques at baseline. Instead, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (P <0.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.023, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.030, and creatinine (P = 0.012 were associated with baseline carotid plaques in subclinical hypothyroidism. In longitudinal analyses of subjects who were followed up for more than 5 years, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of new carotid plaques according to time between subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and those with euthyroidism (P = 0.392.Sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction did not affect the baseline or development of carotid plaques in healthy individuals.

  4. Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in Community of Duwakot, Bhaktapur

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    Binita Pradhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid dysfunction is one of the major public health problems in the Nepalese community and of the common endocrine disorders diagnosed in community primary health care centres.  The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of Thyroid dysfunction in Duwakot, NepalMaterials and Methods:  All the patients from Duwakot community who presented with the history of weight gain with tiredness and weight loss with palpitation were subjected to thyroid function test free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone. Results: Thyroid dysfunction was  found in 26% with M:F ratio of 1:5.  Subclinical hypothyroidism 62 (11.44% was the most prevalent one followed by Primary hypothyroidism  48 (8.85%, primary hyperthyroidism 16 (2.95% and subclinical hyperthyroidism 15 (2.76%.Conclusion: Thyroid dysfuntion has been observed despite of nationwide program regarding supplementation of micronutrient iodised salt.  Key words: Euthyroid, Hyperthroidism, Hypothyroidism, Iodine, Prevalence, Thyroid dysfunction

  5. Thyroid dysfunction after mantle irradiation of Hodgkin's disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, V.S.; Liew, K.H.; Crennan, E.C.; D'Costa, I.M.; Quong, G.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction can develop in patients with Hodgkin's disease who are treated with mantle irradiation. During the period 1970-89, the records of 320 patients who received mantle irradiation and who had thyroid function tests (TFT) were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 30 years (range, 7-69 years). The median mantle and thyroid dose was 36 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy) and 39.8 Gy (range, 32-65 Gy), respectively. Overall thyroid dysfunction was present in 39% of the patients. Clinical hypothyroidism was seen in 10% and biochemical hypothyroidism was noted in 25%. Hyperthyroidism was found in 4% of patients. Thyroid nodules had developed in six patients (2%), of which those in four patients were malignant. Age, sex, histological subtype, stage of disease, dose, Iymphangiogram and treatment with chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. The narrow dose range prevented adequate analysis of dose effect. The results indicate that the incidence of thyroid abnormalities is high enough to warrant regular TFT assessment with pre-irradiation levels and follow-up testing for life because the development of abnormalities can occur many years later. Thyroid examination should form part of the routine follow-up examination and any abnormality should be promptly investigated. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy in children with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L.S.; Donaldson, S.S.; McDougall, I.R.; Cox, R.S.; Link, M.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid function was measured in 119 children, 16 years of age or less, after radiotherapy (XRT) for Hodgkin's disease. Thyroid abnormalities developed in 4 of 24 children (17%) who received 2600 rad or less, and in 74 of 95 children (78%) who received greater than 2600 rad to the cervical area, including the thyroid. The abnormality in all but three (one with hyperthyroidism and two with thyroid nodules) included the development of elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Age, sex, and administration of chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. All children had lymphangiograms (LAG) and no time relationship was noted between thyroid dysfunction and LAG-XRT interval. The mean interval from radiotherapy to documented thyroid dysfunction was 18 months in the low-dose group and 31 months in the high-dose group, with most patients becoming abnormal within 3 to 5 years. Of interest was a spontaneous return of TSH to within normal limits in 20 children and substantial improvement in another 7. This study confirms the occurrence of dose-related occult hypothyroidism in children following external irradiation of the neck

  7. Evaluation of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in gestational diabetes mellitus and its relationship with postpartum thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, N; Tavosi, Z

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in women with gestational diabetes and to investigate the frequency of postpartum thyroiditis in women with gestational diabetes. A total of 350 women with gestational diabetes and 350 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in the study. We studied the thyroid hormone profiles of the women in each group during pregnancy (at 24-28 weeks' gestation) and after delivery (at 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 9 months, and 1 year postpartum). A total of 342 women with gestational diabetes and 313 healthy pregnant women completed the follow-up during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. Of the women with gestational diabetes, 16.6% had thyroid dysfunction, while of the healthy pregnant women, 6.1% had thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis was higher in the women with a history of gestational diabetes (19.6%) than in the healthy pregnant women (10.2%), and this difference was statistically significant. According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of postpartum thyroiditis was higher in women with a history of gestational diabetes than in healthy women. We recommend that all women with gestational diabetes and women who have previous thyroid dysfunction should be screened for thyroid hormonal abnormalities during pregnancy and for 1 year after pregnancy. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. Thyroid dysfunction among long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, C.A.; Kim, T.H.; Ramsay, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thyroid function studies were followed serially in 27 long-term survivors (median 33 months) of bone marrow transplantation. There were 15 men and 12 women (median age 13 1/12 years, range 11/12 to 22 6/12 years). Aplastic anemia (14 patients) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (eight patients) were the major reasons for bone marrow transplantation. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with high-dose, short-term chemotherapy in 23 patients, while four patients received a bone marrow transplantation without any radiation therapy. Thyroid dysfunction occurred in 10 of 23 (43 percent) irradiated patients; compensated hypothyroidism (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels only) developed in eight subjects, and two patients had primary thyroid failure (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and low T4 index). The abnormal thyroid studies were detected a median of 13 months after bone marrow transplantation. The four subjects who underwent transplantation without radiation therapy have remained euthyroid (median follow-up two years). The only variable that appeared to correlate with the subsequent development of impaired thyroid function was the type of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis employed; the irradiated subjects treated with methotrexate alone had a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction compared to those treated with methotrexate combined with antithymocyte globulin and prednisone (eight of 12 versus two of 11, p less than 0.05). The high incidence and subtle nature of impaired thyroid function following single-dose irradiation for bone marrow transplantation are discussed

  9. Recurrent pregnancy loss in patients with thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanjali Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Review: Thyroid disturbances are common in women during their reproductive years. Thyroid dysfunction interferes with human reproductive physiology, reduces the likelihood of pregnancy and adversely affects pregnancy outcome, thus becoming relevant in the algorithm of reproductive dysfunction. This review highlights the "gap" in knowledge regarding the contribution of thyroid dysfunction in reproduction. Literature Reviewed: Following implantation, the maintenance of the pregnancy is dependent on a multitude of endocrinological events that will eventually aid in the successful growth and development of the fetus. It is estimated that approximately 8-12% of all pregnancy losses are the result of endocrine factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease is present in around 4% of young females and up to 15% are at risk because they are thyroid antibody-positive. There is a strong relationship between thyroid immunity on one hand and infertility, miscarriage, and thyroid disturbances in pregnancy and postpartum, on the other hand. Even minimal hypothyroidism can increase rates of miscarriage and fetal death and may also have adverse effects on later cognitive development of the offspring. Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy may also have adverse consequences. Summary: Pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid antibodies have an increased risk of complications, especially pre-eclampsia, perinatal mortality, and miscarriage. Universal screening for thyroid hormone abnormalities is not routinely recommended at present, but thyroid function must be examined in female with fetal loss or menstrual disturbances. Practitioners providing health care for women should be alert to thyroid disorders as an underlying etiology for recurrent pregnancy loss.

  10. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON THYROID DYSFUNCTION CASE FINDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, James V; Garber, Jeffrey R; Woeber, Kenneth A; Cobin, Rhoda; Klein, Irwin

    2016-02-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily diagnosed and can be treated in a safe, cost-effective manner. Professional organizations have given guidance on how and when to employ thyroid-stimulating hormone testing for the detection of thyroid dysfunction. Most recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force did not endorse screening for thyroid dysfunction based on a lack of proven benefit and potential harm of treating those with thyroid dysfunction, which is mostly subclinical disease. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is concerned that this may discourage physicians from testing for thyroid dysfunction when clinically appropriate. Given the lack of specificity of thyroid-associated symptoms, the appropriate diagnosis of thyroid disease requires biochemical confirmation. The Thyroid Scientific Committee of the AACE has produced this White Paper to highlight the important difference between screening and case-based testing in the practice of clinical medicine. We recommend that thyroid dysfunction should be frequently considered as a potential etiology for many of the nonspecific complaints that physicians face daily. The application and success of safe and effective interventions are dependent on an accurate diagnosis. We, therefore, advocate for an aggressive case-finding approach, based on identifying those persons most likely to have thyroid disease that will benefit from its treatment.

  11. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  12. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and risk of seizure in the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chunsen

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase...... the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal...... diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy...

  13. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  14. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2017-07-01

    The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Duration of Thyroid Dysfunction Correlates with All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laulund, Anne Sofie; Nybo, Mads; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The association between thyroid dysfunction and mortality is controversial. Moreover, the impact of duration of thyroid dysfunction is unclarified. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between biochemically assessed thyroid function as well as dysfunction duration...... and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used as comorbidity score. RESULTS: Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality with decreased (elevated (>4.0 mIU/L) levels of TSH were 2.22; 2.14-2.30; P..., gender, CCI and diagnostic setting attenuated the risk estimates (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.19-1.28; Pelevated values of TSH, respectively. Mortality risk increased by a factor 1...

  16. Menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may precede thyroid dysfunction or goitre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi J

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual and reproductive history of 178 women referred to the thyroid clinic was compared with 49 healthy controls. Cases were classified as euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid after clinical examination and after serum T3, T4, TSH measurements. Reproductive history was related chronologically to symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction. Only 31.8% of hypothyroid and 35.3% of hyperthyroid women had normal menstrual pattern in contrast with 56.3% of Euthyroid and 87.8% of healthy controls (p < 0.001. Reproductive failure (infertility, pregnancy wastage, failure of lactation occurred in 37.5% of hypothyroid and 36.5% of hyperthyroid cases against 16.3% of euthyroid and 16.7% of healthy controls (p < 0.05. Interestingly, in 45% of cases with menstrual abnormality, the anomaly was antecedent to other clinical features by a variable period of two months to ten years. Reproductive failure and lactation failure also preceded thyroid dysfunction or goitre. Reproductive dysfunction may therefore be considered as one of the presenting symptoms of thyroid disorders in women, keeping in mind both menstrual irregularities and lactation failure may also arise from other common or idiopathic origins. Especially in women with menstrual irregularities in the perimenopausal age if thyroid dysfunction is detected, pharmacotherapy may be a superior alternative to surgical interventions like hysterectomy.

  17. High Frequency Of Thyroid Dysfunction In Indian Patients With Vitiligo

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    Dave Shriya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study was carried out look for any association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid disease and to find out clinical characteristics of vitiligo, which may predict such and association. Thirty-five consecutive cases of vitiligo were enrolled for this study. Besides recording the clinical features of vitiligo and thyroid disease, antithyroid autoantibody assays (anthi-thyroglobulin, anti-TPO and thyroid hormone profiles were done in these cases and 30 appropriately age and sex matched controls. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU thyroid scintiscan was done for all the cases and controls. Amongst the vitiligo cases, vitiligo vulgaris was the commonest type (45.70%, while mucosal vitiligo constituted 22.8% of cases. No Patient was found to have thyroid disease clinically; however, on assays, thyroid abnormality (endocrine, immunological or both was found in 57.1% of the cases as against 10% of the controls (p<0.05. Autonatibody positivity was found in 31.4% of the cases as against 10% of the controls (p<0.05. Biochemical abnormality (predominantly hyperthyroidism was found in 40% of the cases as against 6.7% of the controls (p<0.05. Four patients with hyperthyroidism showed diffuse increase in uptake on RAIU scan and auto antibody poisitivity, thus were diagnosed as Grave’s disease. An early age at onset was found in patients with thyroid disease. Mucosal vitiligo was found in 35% of the cases with thyroid dysfunction as against 6.7% in those without (p<0.05 with was the most unique finding of the study. To conclude, we would like to stress that patients with vitiligo should be screened for thyroid dysfunction, especially those with mucosal vitiligo.

  18. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    . Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH hypothyroidism (TSH ≥4.50-19.99 mIU/L) with normal thyroxine concentrations. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was hip...... fracture. Any fractures, nonspine fractures, and clinical spine fractures were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Among 70,298 participants, 4092 (5.8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2219 (3.2%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. During 762,401 person-years of follow-up, hip fracture occurred in 2975...... hyperthyroidism (excluding thyroid medication users) was associated with HRs of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.19-1.93) for hip fracture, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.16-1.74) for any fracture, and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.01-2.99) for spine fracture. No association was found between subclinical hypothyroidism and fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS...

  19. Rapid thyroid dysfunction screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lü, Guodong; Zhai, Zhengang; Du, Guoli; Mo, Jiaqing; Lü, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis are used to investigate a rapid screening technique for thyroid function diseases. At present, the detection of thyroid function has become increasingly important, and it is urgently necessary to develop a rapid and portable method for the detection of thyroid function. Our experimental results show that, by using the Silmeco-based enhanced Raman signal, the signal strength greatly increases and the characteristic peak appears obviously. It is also observed that the Raman spectra of normal and anomalous thyroid function human serum are significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction, and the diagnostic accuracy was 87.4%. The use of serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology combined with PCA-LDA shows good diagnostic performance for the rapid detection of thyroid function. By means of Raman technology, it is expected that a portable device for the rapid detection of thyroid function will be developed.

  20. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction | Ross | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Little is known about the frequency of thyroid dysfunction (TD) associated with. amiodarone therapy in southern Africa. Objectives. To determine the incidence of TD in a cohort of patients initia ed on amiodarone therapy at a cardiac clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, believed to be an iodine-replete area.

  1. Hodgkin's disease: thyroid dysfunction following external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Shimaoka, K.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid gland is commonly included in the field of radiation therapy for patients with malignant lymphoma and with head and neck tumors. The radiation dose for malignant diseases varies considerably depending on the purpose of treatment and the institutional policies. A substantial number of these patients are developing subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism. The risk of developing hypothyroidism after a moderate radiation dose of 2000 to 4500 rads has been reported to be 10 to 20 percent. In addition, subclinical hypothyroidism is induced further in one third of the patients. There are also suggestions that external irradiation of the thyroid gland in patients with malignant lymphomas, as well as internal irradiation with radioiodine of the normal and hyperthyroid human thyroid glands, would induce elevations of serum antithyroid autoantibody titers. However, only a few cases of Graves disease following irradiation to the thyroid gland have been reported. We encountered a young woman who received radiation therapy to the mantle field for her Hodgkin's disease and developed hypothyroxinemia without overt signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, followed by appearance of nodular goiter and then full-blown Graves disease

  2. Thyroid Dysfunction and Associated Risk Factors among Nepalese Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Khatiwada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess thyroid function and associated risk factors in Nepalese diabetes mellitus patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 419 diabetes mellitus patients at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Information on demographic and anthropometric variables and risk factors for thyroid dysfunction was collected. Blood samples were analysed to measure thyroid hormones, blood sugar, and lipid profile. Results. Prevalence rate of thyroid dysfunction was 36.03%, with subclinical hypothyroidism (26.5% as the most common thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid dysfunction was much common in females (42.85% compared to males (30.04% p=0.008 and in type 1 diabetes (50% compared to type 2 diabetes mellitus (35.41% p=0.218. Diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction had higher total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol in comparison to patients without thyroid dysfunction. Significant risk factors for thyroid dysfunction, specifically hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical, were smoking (relative risk of 2.56 with 95% CI (1.99–3.29, p<0.001, family history of thyroid disease (relative risk of 2.57 with 95% CI (2.0–3.31, p<0.001, and female gender (relative risk of 1.44 with 95% CI (1.09–1.91, p=0.01. Conclusions. Thyroid dysfunction is common among Nepalese diabetic patients. Smoking, family history of thyroid disease, and female gender are significantly associated with thyroid dysfunction.

  3. Liver dysfunction and anti-thyroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae A Papachristos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioamides have been used in the management of hyperthyroidism for over 50 years. Liver dysfunction is a rare but important side effect associated with their use. Recently, cases of liver failure associated with propylthiouracil have prompted the Federal Drug Administration to issue a Boxed Warning to the label of propylthiouracil regarding its risk of potentially fatal liver injury and acute liver failure in adults and children. Herein, we present a case to underline the importance of recognising the similar potential for severe hepatic dysfunction with the use of other thioamides.

  4. Thyroid dysfunction in children receiving neck irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atahan, I.L.; Yildiz, F.; Oezyar, E.; Uzal, D.

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid function was studied in 46 long-term survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's disease with a median follow-up time of 10.5 years. The mean age of the patients at the time of treatment was 8 years. Treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in seven patients and combined radiation and chemotherapy in 39 patients. The radiotherapy dose to the thyroid gland was less than 2000 cGy in one, 2000-5000 cGy in 15, 2500-3000 cGy in 17, and greater than 3000 cGy in 13 patients. Evaluation consisted of clinical examination and thyroid function tests of total and free triiodothyronine, thyroxin, arid thyroid stimulating hormone levels. Twenty-one of 46 patients (45.6%) showed thyroid function abnormalities, however only nine of them had diffuse or nodular hyperplasia on physical examination. Risk factors of age, chemotherapy schema, total radiation dose, and dose per fraction did not significantly influence the incidence of thyroid dysfunction. (author)

  5. Post partum lymphocytic thyroiditis in North Indian population: a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Taneja, Vijay; Bansal, J.K.; Khanna, C.M.; Sharma, Manisha

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty one Indian women from Delhi and surrounding territory were prospectively evaluated to determine the frequency of post-partum thyroiditis upto 12 weeks of postpartum. Thirty one (11.8%) of the 261 cases included in our study developed thyroid disease. Twenty four (77%) of the patients who developed thyroiditis were found to have high titres of thyroid antibodies. Of these 24 patients, 21 (67.7%) tested positive for antimicrosomal antibodies and 17 (54.8%) tested positive for antithyroglobulin antibodies. Patients were found to have a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction. Transient hypothyroidism developed in 17 patients, I patient developed persistent hypothyroidism, 7 had transient thyrotoxicosis and 6 developed euthyroid goiters. Twenty two patients had goiters ranging from grade OB to grade II. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in 20 patients, while 2 had colloid goiter. It is concluded from our study that there is a significant incidence of post partum thyroid disease in the female population representative of North India, and most of the patients (93.5%) develop transient thyroid disorder. (author)

  6. Thyroid dysfunction in hepatitis C individuals treated with interferon-alpha and ribavirin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C (HCV is now the main cause of chronic hepatic disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several extrahepatic diseases have been associated with chronic HCV infection, and in most cases appear to be directly related to the viral infection. Thyroid disorders are common in patients with chronic HCV. Some patients with chronic hepatitis C experience thyroid problems, and thyroid dysfunction may also be a side effect of interferon-based treatment. The principal risk factor for developing thyroid disease in the course of antiviral therapy is the previous positivity for anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase especially in older women. Screening for autoantibodies and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended before, during and after interferon-alpha treatment, and patients should be informed of the risk of thyroid dysfunction. This review includes a summary of thyroid disease associated with chronic HCV infection, interferon-alpha and ribavirin for treatment of HCV and potential to induce thyroid dysfunction.

  7. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and evaluation of its results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Taşkesen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aim to evaluate obstetric outcomes of the women with thyroid dysfunction than the normal pregnant women.Materials and methos: In our study, 633 women between the ages of 18 to 35 who admitted to Kovancılar State Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic for pregnancy follow-up between January 2010 and January 2011 were evaluated. Serum thyroid - stimulating hormones (TSH, free tri-iyodotironin (T3, free thyroxine (T4 levels for all patients were studied. Antithyroidal peroxidase (anti-TPO and Anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg parameters were measured if they were necessary. The relationship between thyroid functions and complications such as eclampsia, preeclampsia, maternal anemia, postpartum hemorrhage, fetal anomalies, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia was examined.Results: Hypothyroidism was found 18 of cases and hyperthyroidism was found 4 of them. The mean age of patients in the study was 26.42 (± 8.42. The mean values were 1.86 ± 0.19 μIU/mL for TSH, 1.15 ± 0.29 ng/mL for free T4 and 2.90 ± 0.31 pg/mL for free T3 respectively. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (9 cases, 50 % was the most frequent etiology for patients with hypothyroidism. Other etiologic factors for hypothyroidism were found to be for 4 cases as (22.2%, iatrogenic (previously undergone thyroidectomy and 5 cases as (37.8% a lack of iodine. Maternal anemia was observed in 5 (27.78% cases with hypothyroidism. Preeclampsia was observed 16.67% in patients with hypothyroidism.Conclusion: Observed thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women may cause serious maternal and fetal complications. For disorders of thyroid function during pregnancy, to provide the necessary treatment at the appropriate time is important to prevent complications of mother and fetus. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:196-201

  8. Thyroid dysfunction following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.L.; Tiver, K.W.; Boyages, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of hypothyroidism (both subclinical and clinical) following external beam radiotherapy to the whole of the thyroid gland in the treatment of squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: One hundred and four patients who had completed radiotherapy 30 days to 5 years earlier (84 patients) or who were scheduled for radiotherapy (20 patients) had a single measurement of serum-free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone levels between August 1991 and May 1992. Results: None of the 20 patients assessed prior to treatment showed thyroid dysfunction. Twenty of 84 (23.8%) previously treated patients had subclinical (9.5%) or clinical (14.3%) hypothyroidism. By 5 years, up to 40% of patients may become hypothyroid. Thyroid underactivity was significantly more common in patients having both laryngectomy (including hemi-thyroidectomy) and radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone (p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism had not been suspected clinically in any patient tested. Conclusion: In view of the frequency and potential morbidity of this complication, thyroid function testing should become a routine part of posttreatment follow-up for these patients

  9. Screening for Thyroid Dysfunction in Pregnancy: Is It Worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lazarus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high incidence of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy resulting in adverse maternal (miscarriages, anaemia in pregnancy, preeclampsia, abruptio placenta and post-partum haemorrhage and fetal effects (premature birth, low birth weight, increased neonatal respiratory distress which may justify screening for thyroid function during early pregnancy with interventional levothyroxine therapy for thyroid hypofunction. There is a greater prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in women with delivery before 32 weeks and there is even an association between thyroid autoimmunity and adverse obstetric outcome, which is independent of thyroid function. Higher maternal TSH levels even within the normal reference range are associated with an increased risk of miscarriages, fetal and neonatal distress and preterm delivery. There are few prospective randomised trials to substantiate the benefit of screening and the recently reported CATS study did not show a benefit in child IQ at age 3 years. Nevertheless there seems to be a case for screening to prevent adverse obstetric outcomes. The clinical epidemiological evidence base does not justify universal screening at the present time. However, it is probable that more evidence will be produced which may alter this view in the future.

  10. Neonatal goiter with congenital thyroid dysfunction in two infants diagnosed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Mutsuko [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University, Seibu Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa-ken 216-8511 (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Hayakawa, Minako [Department of Radiology, St. Marianna University, Seibu Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Aikyou, Miho; Doi, Hiromi [Department of Pediatrics, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    It is essential to diagnose thyroid dysfunction at an early stage because congenital hypothyroidism (CH) represents one of the most common preventable causes of delayed physical and psychological development, including mental retardation. US evaluates the shape of the thyroid gland. CT and scintigraphic examinations demonstrate iodine metabolism of the thyroid, but there is associated radiation exposure. We encountered two cases of congenital goiter, in which MRI was very helpful in confirming thyroid dysfunction and was very useful in making an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Neonatal goiter with congenital thyroid dysfunction in two infants diagnosed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Mutsuko; Miyazaki, Osamu; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Hayakawa, Minako; Aikyou, Miho; Doi, Hiromi

    2004-01-01

    It is essential to diagnose thyroid dysfunction at an early stage because congenital hypothyroidism (CH) represents one of the most common preventable causes of delayed physical and psychological development, including mental retardation. US evaluates the shape of the thyroid gland. CT and scintigraphic examinations demonstrate iodine metabolism of the thyroid, but there is associated radiation exposure. We encountered two cases of congenital goiter, in which MRI was very helpful in confirming thyroid dysfunction and was very useful in making an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Frailty Among Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgini, Vanessa S.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Both subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty are common among older individuals, but data on the relationship between these 2 conditions are conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty and the 5 frailty subdomains (sarcopenia, weakness, slowness, exhaustion, and low activity). Setting and Design: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study is a prospective cohort study. Participants: Men older than 65 years (n = 1455) were classified into 3 groups of thyroid status: subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 26, 1.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 102, 7.0%), and euthyroidism (n = 1327, 91.2%). Main Outcome Measures: Frailty was defined using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study Index: men with 3 or more criteria were considered frail, men with 1 to 2 criteria were considered intermediately frail, and men with no criteria were considered robust. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between baseline thyroid function and the 3 categories of frailty status (robust/intermediate/frail) as well as the prospective association between baseline thyroid function and subsequent frailty status and mortality after a 5-year follow-up. Results: At baseline, compared with euthyroid participants, men with subclinical hyperthyroidism had an increased likelihood of greater frailty status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.34), particularly among men aged hyperthyroidism were not consistently associated with overall frailty status or frailty components. Conclusion: Among community-dwelling older men, subclinical hyperthyroidism, but not subclinical hypothyroidism, is associated with increased odds of prevalent but not incident frailty. PMID:26495751

  13. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  14. 2018 European Thyroid Association (ETA) Guidelines for the Management of Amiodarone-Associated Thyroid Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi; Bogazzi, Fausto; Chiovato, Luca; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Links, Thera P; Vanderpump, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Treatment with amiodarone is associated with changes in thyroid function tests, but also with thyroid dysfunction (amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, AIH, and amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, AIT). Both AIH and AIT may develop in apparently normal thyroid glands or in the presence of underlying thyroid abnormalities. AIH does not require amiodarone withdrawal, and is treated with levothyroxine replacement if overt, whereas subclinical forms may be followed without treatment. Two main types of AIT are recognized: type 1 AIT (AIT 1), a form of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism occurring in nodular goitres or latent Graves disease, and type 2 AIT (AIT 2), resulting from destructive thyroiditis in a normal thyroid gland. Mixed/indefinite forms exist due to both pathogenic mechanisms. AIT 1 is best treated with thionamides that may be combined for a few weeks with sodium perchlorate to make the thyroid gland more sensitive to thionamides. AIT 2 is treated with oral glucocorticoids. Once euthyroidism has been restored, AIT 2 patients are followed up without treatment, whereas AIT 1 patients should be treated with thyroidectomy or radioiodine. Mixed/indefinite forms of AIT are treated with thionamides. Oral glucocorticoids can be added from the beginning if a precise diagnosis is uncertain, or after a few weeks if response to thionamides alone is poor. The decision to continue or to stop amiodarone in AIT should be individualized in relation to cardiovascular risk stratification and taken jointly by specialist cardiologists and endocrinologists. In the presence of rapidly deteriorating cardiac conditions, emergency thyroidectomy may be required for all forms of AIT.

  15. STUDY OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Thyroid dysfunction in elderly is not uncommon. Thyroid abnormalities were more among females than in males. Clinical diagnosis is difficult to make but Thyroid Function Tests always help in diagnosing the disease. Subclinical state is equally common as clinical state in elderly population. As the age advances the incidence of thyroid disorders increase. The study was undertaken with an objective to study the spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in elderly and to correlate clinical symptoms with abnormal thyroid function. Thyroid disorders were present in 26%, overt hypothyroidism in 12%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 8% cases, hyperthyroidism in 3% and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 3% patients was noted. In this study, 36 patients were males and 64 were females. Females (20% had high incidence of thyroid disorders than males (6%.

  16. Amiodarone-induced secondary thyroid dysfunctions in children

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    Larisa A. Balykova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The choice of effective and safe antiarrhytmic therapy for children and adolescents is relevant issue for public health. The difficulty in choising therpeutic tactics is caused by the variety of formation of arrhythmias and the side effects of drugs. Materials and Methods: The condition of thyroid system in 45 children (20 girls, 25 boys suffering from disturbances of a rhythm within a year after the end of treatment by Amiodaronum is analyzed. The average age of the surveyed patients was 8,26 ± 0,9 years. A comprehensive examination including an assessment of a hormonal profile (a thyroxin (T4, triodothyronine (T3, thyrotrophic hormone (TTG, antibodies to a thyroid peroxidase and a thyreoglobulin (AT to TPO and TG, ultrasound examination (US of a thyroid gland, a standard electrocardiography at rest (ECG and the Holter monitoring (HM before, in 3, 6 and 12 months of therapy was conducted. Results: It has been established that prescription of Amiodarone was followed by changes in the level the thyroid’s hormones, but in most cases within normal values. Thyroidopathya (subclinical are more often were diagnosed for three patients. In 4.4 % of cases the hypothyroid and in 2.2 % of cases the thyrotoxicosis were detected. Discussion and Conclusions: It was shown that reception of medicine resulted in changes the sizes of a thyroid gland, but rarely followed by violations of functions.

  17. Thyroid dysfunction in the era of precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan C; Díez, Juan J; Cooper, David S

    2016-01-01

    The launching of the Precision Medicine Initiative by the President of the United States in January 2015 was an invitation for all healthcare professionals to review their practice. This call should stimulate thyroidologists working in different areas (from basic research or epidemiology to the frontline of the clinical arena or to those designing public health programs) to be aware of this new outlook. The aim of the initiative is to eradicate imprecision in estimating the probability of a correct diagnosis, to be as sure as possible of the most effective treatment, and to maximize the chances of a successful outcome. This paper summarizes some of the current challenges faced by endocrinologists in the field of thyroid dysfunction, and illustrates how precision medicine may improve diagnosis and therapy in the future. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction in Non-Interferon Treated Hepatitis C Patients Residing in Hepatitis Endemic Area

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    Nayab Batool

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Association of thyroid dysfunction (TD with interferon treatment of HCV is well known to clinicians. However, a few studies have highlighted the role of hepatitis C virus per se in the development of TD. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of TD in non-interferon treated HCV infected patients referred for thyroid function testing. Patients and Methods. Among 557 ELISA-positive HCV patients 446 (341 females, 105 males were selected for this study. Serums FT4, FT3, and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay method. Results. TD was detected in 15.2% of patients: 9.0% hypothyroidism and 6.3% hyperthyroidism. In increasing order subclinical hypothyroidism, overt hypothyroidism, overt hyperthyroidism, and subclinical hyperthyroidism were found in 4.7%, 4.3%, 3.6%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Overall TD was more common in female than in male HCV patients but the difference was not significant (16.1% versus 12.4%; p=0.648. Hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were slightly more common in female and overall hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism in male patients but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The incidence of TD was relatively high in patients above 36 years (median age but the difference was not statistically significant either collectively or in gender base groups (p>0.05. Conclusion. Prior to interferon treatment, HCV infection itself causes biochemical thyroid dysfunction in 15.2% of local HCV patients.

  19. Is autoimmune thyroid dysfunction a risk factor for gestational diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Corrales, Eider; Andrada, Patricia; Aubá, María; Ruiz Zambrana, Alvaro; Guillén Grima, Francisco; Salvador, Javier; Escalada, Javier; Galofré, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Some recent studies have related autoimmune thyroid dysfunction and gestational diabetes (GD). The common factor for both conditions could be the existence of pro-inflammatory homeostasis. The study objective was therefore to assess whether the presence of antithyroid antibodies is related to the occurrence of GD. Fifty-six pregnant women with serum TSH levels ≥ 2.5 mU/mL during the first trimester were retrospectively studied. Antithyroid antibodies were measured, and an O'Sullivan test was performed. GD was diagnosed based on the criteria of the Spanish Group on Diabetes and Pregnancy. Positive antithyroid antibodies were found in 21 (37.50%) women. GD was diagnosed in 15 patients, 6 of whom (10.71%) had positive antibodies, while 9 (16.07%) had negative antibodies. Data were analyzed using exact logistic regression by LogXact-8 Cytel; no statistically significant differences were found between GD patients with positive and negative autoimmunity (OR = 1.15 [95%CI = 0.28-4.51]; P=1.00). The presence of thyroid autoimmunity in women with TSH above the recommended values at the beginning of pregnancy is not associated to development of GD. However, GD prevalence was higher in these patients as compared to the Spanish general population, suggesting the need for closer monitoring in pregnant women with TSH levels ≥ 2.5 mU/mL. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and the Risk for Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Christina D.; Blum, Manuel R.; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Christine; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P.; Aujesky, Drahomir; Bauer, Douglas C.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures conflict. Purpose To assess the risk for hip and nonspine fractures associated with subclinical thyroid dysfunction among prospective cohorts. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946 to 16 March 2014) and reference lists of retrieved articles without language restriction. Study Selection Two physicians screened and identified prospective cohorts that measured thyroid function and followed participants to assess fracture outcomes. Data Extraction One reviewer extracted data using a standardized protocol, and another verified data. Both reviewers independently assessed methodological quality of the studies. Data Synthesis The 7 population-based cohorts of heterogeneous quality included 50 245 participants with 1966 hip and 3281 nonspine fractures. In random-effects models that included the 5 higher-quality studies, the pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism versus euthyrodism were 1.38 (95% CI, 0.92 to 2.07) for hip fractures and 1.20 (CI, 0.83 to 1.72) for nonspine fractures without statistical heterogeneity (P = 0.82 and 0.52, respectively; I2 = 0%). Pooled estimates for the 7 cohorts were 1.26 (CI, 0.96 to 1.65) for hip fractures and 1.16 (CI, 0.95 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures. When thyroxine recipients were excluded, the HRs for participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism were 2.16 (CI, 0.87 to 5.37) for hip fractures and 1.43 (CI, 0.73 to 2.78) for nonspine fractures. For participants with subclinical hypothyroidism, HRs from higher-quality studies were 1.12 (CI, 0.83 to 1.51) for hip fractures and 1.04 (CI, 0.76 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures (P for heterogeneity = 0.69 and 0.88, respectively; I2 = 0%). Limitations Selective reporting cannot be excluded. Adjustment for potential common confounders varied and was not adequately done across all studies. Conclusion Subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with

  1. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, S.P.; Karamoskos, P.; Schlicht, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common

  3. Myocardial ultrasonic tissue characterization in patients with thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt André

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural myocardial abnormalities have been extensively documented in hypothyroidism. Experimental studies in animal models have also shown involvement of thyroid hormones in gene expression of myocardial collagen. This study was planned to investigate the ability of ultrasonic tissue characterization, as evaluated by integrated backscatter (IBS, to early identify myocardial involvement in thyroid dysfunction. Patients and Methods We studied 15 patients with hyperthyroidism (HYPER, 8 patients with hypothyroidism (HYPO, 14 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and 19 normal (N subjects, who had normal LV systolic function. After treatment, 10 HYPER, 6 HYPO, and 8 SCH patients were reevaluated. IBS images were obtained and analyzed in parasternal short axis (papillary muscle level view, at left ventricular (LV posterior wall. The following IBS variables were analyzed: 1 the corrected coefficient (CC of IBS, obtained by dividing IBS intensity by IBS intensity measured in a rubber phantom, using the same equipment adjustments, at the same depth; 2 cardiac cyclic variation (CV of IBS - peak-to-peak difference between maximal and minimal values of IBS during cardiac cycle; 3 cardiac cyclic variation index (CVI of IBS - percentual relationship between the cyclic variation (CV and the mean value of IBS intensity. Results CC of IBS was significantly larger (p Conclusions CC of IBS was able to differentiate cardiac involvement in patients with overt HYPO and HYPER who had normal LV systolic function. These early myocardial structural abnormalities were partially reversed by drug therapy in HYPER group. On the other hand, although mean IBS intensity tended to be slightly larger in patients with SCH as compared to N, this difference was not statistical significant.

  4. CHANGES IN TOOTH HARD TISSUE MINERALI-ZATION AND BLOOD RHEOLOGY IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS AND THOSE WITH THYROID DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriashvili, S; Nikolaishvili, M; Mantskava, M; Momtsemlidze, N; Franchuk, K

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid dysfunction causes spreading and development of caries in the teeth and changes in periodontal tissues. In addition, it causes changes in peripheral blood flow and mineralization, local transcapillary metabolism causes changes in blood rheology. There are only few works in this direction and, therefore, the purpose of our research was to find out how the mineralization and the rheological properties of blood are changed in lesion of periodontal tissue on a background of thyroid dysfunction. Accordingly, the stomatological study was conducted in 75 adolescents aged 12-18 years by the standard method, recommended by the World Health Organization. According to the study, 45 patients out of them suffered from thyroid dysfunction, in particular from hypothyroidism. The comparator group consisted of 30 children of the same age without endocrine abnormalities. By the gained results it is noted that in spite of different type lesions due to dental caries, the caries incidence and intensiveness is higher in children with hypothyroidism as compared to healthy children. Decrease in saliva excretion rate and increase in oral fluid viscosity was found in children with thyroid and endocrine diseases as compared to healthy children. In children with endocrine disorders concurrent increase in calcium content (1,43±0,08 mmol/l) and decrease in inorganic phosphate concentrations (4,54±0,15 mmol/l) is reliably established. In children with thyroid disfunction and while periodontal tissue pathology, rheological features are disordered more dramatically than in healthy children. Therefore, it can be said that the changes in the adolescents' thyroid function is one of the reasons for formation of periodontal tissue diseases.Therefore, at detecting even the first signs of the periodontal tissue diseases, it is desirable in adolescents to assess the thyroid functional condition, since it will be the precondition for effective treatment and management of dental disease, in

  5. Thyroid dysfunction in a cohort of South African children with Down ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While international studies show thyroid dysfunction occurs more commonly in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) than in the general population, there is a paucity of available data from sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives. To document the range of thyroid function in a cohort of South African children with DS, ...

  6. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-01-01

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed

  7. Thyroid dysfunction after mantle irradiation of Hodgkin`s disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, V.S.; Liew, K.H.; Crennan, E.C.; D`Costa, I.M. [Peter MacCallum Caner Institute, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology; Quong, G. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, West Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1998-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction can develop in patients with Hodgkin`s disease who are treated with mantle irradiation. During the period 1970-89, the records of 320 patients who received mantle irradiation and who had thyroid function tests (TFT) were retrospectively reviewed. The median age was 30 years (range, 7-69 years). The median mantle and thyroid dose was 36 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy) and 39.8 Gy (range, 32-65 Gy), respectively. Overall thyroid dysfunction was present in 39% of the patients. Clinical hypothyroidism was seen in 10% and biochemical hypothyroidism was noted in 25%. Hyperthyroidism was found in 4% of patients. Thyroid nodules had developed in six patients (2%), of which those in four patients were malignant. Age, sex, histological subtype, stage of disease, dose, Iymphangiogram and treatment with chemotherapy were not significant factors in the development of thyroid dysfunction. The narrow dose range prevented adequate analysis of dose effect. The results indicate that the incidence of thyroid abnormalities is high enough to warrant regular TFT assessment with pre-irradiation levels and follow-up testing for life because the development of abnormalities can occur many years later. Thyroid examination should form part of the routine follow-up examination and any abnormality should be promptly investigated. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induced Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review of Its Incidence, Pathophysiology, Clinical Relevance, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ahmadieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI belong to a new class of molecular multitargeted anticancer therapy which targets different growth factor receptors and hence attenuates cancer cell survival and growth. Since their introduction as adjunct treatment for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, a number of reports have demonstrated that TKI can induce thyroid dysfunction which was especially more common with sunitinib maleate. Many mechanisms with respect to this adverse effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been proposed including their induction of thyroiditis, capillary regression in the thyroid gland, antithyroid peroxidase antibody production, and their ability to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Of interest is the observation that TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction may actually be protective as it was shown to improve overall survival, and it was suggested that it may have a prognostic value. Followup on thyroid function tests while patients are maintained on tyrosine kinase inhibitor is strongly recommended. When thyroid dysfunction occurs, appropriate treatment should be individualized depending on patients symptoms and thyroid stimulating hormone level.

  9. Thyroid dysfunction as a late effect in childhood medulloblastoma: a comparison of hyperfractionated versus conventionally fractionated craniospinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardi, Umberto; Corrias, Andrea; Einaudi, Silvia; Genitori, Lorenzo; Sandri, Alessandro; Cordero Di Montezemolo, Luca; Besenzon, Luigi; Madon, Enrico; Urgesi, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Primary hypothyroidism is a common sequela of craniospinal radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood medulloblastoma. Due to the strong radiobiologic rationale, hyperfractionation can reduce the delayed effects of radiation injury. Methods and Materials: The authors compared the incidence of thyroid dysfunction after conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (Group A, n=20 patients) vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy (Group B, n=12 patients) in a group of pediatric patients with posterior fossa primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Results: The mean age at the time of tumor diagnosis was 7.4 years in Group A and 8.4 years in Group B. Thyroid function was evaluated yearly, with ultrasonographic examination every 2 years. The patients were followed after diagnosis for a mean of 10.8 years for Group A and 6.0 years for Group B. Approximately 80% of the Group A (16/20) and 33.3% of the Group B (4/12) patients developed primary hypothyroidism within a similar period after irradiation (4.2 vs. 3.5 years, respectively). Analysis by cumulative incidence function demonstrated a significant difference in the risk of developing thyroid dysfunction between these two groups of patients (p<0.05). Ultrasonography showed reduced thyroid volume in 7 Group A patients and structural changes in 21 patients (17 Group A, 4 Group B cases); a thyroid benign nodule was detected in 2 Group A patients. Conclusions: The current study findings suggest that the use of hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy in the treatment of childhood medulloblastoma is associated with a lower risk of these patients' developing late thyroid dysfunction

  10. Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Euthyroid Nodular Goiter Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelius, Edy; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lo, Shih-Chang; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lai, Yung-Rung; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2016-08-01

    The risks of thyroid dysfunction after iodinated contrast media exposure in patients with euthyroid nodular goiter are largely unknown. This observational, retrospective cohort study included a random selection of one million people in Taiwan. All patients with iodinated contrast media exposure during this study period were selected. Patients with euthyroid nodular goiter were identified as cases, while patients without thyroid nodule were selected as controls. We followed these patients until the first event of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure. A total of 334 cases and 2672 matched controls were selected in this study. The mean age of cases and controls were 58.6 and 58.4 years old, and mean follow-up durations were 2.1 and 2 years respectively. After adjustment, patients with euthyroid nodular goiter had a higher risk of thyroid dysfunction (hazard ratio 5.43, [confidence interval (CI) 3.01-9.80]) compared with controls after iodinated contrast media exposure. In the subgroup analysis, the risks of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in cases compared with controls were 5.77 [CI 2.64-12.62] and 4.95 [CI 2.15-11.40] respectively. Half of the euthyroid nodular goiter cases developed thyroid dysfunction within one year after iodinated contrast media exposure. Interestingly, all thyroid-related comorbidities and drug prescriptions did not increase the risk of thyroid dysfunction. Presence of euthyroid nodular goiter was associated with higher risk of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after iodinated contrast media exposure.

  11. Thyroid dysfunction after radiation therapy to the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejima, Toshinori; Hirota, Saeko; Obayashi, Kayoko; Takada, Yoshiki; Kimura, Shuji; Yoshida, Shoji.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the thyroid were investigated in 102 patients treated by radiation therapy to the neck. All patients had radiation ports which included the thyroid gland. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were elevated in 41 cases and the cumulative elevation rate was 52.1% in 5 years. The high frequency of elevated serum TSH levels observed in patients whose thyroid glands were included within the radiation fields (74.1%) was statistically significant compared to those whose thyroid glands were only partially included (23.4%). Among the patients whose entire thyroid glands were included within the radiation field, combination with chemotherapy increased the frequency of elevated serum TSH levels, but the increase was not statistically significant. Among 36 laryngeal cancer patients treated by only radiation therapy through a portal encompassing part of the thyroid, 4 (14%) were found to have elevated serum TSH levels. We advocate routine monitoring of thyroid functions after radiation therapy to the neck. (author)

  12. [Pharmacological approaches for correction of thyroid dysfunctions in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid diseases are closely associated with the development of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and as a consequence, the development of effective approaches for their treatment is one of the urgent problems of endocrinology. Traditionally, thyroid hormones (TH) are used to correct functions of the thyroid system. However, they are characterized by many side effects, such as their negative effect on the cardiovascular system as well as the ability of TH to enhance insulin resistance and to disturb insulin-producing function of pancreas, exacerbating thereby diabetic pathology. Therefore, the analogues of TH, selective for certain types of TH receptors, that do not have these side effects, are being developed. The peptide and low-molecular weight regulators of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, which regulate the activity of the thyroid axis at the stage of TH synthesis and secretion in thyrocytes, are being created. Systemic and intranasal administration of insulin, metformin therapy and drugs with antioxidant activity are effective for the treatment of thyroid pathology in types 1 and 2 DM. In the review, the literature data and the results of own investigations on pharmacological approaches for the treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases in patients with types 1 and 2 DM are summarized and analyzed.

  13. STUDY OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN GERIATRIC AGES AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION

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    Rajendra Prasad Suram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This study was performed to study the thyroid dysfunction in elderly patients and its clinical correlation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study, which consists of 150 patients aged more than 60 years and were admitted to Government General Hospital, Nizamabad. They were under suspicion that they were suffering from thyroid disorders and were subjected to detailed clinical examination as per proforma. Thyroid antibody test was done for those who were found to have altered thyroid functions. From these patients, demographic details, anthropometric measurements, and clinical information was collected. Serum T3, T4, and TSH levels were evaluated in the laboratory by chemiluminescence assay method. Other tests like USG/FNAC neck, CBC, RBS, Lipid profile, PS, ESR, ECG, Echo were done. INCLUSION CRITERIA 150 patients with age of above 60 years were selected who were suspected to have thyroid disorders. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Patients who were sick, who were with established thyroid disorders, who were using drugs, which alter thyroid functions, who were using thyroid supplements, who have undergone thyroid surgery, who have been on radioactive iodine therapy, who were using iodine-containing vitamins and minerals, who have undergone radiological tests. RESULTS In the present study, out of 150 patients, 82 males and 68 were females. It was found that the thyroid dysfunction is more among females (21% than in males (14%. This was seen in both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism as females have increased autoimmune diseases. Out of 150 patients, only 35% had total thyroid abnormalities. Out of 150 patients, 15% had hypothyroidism, 10% had subclinical hypothyroidism, 4% had hyperthyroidism, and 6% had subclinical hyperthyroidism. TFT always is helpful in diagnosing the disease. Hypothyroidism is more common than hyperthyroidism in elderly patients. In elderly patients, thyroid dysfunction is not uncommon. Quarter of the

  14. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute atrial fibrillation attended at a cardiology emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Neuhaus Barbisan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Atrial fibrillation occurs frequently in patients with thyrotoxicosis, while it has low prevalence in adults of the general population. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in subjects with atrial fibrillation is 0 to 24%, a wide variation that is attributed to the different methodologies applied. However, continuous use of amiodarone in patients with previous atrial fibrillation may interfere with these prevalence rates. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we present the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in adult patients who presented at a cardiac emergency room with acute atrial fibrillation, using a sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH assay and triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 determination. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Emergency room of a tertiary care facility. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 72 patients with atrial fibrillation who presented at the emergency room not more than 48 hours after its onset. PROCEDURES: A standardized questionnaire and 12-lead electrocardiogram were applied, and T3, T4 and TSH were determined. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH, T3 and T4 determination. RESULTS: Among these patients, 16.6% had altered thyroid function tests: 6.9% had hyperthyroidism, 5.6% hypothyroidism and 4.2% had increased T4 levels, by means of amiodarone use. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in our study, especially hyperthyroidism, suggests that routine thyroid testing with sensitivethyroid-stimulating hormone assay is required in patients with acute atrial fibrillation.

  15. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in the first postpartum year in women with diabetes mellitus type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallas, P. Robert J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Bakker, Karel; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and in the first postpartum year (postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD)) in women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is known to be higher than in the general population. To assess prevalence, incidence and risk factors in The

  16. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in the first postpartum year in women with diabetes mellitus type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallas, PRJ; Stolk, RP; Bakker, Krista; Endert, E; Wiersinga, WM

    2002-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and in the first postpartum year (postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD)) in women with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is known to be higher than in the general population. To assess prevalence, incidence and risk factors in The

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  18. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3±11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1±10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2±12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2±1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  19. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Levi, Ana M; Rogado, Jacobo; Sanchez-Torres, Jose Miguel; Colomer, Ramón; Marazuela, Mónica

    2018-06-14

    Nivolumab is an anti-cancer monoclonal antibody that inhibits PD1 and modulates T-cell response. It has been shown to significantly improve survival in several types of cancer, but clinical trials have also reported an increased risk of developing immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Endocrine IRAEs may be particularly relevant. To comprehensively evaluate the clinical presentation of endocrine IRAEs in patients with lung cancer treated with nivolumab. Potential risk factors are analyzed, and strategies for IRAE management are proposed. Forty consecutive patients treated with nivolumab for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were studied, paying particular attention to development of endocrine IRAEs (thyroid, hypophyseal, adrenal, or pancreatic) and clinical outcome. Thyroid function changes were found in 9 patients (22.5%), of which six developed hypothyroidism and three had hyperthyroidism after a median of 3.8 and 2.3 cycles of nivolumab respectively. Only one patient had thyroid-related symptoms. Thyroid autoimmunity was negative in all cases. Hyperthyroid patients showed no uptake in iodine scintigraphy, and their hormone values returned to normal in less than six months. Nivolumab was discontinued for toxicity in one patient. One patient with hyperthyroidism also developed autoimmune diabetes, and one patient with hypothyroidism also had hypogonadism. After a median follow-up of 7.6 months, 25 patients (62.5%) showed response to nivolumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no differences between patients who developed thyroid changes and those who did not. Thyroid changes after treatment with nivolumab are common and warrant active laboratory monitoring. The underlying mechanisms and their relevance deserve further research. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal Thyroid Dysfunction and Risk of Seizure in the Child: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Linding Andersen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy in the child. Moreover, hypothyroidism diagnosed after birth of the child was associated with a significant increased risk of neonatal and febrile seizures. No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis prior to birth of the child. We speculate if some degree of maternal thyroid dysfunction was already present during the pregnancy in mothers diagnosed after birth of the child and if this untreated condition may present a neurodevelopmental risk.

  1. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and risk of seizure in the child: a Danish nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy in the child. Moreover, hypothyroidism diagnosed after birth of the child was associated with a significant increased risk of neonatal and febrile seizures. No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis prior to birth of the child. We speculate if some degree of maternal thyroid dysfunction was already present during the pregnancy in mothers diagnosed after birth of the child and if this untreated condition may present a neurodevelopmental risk.

  2. Thyroid function, Alzheimer's disease and postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a tale of dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafrica, Federica; Fodale, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are commonly present conditions in adults, leading to neurological symptoms, affecting the central and peripheral nervous system, and to neurocognitive impairment. Several studies investigated a possible association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thyroid dysfunctions. Increasing evidence supports an extensive interrelationship between thyroid hormones and the cholinergic system, which is selectively and early affected in AD. Moreover, thyroid hormones negatively regulate expression of the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP), which plays a key role in the development of AD. A condition, the so called euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), characterized by reduced serum T_{3} and T_{4} concentrations without increased serum thyroid stimulation hormone secretion, occurs within hours after major surgery. After surgery, elderly patients often exhibit a transient, reversible state of cognitive alterations. Delirium occurs in 10-26% of general medical patients over 65, and it is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Modifications in thyroid hormone functioning may take place as a consequence of psycho-physical stress caused by surgery, and probably as a consequence of reduced conversion of T4 into T3 by the liver engaged in metabolizing anesthetic drugs. Therefore, modifications of thyroid hormones post-surgery, might play a role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Diastolic Dysfunction is Common in Survivors of Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Marielle S. Klein; Bocca, Gianni; Hummel, Yoran M.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; van Dam, Eveline W. C. M.; Gietema, Jourik A.; Havekes, Bas; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Peeters, Robin P.; Plukker, John T. M.; Ronckers, Cecile M.; van Santen, Hanneke M.; van der Meer, Peter; Links, Thera P.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Whether pediatric patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) are at risk of developing treatment-related adverse effects on cardiac function is unknown. We therefore studied in long-term survivors of pediatric DTC the prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and atrial fibrillation

  4. [Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. Consensus document. Andalusian Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SAEN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Fernández, P; González-Romero, S; Martín Hernández, T; Navarro González, E; Velasco López, I; Millón Ramírez, M C

    2015-09-01

    A position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy has been agreed on behalf of The Sociedad Andaluza de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SAEN), based on a review of the literature to date and all good clinical practice guidelines. The document is set out in different sections as regards the diagnosis and treatment of, overt and subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinaemia and postpartum thyroiditis. It also justifies the implementation of universal screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy, and provides practitioners who care for these patients with tool for rational decision making. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Thyroid Dysfunctions in Sudanese Patients with Vitiligo | Osman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Vitiligo is a chronic acquired skin condition that causes loss of pigment, resulting in irregular pale patches of skin. The precise cause of vitiligo is not fully understood. The autoimmune base of the disease is supported by the frequent observation that several autoimmune disorders, particularly thyroid diseases ...

  6. Thyroid Dysfunction Does Not Affect the Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Deniz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and thyroid dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Material and Method: A total of 261 postmenopausal women, who were examined between 2006 and 2008, were included in this prospective cohort study. Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3 (triiodothyronine, free T4 (tiroxin, and thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin antibody -antiTG Ab; anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody - antiTPO Ab were measured in all subjects. The subjects were classified into four groups: hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, and euthyroid(control. Bone mineral densities (BMDs from the lumbar 1–4 (L 1–4 vertebrae and the femoral neck regions of interest were measured using the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method and used to yield T-score values which were compared between groups. Results: The mean L1 – 4 T-score was 1.26 ± 1.25 in 56 cases (21.5% with hypothyroidism ; -1.46 ± 1.36 in 42 (16.1% cases with hyperthyroidism and -1.51 ± 1.22 in 37 cases (14.2% with autoimmune thyroiditis . The mean L1 – 4 T-score of the control group that consisted of 126 (48.3% cases was -1.28 ± 1.20. The mean femoral neck T-score was -0.31 ±1.15 in hypothyroid group; -0.80 ±1.41 in hyperthyroid group and -0.60 ±1.19 in cases with autoimmune thyroiditis . The mean femoral neck T-score of the control group was -0.55 ±1.08. When the T-scores of the entire L1 – 4 region and those of the femoral neck were compared, the values were not significantly different between the four patient groups (p = 0.680 and p = 0.258, respectively. Discussion: The present study indicated that thyroid dysfunction does not significantly affect BMD in postmenopausal women with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or autoimmune thyroiditis. This result suggests that thyroid dysfunctions do not have a significant role in the development of osteoporosis during the postmenopausal period, perhaps because

  7. Risk Factors for Thyroid Dysfunction among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Highly Diabetes Mellitus Prevalent Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metab Al-Geffari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and thyroid dysfunction found to exist simultaneously. In this regard, the present study looked into the prevalence of different forms of thyroid dysfunction and their risk factors among Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients. Methodology. A cross-sectional retrospective randomized hospital-based study of 411 Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients of >25 years of age was conducted to test the prevalence of different types of thyroid dysfunction and their risk factors. Results. The prevalence of different types of thyroid dysfunction is 28.5%, of which 25.3% had hypothyroidism, where 15.3%, 9.5%, and 0.5% are clinical, subclinical, and overt hypothyroidism, respectively. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism is 3.2%, of which subclinical cases accounted for 2.7% and overt hyperthyroidism accounted for 0.5%. Risk factors for thyroid dysfunction among Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients are family history of thyroid disease, female gender, and duration of diabetes of >10 years, while the risk was not significant in patients with history of goiter and patients aged >60 years. Smoking and parity show a nonsignificant reduced risk. Conclusion. Thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent among Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients, and the most significant risk factors are family history of thyroid disease, female gender, and >10 years duration of diabetes.

  8. Psycho-emotional state of rats under thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Е.М.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous behavioral activity of white rats and concentration of glutamate, glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the neocortex in experimental hyper- and hypothyroidism was investigated. It was found that an excess of thyroid hormones was accompanied by emotional and anxiolytic effects in terms of reducing duration of grooming by 37% and increasing number of transitions and the time spent in the illuminated cross-shaped maze arms (26 % and 35%. Such behavior changes occurred against a background of increasing concentrations of GABA by 52 % (p<0,05 in the cortex of animals with experimental hyperthyroidism. Perhaps, the psycho-emotional state of the organism is modulated by thyroid hormones through the GABA - ergic system of neocortex.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative salivary changes and subjective oral dryness among patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Meghal Mehul; Vassandacoumara, Vaishnavee

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature regarding the effects of thyroid disorders on the oral cavity by influencing the salivary gland function. This study aims to understand the qualitative and quantitative changes that thyroid disorder can cause in the salivary function. After obtaining ethical clearance, 46 consecutive newly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, along with 45 age-and sex-matched controls. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and buffering capacity of the whole saliva were studied in addition to subjective oral dryness in the study participants. The independent t-test was employed to compare the means between the two groups and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the goodness of fit. The findings showed that females are more affected with thyroid disorders and that hypothyroidism is more commonly reported than hyperthyroidism. A significant reduction in the salivary flow rates and buffering capacity was observed among the affected group compared to the controls, whereas the salivary pH did not show significant differences between genders and also between the case and control groups. A feeling of subjective oral dryness was perceived by many affected patients. The study was able to establish an association between thyroid dysfunction and salivary gland function. We hope that this study leads to more high-impact research in this field as salivary diagnostics is gaining more popularity with every passing day.

  10. Neuromuscular findings in thyroid dysfunction: a prospective clinical and electrodiagnostic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyff, R.; Van den Bosch, J.; Laman, D; van Loon, B.-J. P.; Linssen, W.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate neuromuscular signs and symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
METHODS—A prospective cohort study was performed in adult patients with newly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction. Patients were evaluated clinically with hand held dynamometry and with electrodiagnosis. The clinical features of weakness and sensory signs and the biochemical data were evaluated during treatment.
RESULTS—In hypothyroid patients 79% had neuromuscular complaints, 38% had clinical weakness (manual muscle strength testing) in one or more muscle groups, 42% had signs of sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and 29% had carpal tunnel syndrome. Serum creatine kinase did not correlate with weakness. After 1 year of treatment 13% of the patients still had weakness. In hyperthyroid patients 67% had neuromuscular symptoms, 62% had clinical weakness in at least one muscle group that correlated with FT4 concentrations, but not with serum CK. Nineteen per cent of the patients had sensory-motor axonal neuropathy and 0% had carpal tunnel syndrome. The neuromuscular signs developed rapidly, early in the course of the disorder and were severe, but resolved rapidly and completely during treatment (average time 3.6months).
CONCLUSIONS—Neuromuscular symptoms and signs were present in most patients. About 40% of the hypothyroid patients and 20% of the hyperthyroid patients had predominantly sensory signs of a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy early in the course of thyroid disease. Weakness in hyperthyroidism evolved rapidly at an early stage of the disorder and resolved completely during treatment, suggesting a functional muscle disorder. Hand held dynamometry is sensitive for the detection of weakness and for the clinical evaluation of treatment effects. Weakness in hypothyroidism is more difficult to treat, suggesting myopathy.

 PMID:10811699

  11. Effects of Thyroid Dysfunction on Reproductive Hormones in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Guo, Meng; Hu, Xusong; Weng, Xuechun; Tian, Ye; Xu, Kaili; Heng, Dai; Liu, Wenbo; Ding, Yu; Yang, Yanzhou; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-05-10

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the development of ovarian cells. Although the effects of THs on female reproduction are of great interest, the mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the effects of TH dysregulation on reproductive hormones in rats. Propylthiouracil (PTU) and L-thyroxine were administered to rats to induce hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, respectively, and the reproductive hormone profiles were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian histology was evaluated with H&E staining, and gene protein level or mRNA content was analyzed by western blotting or RT-PCR. The serum levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in both rat models were significantly decreased on day 21, although there were no significant changes at earlier time points. There were no significant differences in luteinizing hormone (LH) or progesterone levels between the treatment and the control groups. Both PTU and L-thyroxine treatments downregulated estradiol concentrations; however, the serum testosterone level was increased only in hypothyroid rats at day 21. In addition, the expression levels of FSH receptor, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were decreased in both rat models. Moreover, the onset of puberty was significantly delayed in the hypothyroid group. These results provide evidence that TH dysregulation alters reproductive hormone profiles, and that the initiation of the estrous cycle is postponed in hypothyroidism.

  12. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olmos, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Antônio-Carlos; Penalva, Daniele Queirós Fucciolo; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP). All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (free-T4) and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01). There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l) did not change the results. In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  13. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diaz-Olmos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free-T4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO. RESULTS: The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01. There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l did not change the results. CONCLUSION: In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  14. Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome and screening for hypothyroidism in children and adolescents using capillary TSH measurement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, J

    2008-02-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is more common in individuals with Down\\'s syndrome (DS) than in the general population, whose clinical features can mask the presenting signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. Biochemical screening is necessary; however, venepuncture may be difficult.

  15. Thyroid Histopathology Assessments for the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay to Detect Thyroid-active Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay (AMA) Test Guideline for the detection of substances that interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, a document was developed that provides a standardized appro...

  16. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  17. Qualitative and quantitative salivary changes and subjective oral dryness among patients with thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghal Mehul Naik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a paucity of literature regarding the effects of thyroid disorders on the oral cavity by influencing the salivary gland function. Aims: This study aims to understand the qualitative and quantitative changes that thyroid disorder can cause in the salivary function. Settings and Design: After obtaining ethical clearance, 46 consecutive newly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, along with 45 age-and sex-matched controls. Subjects and Methods: Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, pH, and buffering capacity of the whole saliva were studied in addition to subjective oral dryness in the study participants. Statistical Analysis Used: The independent t-test was employed to compare the means between the two groups and Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the goodness of fit. Results: The findings showed that females are more affected with thyroid disorders and that hypothyroidism is more commonly reported than hyperthyroidism. A significant reduction in the salivary flow rates and buffering capacity was observed among the affected group compared to the controls, whereas the salivary pH did not show significant differences between genders and also between the case and control groups. A feeling of subjective oral dryness was perceived by many affected patients. Conclusions: The study was able to establish an association between thyroid dysfunction and salivary gland function. We hope that this study leads to more high-impact research in this field as salivary diagnostics is gaining more popularity with every passing day.

  18. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation, preterm delivery, and birthweight. The Infancia y Medio Ambiente Cohort, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Gemma; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Álvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Castilla, Ane M; Basterrechea, Mikel; Iñiguez, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Blarduni, Elizabeth; Foradada, Carles M; Tardón, Adonina; Vioque, Jesús

    2015-03-01

    Maternal clinical thyroid disorders can cause reproductive complications. However, the effects of mild thyroid dysfunctions are not yet well established. The aim was to evaluate the association of maternal thyroid function during the first half of pregnancy with birthweight and preterm delivery. We analysed data on 2170 pregnant women and their children from a prospective population-based cohort study in four Spanish areas. Mid-gestation maternal serum and urine samples were gathered to determine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4 ), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Thyroid status was defined according to percentile distribution as: euthyroid (TSH and fT4 >5th and 95th percentile and fT4 normal or 95 th percentile and TSH normal), and hyperthyroidism (TSH 95th percentile). Response variables were birthweight, small and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and preterm delivery. An inverse association of fT4 and TSH with birthweight was found, the former remaining when restricted to euthyroid women. High fT4 levels were also associated with an increased risk of SGA [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 (95% CI 1.08, 1.51)]. Mean birthweight was higher in the hypothyroxinaemic group (β = 109, P < 0.01). Iodine intake and UIC were not associated with birth outcomes. High maternal fT4 levels during the first half of pregnancy were related to lower birthweight and increased risk of SGA newborns, suggesting that maternal thyroid function may affect fetal growth, even within the normal range. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Frequency of thyroid dysfunctions during interferon alpha treatment of single and combination therapy in hepatitis C virus-infected patients: a systematic review based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran

    Full Text Available Thyroid dysfunction is the commonest endocrinopathy associated with HCV infection due to interferon-based treatment. This comprehensive and systematic review presents the available evidence for newly developed thyroid antibodies and dysfunctions during interferon treatment (both single and combination in HCV patients.This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The data generated were used to analyze the risk for thyroid dysfunctions during interferon (IFN treatment in HCV patients. There was a wide range in the incidence of newly developed thyroid dysfunctions and thyroid antibodies in HCV patients during IFN treatment (both single and combination. The wide range of incidence also denoted the possibility of factors other than IFN treatment for thyroid-related abnormalities in HCV patients. These other factors include HCV viral factors, genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and patho-physiological factors. Variations in IFN dosage, treatment duration of IFN, definition/criteria followed in each study for thyroid dysfunction and irregular thyroid function testing during treatment in different studies influence the outcome of the single studies and jeopardise the validity of a pooled risk estimate of side effects of thyroid dysfunction. Importantly, reports differ as to whether the thyroid-related side effects disappear totally after withdrawal of the IFN treatment.The present review shows that there is a wide range in the incidence of newly developed thyroid dysfunctions and thyroid antibodies in IFN treated HCV patients. This is a comprehensive attempt to collate relevant data from 56 publications across several nations about IFN (both mono and combination therapy related thyroid dysfunction among HCV patients. The role of each factor in causing thyroid dysfunctions in HCV patients treated with IFN should be analyzed in detail in future studies, for a better understanding of the problem and sounder

  20. Screening for early detection of radiation-associated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Lubin, E.

    1984-01-01

    In the 1950s, approximately 20,000 Israeli children received scalp irradiation as treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp). To evaluate the necessity and feasibility of early screening of these individuals for thyroid cancer, a small pilot program was undertaken. The examination consisted of a thorough palpation of the thyroid gland and the surrounding area. A sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan and thyroid function tests were performed on individuals in whom palpation suggested a nodular abnormality. A multidisciplinary committee then made a recommendation for or against surgery. A total of 443 persons were screened, and nodular abnormalities of the thyroid were detected in 24 (5.4%). Of these persons, nine displayed symptomatology or reported knowledge of a thyroid condition; despite this, three of them were not receiving treatment. This left 18 subjects - 15 new cases and 3 previously untreated patients - needing follow-up care. Altogether nine persons were recommended for surgery, but one refused. All eight of the excised lesions were benign: four colloid nodules and four adenomas. While the screening program was feasible, the fact that no cancers were detected suggested that in a population exposed to a very low dose of radiation, thyroid screening may not be justified on a large scale.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children and its correlation with CD4 + T lymphocyte count

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    Satyakumar Thongam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals including children. Some studies have reported that thyroid dysfunction may be a marker of severity or progression of HIV. Aims: The aim was to study thyroid function in HIV-infected children with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital with Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre (Centre of Excellence of National AIDS Control Organization. Subjects and Methods: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxine (T4, and total tri-iodothyronine (T3 were analyzed in 60 pediatric HIV cases: 30 on HAART and 30 HAART naive. Correlation of T3, T4, and TSH with CD4 count was assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Data reported as mean ± standard deviation and as the number of cases and percentages. Comparison between groups was done by independent sample t-test and χ2 -test. Spearman′s correlation coefficient is used to assess the association between thyroid dysfunction and CD4 count. Results: Thyroid function abnormality was seen in five out of 30 patients in both patients on HAART or without HAART therapy. Among patients on HAART, three had hypothyroidism, and two had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. Among the HAART naive group, sub-clinical hypothyroisim was seen in four, and one had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. None of the patients had clinical features of thyroid dysfunction. There is a highly significant correlation (P = 0.01 between TSH and CD4 count. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is quite common among pediatric HIV cases. An inverse correlation is seen between TSH and CD4 count indicating trend for hypothyroidism as HIV disease progress.

  2. Hormonal causes of male sexual dysfunctions and their management (hyperprolactinemia, thyroid disorders, GH disorders, and DHEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Mario; Buvat, Jaques; Corona, Giovanni; Guay, André; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2013-03-01

    Besides hypogonadism, other endocrine disorders have been associated with male sexual dysfunction (MSD). To review the role of the pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormones, and adrenal androgens in MSD. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (1969 to September 2011). Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine-Levels of Evidence (March 2009) was applied when possible. The most important evidence regarding the role played by PRL, GH, thyroid, and adrenal hormone was reviewed and discussed. Only severe hyperprolactinemia (>35 ng/mL or 735 mU/L), often related to a pituitary tumor, has a negative impact on sexual function, impairing sexual desire, testosterone production, and, through the latter, erectile function due to a dual effect: mass effect and PRL-induced suppression on gonadotropin secretion. The latter is PRL-level dependent. Emerging evidence indicates that hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of premature ejaculation and might also be associated with erectile dysfunction (ED), whereas hypothyroidism mainly affects sexual desire and impairs the ejaculatory reflex. However, the real incidence of thyroid dysfunction in subjects with sexual problems needs to be evaluated. Prevalence of ED and decreased libido increase in acromegalic patients; however, it is still a matter of debate whether GH excess (acromegaly) may create effects due to a direct overproduction of GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 or because of the pituitary mass effects on gonadotropic cells, resulting in hypogonadism. Finally, although dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate have been implicated in a broad range of biological derangements, controlled trials have shown that DHEA administration is not useful for improving male sexual function. While the association between hyperprolactinemia and hypoactive sexual desire is well defined, more studies are needed to completely understand the role of other hormones in

  3. High rates of same-sex attraction/gender nonconformity in the offspring of mothers with thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy: proposal of prenatal thyroid model

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    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65% males and 270 (35% females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8% were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2% had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring.

  4. Curcumin mitigates lithium-induced thyroid dysfunction by modulating antioxidant status, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokines

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    Sanaa M. Abd El-Twab

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an integral drug used in the management of acute mania, unipolar and bipolar depression and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. It has also been shown to reduce suicidal risk and short term mortality. Few experimental studies have demonstrated the thyroid toxicity caused by lithium as well as the possible protective effect of curcumin. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control group, group II received lithium carbonate daily for 6 weeks and group III received the same dose of lithium carbonate as group II concomitantly with curcumin for 6 weeks. The specimens were prepared for histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical examination. Lithium-induced thyroid dysfunction evidenced by the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes represented by detached cells and vacuolated cytoplasm of some follicular cells and highly significant increase in positive immunostained of thyroglobulin and caspase-3 respectively. Moreover, a significant decrease in serum free triiodothyonine (FT3, free thyroxine (FT4 concomitant with significantly increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thyroid lipid peroxidation (MDA and nitric oxide (NO levels. Curcumin counteracted lithium-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as assessed by restoration of the antioxidant defenses and diminishing of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improvements in the degenerative changes of the thyroid gland. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that curcumin exerts thyroprotective effects against lithium carbonate mediated by its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect as indicated by caspase-3. This report also confers that the use of this drug should be justified for long treatment under direct medical supervision.

  5. CT detection of thyroid pyramidal lobe in preoperative patients with thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gi Won; Kim, Dong Won

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL) is a normal variant of the thyroid gland, but few imaging studies of TPL have been published. The purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency, location, size (length, maximal AP diameter, maximal transverse diameter), and upper end level of TPL with its separation from the main thyroid gland on preoperative neck CT and to compare them with operative findings in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of neck CT for detection TPL. 46 patients, who underwent preoperative neck CT before thyroidectomy, were included in the study. The frequency, location, size, and upper end level of TPL with its separation from the main thyroid gland on the neck CT was analyzed by a single radiologist. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of neck CT for detecting TPL was 77.8%, 89.5%, 91.3%, 73.9% and 82.6%. There was a significant difference in maximal AP diameter, location, upper end level, and its separation from main thyroid gland between CT and operative findings (p 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of neck CT for detecting TPL was high, and the neck CT may be useful for evaluating TPL in the suprahyoid neck.

  6. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27381728

  7. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  8. The onset of systemic lupus erythematosus and thyroid dysfunction following graves’ disease - a case report and literature review

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    Zhanga Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Graves’ disease is a multifactorial autoimmune thyroid disease, with the presence of typical circulating autoantibodies that can activate the thyroid hormone receptors, resulting in hyperthyroidism, goiter, and ophthalmopathy. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multi-systemic autoimmune disease that involves almost all the organs of the human body and is characterized by autoantibodies formation. Several studies have reported that autoimmune thyroid and rheumatic disorders can present an unusual relationship. Case Outline. We report a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with systemic lupus erythematosus one year after being diagnosed with Graves’ disease. Prednisone and cyclophosphamide were administered to control the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, a percutaneous thyroid biopsy was performed for further confirmation of Graves’ disease. Methimazole instead of propylthiouracil was added into the therapeutic scheme. A month later, the patient’s clinical manifestation and laboratory tests got significant improvement, except that new thyr o id dysfunction appeared opposite to the original one. The administration of anti-thyroid drug was discontinued. With a period of decreased administration of prednisone, the patient’s thyroid function gradually got back to normal levels without any levothyroxine replacement. Conclusion. In conclusion, the clinical use of prednisone and antithyroid drugs may result in instability of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and thyroid function should be carefully monitored in such patients.

  9. Evidence of earlier thyroid dysfunction in newly diagnosed oral lichen planus patients: a hint for endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Karimi, Dora; Tirone, Federico; Sciannameo, Veronica; Ricceri, Fulvio; Cabras, Marco; Gambino, Alessio; Conrotto, Davide; Salzano, Stefano; Carbone, Mario; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    The association between oral lichen planus (OLP) and hypothyroidism has been debated with conflicting results: some authors detected a statistically significant association between these two, while others did not confirm it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the thyroid status in patients with newly diagnosed OLP to test the null hypothesis that thyroid disease is not associated with an increased incidence of oral lesions, with a prospective case-control approach. A total of 549 patients have been evaluated, of whom 355 were female. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. Patients suffering from thyroid diseases were associated with an almost 3-fold increased odds of having OLP (OR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.65-4.94), after adjusting this analysis for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension and hepatitis C infection. It would be appropriate to further investigate the possible concomitance of OLP among patients with thyroid disorder; endocrinologists should be aware of this association, especially because OLP is considered a potentially malignant oral disorder. © 2017 The authors.

  10. Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Iguchi, Atsuko; Matsuo, Chikashi; Otawa, Kouichi; Nakamura, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

  11. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with 131 I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng/l or 27

  12. Linear Analysis of Autonomic Activity and Its Correlation with Creatine Kinase-MB in Overt Thyroid Dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavai, Manisha; Singh, Yogendra Raj; Gupta, R C; Mathur, Sandeep K; Bhandari, Bharti

    2018-04-01

    Autonomic activity may be deranged in thyroid dysfunctions and may lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Myopathy is a common manifestation in thyroid disorders and may be associated with raised serum creatine kinase (CK). We hypothesized that cardiovascular abnormality in thyroid dysfunction may manifest as raised CK-MB. This study was designed to investigate the correlation of CK and its isoform CK-MB with thyroid profile and linear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV). The study was conducted on 35 hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients each, and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Autonomic activity was assessed by simple short term 5-min HRV. Biochemical evaluation of serum thyroid profile, CK-NAC and CK-MB were estimated in all the subjects. Our results demonstrated low HRV in hypo- as well as hyperthyroid patients. We observed significantly higher serum CK levels in hypothyroid patients when compared to hyperthyroids and controls. However, no significant differences were observed in CK-MB levels in the three groups. Significant positive correlation of CK with TSH and negative correlation with some HRV parameters (LF power, HF power, total power, SDNN, RMSSD) was observed in hypothyroid patients. Whereas correlation of CK-MB with thyroid profile as well as HRV parameters was non-significant in all the groups. Based on the CK and CK-MB findings and their correlation, we conclude that the cardiovascular changes seen in thyroid dysfunctions may primarily be due to autonomic imbalance without apparent cardiac muscle involvement. Whereas, raised CK levels indicate predominantly skeletal muscle involvement in hypothyroid patients.

  13. Computed Tomography Features of Incidentally Detected Diffuse Thyroid Disease

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    Myung Ho Rho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the CT features of incidentally detected DTD in the patients who underwent thyroidectomy and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods. We enrolled 209 consecutive patients who received preoperative neck CT and subsequent thyroid surgery. Neck CT in each case was retrospectively investigated by a single radiologist. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of individual CT features and the cut-off CT criteria for detecting DTD by comparing the CT features with histopathological results. Results. Histopathological examination of the 209 cases revealed normal thyroid (n=157, Hashimoto thyroiditis (n=17, non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n=34, and diffuse hyperplasia (n=1. The CT features suggestive of DTD included low attenuation, inhomogeneous attenuation, increased glandular size, lobulated margin, and inhomogeneous enhancement. ROC curve analysis revealed that CT diagnosis of DTD based on the CT classification of “3 or more” abnormal CT features was superior. When the “3 or more” CT classification was selected, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CT diagnosis for DTD were 55.8%, 95.5%, 80.6%, 86.7%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion. Neck CT may be helpful for the detection of incidental DTD.

  14. MIBI-SPECT in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma; MIBI-SPECT bei kalten Knoten zur Schilddruesenkarzinomdetektion

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    Schmidt, M.; Schicha, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-12-15

    The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m-MIBI in hypofunctioning thyroid nodules for detection of thyroid carcinoma is presented. Tc-99m-MIBI is a lipophilic cation and a non-specific radiopharmaceutical for tumour imaging. It has become an important imaging technique for the assessment of hypofunctioning thyroid nodules because of its high negative predictive value excluding malignant thyroid tumours. After injection of Tc-99m-MIBI either a single-phase protocol with late planar and SPECT images about 1-2 h post injection or a double-phase protocol with early (about 15-30 min p.i.) and late images (about 2 h p.i.) were reported. Findings include a reduced, an isointense or an increased Tc-99m-MIBI accumulation in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the paranodular thyroid tissue and in comparison to pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. A 'Match' between pertechnetate and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy is a concordantly decreased uptake in the thyroid nodule in comparison to the normal thyroid gland. This finding has a negative predictive value of >97% to exclude differentiated thyroid cancer. A definite 'Mismatch' means a cold thyroid nodule on pertechnetate scintigraphy and an increased uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI in comparison to the MIBI-uptake of the paranodular thyroid tissue. The positive predictive value of this finding for malignancy varies between studies and is in the range of <10-65% (Cologne data: 19%) depending on the prevalence of malignant thyroid tumours in the patient population studied. An isointense uptake was not associated with thyroid malignancy according to 'Cologne' data. Further studies are desirable for better characterization of the method. (orig.)

  15. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

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    Mami eNoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Though hypothyroidism impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity, its effect on glial cells and cellular mechanisms are unknown. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported to the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, showing an example of glioendocrine system. It may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders.

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

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    Akram M El-Kashlan

    Full Text Available Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1, group III (hyperthyroid group received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1; i.p., group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1; i.p. and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone (T, testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD. Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2 serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  17. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders: cross-sectional results from the Brazilian Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Sander Diniz, Maria de Fátima; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-12

    To evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. The study included 12 437 participants from the ELSA-Brasil with normal thyroid function (92·8%), 193 (1·4%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 784 (5·8%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, totalling 13 414 participants (50·6% of women). The mental health diagnoses of participants were assessed by trained raters using the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R) and grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). Thyroid dysfunction was assessed using TSH and FT4 as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Logistic models were presented using psychiatric disorders as the dependent variable and subclinical thyroid disorders as the independent variable. All logistic models were corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. After multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, we found a direct association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and panic disorder odds ratio [OR], 2·55; 95% confidence Interval (95% CI), 1·09-5·94; and an inverse association between subclinical hypothyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 0·75; 95% CI, 0·59-0·96). However, both lost significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was positively associated with panic disorder and negatively associated with anxiety disorder, although not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  19. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNo nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea.MethodsNation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564 who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015.ResultsThe reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10% and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%, respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81% and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%, respectively.ConclusionThe Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea.

  20. Thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of radiation-induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puylaert, J.B.; Pauwels, E.K.; Goslings, B.M.; Van Daal, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate was performed in 249 patients who received radiation therapy for abnormalities in the head or neck in order to determine the role of this examination in the detection of abnormal nodules arising from cancer. These patients received a mean total dose of about 10.1 Gy. The mean follow-up period was 39 years. All patients underwent physical examination without prior knowledge of the scintigram. Scintigrams were evaluated without prior knowledge of the physical examination. In 158 cases, both the physical examination and scintigraphy were negative. In 64 cases, both examinations were positive. In ten patients, the physical examination was positive and scintigraphy was negative and vice versa in 17 patients. Of 249 patients, 28 ultimately underwent thyroid surgery; a total of four had carcinoma. A cost-benefit relationship as to routine scintigraphy as a screening procedure is presented. If patients are first screened by palpation, a number of abnormal nodules will be missed. In addition, a considerable number with positive palpation would probably undergo surgery unnecessarily. From a clinical and financial point of view, it is believed that scintigraphy is the examination of choice for screening for radiation-induced thyroid malignancies

  1. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models.

  2. Necrobiosis lipoidica associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of ANA and ASMA autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Francesco; Russo, Giuseppina T; Villari, Provvidenza; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Cannavò, Serafinella P

    2015-07-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare idiopathic cutaneous condition exceptionally associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We describe the first case of NL, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of autoantibodies. Appropriate screening for NL in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis may clarify its real incidence and the existence of a common pathogenetic pathway.

  3. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Neurodevelopmental disorders in children born to mothers with thyroid dysfunction: evidence of fetal programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Carlé, Allan; Karmisholt, Jesper; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Andersen, Stig

    2017-07-01

    Fetal programming is a long-standing, but still evolving, concept that links exposures during pregnancy to the later development of disease in the offspring. A fetal programming effect has been considered within different endocrine axes and in relation to different maternal endocrine diseases. In this critical review, we describe and discuss the hypothesis of fetal programming by maternal thyroid dysfunction in the context of fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Thyroid hormones are important regulators of early brain development, and evidence from experimental and observational human studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in the brain caused by the lack or excess of thyroid hormone during fetal brain development. The hypothesis that such abnormalities introduced during early fetal brain development increase susceptibility for the later onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring is biologically plausible. However, epidemiological studies on the association between maternal thyroid dysfunction and long-term child outcomes are observational in design, and are challenged by important methodological aspects. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Jørgensen, A; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed......-Ab-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency did not induce or worsen PPTD. The study confirmed that screening for TPO-Ab in early pregnancy can predict women at high risk for development of PPTD. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Sep...... microg iodine or no iodine. The +/+ group received iodine during pregnancy and the postpartum period, the +/- group received iodine during pregnancy only, and the -/- group received no iodine supplementation. A total of 66 TPO-Ab positive women were followed, and in the postpartum period sera were...

  5. Decreased Plasma Nesfatin-1 Level Is Related to the Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fupeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Thyroid dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether nesfatin-1 played a role in the thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM. Methods. 55 euthyroid patients were enrolled in this study including 30 patients with T2DM and 25 patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR. 30 age-matched healthy people were also included as the control. The plasma levels of nesfatin-1, thyrotropin (TSH, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c as well as the body mass index (BMI were comparatively analyzed among the three groups. Results. The nesfatin-1 was significantly lower in patients with T2DM than in patients with IGR and in the control. On the contrary, the TSH level was significantly higher in patients with T2DM than in patients with IGR and in the control. Simple regression analysis showed that the plasma nesfatin-1 was negatively correlated with the TSH and HbA1c levels and positively correlated with the BMI. With multiple stepwise regression analysis, the nesfatin-1 remained to be independently correlated with the TSH, BMI, and HbA1c. Conclusions. The study was suggesting a role of nesfatin-1 in thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality? or Possibilities for thallium 201 in thyroid oncopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.; Pluygers, E.

    1985-01-01

    201 Tl uptake by cold thyroid nodules, as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, was investigated in 119 patients. Results show strong correlation (89.5%) of existence of thyroid tumors (benign follicular adenoma and carcinoma) with 202 Tl uptake. (Auth.)

  9. Thyroid Patient Salivary Radioiodine Transit and Dysfunction Assessment Using Chewing Gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkalides, Demetrios

    2016-11-01

    Radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction is the most frequent side-effect of I-131 thyroid therapy. Here, a novel saliva sampling method with ordinary chewing gums administered to the patients at appropriate time intervals post-treatment (TIPT) was used to relate this effect to chewing gum saliva activity (CGSA) content. Saliva samples were acquired after the oral administration of prescribed I-131 activity (radioactivity administered [RA]) to 19 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and 16 hyperthyroidism patients of the radioisotope unit (RIU) during 2014 and 2015. The error of this saliva collecting process was found to be 1.2%-2.05%, and so, the method was considered satisfactory. For each patient, the CGSA was plotted against the TIPT producing a curve, R(t). On this, two functions were fitted: a linear on the first few rising data points and a gamma variate over the peak of the R(t). From these, several parameters related to the radioactivity oral transit were calculated and the total radioactivity administered (TRA) during all past treatments of each patient was obtained from RIU records. The patients were asked to report any swelling, dry mouth, taste-smell change, or pain and were graded as a morbidity score (MS) describing the quality of life of each. The peak radioactivity in the saliva samples, R max , was found to be proportional to RA and was plotted against the CGSA extrapolated at 24 and 36 hours. The linear fits produced were used to estimate the salivary glands' activity average effective half-life (16.3 hours). The MS of DTC patients was found to depend linearly both on R max and TRA (MS = 0.0032 × R max - 0.7107 and MS = 0.1862 × TRA +0.66, respectively). Both lines were used to extrapolate symptom thresholds. The measurement of R max in DTC patients proved very useful for individualized radiation protection, and the dependence of MS on TRA should be used when additional treatments are considered for repeat DTC patients.

  10. Detection of Thyroid Metastasis pf Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Using FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Jin Ho [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    A 69 year old man who was diagnosed with renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) underwent F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting recurrence after chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT revealed multiple new hypermetabolic lesions in many places, including the right thyroid gland. Biopsy of the thyroid lesion was performed,and a diagnosis of metastatic TCC was made. We could detect thyroid metastasis of renal TCC by FDG PET/CT.

  11. Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brenta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance.

  12. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  13. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Graves’ Disease in One Patient: The Extremes of Thyroid Dysfunction Associated with Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Bishay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease associated with interferon therapy can manifest as destructive thyroiditis, Graves’ Hyperthyroidism, and autoimmune (often subclinical hypothyroidism, the latter persisting in many patients. There are scare reports of a single patient developing extremes of autoimmune thyroid disease activated by the immunomodulatory effects of interferon. A 60-year-old man received 48 weeks of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic HCV. Six months into treatment, he reported fatigue, weight gain, and slowed cognition. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was 58.8 mIU/L [0.27–4.2], fT4 11.1 pmol/L [12–25], and fT3 4.2 pmol/L [2.5–6.0] with elevated anti-TPO (983 IU/mL [<35] and anti-TG (733 U/mL [<80] antibodies. He commenced thyroxine with initial clinical and biochemical resolution but developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with weight loss and tremor 14 months later. Serum TSH was <0.02 mIU/L, fT4 54.3 pmol/L, and fT3 20.2 pmol/L, with an elevated TSH receptor (TRAb, 4.0 U/L [<1.0], anti-TPO (1,163 IU/mL and anti-TG (114 U/mL antibodies. Technetium scan confirmed Graves’ Disease with bilateral diffuse increased tracer uptake (5.9% [0.5–3.5%]. The patient commenced carbimazole therapy for 6 months. Treatment was ceased following spontaneous clinical and biochemical remission (TSH 3.84 mIU/L, fT4 17pmol/L, fT3 4.5 pmol/L, and TRAb <1 U/L. This raises the need to monitor thyroid function closely in patients both during and following completion of interferon treatment.

  14. Short-term amiodarone treatment for atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation induces a transient thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Darkner, Stine; Chen, Xu

    2016-01-01

    ablation in a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. METHODS: 212 patients referred for AF ablation at two centres were randomized to 8weeks of oral amiodarone or placebo. Thyroid function tests (TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; T4, thyroxine; T3, triiodothyronine; fT4, free T4; fT3, free T3) were...

  15. Accuracy of self-report in detecting taste dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soter, Ana; Kim, John; Jackman, Alexis; Tourbier, Isabelle; Kaul, Arti; Doty, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of responses to the following questionnaire statements in detecting taste loss: "I can detect salt in chips, pretzels, or salted nuts," "I can detect sourness in vinegar, pickles, or lemon," "I can detect sweetness in soda, cookies, or ice cream," and "I can detect bitterness, in coffee, beer, or tonic water." Responses to an additional item, "I can detect chocolate in cocoa, cake or candy," was examined to determine whether patients clearly differentiate between taste loss and flavor loss secondary to olfactory dysfunction. A total of 469 patients (207 men, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 15 years; and 262 women, mean age = 54 years, standard deviation = 14 years) were administered a questionnaire containing these questions with the response categories of "easily," "somewhat," and "not at all," followed by a comprehensive taste and smell test battery. The questionnaire items poorly detected bona fide taste problems. However, they were sensitive in detecting persons without such problems (i.e., they exhibited low positive but high negative predictive value). Dysfunction categories of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) were not meaningfully related to subjects' responses to the questionnaire statements. Both sex and age influenced performance on most of the taste tests, with older persons performing more poorly than younger ones and women typically outperforming men. Although it is commonly assumed that straight-forward questions concerning taste may be useful in detecting taste disorders, this study suggests this is not the case. However, patients who specifically report having no problems with taste perception usually do not exhibit taste dysfunction. The difficulty in detecting true taste problems by focused questionnaire items likely reflects a combination of factors. These include the relatively low prevalence of taste deficits in the

  16. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy

  17. ENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF ENDOCRINOPATHY: DYSFUNCTION OF THYROID AND PARATHYROIND GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Litvitskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture deals with etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of thyroid and parathyroid hyper — and hypofunction, adrenal pathology. This lecture is also supplemented with multiple choice tests and a clinical case with keys for self testing.

  18. Kinetic examination of the thyroid for an early detection of localized autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Kissel, H.J.; Schnabel, K.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of localised thyroid autonomy can in many cases be of high importance for the patient. By manifesting accelerated radioiodine kinetics in suspicious lobes or regions of the thyroid, autonomies of the thyroid can be detected early and definitely. Examination covered 50 euthyroidic patients showing only an asymmetric thyroidal configuration in the scintiscan. Unilateral determining of the radioiodine kinetics at the Auger-camera helped to find out if, and in how many cases, there is really an accelerated iodine metabolism in the thyroids represented asymmetrically. Fire of the examinated patients showed, compared with the opposite side, both increased iodine uptake and accelerated iodine output in the lobes which are seen more clearly in the scintiscan. This might be an indication of a very early stage of thyroidal autonomy. (orig.) [de

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction among Greek Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a Disregarded Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Barmpari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Greek patients with type 1 (T1DM and type 2 (T2DM diabetes mellitus as well as its possible relations to glycaemic control and to diabetic complications. Methods. A total of 1015 patients, consecutively followed in the Outpatient Diabetes Center, were studied. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, occurrence of diabetes complications, and classical comorbidities were assessed. Average HbA1c of the previous year was calculated. Wellbeing was determined, using a 10-point optimal scale. All the above parameters were compared between subjects with or without thyroid disease. Results. All patients were euthyroid at the time of the study, either on thyroid medications or not. Hypothyroidism occurrence did not differ between T2DM and T1DM patients (37.1% versus 43.5%, p>0.05. Nodular goiter was observed more frequently in T2DM patients (34.1% versus 18.8%, p<0.05. T2DM patients with hypothyroidism compared to those without hypothyroidism had higher HbA1c (7.27% versus 6.98%, p<0.01, TChol (184.97 mg/dl versus 168.17 mg/dl, p<0.001, and higher HDL-Chol (51.28 mg/dl versus 46.77 mg/dl, p<0.01. T2DM patients without hypothyroidism had a better wellness feeling (7.5 versus 5.3 points, p<0.01. Conclusions. Screening for thyroid disease among T2DM patients should be routinely considered, as it is found to be an additional commorbidity. If it remains undiagnosed, it could aggravate the clinical course of the disease.

  20. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy.

  1. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy

  2. Causes and Consequences of Thyroid Dysfunction throughout Life: a population-based and genetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Medici (Marco)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Adequate thyroid hormone (TH) levels are essential for normal growth and differentiation, for the regulation of energy metabolism, and for the physiological function of virtually all human tissues. This is illustrated by the well-known effects of hypo-

  3. Clinical review: Thyroid dysfunction and effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Romualdi, E.; Buller, H. R.; Gerdes, V. E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Various changes in the coagulation-fibrinolytic system have been described in patients with an excess or deficiency of thyroid hormones. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on these systems. Evidence Acquisition: All

  4. History of preeclampsia is not associated with an increased risk of thyroid dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Jochemsen, B.M.; van Pampus, M.G.; Santema, J.G.; Roozendaal, C.; Groen, H.; Links, T.P.; van Doormaal, J.J.

    Objective. We evaluated the thyroid function in women with a history of preeclampsia and/or HELLP syndrome at least 2 years after delivery. Design. Observational retrospective study. Setting. University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands. Population. Women with a history of preeclampsia

  5. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality; possibilities for thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Beauduin, M.; Gigot, J.F.; Schmitz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Faced with a diagnosis of cold thyroid nodule as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, the clinician has to determine whether this nodule is malignant or not. This is a serious problem since, according to literature, 7-20 per cent of cold thyroid nodules are malignant. In 1982 some Japanese authors demonstrated the possibility of using 201 T1 in diagnosing thyroid tumors. This study refers to 120 patients who underwent an operation for thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of one or several cold nodules (as evaluated with conventional scintigraphy) and enables a comparison between a thorough evaluation of the thyroidal status and the 201 T1 scintigrams. These were obtained with a gamma-camera using a pinhole collimator. If a cold nodule is positive with 201 T1, surgery is incontestably indicated, as such a finding correlates with the existence of a thyroid tumor (benign follicular adenoma or carcinoma) in 89.5 per cent of the observed cases. In the cancer group the sensibility of the Thallium test is of 85 per cent and its specificity 80 per cent. We may assert that there is a very low risk of Thallium negative (old) nodules being malignant. The pre-operative 201 T1 scintigraphy is easy to perform in any Nuclear Medicine department. Nowadays, the combination of aspiration cytology and 201 T1 scintigraphy should make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid cancers [fr

  6. Amiodarona y disfunción tiroidea Amiodarone and thyroid dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. L. Rizzo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La amiodarona es un análogo estructural de la hormona tiroidea, y algunas de sus propiedades antiarrítmicas como así también su toxicidad son atribuibles a su interacción con los receptores nucleares de las hormonas tiroideas. Por ser muy lipofílica, la amiodarona se concentra en muchos tejidos y se elimina, por consecuencia, muy lentamente. Se emplea preferentemente para el tratamiento de arritmias graves tales como fibrilación y taquicardia ventriculares. Otras indicaciones incluyen la fibrilación auricular y el aleteo, la insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva grave, la prevención de la fibrilación auricular recurrente y situaciones de emergencia médica como la prevención de muerte súbita cardiaca¹. Nuestro objetivo es proporcionar un enfoque actualizado sobre la amiodarona y su influencia sobre la fisiología tiroidea y discutir y analizar en profundidad sus potenciales efectos adversos como el hipotiroidismo y la tirotoxicosis.Amiodarone is a structural analogue of thyroid hormone, and some of its anti-arrhythmic actions and toxicity are attributable to its interaction with nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. Being highly lipophilic, amiodarone is concentrated in many tissues and is eliminated, consequently, very slowly. It is preferably employed to manage life-threatening arrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation and unstable ventricular tachycardia. Other indications include atrial fibrillation and flutter, severe congestive heart failure, prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence, and even in emergency medical situations to prevent sudden cardiac death. The aim of this review is to provide an updated approach on amiodarone and its influence on thyroid physiology and to discuss and analyze in depth its potential and not infrequent thyroidal adverse effects such as hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis.

  7. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and diabetes type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkoska Nakova, V; Krstevska, B; Dimitrovski, Ch; Simeonova, S; Hadzi-Lega, M; Serafimoski, V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies during pregnancy in women with diabetes type 1 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study group included 83 pregnant women who attended the Outpatient Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Clinic in the period from 05.2009 to 11.2009. The one hundred-g. oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on the pregnant women except for women with diabetes type 1. Thyroid functions were evaluated in all the pregnant women. After routine screening for GDM, thirty of the pregnant women were healthy and GDM was diagnosed in forty of them. The rest, thirteen women, had diabetes type 1. The women who developed GDM showed a mean free thyroxin concentration (fT4) significantly lower than that observed in the healthy pregnant women and women with diabetes type 1. Among the pregnant women with GDM, 10 women or 25% had fT4 concentrations below the lower cut-off with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (TSH). A statistically significant difference was found in the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO) between the (30%) women with diabetes type 1 and (10%) healthy pregnant women (p<0.05). In the women positive for anti-TPO, TSH was significantly higher (p<0.05). The significantly higher prevalence of hypothyroxinemia in GDM pregnancies and anti-TPO titres in pregnancies with diabetes type 1, than in healthy pregnant women warrants routine screening for thyroid abnormalities in these groups of pregnant women.

  8. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Mami

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS). Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of the human brain, leading ...

  9. Effects of thyroid dysfunction and radiation exposure on some biochemical aspects in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation exposure effect associated with altered thyroid gland activity was investigated in rats. The results obtained showed that hypothyroidism was associated with low blood levels of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), decreased blood malondialdehyde level (MDA), increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and hypocalcemia were observed. Hyperthyroidism was accompanied with high blood FT4 and FT3, low TSH levels, increased MDA levels, decreased GSH-Px activity, hypercalcaemia, low albumin level and A/G ratio were recorded. Globulin and vitamin E levels were not affected by the changes of animal thyroid states. In hypothyroid irradiated rats, although significant amelioration was recorded in blood GSH-Px activity and MDA contents, compared to hypothyroid rats, irradiation exaggerated the changes in FT4, FT3, TSH levels and also increased globulin and decreased vitamin E. Irradiation of hyperthyroid rats ameliorated hormones and albumin levels as compared to hyperthyroid rats. Despite of a decrease in blood vitamin E, the changes in MDA levels, GSH-Px activity and Ca levels were nearly similar to those recorded for hyperthyroid rats. According to the data obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that symptoms of hypothyroidism could be intensified by exposure to radiation

  10. Iodine-clearance-equivalent (123I) for delineation of thyroid dysfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, E.

    1981-01-01

    In 138 patients whose thyroid function was proved by R T 3 -uptake, T 4 -RIA, T 3 -RIA, FT 4 , FT 3 the iodine uptake of the thyroid 2 and 4 hours after application of 200 μCi 123 iodine p.o. or i.v., respectively after application of 34 μCi 131 iodine p.o. was determined. 2 hours after application of radioiodine plasma acitivity was measured. The ratio between increase/hour of uptake and plasma level of activity after 2 hours was taken as clearance equivalent, which does not measure the correct value of iodine clearance but is sufficiently related to it. The type of radioiodine and the method of application had no influence on the results. There was significant difference between euthyroid adenoma, euthyroid adenoma and hyperthyroid adenoma. The advantage of the technique is the practicability, the short occupancy of the uptake system and the reduction of radiation dosage by consequent use of 123 iodine. The second uptake measurement coincides with thyroid imaging, which results in time saving for the patient. (orig.) [de

  11. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study.

  12. [Non-autoimmune thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Leonardo F L; Mana, Daniela L; Bruno, Oscar D

    2014-01-01

    The term thyroiditis comprises a group of thyroid diseases characterized by the presence of inflammation, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune entities. It may manifest as an acute illness with severe thyroid pain (subacute thyroiditis and infectious thyroiditis), and conditions in which the inflammation is not clinically evident evolving without pain and presenting primarily thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter (drug-induced thyroiditis and Riedel thyroiditis). The aim of this review is to provide an updated approach on non-autoimmune thyroiditis and its clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  13. Detection of metastatic thyroid carcinoma through whole body counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenario, H.S.; Pascacio, F.M.; Cruz, Benjamin de la; Anden, A.B.

    Whole body counters are not only used in measuring radioactivity in the body for radiation protection purposes but also in the measurement of iron absorption, body potassium and cesium, chronic blood loss, and also in the determination of the effectiveness of surgery, thyroid hormone and radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid carcinoma. This report deals with our experience in the use of a shadow-shield whole body counter in the determination of I-131 uptake by metastatic lesions of cancer of thyroid after total thyroidectomy and ablation therapy with I-131. This study was undertaken jointly by the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Veterans Memorial Hospital and the Biomedical Research Division of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Preliminary results indicate that the 22 patients who underwent whole body counting after total thyroidectomy I-131 ablation therapy, 9 patients had elevated percentage retention of I-131, 10 patients with normal values and 3 patients with rising values. Foci of I-131 concentration in those with elevated and rising percentage concentration values were seen in the thyroidal bed scintiscans, while the 10 patients with normal values had negative scintiscans. The results of our observations confirm the results obtained by other workers abroad. Our preliminary results indicate that with the use of whole body counters a sensitive method of assessing whether functioning metastatic lesion of cancer of the thyroid still exist after total thyroidectomy and I-131 ablation therapy can be provided. (author)

  14. Switching Therapy from Intravenous Landiolol to Transdermal Bisoprolol in a Patient with Thyroid Storm Complicated by Decompensated Heart Failure and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godo, Shigeo; Kawazoe, Yu; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Motoo; Kudo, Daisuke; Nomura, Ryosuke; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid storm is a life-threatening disorder that remains a therapeutic challenge. Although β-blockers are the mainstay for treatment, their use can be challenging in cases complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation and decompensated heart failure. We present a case of thyroid storm-associated atrial fibrillation and decompensated heart failure complicated by gastrointestinal dysfunction secondary to diffuse peritonitis that was successfully managed by a switching therapy, in which the continuous intravenous administration of landiolol was changed to bisoprolol via transdermal patch, in the acute phase treatment. This switching therapy may offer a promising therapeutic option for this potentially lethal disorder.

  15. Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver.

  16. [The assessment of body composition using DEXA in patients with thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunová, J; Kasalický, P; Lánská, V

    2007-01-01

    Disturbed thyroid function is accompanied with weight changes in most of patients. Less is known how the therapy of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism influences their body composition. We investigated 18 persons with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism (group I), 15 persons with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism (group II), 22 persons with long-lasting well-controlled primary hypothyroidism (group II) and 17 persons with history of cured hyperthyroidism (group IV). Body composition, including percentage of body fat, was examined with Dual energy absorptiometry method (DXA; GE Lunar prodigy). There was no significant difference in age, BMI, and % of body fat between groups. Group I had mean levels of free T4: 43.1+/-20.1 pmol/L, and TSH 0.03+/-0.05 mU/L. Mean values of TSH 28.55+/-20.64 mU/L and free T4 5.94+/-2.27 pmol/L were in accordance with the diagnosis of untreated hypothyroidism in group II. Thyroid function in groups III and IV was within normal limits. The mean weight gain in group I was 3.9 kg and their BMI increased from 25.78+/-3.73 kg/m(2) to 27.36+4.03 kg/m(2) after the therapy (p=0.023). BMI has not changed significantly in group II after the normalization of thyroid function, nor in group II and III. A significant parallel increase in the total body fat (26737+/-6993 g vs. 31277+/-8735 g), (p=0.0078) as well as in lean mass (43936+/-9886 g vs 51065+/-9501 g) (p= 0.0156) was observed only in group I after therapy. There was no increase in percentage of body fat (38.04+/-8.6% vs.38.0+/-9.8%) (NS). The body composition did not changed in the other patients treated during the follow-up. Normalization of thyroid function of newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients caused the parallel increase in their fat mass and lean body mass, assed with DXA. Percentage of fat mass did not change significantly after the treatment. Correction of hypothyroidism did not lead to the body composition changes; patients did not show any weight loss either.

  17. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pcolloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pinsulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  18. Detection of high levels of European bat lyssavirus type-1 viral RNA in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected Eptesicus fuscus bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Vos, A; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Freuling, C; Neubert, L; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Franka, R; Rupprecht, C E

    2009-08-01

    Two common bat lyssavirus species have been identified in many European countries: European bat lyssavirus type-1 and -2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2). Only limited knowledge on the susceptibility of the natural EBLV-hosts, insectivorous bats, to lyssavirus infection is available. Our study was undertaken to evaluate the susceptibility and pathology associated with an EBLV-1 infection in Eptesicus fuscus following different routes of virus inoculation including intracranial (n = 6), intramuscular (n = 14), oral (n = 7) and intranasal (n = 7). Blood and saliva samples were collected from all bats on a monthly basis. Four bats inoculated intracranially developed rabies with a mean of 11 days to death, whilst seven bats inoculated intramuscularly developed rabies, with an extended incubation period prior to death. We did not observe any mortality in the oral (p.o.) or intranasal (i.n.) groups and both groups had detectable levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (data not shown). Virus shedding was demonstrated in the saliva by virus isolation and the detection of viral RNA in ill bats, particularly immediately prior to the development of disease. In addition, the presence of virus and viral RNA was detected in the thyroid gland in bats challenged experimentally with EBLV-1, which exceeded that detected in all other extra-neural tissue. The significance of detecting EBLV-1 in the thyroid gland of rabid bats is not well understood. We speculate that the infection of the thyroid gland may cause subacute thyroiditis, a transient form of thyroiditis causing hyperthyroidism, resulting in changes in adrenocortical activity that could lead to hormonal dysfunction, thereby distinguishing the clinical presentation of rabies in the rabid host.

  19. Detection of at-risk pregnancy by means of highly sensitive assays for thyroid autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagnaro-Green, A.; Roman, S.H.; Cobin, R.H.; El-Harazy, E.; Alvarez-Marfany, M.; Davies, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    The authors screened 552 women who presented to their obstetrician in the first trimester of pregnancy using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of thyroglobulin and thyroidperoxidase autoantibodies and found an incidence of positivity of 19.6%. The tendency to secrete detectable levels of thyroid autoantibodies was significantly correlated with an increased rate of miscarriage. Thyroid autoantibody-positive women miscarried at a rate of 17%, compared with 8.4% for the autoantibody-negative women. Individual levels of thyroglobulin and thyroidperoxidase autoantibodies were similarly related to this increased miscarriage rate, with no evidence of autoantibody specificity in the relationship. Furthermore, the increase in miscarriages could not be explained by differences in thyroid hormone levels, the presence of cardiolipin autoantibodies, maternal age, gestational age at the time of maternal entry into the study, or previous obstetric history. They conclude that thyroid autoantibodies are an independent marker of at-risk pregnancy

  20. Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanta Guria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. 200 hypothyroid patients (case and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14 was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone assessments in a Dutch cohort of 620 men with lifelong premature ejaculation without erectile dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldinger, Marcel D.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Apart from the involvement of central serotonergic neurotransmission on lifelong premature ejaculation, interference of thyroid function has been speculated. Aim. To study thyroid function in a large group of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Methods. Lifelong premature

  2. Recombinant Protein Production from TPO Gen Cloning and Expression for Early Detection of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanni'am, Aulanni'am; Kinasih Wuragil, Dyah; Wahono Soeatmadji, Djoko; Zulkarnain; Marhendra, Agung Pramana W.

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) is an autoimmune disease that has many clinical symptoms but is difficult to detect at the onset of disease progression. Most thyroid autoimmune disease patients are positive with high titre of thyroid autoantibodies, especially thyroid peroxidase (TPO). The detection AITD are still needed because these tests are extremely high cost and have not regularly been performed in most of clinical laboratories. In the past, we have explored the autoimmune disease marker and it has been developed as source of polyclonal antibodies from patient origin. In the current study, we develop recombinant protein which resulted from cloning and expression of TPO gene from normal person and AITD patients. This work flows involves: DNA isolation and PCR to obtain TPO gene from human blood, insertion of TPO gene to plasmid and transformation to E. coli BL21, Bacterial culture to obtain protein product, protein purification and product analysis. This products can use for application to immunochromatography based test. This work could achieved with the goal of producing autoimmune markers with a guaranteed quality, sensitive, specific and economically. So with the collaboration with industries these devices could be used for early detection. Keywords: recombinant protein, TPO gene, Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD)ction of the diseases in the community.

  3. Disfunção tireoidiana e conduta dos cardiologistas em pacientes usando amiodarona Thyroid dysfunction and cardiological management in patients receiving amiodarone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gabriela Fuks

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de disfunção tireoidiana em pacientes usando amiodarona e os possíveis fatores associados. Verificar através de questionário aplicado a cardiologistas, a importância do fármaco causar alterações na função tireoidiana. MÉTODO: Avaliados 56 pacientes em uso crônico (> 3 meses de amiodarona com dosagens séricas de TSH, T4 livre, T3 total e Anti-TPO e definidos como portadores de disfunção tireoidiana (DT pacientes com TSH alterado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de disfunção tireoidiana foi de 33,9%. Não houve diferença entre este grupo e os pacientes sem disfunção, exceto em relação à prevalência de anti-TPO positivo maior nos pacientes com DT (p=0,02. Hipotireoidismo subclínico foi diagnosticado em 10 (17,9% pacientes e hipotireoidismo clínico em 6 (10,7%. A prevalência de hipertireoidismo subclínico foi de 3,6% e de hipertireoidismo clínico de 1,8%. Anticorpos anti-TPO foram positivos em 5 (8% pacientes (dos quais 4 apresentavam disfunção. Quando comparados aos doentes sem anti-TPO positivo este grupo teve maior prevalência de disfunção (80% vs 29,4%; p=0,04. Verificado que apenas 49,2% dos cardiologistas faziam acompanhamento da função tireoidiana rotineiramente e a prevalência de disfunção referida na experiência da maioria era de 1 a 10%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de disfunção tireoidiana na nossa população foi elevada, mostrando a necessidade de implementação de uma rotina laboratorial. Houve grande divergência entre os cardiologistas em relação ao tipo de acompanhamento utilizado nos pacientes em uso de amiodarona.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients receiving amiodarone, and the possible associated factors. The study also aimed at assessing the effect of amiodarone on thyroid function through the application of a questionnaire to cardiologists. METHOD: Fifty-six patients chronically (> 3 months receiving amiodarone were

  4. Opinion - Thyroid (dysfunction in heart failure: is it a potential target for medical treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pingitore

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Pingitore, Giorgio IervasiInstitute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, ItalyIntroductionCurrently, there is little doubt that activation of the neuroendocrine (NE system is predominately responsible for the progressive decline of heart function in heart failure (HF. This is due to the complex action of neurotransmitters, hormonal factors, and/or immunological pathways. Evidence that supports this point of view is the clear prognostic benefit and the reduction of HF progression by using NE-guided therapeutic approaches (SOLVD investigators 1992; Eichhorn and Bristow 1996; Packer et al 1996; Opie 2004; Solomon et al 2004. However, the fact that HF represents one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Western countries also suggests that the current portfolio of NE antagonists fails to completely explain and possibly counteract disease progression (Guyatt and Deveraux 2004. In this context, interest in the relationship between thyroid hormones (THs and HF is increasingly gaining prominence. The chief reason for the latter is the emerging novel actions of THs on the cardiovascular system and, more specifically, the role of TH as a prognostic biomarker of cardiac disease as well as the potential benefit of TH administration in patients with HF.

  5. Initial diagnosis and follow-up in thyroid dysfunctions by use of immunoradiometric TSH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, K.

    1985-01-01

    4.245 patient studies with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assay revealed a normal range from 0.1 to 3.5 mU/l. Hyperthyroid patients had TSH values 6.0 mU/l. The results of TRH stimulation after nasal application of 2 mg TRH are strongly related to basal TSH measurement, thus, a demand on TRH tests exists only in basal TSH concentrations 0.1 to 0.3 mU/l and 3.5 to 6.0 mU/l for latent function anomalies. During T 4 therapy basal TSH values below 0.3 mU/l are indicative for sufficient suppression, for proof of overdosage T 3 parameters have to be used. In antithyroid drug therapy basal TSH measurement is important after the initial phase of therapy for precise antithyroid drug dosage. Therefore, the highly sensitive TSH measurement is the most important initial parameter for exclusion or evidence of thyroid function anomaly. (orig.) [de

  6. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  7. Short- and long-term follow-up of thyroid dysfunction after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without the use of preparative total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubert, M E; Socié, G; Gluckman, E; Aractingi, S; Espérou, H; Devergie, A; Ribaud, P; Parquet, N; Schlageter, M H; Beressi, J P; Rain, J D; Vexiau, P

    1997-08-01

    We studied the incidence and potential prognostic value of thyroid abnormalities after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) without total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning. 77 consecutive patients who received a chemotherapy-alone-based conditioning regimen pretransplant were included. Free serum thyroxine (FT4), free serum triiodothyronine (FT3) and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were assayed before and 3 and 14 months after BMT. Patients were classified in three categories: normal thyroid profile if FT3 and FT4 were within the normal range and TSH was normal or low, peripheral thyroid insufficiency (PTI) if TSH was >4 mIU/l, or an 'euthyroid sick syndrome' (ETS) if FT3 and/or FT4 were low and TSH was normal or low. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction at 3 months was 57%, and 29% at 14 months. This was mostly due to the occurrence of ETS which was more frequent at 3 months (48%, 29/61) than at 14 months (19%, 9/48). Furthermore, at 3 months, survival was significantly lower in the ETS group (34.5%) than in the euthyroid group (96.2%), or in the PTI group (83.3%) (P < 0.0001). PTI was observed even in the absence of TBI in 11 patients (14%) and was equally distributed at 3 months (n = 6) and 14 months (n = 5). In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction is not a rare complication even without pretransplant TBI conditioning regimen. Hypothyroidism prevalence was 10%, and ETS, which was more frequently observed, displayed a dismal predictive value at 3 months.

  8. Utility of shear wave elastography to detect papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroid nodules: efficacy of the standard deviation elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Choi, In Ho; Jin, So-Young; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study was to address the role of the elasticity index as a possible predictive marker for detecting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and quantitatively assess shear wave elastography (SWE) as a tool for differentiating PTC from benign thyroid nodules. One hundred and nineteen patients with thyroid nodules undergoing SWE before ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy were analyzed. The mean (EMean), minimum (EMin), maximum (EMax), and standard deviation (ESD) of SWE elasticity indices were measured. Among 105 nodules, 14 were PTC and 91 were benign. The EMean, EMin, and EMax values were significantly higher in PTCs than benign nodules (EMean 37.4 in PTC vs. 23.7 in benign nodules, p = 0.005; EMin 27.9 vs. 17.8, p = 0.034; EMax 46.7 vs. 31.5, p < 0.001). The EMean, EMin, and EMax were significantly associated with PTC with diagnostic odds ratios varying from 6.74 to 9.91, high specificities (86.4%, 86.4%, and 88.1%, respectively), and positive likelihood ratios (4.21, 3.69, and 4.82, respectively). The ESD values were significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (6.3 vs. 2.6, p < 0.001). ESD had the highest specificity (96.6%) when applied with a cut-off value of 6.5 kPa. It had a positive likelihood ratio of 14.75 and a diagnostic odds ratio of 28.50. The shear elasticity index of ESD, with higher likelihood ratios for PTC, will probably identify nodules that have a high potential for malignancy. It may help to identify and select malignant nodules, while reducing unnecessary fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsies of benign nodules.

  9. Protective role of cabbage extract versus cadmium-induced oxidative renal and thyroid hormones dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, M. F. S.; OSMAN, N. N.; DARWISH, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of Cd damage. Cabbage is economically an important cole crop grown and consumed worldwide. It belongs the Cruciferous vegetables (Brassica), which have been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd damage, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of cabbage extract (C.E.) on Cd-induced dysfunction in the kidney of rats. The thyroid hormones values were also determined. Male Wistar rats were provided with cadmium chloride (100 mg/ L water) as the only drinking fluid and/or cabbage extract (C.E.) (5 ml/ kg body weight /day) for 4 weeks. Oral administration of Cd significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine with a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in creatinine clearance. It also significantly declined the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. Intoxication of Cd to rats reduced serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Reduced glutathione (GSH), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also significantly (p < 0.05) depressed with a concomitant marked enhancement in lipid peroxidation marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). Co-administration of C.E. along with Cd resulted in a reversal of the Cd-induced biochemical variables in kidney accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and a higher levels of renal antioxidant defense system. However, incorporation of C.E. to rats whether applied alone or in combination with Cd did not reveal any change in the thyroid hormones levels, which reflect significant drop in

  10. Pressure, Dysfunctional Behavior, Fraud Detection and Role of Information Technology in the Audit Process

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Umar; Shinta Megawati Sitorus; Rika Lusiana Surya; Elvia R. Shauki; Vera Diyanti

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effect of information technology and pressure such as time budget and task complexity on dysfunctional audit behavior. This study tests whether dysfunctional audit behavior affects fraud detection. Data were gathered from 81 auditors in Jakarta and were analyzed using structure equation model (SEM). The results explain that pressure (time budget and complexity task) have some impacts on dysfunctional audit behavior while information technology does not affect dysfuncti...

  11. The clinical value of detection of serum TGAb and TPOAb level in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Xiaoxia; Huang Xingming

    2008-01-01

    To study the clinical value of serum TGAb and TPOAb levels in the diagnosis of patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), the serum levels of TGAb and TPOAb in 175 patients with AITD and 64 non-AITD patients and 57 health controls were measured by RIA. The results showed that the serum levels of TGAb and TPOAb in AITD patients with GD and HT were significantly higher than that of control group (P 0.05). The detection of serum TGAb and TPOAb levels may have clinical value in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. (authors)

  12. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  13. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland during amiodarone therapy: a study of 297 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnywojtek A

    2016-04-01

    hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 42 (53.8% cases. In Group B, hyperthyroidism occurring during treatment with AM was found in 40 (33.9% patients, and permanent hypothyroidism was observed in eleven (12.5% cases. After annual follow-up in Group C, nine (11.4% patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism, while 27 (34.1% patients were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. In Group D, all patients had permanent hypothyroidism and when the concentration of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was >10 µIU/mL, l-thyroxine was applied.Conclusion: Our study showed that radioiodine administration is advisable in certain circumstances, even in euthyroid patients. It allows for continuation of further long-term AM treatment. Additionally, RIT allows for the reintroduction of AM therapy that was previously terminated. Hence, it can help control life-threatening tachyarrhythmias and decrease episodes of thyrotoxicosis. Keywords: amiodarone, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, radioactive iodine, radioiodine treatment, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia

  14. Clinical significance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT whole body imaging in detecting thyroid incidentaloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Ge; Li Biao; Zhang Miao; Xu Haoping; Jiang Xufeng; Wang Chao; Ge Guizhi; Shun Chengwei; Zhu Chengmo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a noninvasive whole-body imaging technique used to evaluate various types of malignancies. Recent advances have rapidly developed it into a diagnostic imaging modality in ontology. The aims of this study were two. One was to estimate the detection rate of thyroid indoleacetamide and the risk of thyroid malignancy by 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and the other Was to further understand whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) would be helpful in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid tumor. Methods: From June 2007 to January 2008, a total of 1190 subjects who had no previous history of thyroid cancer and had 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan were included. All had visual interpretation and semiquantitative analyses by SUV max at thyroid incidentalomas detected by FDG PET/CT. Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman relation analysis were used. Results: The prevalence of thyroid incidentaloma on 18 F-FDG PET/CT wag 2.1% (25/1190). Of these 25 tumors, 20 had histologically proven. Of these 20 tumors, 9 were benign and 11 were malignant (papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland in 9, follicular carcinoma of thyroid gland in 1, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from lung cancer in 1). Therefore,the cancer risk of thyroid incidentaloma was 55% (11/20). Significantly higher SUV max in malignant than in benign nodules were observed (Kruskal-Wallis test,χ 2 =8.8, P max (3.0-46.0) and maximal diameter (1.0-4.2 cm) of nodule findings was insignificant (r=0.25, P>0.01). Conclusion: Thyroid incidentaloma detected by 18 F-FDG PET/CT has higher risk rate for thyroid malignancy.(authors)

  15. Benefit of measuring basal serum calcitonin to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma in a Danish population with a high prevalence of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselgren, Martin; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Godballe, Christian

    2009-01-01

    ; thyroidectomy was performed in 307 of these patients. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients had elevated serum calcitonin; 6 of these patients had MTC detected by the initial diagnostic setup. No additional patient in the cohort was registered in the Danish Thyroid Cancer Database, reflecting that all patients with MTC......BACKGROUND: Routine measurement of serum calcitonin to detect medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) continues to be fiercely debated, although less attention has been paid to the positive predictive value (PPV) of this method. METHODS: We collected data from 959 patients with nontoxic nodular goiter....... The low PPV might lead to unnecessary thyroid surgery. Thus, the result of serum calcitonin measurement should always be interpreted in the context of other clinical variables. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009....

  16. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Jørgensen, A; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    in early pregnancy in a population of healthy pregnant Danish women with no previous diagnosed thyroid disease (prevalence, 117 of 1,284; 9.1%). The participants were randomized, stratified according to TPO-Ab level, to three groups. All participants received a daily vitamin and mineral tablet with 150...

  17. MOK, a pharmacopuncture medicine, regulates thyroid dysfunction in L-thyroxin-induced hyperthyroidism in rats through the regulation of oxidation and the TRPV1 ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hye; Kang, Seok Yong; Kang, An Na; Jung, Hyo Won; Jung, Chul; Jeong, Jin-Ho; Park, Yong-Ki

    2017-12-15

    In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of MOK, a pharmacopuncture medicine, on thyroid dysfunction in L-thyroxin (LT4)-induced hyperthyroidism rats. The experimental hyperthyroidism model was prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of LT4 (0.5 mg/kg) once daily for 2 weeks in SD rats. MOK extract was injected at doses of 0.3 or 3 mg/kg on acupuncture points in the thyroid glands of LT4-induced hypothyroidism rats once a day for 2 weeks. The body temperature, body weight, and food/water intake were measured once a week for 2 weeks. The levels of thyroid hormones, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, GOT, and GPT were measured in the sera of rats using ELISA and an automatic blood analyzer. The histological changes of thyroid tissues were observed by H&E staining. The expression of thermo-regulating protein, TRPV1 was determined by western blot in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and brain tissues. We also measured the contents of GSH in the liver and antioxidant enzymes, SOD, and catalase in the liver, heart, and brain tissues by enzyme-based assay and Western blot, respectively. The acupuncture of MOK extract on the thyroid gland of LT4-induced hyperthyroidism rats significantly decreased the body temperature, and did not change body weight and food and water intakes. MOK acupuncture significantly increased the level of TSH, and decreased the levels of T3 and T4 in hyperthyroidism rats. The expression of TRPV1 was inhibited in both DRG and brain tissues after MOK acupuncture, and the levels of GOT, GPT, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were also decreased. MOK acupuncture also inhibited the pathological feature with follicular lining epithelial thicknesses and increased follicular colloid depositions in the thyroid glands of hypothyroidism. MOK acupuncture significantly increased hepatic GSH levels and decreased the expression of SOD and catalase in the liver, heart, and brain tissues of hyperthyroidism rats. These results suggest that the

  18. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G.

    1999-01-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes 131 I and 125 I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for 131 I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported [it

  19. Pressure, Dysfunctional Behavior, Fraud Detection and Role of Information Technology in the Audit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of information technology and pressure such as time budget and task complexity on dysfunctional audit behavior. This study tests whether dysfunctional audit behavior affects fraud detection. Data were gathered from 81 auditors in Jakarta and were analyzed using structure equation model (SEM. The results explain that pressure (time budget and complexity task have some impacts on dysfunctional audit behavior while information technology does not affect dysfunctional audit behavior. These results also indicate that dysfunctional audit behavior has an adverse effect on fraud detection. Job-related stress framework explains the conditions that make stress (stressors will affect to individual psychology, physics, and behavior (strains and make some result (outcome. Pressure (time budget and complexity task is the condition that makes both positive and negative effect on individual behavior. Pressure can make individuals behave dysfunctional or motivate them to give their best shot even though their work uses a lot of energy and mind to solve the problems. Raising dysfunctional audit behavior will reduce auditor’s ability to identify material misstatement in the financial statement.

  20. Clinical investigation of thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Current investigations of thyroid dysfunction available to the clinician are reviewed and correlated with disease processes. The aim is to provide a simplified guide to the investigation of thyroid disorders

  1. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L

    2016-08-10

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A.; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)—tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3′,5,5′-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta.

  3. Neonatal thyroid screening results are related to gestational maternal thyroid function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.M.I.; Kooistra, L.; Wijnen, H.A.; Vader, H.L.; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Oei, S.G.; Vulsma, T.; Pop, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between maternal thyroid function at each pregnancy trimester and neonatal screening results. Background Overt maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation is associated with poor neonatal thyroid function. However, research on the relationship between suboptimal

  4. Utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Leslie R

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine needle aspiration (FNA is widely utilized for evaluation of patients with thyroid nodules. However, approximately 30% are indeterminate for malignancy. Recently, a mutation in the BRAF gene has been reported to be the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of BRAF V600E mutation detection for refining indeterminate preoperative cytologic diagnoses in patients with PTC. Methods Archival indeterminate thyroid FNAs and corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE surgical samples with PTC were identified in our patient files. DNA extracted from slide scape lysates and 5 μm FFPE sections were evaluated for the BRAF V600E mutation using LightCycler PCR and fluorescent melting curve analysis (LCPCR. Amplification products that showed deviation from the wild-type genomic DNA melting peak, discordant FNA and FFPE matched pairs, and all benign control samples, underwent direct DNA sequencing. Results A total of 19 indeterminate thyroid FNAs demonstrating PTC on FFPE surgical samples were included in the study. Using BRAF mutation analysis, the preoperative diagnosis of PTC was confirmed in 3/19 (15.8% FNA samples that could not be conclusively diagnosed on cytology alone. However, 9/19 (47.4% FFPE tissue samples were positive for the V600E mutation. Of the discordant pairs, 5/6 FNAs contained less than 50% tumor cells. Conclusion When used with indeterminate FNA samples, BRAF mutation analysis may be a useful adjunct technique for confirming the diagnosis of malignancy in an otherwise equivocal case. However, overall tumor cell content of some archival FNA smear slides is a limiting factor for mutation detection.

  5. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, Gorazd

    2012-07-06

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning.

  6. Computer-aided diagnostic system for detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images from a Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Sree, S Vinitha; Krishnan, M Muthu Rama; Molinari, Filippo; Zieleźnik, Witold; Bardales, Ricardo H; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-02-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques aid physicians in better diagnosis of diseases by extracting objective and accurate diagnostic information from medical data. Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common type of inflammation of the thyroid gland. The inflammation changes the structure of the thyroid tissue, and these changes are reflected as echogenic changes on ultrasound images. In this work, we propose a novel CAD system (a class of systems called ThyroScan) that extracts textural features from a thyroid sonogram and uses them to aid in the detection of Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this paradigm, we extracted grayscale features based on stationary wavelet transform from 232 normal and 294 Hashimoto thyroiditis-affected thyroid ultrasound images obtained from a Polish population. Significant features were selected using a Student t test. The resulting feature vectors were used to build and evaluate the following 4 classifiers using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation technique: support vector machine, decision tree, fuzzy classifier, and K-nearest neighbor. Using 7 significant features that characterized the textural changes in the images, the fuzzy classifier had the highest classification accuracy of 84.6%, sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 87.0%, and a positive predictive value of 88.9%. The proposed ThyroScan CAD system uses novel features to noninvasively detect the presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis on ultrasound images. Compared to manual interpretations of ultrasound images, the CAD system offers a more objective interpretation of the nature of the thyroid. The preliminary results presented in this work indicate the possibility of using such a CAD system in a clinical setting after evaluating it with larger databases in multicenter clinical trials.

  7. Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodule Prevalence and Radiation Dose from Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, C. E.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B. I.; Hartshorne, M. H.; Wiest, P. W.; Woodward, P. W.; Crooks, L. A.; Luckyanov, N. K.; Fillmore, C. M.; Carr, Z.; Abisheva, G.; Beck, H. L.; Bouville, A.; Langer, J.; Weinstock, R.; Gordeev, K. I.; Shinkarev, S.; Simon, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Settlements near the Semipalatinsk Test Site (SNTS) in northeastern Kazakhstan were exposed to radioactive fallout during 1949–1962. Thyroid disease prevalence among 2994 residents of eight villages was ascertained by ultrasound screening. Malignancy was determined by cytopathology. Individual thyroid doses from external and internal radiation sources were reconstructed from fallout deposition patterns, residential histories and diet, including childhood milk consumption. Point estimates of individual external and internal dose averaged 0.04 Gy (range 0–0.65) and 0.31 Gy (0–9.6), respectively, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.46. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence was 18% and 39% among males and females, respectively. It was significantly and independently associated with both external and internal dose, the main study finding. The estimated relative biological effectiveness of internal compared to external radiation dose was 0.33, with 95% confidence bounds of 0.09–3.11. Prevalence of papillary cancer was 0.9% and was not significantly associated with radiation dose. In terms of excess relative risk per unit dose, our dose–response findings for nodule prevalence are comparable to those from populations exposed to medical X rays and to acute radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. PMID:18363427

  8. Value of preoperative serum LC3 and MMPs combined with TSH detection in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fei Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of preoperative serum LC3 and MMPs combined with TSH detection in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods: A total of 80 cases of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated in our hospital from March 2010 to March 2014 were analyzed, and serum TSH, MMP2/9, TIMP1/2 and LC3 levels of patients before operation were detected by ELISA. Healthy subjects and patients with benign neoplasm of thyroid during the same period were taken as control. Results: Serum TSH, MMP2, MMP9 and LC3 levels in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma significantly increased, TIMP1 and TIMP2 levels significantly decreased, and compared with healthy subjects and patients with benign neoplasm of thyroid, there were significant statistical differences; at the same time, above parameters in serum were not related to gender, but closely related to age, clinical stage and diameter of tumor as well as lymph node. Conclusion: Preoperative detection of serum LC3 and MMPs combined with TSH levels has important reference significance in diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Chromosomal Rainbows detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Benjamin; Jossart, Gregg H.; Ito, Yuko; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Munne, Santiago; Clark, Orlo H.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2010-08-19

    Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'-end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners. We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabase-pair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding

  10. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases; Pruefung einer potentiellen strahleninduzierten Nebenschilddruesenfunktionsstoerung waehrend einer Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-09-28

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with {sup 131}I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng

  11. [Detection of psychosocial dysfunction in ob-gyn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forteza, C F; Morales Carmona, F; Gutiérrez Calderon, E

    1993-01-01

    The human behavior and its social determinants are critical variables for understanding the etiology, treatment, and prevention of many disorders previously attributed to biological substrates. Among the many categories of human behavior to receive special attention from health researchers and practitioners are life events, coping responses and emotional state. The relation between these categories constituted a particular field of investigation. This relationship rather than forcing to focus on disease, distress, disability, and other failures in human functioning, permits to address health, abilities, resources, and other positive aspects of human functioning. On the other hand, the re-organization of health services considers interdisciplinary work as an objective, as it is necessary to care for the patient in an integral manner, with the consequent benefit of a more efficient service. In addition it is known that patients with psychosocial dysfunctions who use general practice care facilities overutilize these services in an unnecessary manner. With this in mind it is clear that is necessary to balance the service's cost-benefit for a more efficient clinical attention. In this paper we present the results of the categories mentioned above: life events, coping responses and its relationship with emotional state in a representative sample of 399 female patients who in 1986 received services at the National Institute of Perinatology-INPer-. Of these patients, 297 were obstetrical patients -OBS- and 102 gynaecological ones -GINE-. All patients answered these instruments: General Health Questionnaire -GHQ-7 of 30 items, a subscale of Health and Daily Living for Coping Responses and Life Events Scale.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  13. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Karina Freitas Soares; Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  14. Clark T. Sawin historical vignette: what do criminology, Harry Houdini, and King George V have in common with postpartum thyroid dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallridge, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    The history of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) dates back almost two millennia, when Soranus of Ephesus, who practiced obstetrics and neonatology, observed swelling in the necks (presumably goiters) of women after pregnancy. The next reference to PPTD appeared in artwork more than 1000 years later, with many portraits illustrating women with goiter while holding infants. In the early to mid-19th century, Caleb Hillier Parry and Armand Trousseau described postpartum hyperthyroidism, while in the late 1800s, Sir Horatio Bryan Donkin reported the first patient with postpartum hypothyroidism. The modern era of PPTD began with the description in the late 1940s by H.E.W. Roberton of women after delivery reporting hypothyroid symptoms and responding to thyroid extract. The immunologic influence on PPTD was recognized initially by Parker and Beierwaltes in the early 1960s, and the clinical variability and natural history were carefully documented by numerous investigators in the 1970s-1980s. The past two decades have seen further refinements in understanding the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of PPTD. Yet to be determined is the role of screening as a cost-effective measure.

  15. Thyroid and the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are some of the most clinically relevant findings that accompany both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. On the basis of the understanding of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and cardiovascular system, it is possible to explain the changes in cardiac output, cardiac contractility, blood pressure and rhythm disturbances that result from thyroid dysfunction. In the present review will integrate what is known about the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany chronic congestive heart failure.

  16. Is visual assessment of thyroid attenuation on unenhanced CT of the chest useful for detecting hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldjian, P D; Chen, T

    2016-11-01

    To determine if visual assessment of the attenuation of morphologically normal appearing thyroid glands on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest is useful for identifying patients with decreased thyroid function. This was a retrospective study of 765 patients who underwent both unenhanced CT of the chest and thyroid function tests performed within 1 year of the CT examination. Attenuation of the thyroid gland was visually assessed in each patient relative to the attenuation of the surrounding muscles to categorise the gland as "low attenuation" (attenuation similar to surrounding muscles) or "high attenuation" (attenuation greater than surrounding muscles). Thyroid attenuation was quantitatively measured in each case to determine the validity of the visual assessment. Results of thyroid function tests were used to classify thyroid function as hypothyroid, euthyroid, or hyperthyroid. Data were analysed to determine the relationship between visual assessment of thyroid attenuation and status of thyroid function. Thyroid glands of low attenuation were present in 4.2% (32/765) of the patients. Nearly half (47%) of the patients with low-attenuation thyroids had hypofunctioning thyroid glands. Compared to patients with high-attenuation thyroids, patients with low-attenuation thyroids were significantly more likely to have decreased thyroid function (clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism) and significantly less likely to be euthyroid (p<0.0001). Quantitative measurement of thyroid attenuation confirmed the validity of the visual assessment. Low attenuation of an otherwise normal-appearing thyroid gland on unenhanced CT of the chest is strongly associated with decreased thyroid function. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of Detection of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancers in Obese and Non-Obese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Zagzag

    Full Text Available The incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is increasing rapidly. Many authors feel that this increase is due to over-diagnosis and that one of the contributing factors is the increasing use of various imaging studies. The rate of obesity has also been increasing in the United States. It has been suggested that patients with an increased body mass index (BMI kg/m2 have a higher incidence of WDTC than patients with normal BMI. One might hypothesize that thyroid nodules are more difficult to palpate in obese patients and that as more cancers are detected by imaging the apparent rate of increase in WDTC in obese patients would appear to be greater than in non-obese patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate this hypothesis by determining if there is any difference in the way thyroid cancers are initially detected in obese and non-obese patients.The medical records of all 519 patients with a postoperative diagnosis of WDTC who underwent thyroidectomy at NYU Langone Medical Center from January 1, 2007 through August 31, 2010 by the three members of NYU Endocrine Surgery Associates were reviewed. Patients were divided into Non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2 and Obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2 groups. Patients were also divided by the initial method of detection of their tumor into Palpation, Imaging, and Incidental groups.The final study group contained 270 patients, 181(67% of whom were in the Non-obese Group and 89(33% were in the Obese Group. In the Non-obese group, 81(45% of tumors were found by palpation, 72(40% were found by imaging, and 28(16% were found incidentally. In the Obese group, 40(45% were found by palpation, 38(43% were found by imaging, and 11(12% were found incidentally. These differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.769.We show that BMI does not play a role in the method of initial detection in patients with WDTC. This suggests that the prevalence of WDTC detected by imaging is not an artifact caused by an

  18. Additional diagnostic value of systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole stress cardiac magnetic resonance used in detecting coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husser, Oliver; Bodí, Vicente; Sanchís, Juan; Mainar, Luis; Núñez, Julio; López-Lereu, María P; Monmeneu, José V; Ruiz, Vicente; Rumiz, Eva; Moratal, David; Chorro, Francisco J; Llácer, Angel

    2009-04-01

    Dipyridamole stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used to detect coronary artery disease (CAD). However, few data are available on the diagnostic value of the systolic dysfunction induced by dipyridamole. This study investigated whether the induction of systolic dysfunction supplements the diagnostic information provided by perfusion imaging in the detection of CAD. Overall, 166 patients underwent dipyridamole CMR and quantitative coronary angiography, with CAD being defined as a stenosis > or =70%. Systolic dysfunction at rest, systolic dysfunction with dipyridamole, induced systolic dysfunction, and stress first-pass perfussion deficit (PD) and delayed enhancement were quantified. In the multivariate analysis, PD (hazard ratio [HR]=1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-1.91;Pstatistic for predicting CAD (0.81 vs. 0.87; P=.02). Combining induced systolic dysfunction with perfusion imaging increases the diagnostic accuracy of detecting CAD and enables patients with severe ischemia and a high probability of CAD to be identified.

  19. Detection of organ dysfunction by hypotension and/or hyperlactemia in septic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Janet Yde; Dynesen, Jens Jacob Østergaard; Pedersen, Marie Kristine Jessen

    physician documented a suspicion/confirmation of infection within the first 24h of admission. Diagnoses were confirmed by expert proof reading, and calculation of inter-rater agreement. Severe sepsis-defining organ dysfunction cut-offs were adapted from SSC-2012 (Gold Standard). “Simple tool” hypotension...... fulfilling the inclusion criteria. 494 patients (51%) were suspected to have infection within the first 24h of admission. Inter-rater agreement regarding suspected infection was 81% (pSimple tool” detected 73......BackgroundThe definitions of sepsis were updated February 2016[1] - organ dysfunctions remain the turning point between “simple infection” and sepsis (previously severe sepsis). Hypotension and hyperlactatemia define two of many organ dysfunctions presented in the most recent Surviving Sepsis...

  20. [Thyroid emergencies : Thyroid storm and myxedema coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzweg, C; Reincke, M; Gärtner, R

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid emergencies are rare life-threatening endocrine conditions resulting from either decompensated thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm) or severe thyroid hormone deficiency (myxedema coma). Both conditions develop out of a long-standing undiagnosed or untreated hyper- or hypothyroidism, respectively, precipitated by an acute stress-associated event, such as infection, trauma, or surgery. Cardinal features of thyroid storm are myasthenia, cardiovascular symptoms, in particular tachycardia, as well as hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. The diagnosis is made based on clinical criteria only as thyroid hormone measurements do not differentiate between thyroid storm and uncomplicated hyperthyroidism. In addition to critical care measures therapy focusses on inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion (antithyroid drugs, perchlorate, Lugol's solution, cholestyramine, thyroidectomy) as well as inhibition of thyroid hormone effects in the periphery (β-blocker, glucocorticoids).Cardinal symptoms of myxedema coma are hypothermia, decreased mental status, and hypoventilation with risk of pneumonia and hyponatremia. The diagnosis is also purely based on clinical criteria as measurements of thyroid hormone levels do not differ between uncomplicated severe hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. In addition to substitution of thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids, therapy focusses on critical care measures to treat hypoventilation and hypercapnia, correction of hyponatremia and hypothermia.Survival of both thyroid emergencies can only be optimized by early diagnosis based on clinical criteria and prompt initiation of multimodal therapy including supportive measures and treatment of the precipitating event.

  1. Gestational 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure disrupts fetoplacental unit: Fetal thyroid-cytokines dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; Shaker, H M

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is related to several endocrine disorders. This study examined the effect of maternal exposure of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on the fetoplacental unit and fetal thyroid-cytokine axis during the pregnancy. Pregnant albino rats received PCB 126 (20 or 40μg/kgb.wt.) by oral gavage from gestation day (GD) 1 to 20. Potential effects of PCB 126 were evaluated by following the histopathological changes in the placenta by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain and measuring the maternofetal thyroid axis (ELIZA), maternofetal body weight, and fetal growth markers (ELIZA), and cytokines (ELIZA) at embryonic day (ED) 20. Placental tissues of both treated groups showed hyperemia, hemorrhage, degeneration and apoptosis in labyrinth layer and spiral artery at GD 20. Both administrations of PCB 126 elevated serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, and decreased free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations, resulting in a maternofetal hypothyroidism. The presence of hypothyroidism increased fetal serum concentration of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), leptin (LEP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and decreased the fetal serum insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-II, insulin, adiponectin (ADP), and growth hormone (GH) in both treated groups at ED 20. However, the increase in resistin (RETN) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) was non-significant in low-dose group and highly significant in high-dose group. Simultaneously, the reduction in body weight of the dams and fetuses was observed in both PCB 126 groups of examined day with respect to the control group. The maternal PCB 126 distorted the fetoplacental unit might disrupt the fetal thyroid-cytokines axis and prenatal development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dual ectopic thyroid associated with thyroid hemiagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigenori; Masuda, Teruyuki; Ishimori, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl with a midline neck mass that was first noted 2 or 3 years previously. She had been treated with levothyroxine (L-T4) for congenital hypothyroidism until 11 years of age. Ultrasonography revealed an atrophic right thyroid (1.0 × 1.6 × 2.6 cm in size) and a mass (2.3 × 1.0 × 3.5 cm in size) in the upper part of the neck. No left lobe of the thyroid was detected. On further evaluation, Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy and CT showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual region and infrahyoid region. Thus, she was diagnosed as having dual ectopic thyroid and thyroid hemiagenesis. The atrophic right thyroid was thought be non-functional. Treatment with L-T4 was started to reduce the size of the dual ectopic thyroid tissue. This may be the first reported case of dual ectopic thyroid associated with hemiagenesis detected only by ultrasonography. Ultrasonography can confirm the presence or absence of orthotopic thyroid tissue in patients with ectopic thyroid.The cause of congenital hypothyroidism should be examined.Clinical manifestation of ectopic thyroid may appear when the treatment with L-T4 is discontinued.Annual follow-up is needed in all children when their thyroid hormone replacement is stopped.

  3. Iodine Deficiency and Excess Coexist in China and Induce Thyroid Dysfunction and Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fangang; Liu, Shoujun; Fan, Zhipeng; Wu, Junhua; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-01-01

    Background In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate) and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water. Objective This study aimed to clarify the association of iodine deficiencies resulting from a low coverage rate of iodized salt, excess iodine intake from drinking water with thyroid function and disease in adults. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in different iodine nutrition areas in three provinces in China. Results The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 15.52%, 8.66% and 22.17% in the iodine excess, sufficient and deficient groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 20.09%, 10.41%, and 2.25% in the excess, sufficient and deficient iodine groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism in the iodine deficient group was higher than that in the iodine excess group ( = 9.302, p = 0.002) and iodine sufficient group ( = 7.553, p = 0.006). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was significantly correlated with excess iodine intake (β = 1.764,P = 0.001) and deficient iodine intake (β = −1.219, P = 0.028). Conclusions Thyroid nodules are more likely to be present in the iodine excess and deficient areas than in the iodine sufficient areas. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism are more likely to be prevalent in the iodine deficient areas than in the iodine excess or sufficient areas. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more likely to be prevalent in the high iodine intake areas than in the iodine deficient or sufficient areas. Median TSH may be deemed as an alternative indicator for monitoring the iodine nutrition status of the adult population in iodine excess and deficient areas. PMID:25375854

  4. Iodine deficiency and excess coexist in china and induce thyroid dysfunction and disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to clarify the association of iodine deficiencies resulting from a low coverage rate of iodized salt, excess iodine intake from drinking water with thyroid function and disease in adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in different iodine nutrition areas in three provinces in China. RESULTS: The prevalence of thyroid nodules was 15.52%, 8.66% and 22.17% in the iodine excess, sufficient and deficient groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 20.09%, 10.41%, and 2.25% in the excess, sufficient and deficient iodine groups, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism in the iodine deficient group was higher than that in the iodine excess group ([Formula: see text] = 9.302, p = 0.002 and iodine sufficient group ([Formula: see text] = 7.553, p = 0.006. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH was significantly correlated with excess iodine intake (β = 1.764,P = 0.001 and deficient iodine intake (β = -1.219, P = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid nodules are more likely to be present in the iodine excess and deficient areas than in the iodine sufficient areas. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism are more likely to be prevalent in the iodine deficient areas than in the iodine excess or sufficient areas. Subclinical hypothyroidism is more likely to be prevalent in the high iodine intake areas than in the iodine deficient or sufficient areas. Median TSH may be deemed as an alternative indicator for monitoring the iodine nutrition status of the adult population in iodine excess and deficient areas.

  5. Thyroid autonomy: sensitive detection in vivo and estimation of its functional relevance using quantified high-resolution scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Lindemann, C.; Emrich, D.; Hilgers, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with 236 euthyroid individuals living in an area of iodine deficiency, 227 of whom had endemic goitres. In these subjects, autonomy could be suspected owing to an inhomogeneous activity distribution on the thyroid scintigram or a subnormal TSH response to TRH. They complete a total number of 426 investigated individuals. Previously, in 190 separated controls without evidence of autonomy, the reference ranges for the thyroid 99m Tc pertechnetate uptake under suppression (TcU s ), a measure for the non-suppressible thyroid iodide clearance, and for suppressibility of circumscribed thyroid regions, had been determined. These two parameters obtained by highresolution quantified scintigraphy were used for an accurate detection of thyroid autonomy among the 236 individuals. Suppression scintigraphy revealed autonomy in 171 patients. ΔTSH after TRH was subnormal in 40% of the subjects with abnormal thyroid suppressibility. Prevalence of abnormal suppression was dependent on three factors: patient age, goitre type and estimated thyroid weight. In the total investigated collective, the prevalence of autonomy was 77% in patients with a goitre weight above 50 g. The individuals with abnormal suppression were grouped into four classes of TcU s . I these classes, free thyroxie index (FT 4 I) and total triiodothyronine (TT 3 ) icreased with increasing TcU s , whereas ΔTSH decreased. This finding indicates a continuum of different extents of autonomous thyroid function, whereas in the individual patient, the extent can be determined using the pertechnetate uptake under suppression. In addition, FT 4 I, TT 3 and ΔTSH in each of the TcU s classes depended on the individual iodine supply. It is concluded that, in patients with thyroid autonomy, actual thyroid hormone concentrations and TSH stimulation are determined by two major factors: the extent of autonomy and the individual iodine supply. Therefore, in iodine deficiency, the TRH test may be normal

  6. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  7. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T.; Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V.; Branovan, I.; Biko, I.; Reiners, C.

    2012-01-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  8. Validation of the measurement detection system for thyroid uptake (DETEC-PC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, Dolores; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Bolanos Perez, Lourdes; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Alonso Abad, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Diseases caused by a malfunction of the Thyroid gland are very common. Any general hospital assists dozens of such cases weekly and there are some places where these diseases are endemic. A measurement detection system was designed and developed to allow carrying out Thyroid Uptakes functional studies. It has been taken in account the requirements of easiness of use and the good medical practices. The system consists of a Personal Computer connected with a radiometric block based on a UnI052 board, for the acquisition of counts to be processed. The application software is responsible for the control and monitoring of the equipment operation as well as the statistical analysis. It also includes a database where the information of the patient under study is stored. The software was designed according to the principles of Object Oriented Programming (OOP) with a graphic user interface (GUI) under 'MS-Windows' environment. The software has several functions that allow making important quality controls about the correct operation of the system. Quality control tests, according to international standards, have been performed to the equipment. The tests of acceptance, of reference, of routine and of operational or daily control were made. They showed a satisfactory performance under real conditions of operation. Then, the metrological certification was obtained. This is the requirement necessary for doing the case study for obtaining the Medical Registration, which certifies the introduction in the National System of Health. (author)

  9. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones ...

  10. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  11. Detection of Metastatic Breast and Thyroid Cancer in Lymph Nodes by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialing; Feider, Clara L.; Nagi, Chandandeep; Yu, Wendong; Carter, Stacey A.; Suliburk, James; Cao, Hop S. Tran; Eberlin, Livia S.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry has been widely applied to image lipids and metabolites in primary cancer tissues with the purpose of detecting and understanding metabolic changes associated with cancer development and progression. Here, we report the use of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) to image metastatic breast and thyroid cancer in human lymph node tissues. Our results show clear alterations in lipid and metabolite distributions detected in the mass spectra profiles from 42 samples of metastatic thyroid tumors, metastatic breast tumors, and normal lymph node tissues. 2D DESI-MS ion images of selected molecular species allowed discrimination and visualization of specific histologic features within tissue sections, including regions of metastatic cancer, adjacent normal lymph node, and fibrosis or adipose tissues, which strongly correlated with pathologic findings. In thyroid cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of ceramides and glycerophosphoinisitols were observed. In breast cancer metastasis, increased relative abundances of various fatty acids and specific glycerophospholipids were seen. Trends in the alterations in fatty acyl chain composition of lipid species were also observed through detailed mass spectra evaluation and chemical identification of molecular species. The results obtained demonstrate DESI-MSI as a potential clinical tool for the detection of breast and thyroid cancer metastasis in lymph nodes, although further validation is needed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Thyroid storm associated with Graves' disease covered by diabetic ketoacidosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Erika; Hiroi, Naoki; Sue, Mariko; Masai, Natsumi; Iga, Ryo; Shigemitsu, Rika; Oka, Reiko; Miyagi, Masahiko; Iso, Kaoru; Kuboki, Koji; Yoshino, Gen

    2011-04-14

    Thyroid storm is a condition in which multiple organ dysfunction results from failure of the compensatory mechanisms of the body owing to excessive thyroid hormone activity induced by some factors in patients with thyrotoxicosis. While diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an important trigger for thyroid storm, simultaneous development of DKA and thyroid storm is rare. A 59-year-old woman with no history of either diabetes mellitus or thyroid disease presented to our hospital because of developing nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for 2 days. Physical examination showed mild disturbance of consciousness, fever, and tachycardia. There were no other signs of thyrotoxicosis. Laboratory studies revealed elevation of random blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, strongly positive of urine acetone, and metabolic acidosis. Since DKA was diagnosed, we initiated the patient on treatment with administration of insulin and adequate fluid replacement. Although the hyperglycemia and acidosis were immediately relieved, the disturbance of consciousness and tachycardia remained persistent. Levels of FT3 and FT4 were extremely high and TSH was below the detectable limit. TRAb was positive. The thyroid storm score of Burch & Wartofsky was 75/140, and the thyroid storm diagnostic criteria of the Japan Thyroid Association were satisfied. Oral administration of thiamazole, potassium iodide and propranolol resulted in immediate relief of the tachycardia. We encountered a case of thyroid storm associated with Graves' disease covered by DKA. Thyroid storm and DKA are both potentially fatal, and the prognosis varies depending on whether or not these conditions are detected and treated sufficiently early. The thyroid storm diagnostic criteria prepared in 2008 by the Japan Thyroid Association are very simple as compared to the Burch & Wartofsky scoring system for thyroid storm. The Japanese criteria may be useful in the diagnosis of this condition since they enable clinicians to identify a broad

  13. State of esophageal transport function in patients with nodular goiter and in patients operated on for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purizhanskij, I.I.; Lyzhina, V.D.; Ogneva, T.V.; Pashev, N.; Minchev, D.; Mladenov, V.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of changes of esophageal transport function in 10 patients with thyroid adenoma and in 27 patients after surgical and radiotherapeutic management for thyroid cancer. The results were compared with those of a control group. Significant data on changes on esophageal transport function in patients with thyroid adenoma were unnoticed. Esophageal dysfunction after operation and radioactive iodine therapy for cancer was detected in 55%. Dysfunction was thought to be caused by dysphagia which showed direct correlation with the severity of hypothyroidism

  14. MEG-based detection and localization of perilesional dysfunction in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron K.O. Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke impairment is associated not only with structural lesions, but also with dysfunction in surviving perilesional tissue. Previous studies using equivalent current dipole source localization of MEG/EEG signals have demonstrated a preponderance of slow-wave activity localized to perilesional areas. Recent studies have also demonstrated the utility of nonlinear analyses such as multiscale entropy (MSE for quantifying neuronal dysfunction in a wide range of pathologies. The current study utilized beamformer-based reconstruction of signals in source space to compare spectral and nonlinear measures of electrical activity in perilesional and healthy cortices. Data were collected from chronic stroke patients and healthy controls, both young and elderly. We assessed relative power in the delta (1–4 Hz, theta (4–7 Hz, alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz frequency bands, and also measured the nonlinear complexity of electrical activity using MSE. Perilesional tissue exhibited a general slowing of the power spectrum (increased delta/theta, decreased beta as well as a reduction in MSE. All measures tested were similarly sensitive to changes in the posterior perilesional regions, but anterior perilesional dysfunction was detected better by MSE and beta power. The findings also suggest that MSE is specifically sensitive to electrophysiological dysfunction in perilesional tissue, while spectral measures were additionally affected by an increase in rolandic beta power with advanced age. Furthermore, perilesional electrophysiological abnormalities in the left hemisphere were correlated with the degree of language task-induced activation in the right hemisphere. Finally, we demonstrate that single subject spectral and nonlinear analyses can identify dysfunctional perilesional regions within individual patients that may be ideal targets for interventions with noninvasive brain stimulation.

  15. Thyrotoxicosis Associated with a Hypopharyngeal Toxic Nodular Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ali Imran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly which may be either asymptomatic or present with thyroid dysfunction as well as pressure symptoms. Here we present a novel case of thyrotoxicosis associated with a hypopharyngeal multinodular thyroid in a female. Removal of the ectopic thyroid led to normalization of the thyroid status.

  16. Evolution of echocardiography in subclinical detection of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudgil, Rohit; Hassan, Saamir; Palaskas, Nicolas; Lopez-Mattei, Juan; Banchs, Jose; Yusuf, Syed Wamique

    2018-05-11

    Cancer therapies have resulted in increased survivorship in oncological patients. However, the benefits have been marred by the development of premature cardiovascular disease. The current definition outlines measurement of ejection fraction as a mean to diagnose cancer therapeutic-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD); however, up to 58% of the patients do not regain their cardiac function after the CTRCD diagnosis, despite therapeutic interventions. Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the markers for early myocardial changes (ie, changes with normal left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]) that may predict the development of subsequent left ventricular ejection fraction reduction or progression to heart failure. This review will highlight the use of diastolic parameters, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiogram (STE) as emerging technologies which can potentially detect cardiac dysfunction thereby stratifying patients for cardioprotective therapies. The goal of this manuscript was to highlight the concepts and discuss the current controversies surrounding these echocardiographic imaging modalities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic diabetic patient using strain and strain rate echocardiographic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus deteriorate both LV systolic and diastolic performance. Strain and strain rate by tissue Doppler Imaging is superior to conventional Doppler in early detection and evaluation of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

  18. Detection of the involvement of salivary glands in autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland by using Ttc-99m MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Söylemez ¹

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the involvement in the salivary glands of the patients with Graves’ Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis and controls by detecting the changes of Tc-99m Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI uptake. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. 19 patients with Graves’ disease (6 men, 13 women, 28 Hashimoto Thyroiditis patients (5 men, 23 women and 11 euthyroid controls (4 men, 7 women were evaluated retrospectively. Uptake values of parotid and submandibular glands were calculated by drawing elliptical ROIs (region of interest and using the formula for uptake calculation. Result: In all three groups, in parotis glands, a statistical significant difference between Tc-99m MIBI uptake was not detected. The Tc-99m MIBI upateke values in submandibular glands were statistically different among patients with Graves’Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis, as well as in Control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We concluded that the different uptake values of Tc-99m-MIBI in submandibular glands in Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis as compared to the control group patient would be results of the histopathological features, such as autoimmunity, high mitochondria number and inflammatory reaction. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 67-73

  19. [Maternal autoimmune thyroid disease: relevance for the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temboury Molina, M Carmen; Rivero Martín, M José; de Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Ares Segura, Susana

    2015-04-08

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is amongst the most frequent endocrine disorders during pregnancy. It is associated with an increase in perinatal morbidity, congenital defects, neurological damage, fetal and neonatal thyroid dysfunction. Maternal thyroid hormones play a key role in child neurodevelopment. We aimed to evaluate the thyroid function and the clinical course of neonates born from mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease during the first months of life in order to define the follow-up. We monitored thyroid function and clinical status during the first months in 81 newborns of mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease; 16 had Graves disease and 65 autoimmune thyroiditis. A percentage of 4.93 newborns had congenital defects, and 8.64% neonates showed an increase in thyrotropin (TSH) (>9.5 μUI/mL 2 times) and required thyroxin within the first month of life. A 85.7% of these showed a negative newborn screening (due to a later increase of TSH). A higher TSH value in the newborn was related to an older age of the mother, higher levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody during pregnancy and lower birth weight. A higher free thyroxine (FT4) value in the newborn was related to fewer days of life and mothers with Graves disease. We recommend the evaluation of TSH, T4 and TPO antibodies before 10 weeks in all pregnant women with follow-up if maternal thyroid autoimmunity or disorders is detected. It is also recommended to test children's serum TSH and FT4 at 48 h of life in newborns of mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease and repeat them between the 2nd and 4th week in children with TSH>6 μUI/mL. Careful endocrine follow-up is advised in pregnant women and children if hyperthyroidism is detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting congenital hypothyroidism with newborn screening: the relevance of thyroid-stimulating hormone cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrin, Stela Maris; Leone, Claudio; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    To assess the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism and the ability of various neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHneo) cutoff values to detect this disease. This cohort study was based on the retrospective collection of information available from the Reference Service for Newborn Screening database for all live births from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, assessed using the Newborn Screening Program of a Brazilian state, Brazil. The infants were divided into two groups: I - Control: infants with normal newborn screening tests and II - Study: infants with congenital hypothyroidism. Analysis included comparing the TSHneo levels from both groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to assess the TSHneo cutoff values. Using a TSHneo cutoff value of 5.0μIU/mL, 50 out of 111,705 screened infants had diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism (prevalence 1:2234 live births). The ROC curve showed that TSHneo value of 5.03μIU/mL had 100% sensitivity and the greatest associated specificity (93.7%). The area under the curve was 0.9898 (pvalue of 5.0μIU/mL adopted by the Newborn Screening Program of a Brazilian state was the most appropriate for detecting congenital hypothyroidism and most likely explains the high prevalence that was found. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The Case of Thyroid Hormones: How to Learn Physiology by Solving a Detective Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Giannocco, Gisele; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid diseases are prevalent among endocrine disorders, and careful evaluation of patients' symptoms is a very important part in their diagnosis. Developing new pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), is extremely important to stimulate and encourage medical and biomedical students to learn thyroid physiology and identify…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN METAMORPHOSIS MODEL FOR DETECTING THYROID AXIS DISRUPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis represents an elaborate process of post-embryonic development which is thyroid hormone (TH) dependent. The development of a functional thyroid axis and the responses of tissues to different TH concentrations are well defined in this species, provid...

  3. [Construction and clinical evaluation of novel methods for detecting autoinomic dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Konen

    2012-05-01

    The autonomic nervous system innervates every organ in the body. Since autonomic disturbances affect patient survival, an understanding of and recognition of these disturbances are important. We adopted several new methods to evaluate autonomic function accurately for detecting the onset of small-fiber neuropathy, such as laser-Doppler flowmetry, ultrasonography, 123I-MIBG scintigraphy, electrogastrography, cystometry, glucose-tolerance test, near-infrared spectrophotoscopy, blood pressure tests, and evaluation of sweating. After these examinations, we applied potential effective treatments to improve the survival and daily activity of these patients. We also evaluated the effect of liver transplantation on autonomic dysfunction of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) patients using our tools. Liver transplantation not only prevents the progression of autonomic dysfunction in these patients but also improves some autonomic symptoms in the early stage after the operation. As all domino-liver transplantation-induced amyloid neuropathies, including our cases, were of the sensory type rather than with autonomic involvement, assessment of the pain threshold by preferential stimulation of A delta fibers is a particularly useful tool for diagnosing the onset of small-fiber neuropathies in these patients in addition to autonomic testing. Analyses and comparison of patients with FAP and domino-liver-transplanted patients with autonomic, sensory and motor dysfunction may give a clue to elucidate the pathogenesis and treatment of neuropathy in FAP. As autonomic disturbances play an important role in the symptomatology of small-fiber neuropathy, liver-transplanted FAP, and domino-liver-transplanted patients, further studies of autonomic dysfunction in these patients may lead to the pathogenesis of the disease.

  4. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Thyroid Association ® Postpartum Thyroiditis www.thyroid.org What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that ... as they should. What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is a general term that refers ...

  5. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  6. Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas detected by (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2012-01-01

    Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET...... uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p...

  7. Application of wavelet analysis to detect dysfunction in cerebral blood flow autoregulation during experimental hyperhomocysteinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrin, Valery V; Ivanov, Alexander V; Virus, Edward D; Bulgakova, Polina O; Kubatiev, Aslan A

    2018-04-03

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals coupled with spectral wavelet analysis to detect endothelial link dysfunction in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the setting of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy). Fifty-one rats were assigned to three groups (intact, control, and HHcy) according to the results of biochemical assays of homocysteine level in blood plasma. LDF signals on the rat brain were recorded by LAKK-02 device to measure the microcirculatory blood flow. The laser operating wavelength and output power density were1064 nm and 0.051 W/mm 2 , respectively. A Morlet mother wavelet transform was applied to the measured 8-min LDF signals, and periodic oscillations with five frequency intervals were identified (0.01-0.04 Hz, 0.04-0.15 Hz, 0.15-0.4 Hz, 0.4-2 Hz, and 2-5 Hz) corresponding to endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory, and cardiac origins, respectively. In initial state, the amplitude of the oscillations decreased by 38% (P wavelet analysis may be successfully applied to detect the dysfunction of the endothelial link in cerebral vessel tone and to reveal the pathological shift of lower limit of autoregulation.

  8. Detecting and Treating Thyroid Nodules and Cancer Before, During, and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases as you age. Most nodules do not cause problems during pregnancy. Yet, pregnancy does cause major changes in the ... or growing quickly. There is no proof that pregnancy causes thyroid cancer to recur (come back) in women ...

  9. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  10. STUDY OF THYROID PROFILE BY USING ULTRA SENSITIVE 3 rd GENERATION THYROID ASSAY IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTER

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    Rahul Ladda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder which is defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Recently few studies have shown that Thyroid dysfunction especially hypothyroidism is found in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but the mechanism for this is largely unknown. Unrecognized thyroid dysfunction can impair metabolic control in diabetes and may even exaggerate cardiovascular risk. Prompt detection and treatment may reduce risk derangement of cellular metabolism in diabetes mellitus and help achieving metabolic control in diabetes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To find the prevalence rate of thyroid disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus by using 3 rd generation thyroid assay and distribution of thyroid disorders in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus MATERIALS AND METHODS 150 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus or newly detected Type 2 diabetes mellitus without thyroid disorders attending outpatient departments and admitted to General medicine wards of Basaveshwar teaching and general hospital were included in this study. RESULTS Of the 150 patients with Diabetes 88 patients (58.66% were male and 62 patients (41.33% were male. The mean age in diabetic group 56.48±11.64 years. 84 patients (54% in Diabetic group had hypertension and 25 patients (16.7% diabetic group had coronary artery disease 43 patients (28.66% had abnormal thyroid profile in diabetic group of which 23 patients (53.5% had subclinical hypothyroidism and 16 patients (37.3 % had overt hypothyroidism 2 (4.6 % patients had subclinical hyperthyroidism and 2 (4.6% had overt hyperthyroidism. CONCLUSION The prevalence (28.8% of thyroid dysfunction was common in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Our study shows significant co relation between abnormal thyroid profile and glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia and duration of diabetes.

  11. Preoperative scintigraphic detection of lung metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma associated with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyi, A.; Oufroukhi, Y.; Doudouh, A.; Baizri, H.; El Quatni, M.; Al Bouzidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative accumulation of radioiodine in metastases of thyroid carcinoma and its association with hyperthyroidism are uncommon. We report a case of 58-year-old woman with follicular thyroid carcinoma revealed by thyrotoxicosis caused by a hot nodule, and bilateral pulmonary uptake of I-131 before total thyroidectomy. Despite four ablative doses of I-131, bone metastases were identified and the patient died 42 month after the initial diagnosis. (authors)

  12. Next-generation sequence detects ARAP3 as a novel oncogene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

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    Wang QX

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Qing-Xuan Wang, En-Dong Chen, Ye-Feng Cai, Yi-Li Zhou, Zhou-Ci Zheng, Ying-Hao Wang, Yi-Xiang Jin, Wen-Xu Jin, Xiao-Hua Zhang, Ou-Chen Wang Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China Purpose: Thyroid cancer is the most frequent malignancies of the endocrine system, and it has became the fastest growing type of cancer worldwide. Much still remains unknown about the molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer. Studies have found that some certain relationship between ARAP3 and human cancer. However, the role of ARAP3 in thyroid cancer has not been well explained. This study aimed to investigate the role of ARAP3 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Whole exon sequence and whole genome sequence of primary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC samples and matched adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples were performed and then bioinformatics analysis was carried out. PTC cell lines (TPC1, BCPAP, and KTC-1 with transfection of small interfering RNA were used to investigate the functions of ARAP3 gene, including cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, migration assay, and invasion assay. Results: Using next-generation sequence and bioinformatics analysis, we found ARAP3 genes may play an important role in thyroid cancer. Downregulation of ARAP3 significantly suppressed PTC cell lines (TPC1, BCPAP, and KTC-1, cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. Conclusion: This study indicated that ARAP3 genes have important biological implications and may act as a potentially drugable target in PTC. Keywords: papillary thyroid carcinoma, next-generation sequence, ARAP3, oncogene

  13. Alteração tireoidiana: um fator de risco associado à depressão pós-parto? Thyroid dysfunction: a risk factor associated with post-partum depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Enrico Cabral Ruschi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estudar prevalência de depressão pósparto e sua correlação com alterações tireoidianas maternas. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional descritivo transversal realizado com 292 mulheres entre 31 e 180 dias após o parto, atendidas em unidades de saúde pública da Região Metroplitana de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Analisou-se a amostra segundo características sociodemográficas e clínico-obstétricas. Definiu-se transtorno depressivo pelo escore igual ou superior a 12 na Escala de Depressão Pós-Parto de Edimburgo (EPDS. A avaliação tireoidiana foi realizada por dosagens séricas de hormônio tireo-estimulante (TSH, tiroxina livre (T4 livre e dos anticorpos anti-peroxidase (TPO. Para avaliação dos resultados utilizamos técnicas de análise descritiva e teste do χ2, adotando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: 115 mulheres (39,4% apresentaram escores iguais ou superiores a 12 na EPDS, sendo consideradas deprimidas; 117 (60,6%, com escores inferiores a 12, foram consideradas não deprimidas. A prevalência de depressão pós-parto no grupo com alterações tireoidianas foi de 36% e no grupo sem alterações tireoidianas foi de 40%. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na frequência de depressão entre as pacientes com e sem alterações tireoidianas (χ2=0,131;p=0,717. CONCLUSÕES: a frequência de DPP foi elevada, não sendo observada associação entre depressão pós-parto e alterações tireoidianas.OBJECTIVES: to investigate the prevalence of post partum depression and its correlation with thyroid dysfunction in mothers. METHODS: a descriptive, cross-cutting observational study carried out among 292 women between the 31st and 180th days post partum, attending public health units in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The sample was analyzed for socio-demographic and clinical-obstetric characteristics. A depressive disorder was defined by a score

  14. Detection and a possible link between parvovirus B19 and thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadi, Ashkan; Mostafaei, Shayan; Yari, Kheirollah; Ghasemi, Amir; Minaei Chenar, Hamzeh; Moghoofei, Mohsen

    2017-06-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a small, non-enveloped virus and belongs to Parvoviridae family. B19 persists in many tissues such as thyroid tissue and even thyroid cancer. The main aim of this study was to determine the presence of B19, its association with increased inflammation in thyroid tissue, and thus its possible role in thyroid cancer progression. Studies have shown that virus replication in non-permissive tissue leads to overexpression of non-structural protein and results in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. A total of 36 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens and serum were collected from patients and 12 samples were used as control. Various methods were employed, including polymerase chain reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results have shown the presence of B19 DNA in 31 of 36 samples (86.11%). Almost in all samples, the levels of non-structural protein 1, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 were simultaneously high. The presence of parvovirus B19 has a significant positive correlation with nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 6 levels. This study suggests that B19 infection may play an important role in tumorigenesis and thyroid cancer development via the inflammatory mechanisms.

  15. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins as measured in a reporter bioassay are not detected in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and ophthalmopathy or isolated upper eyelid retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall JR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jack R Wall,1 Hooshang Lahooti,1 Ilhem El Kochairi,1 Simon D Lytton,2 Bernard Champion1 1Department of Medicine, the University of Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia; 2SeraDiaLogistics, Munich, Germany Abstract: Although ophthalmopathy is mainly associated with Graves’ hyperthyroidism, milder eye changes are also found in about 25% of patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT. The recent finding of negative thyrotropin receptor (TSHR antibodies, as measured in the ­Thyretain™ thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI reporter bioassay, in patients with euthyroid Graves’ disease raises the possibility that TSHR antibodies are not the cause of ophthalmopathy in all situations. Here, we have tested serum from patients with HT with and without ophthalmopathy or isolated upper eyelid retraction (UER for TSHR antibodies, using the TSI reporter bioassay and collagen XIII as a marker of autoimmunity against the orbital fibroblast. Study groups were 23 patients with HT with ophthalmopathy, isolated UER, or both eye features and 17 patients without eye signs. Thyretain™ TSI results were expressed as a percentage of the sample-to-reference ratio, with a positive test being taken as a sample-to-reference ratio of more than 140%. Serum collagen XIII antibodies were measured in standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TSI tests were positive in 22% of patients with HT with no eye signs but in no patient with eye signs. In contrast, TSI tests were positive in 94% of patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Tests were negative in all normal subjects tested. Collagen XIII antibodies were detected in 83% of patients with ophthalmopathy, UER, or both eye features, but in only 30% of patients with no eye signs. Our findings suggest that TSHR antibodies do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of ophthalmopathy or isolated UER in patients with HT. Moreover, the role of TSHR antibodies in the development of ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves

  16. Analysis of thyroid hormone receptor βA mRNA expression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as a means to detect agonism and antagonism of thyroid hormone action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Robert; Lutz, Ilka; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Kloas, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis represents a unique biological model to study thyroid hormone (TH) action in vivo. In this study, we examined the utility of thyroid hormone receptors α (TRα) and βA (TRβA) mRNA expression patterns in Xenopus laevis tadpoles as molecular markers indicating modulation of TH action. During spontaneous metamorphosis, only moderate changes were evident for TRα gene expression whereas a marked up-regulation of TRβA mRNA occurred in hind limbs (prometamorphosis), head (late prometamorphosis), and tail tissue (metamorphic climax). Treatment of premetamorphic tadpoles with 1 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) caused a rapid induction of TRβA mRNA in head and tail tissue within 6 to 12 h which was maintained for at least 72 h after initiation of T3 treatment. Developmental stage had a strong influence on the responsiveness of tadpole tissues to induce TRβA mRNA during 24 h treatment with thyroxine (0, 1, 5, 10 nM T4) or T3 (0, 1, 5, 10 nM). Premetamorphic tadpoles were highly sensitive in their response to T4 and T3 treatments, whereas sensitivity to TH was decreased in early prometamorphic tadpoles and strongly diminished in late prometamorphic tadpoles. To examine the utility of TRβA gene expression analysis for detection of agonistic and antagonistic effects on T3 action, mRNA expression was assessed in premetamorphic tadpoles after 48 h of treatment with the synthetic agonist GC-1 (0, 10, 50, 250 nM), the synthetic antagonist NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM), and binary combinations of NH-3 (0, 40, 200, 1000 nM) and T3 (1 nM). All tested concentrations of GC-1 as well as the highest concentration of NH-3 caused an up-regulation of TRβA expression. Co-treatment with NH-3 and T3 revealed strong antagonistic effects by NH-3 on T3-induced TRβA mRNA up-regulation. Results of this study suggest that TRβA mRNA expression analysis could serve as a sensitive molecular testing approach to study effects of environmental compounds on the thyroid system in

  17. Thyroid autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a multifactorial disease in which autoimmunity against thyroid antigens develops against a particular genetic background facilitated by exposure to environmental factors. Immunogenicity of the major thyroid antigens thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin (TG) and

  18. Prevalence and pattern of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in newly detected type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsna, Viveka P; Sahoo, Abhay; Sreenivas, V; Deepak, K K

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 145 consecutive recently detected type 2 diabetics. Ninety-nine healthy persons served as controls. Criteria for normalcy were, heart rate variation during deep breathing >or=15 beats/min, deep breathing expiratory to inspiratory R-R ratio >or=1.21, Valsalva ratio >or=1.21, sustained handgrip test >or=16 mm of mercury, cold pressor test >or=10, BP response to standing or=1.04. An abnormal test was defined as the above parameters being or=30 mm of mercury and dysfunction was found in 44.2% and sympathetic dysfunction in 51.9% diabetics. Among healthy controls, these figures were 11.9% and 22.1%, respectively. Cardiac autonomic function was normal in 7.8% patients and 32.5% healthy controls.

  19. Possibilities traditional and liquid-based cytology combined with immunocytochemical detection of some molecular markers in the preoperative diagnosis of well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S. Berjozkina

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion. The diagnostic accuracy of the method of liquid-based cytology is higher than the traditional method of cytology. ICC expression of Ki-67 method has 81.8% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Conjoint definition HS Ki-67 and liquid-based cytology increases the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of well-differentiated thyroid cancer preoperative to 100%. There no detected relations between the expression of galectin-3, NFM, Ki-67 and the presence an autoimmune process in the thyroid.

  20. Increased risk of thyroid cancer in female residents nearby nuclear power plants in Korea: was it due to detection bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Paek, Do-Myung; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Mi-Na; Ju, Young-Su

    2018-01-01

    The Korea Radiation Effect & Epidemiology Cohort - The resident cohort (KREEC-R) study concluded that there is no epidemiological or causal evidence supporting any increase in cancer risks resulting from radiation from Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). But the risks of thyroid cancer in women were significantly higher in residents living near NPPs than control. Debate about the cause of the pattern of thyroid cancer incidence in women is ongoing and some researchers argue that detection bias influenced the result of KREEC-R study. Therefore there was a need to investigate whether residents living near NPPs who were assessed in the KREEC-R were actually tested more often for thyroid cancer. We evaluated the possibility of detection bias in the finding of the KREEC-R study based on materials available at this time. Using the KREEC-R raw data, we calculated age standardized rates (ASRs) of female thyroid cancer and re-analyzed the results of survey on the use of medical services. We also marked the administrative districts of residents who received the Radiation Health Research Institute (RHRI) health examinations and those in which thyroid cancer case occurred as per the Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) final report on maps where the locations of NPPs and 5 km-radii around them were also indicated. And we compared the incidence rates of Radiation-induced cancer measured between the first period when RHRI health examinations were not yet implemented, and the second period when the RHRI health examinations were implemented. The ASR for the far-distance group, which comprised residents living in areas outside the 30 km radius of the NPPs, increased rapidly after 2000; however, that of the exposed group, which comprised residents living within a 5 km radius of the NPPs, started to increase rapidly even before 1995. The frequencies of the use of medical services were significantly higher in the intermediate proximate group

  1. [Thyroid Storm and Myxedema Coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkau, Malte; Sayk, Friedhelm

    2018-03-01

    Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are the most severe clinical forms of thyroid dysfunction. While both hyper- and hypothyroidsm are common diseases, thyroid storm and myxedema coma are rare. Due to their unspecific signs and symptoms they are often difficult to diagnose. Both disorders are medical emergencies, which still show a significant mortality. The following article summarizes diagnostic tools and treatment options for these disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery FAQs PDF En Español Cirugia De La Tiroides El folleto de Cirugia De La Tiroides Search Thyroid ...

  3. Substernal thyroid carcinoma detected by 67Ga scan in a patient with normal 131I scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, e.E.; Maruyama, Y.; Deland, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A patient with a superior mediastinal mass on an admission chest radiograph was initially evaluated by an 131 I thyroid scan which failed to demonstrate a substernal thyroid. However, the tomographic 67 Ga scan clearly showed an abnormal uptake in the area corresponding to the mass lesion on radiographic examination. Subsequent resection and biopsy of the substernal mass revealed a poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with foci of anaplastic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of the anterior mediastinal mass and the usefullness of the tomographic gallium scan are briefly discussed

  4. Portable thyroid monitors for detection of {sup 131}I in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muikku, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    The need for assessing internal radiation doses in emergency situations is evident. Studies done in Ukraine, Belarus and the southern parts of Russia after the Chernobyl accident have shown an unexpected increase of thyroid cancers in children and young people. Direct measurements give both individual results and results for groups. In the past two years, Radiation and nuclear safety authority - STUK has obtained 35 monitors for thyroid measurements in the field conditions. The monitors work as spectrometers, which makes it possible to do real time spectrum analysis in the field.

  5. Detecting the Presence of a Personality Disorder Using Interpersonal and Self-Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Hallquist, Michael N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wright, Aidan G C; Scott, Lori N; Giertych, Rachel A; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-03-05

    Calls have increased to place interpersonal and self-disturbance as defining features of personality disorders (PDs). Findings from a methodologically diverse set of studies suggest that a common factor undergirds all PDs. The nature of this core of PDs, however, is not clear. In the current study, interviews were completed for DSM-IV PD diagnosis and interpersonal dysfunction independently with 272 individuals (PD = 191, no-PD = 91). Specifically, we evaluated interpersonal dysfunction across social domains. In addition, we empirically assessed the structure of self-dysfunction in PDs. We found dysfunction in work and romantic domains, and unstable identity uniquely predicted variance in the presence of a PD. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found that the interpersonal dysfunction and self-dysfunction scales each predicted PDs with high accuracy. In combination, the scales resulted in excellent sensitivity (.90) and specificity (.88). The results support interpersonal and self-dysfunction as general factors of PD.

  6. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases....... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  7. Epitope recognition patterns of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Gardas, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) are markers of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but naturally occurring TPOAb are also detectable in healthy, euthyroid individuals. In AITD, circulating TPOAb react mainly with two immunodominant regions (IDR), IDR...

  8. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  9. The clinical application of fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay to detect human thyroid peroxidase autoantibody quantitatively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jinyan; Fang Peihua; Li Ning; Zhang Yanli

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a fluorescent-enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with recombinant human thyroid peroxidase (hTPO) as the antigen. Methods: Sera of 326 healthy people, 119 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), 116 cases of Graves disease (untreated), 28 cases of nodular goiter, 10 ca-ses of subacute thyroiditis and 6 cases of simple goiter were measured by the FEIA with recombinant hTPO as the antigen. Rrank sum test and χ 2 -test were used in inter-groups. Results: (1) Concentration above 4000 U/L was considered to be positive. (2) The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the inter-as-say CV were 4.59% ∼ 6.52% and 17.37% ∼ 17.45%. (3) The values measured by the FEIA were positively correlated with the values measured by hTPO antibody (hTPOAb) commercial kit (r=0.80, P 2 = 53.45, 39.30, 15.41 and 21.74, all P < 0.01). Conclusions: The method can be applied in the serum measurement of thyroid disease. HT presented the highest positive rate, therefore, the FEIA was an effective method in diagnosing HT. (authors)

  10. Detecting the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds on amphibian development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs have been hypothesized to contribute to the observed global decline of amphibian populations. Thyroid hormone (TH) disruption is one of the possible mechanisms for effects of xenobiotics on amphibian development. In addition to the important functions

  11. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multinodular disease or Graves' disease, who on exposure to an excessive .... where the cardiovascular status permitted this, radioactive ... antedating the initiation of amiodarone therapy in the current cohort. .... an evidence-based protocol.

  12. Postpartum thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroiditis in women of childbearing age: recent insights and consequences for antenatal and postnatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Berghout (Arie)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPostpartum thyroiditis is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery and based on an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid. The prevalence ranges from 5-7%. We discuss the role of antibodies (especially thyroid

  13. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  14. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  15. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  16. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody and vitiligo: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhyani Maryam

    2006-03-01

    disorders including Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and considering the fact that vitiligo usually precedes the onset of thyroid dysfunction, periodic follow-up of vitiligo patients for detecting thyroid diseases is further emphasized especially in young women with increased level of anti-TPO.

  17. Effect of iodinated contrast media on thyroid: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Mehlika Kuşkonmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parallel to the increased use of computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents are increasingly becoming a source of excess iodide. Iodinated contrast agents may induce thyroid dysfunction in exposed patients, especially in the presence of an underlying thyroid disease. Thus, an ordinary dose of the contrast used for the imaging, can induce hyper or hypothyroidism in a patient with subtle thyroid disease. This review will briefly discuss the physiology of iodine and the clinical evaluation of iodine induced thyroid dysfunction.

  18. An improved quantitative measurement for thyroid cancer detection based on elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianrui; Cheng, H.D.; Huang Jianhua; Zhang Yingtao; Liu Jiafeng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate color thyroid elastograms quantitatively and objectively. Materials and methods: 125 cases (56 malignant and 69 benign) were collected with the HITACHI Vision 900 system (Hitachi Medical System, Tokyo, Japan) and a liner-array-transducer of 6–13 MHz. Standard of reference was cytology (FNA—fine needle aspiration) or histology (core biopsy). The original color thyroid elastograms were transferred from red, green, blue (RGB) color space to hue, saturation, value (HSV) color space. Then, hard area ratio was defined. Finally, a SVM classifier was used to classify thyroid nodules into benign and malignant. The relation between the performance and hard threshold was fully investigated and studied. Results: The classification accuracy changed with the hard threshold, and reached maximum (95.2%) at some values (from 144 to 152). It was higher than strain ratio (87.2%) and color score (83.2%). It was also higher than the one of our previous study (93.6%). Conclusion: The hard area ratio is an important feature of elastogram, and appropriately selected hard threshold can improve classification accuracy.

  19. The predictive value of the sacral base pressure test in detecting specific types of sacroiliac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Travis D.; Urli, Kristina E.; Breitenbach, Jacques; Yelverton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the sacral base pressure test in diagnosing sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It also determined the predictive powers of the test in determining which type of sacroiliac joint dysfunction was present. Methods This was a double-blind experimental study with 62 participants. The results from the sacral base pressure test were compared against a cluster of previously validated tests of sacroiliac joint dysfunction to determine its validity and predictive powers. The external rotation of the feet, occurring during the sacral base pressure test, was measured using a digital inclinometer. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the results of the sacral base pressure test between the types of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. In terms of the results of validity, the sacral base pressure test was useful in identifying positive values of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. It was fairly helpful in correctly diagnosing patients with negative test results; however, it had only a “slight” agreement with the diagnosis for κ interpretation. Conclusions In this study, the sacral base pressure test was not a valid test for determining the presence of sacroiliac joint dysfunction or the type of dysfunction present. Further research comparing the agreement of the sacral base pressure test or other sacroiliac joint dysfunction tests with a criterion standard of diagnosis is necessary. PMID:19674694

  20. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis detects a much higher rate of thyroid tumors with clonal cytogenetic deviations of the main cytogenetic subgroups than conventional cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Norbert; Rippe, Volkhard; Laabs, Anne; Dittberner, Lea; Nimzyk, Rolf; Junker, Klaus; Rommel, Birgit; Kiefer, Yvonne; Belge, Gazanfer; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Sendt, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    In benign thyroid lesions, three main cytogenetic subgroups, characterized by trisomy 7 or structural aberrations involving either chromosomal region 19q13.4 or 2p21, can be distinguished by conventional cytogenetics (CC). As a rule, these aberrations seem to be mutually exclusive. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) analysis on benign as well as malignant thyroid neoplasias has been performed in the past, but rarely in combination with CC. In the present paper, we have analyzed 161 benign thyroid lesions both with CC and I-FISH on touch preparations by using a multi-target, triple-color FISH assay as well as dual-color break-apart probes for detection of the main cytogenetic subgroups. Within the samples, I-FISH detected tumors belonging to either of the subgroups more frequently than CC (23 vs. 11.4%), either due to small subpopulations of aberrant cells or to cryptic chromosomal rearrangements (three cases). Thus, I-FISH seems to be more sensitive than CC, particularly in the detection of subpopulations of cells harboring cytogenetic aberrations that may be overlooked by CC. In summary, I-FISH on touch preparations of benign thyroid lesions seems to be a favorable method for cytogenetic subtyping of thyroid lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Value of dipyridamole stress 201Tl myocardial SPECT in detecting dysfunction of coronary microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Ying; Jiang Jinqi; Xie Wenhui; Yuan Fang; Wang Tong; Yang Yiqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of dipyridamole stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT in detecting dysfunction of coronary microcirculation. Methods: Forty-eight patients diagnosed with cardiac syndrome X underwent dipyridamole stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was intravenously injected over 4 min followed by 201 Tl (111 MBq) injection at 2 min after dipyridamole administration. Image was acquired at 10 min and 240 min post-injection and co-analyzed by over two experienced doctors in nuclear medicine after three-dimensional reconstruction. The patients with 'reverse redistribution' underwent repeated dipyridamole stress 201 Tl SPECT after medical therapy for 2 weeks. The clinical symptoms and results of the treadmill exercise test pre-and post-therapy were compared. Results: Forty two patients (42/48, 87.50%) showed segmental defects: 'reverse redistribution' on delayed (240 min) 201 Tl images. After medical treatment, 36 cases of the 42 'reverse redistribution' patients had improvement in both clinical symptoms and treadmill exercise test. Post-treatment 201 Tl imaging showed improvement in 45/49 (91.84%) defect segments. Six of the 42 patients had no improvement in clinical symptoms and/or treadmill exercise test. Post-treatment 201 Tl imaging showed no improvement in all the 7 defect segments on the first scan. Conclusion: Dipyridamole stress 201 Tl myocardial SPECT may be valuable in evaluation of impaired coronary microcirculation associated with cardiac syndrome X. (authors)

  2. [Hashimoto's thyroiditis(chronic thyroiditis), IgG4-related thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Mitsuyasu

    2012-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis emerges in patients who have genetic preponderance such as SNPs of CTLA-4 and risk factors such as excess intake of iodine, pregnancy or postpartum period, and smoking. Such risk factors also affect the entire clinical course. One of the major outcomes in Hashimoto's thyroiditis appears to be increased in cardio-vascular risks through subclinical hypothyroidism and concomitant metabolic syndrome, but in most cases, treatment with L-T4 has little effects on cardio-vascular benefit or quality of life. The pregnant women also have risks for obstetric complications and postpartum thyroid dysfunction. The women who have anti-TPO antibodies, type 1 diabetes, or previous history of post-partum thyroid dysfunction are recommended to be measured their TSH. It is noteworthy that Hashimoto's thyroiditis is sometimes complicated with encephalopathy, papillary carcinoma, or IgG4-related thyroiditis. IgG4-related thyroiditis is partly similar but partly discerned from a variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The pathogenetic roles of this variant on autoimmune-based thyroiditis remain unclear.

  3. The predictive value of the sacral base pressure test in detecting specific types of sacroiliac dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Travis D.; Urli, Kristina E.; Breitenbach, Jacques; Yelverton, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The sacroiliac joints are a source of low back pain (1) and sacroiliac joint disorders are a common occurrence in clinical practice (2). Sacroiliac dysfunction is considered to be the most common cause of sacroiliac joint pain and subsequent lower back pain (3). However, the anatomical location of these joints and the lack of a satisfactory criterion standard (the “gold standard”) make the diagnosis of sacroiliac joint dysfunction difficult (4). Nevertheless, many different sacroiliac joint t...

  4. Regulation mechanisms of pituitary-thyroid axis in normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinko; Yamauchi, Kazuyuki; Mori, Yuichi

    1986-01-01

    The regulatory mechanism of the pituitary-thyroid axis in normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease was investigated using a highly sensitive TSH assay based on the immunoradiometric assay. All of the normal subjects had detectable TSH values within the range 0.35 to 6.0 μU/ml. No negative correlations between TSH and free thyroid hormones existed in normal subjects. Patients with thyroid carcinoma who seemed to have normal pituitary-thyroid function showed a rapid increase of TSH after total thyroidectomy. On the other hand, while untreated patients with Graves' disease all had undetectable TSH values, these patients took 1 to 3.5 months longer to normalize their TSH values than to normalize free thyroid hormones on antithyroid drug therapy. During the recovery phase by the treatment with decrease of antithyroid drug or supplement of T 4 from iatrogenic hypothyroid state after treatment for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma, normalization of TSH levels was delayed than that of free thyroid hormones. Patients with Graves' disease in remission showed an extremely positive correlation between basal and peak TSH levels in TRH test, and a negative correlation between basal TSH and FT 4 . In conclusion, an individual patient may have a different set point concerning the regulatory mechanism of the pituitary-thyroid axis, and the persistence of the hyperthyroid state would seem to have caused some reversible dysfunction of the pituitary gland. (author)

  5. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited; Oftalmopatia tireoidea revisitada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Karina Freitas Soares; Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-07-15

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  6. Detection of radioiodine-induced cytogenetic alterations in circulating lymphocytes of thyroid patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuba, V [Inst. for Medical Recearch and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia). Laboratory for Mutagenesis; Konrady, A; Koeteles, G J [Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary); Kusic, Z [Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb (Croatia). Dept. of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine

    1994-10-01

    Radioiodines are often used for experimental purposes and for diagnosis and therapy in clinical practice. Human population might also be exposed to radioiodines in nuclear accidents. The ionizing energy of radioiodine affects not only the thyroid where it concentrates but also other tissues, especially the lymphocytes during their circulation through and around the gland containing the radioisotopes. Therefore, it seemed to be of interest to carry out investigations concerning the cytogenetic alterations in blood lymphocytes of patients treated with iodine-131. The method of choice was the relatively easily performable micronucleus assay in cytokinesis-blocked cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. The test was performed on blood samples of 30 patients before the radioisotope treatment and one, two and four days after, one as well as 6 and - in a few cases - 12 weeks later. The amounts of iodine-131 injected were dependent on the clinical practices to reach the therapeutic radiation doses for hyperthyroidism and adenomas and were in the range of 220 and 5180 MBq. it was observed that the micronucleus frequency increased in the treated hyperthyroid patients while in patients with toxic adenomas the radioiodine did not result in an increase or even as compared to the pretreatment values in a few cases decreased values were seen. The results suggest individual differences in radiosensitivity as well as that the frequency of cytogenetic alterations depend on the physiological or pathological conditions of the thyroid. The significance of this observation will be discussed for dose assessments by cytogenetic techniques due to internal radioiodine. (author).

  7. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  8. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Presented with Pain and Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ergenç, Hasan; Yaylacı, Selçuk; Arpacı, Dilek; Varım, Ceyhun; Tamer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is an atypical form of the Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis whichis characterized with pain and fever in the thyroid gland. In this letter presentation, our aimis to present a case who is 49 years old female patient whose clinical presentation was inaccordance with sub-acute thyroiditis; however, who was detected having thyroid autoantibodypositivity and whom we diagnosed with the Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.Keywords: Hashimoto Thyroiditis, painful, treatme...

  9. Thyroid Dysfunction in an Adult Female Population: A population-based study of Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS) - Puerto Rico Site Hypothyroidism in LAVOS-Puerto Rico site

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Loida A.; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Haddock, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in an adult female population in Puerto Rico and to determine the relationship between hypothyroidism, bone mineral density and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in this population. Methods Data from the 400 subjects database of the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS), Puerto Rico site was reviewed. Patient’s medical history, anthropometric data, current medications, laboratories, and DXA results was extracted. Subjects with thyroid dysfunction were identified based on their previous medical history and levels of TSH. Bone Mineral Density was classified using the World Health Organization criteria. Crude prevalence of thyroid dysfunction were estimated with a confidence of 95% and weighted by the population distribution by age, according to the distribution by age group in the 2000 census. Bone mineral densities and prevalence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were compared among the groups. Results The weighted prevalence of hyperthyroidism in this population was 0.0043% (95% CI: −0.0021%, 0.0107%). The weighted prevalence of hypothyroidism was 24.2% (95% CI: 19.9%, 28.4%). Increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was found in participants 70 years or older. The mean BMD at spine, hip and femoral neck was similar among the groups. No difference in the proportion of participants with vertebral and non-vertebral fractures was found among the groups. Conclusion Our study found a high prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult postmenopausal females in Puerto Rico. No association between hypothyroidism and decreased bone mineral densities, vertebral or non-vertebral fractures was found in this population. PMID:23781620

  10. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  11. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ...

  12. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... newborn blood screening programs since early detection and treatment can minimize long-term damage. Hashimoto thyroiditis : the ...

  13. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  14. Sonographic features of thyroid nodules that may help distinguish clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from thyroid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fu-shun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Ming; Liang, Jin-yu; Zheng, Yan-ling; Xie, Xiao-yan; Li, Xiao-xi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic features for distinguishing clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 165 hypoechoic thyroid nodules without calcification in 135 patients with histologic diagnosis were included in this study. These nodules were classified into 2 groups: a thyroiditis group (55 nodules in 36 patients) and a malignancy group (110 nodules in 99 patients). The sonographic features of the groups were retrospectively reviewed. No significant differences were detected for the variables of marked echogenicity, a taller-than-wide shape, and mixed vascularity. However, a poorly defined margin was detected more frequently in the thyroiditis group than the malignancy group (P thyroiditis, with sensitivity and specificity of 87.3% and 80.9%, respectively. Centripetal reduction echogenicity was observed exclusively in the thyroiditis group, with high specificity (100%) but low sensitivity (21.8%) for atypical subacute thyroiditis diagnosis. All of the thyroiditis nodules with a positive color signal showed noninternal vascularity (negative predictive value, 100%). There is a considerable overlap between the sonographic features of atypical subacute thyroiditis and thyroid malignancy. However, the margin, echogenicity, and vascularity type are helpful indicators for differential diagnosis of atypical subacute thyroiditis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  16. Thyroid disorders and the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies in Shiraz population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fariba; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Dabbaghmanesh, Mohammad Hossein; Ranjbar Omrani, Gholamhossein

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is a common health problem affecting millions of patients worldwide. Autoimmune thyroid disorders are among the most common autoimmune disorders. In this population-based study, we assessed the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies and the probable relationship between them in Shiraz, southern Iran. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) was determined in 981 subjects (66.8% female and 33.2% male; mean age: 39.1 ± 14.3 years), who were selected with stratified random sampling. Because of the preponderance of females over males, we performed the statistical analyses using sex-weighted data (50% for each sex). Also, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) were measured in two random subgroups of 376 and 537 patients respectively). Thyromegaly detected on physical examination. In this cross-sectional study, 8.1% of participants had elevated serum TSH level and 3.4% had low serum TSH level. A statistically significant relationship was found between gender and thyromegaly and TSH values. Positive TPOAb and positive TgAb were detected in 17% and 5.1% of participants respectively. In addition, a significant relationship was observed between elevated TSH levels and positive results for both antibodies. Detectable levels of thyroid antibodies correlated with female sex, while no correlation was observed between detectable levels of thyroid antibodies and thyromegaly. Thyroid disorders, especially elevated TSH level, are common. It seems that autoimmune mechanisms are strongly involved in the etiology of hypothyroidism in this area.

  17. Thyroid storm associated with Graves' disease covered by diabetic ketoacidosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osada Erika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid storm is a condition in which multiple organ dysfunction results from failure of the compensatory mechanisms of the body owing to excessive thyroid hormone activity induced by some factors in patients with thyrotoxicosis. While diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA is an important trigger for thyroid storm, simultaneous development of DKA and thyroid storm is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman with no history of either diabetes mellitus or thyroid disease presented to our hospital because of developing nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for 2 days. Physical examination showed mild disturbance of consciousness, fever, and tachycardia. There were no other signs of thyrotoxicosis. Laboratory studies revealed elevation of random blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, strongly positive of urine acetone, and metabolic acidosis. Since DKA was diagnosed, we initiated the patient on treatment with administration of insulin and adequate fluid replacement. Although the hyperglycemia and acidosis were immediately relieved, the disturbance of consciousness and tachycardia remained persistent. Levels of FT3 and FT4 were extremely high and TSH was below the detectable limit. TRAb was positive. The thyroid storm score of Burch & Wartofsky was 75/140, and the thyroid storm diagnostic criteria of the Japan Thyroid Association were satisfied. Oral administration of thiamazole, potassium iodide and propranolol resulted in immediate relief of the tachycardia. Discussion We encountered a case of thyroid storm associated with Graves' disease covered by DKA. Thyroid storm and DKA are both potentially fatal, and the prognosis varies depending on whether or not these conditions are detected and treated sufficiently early. The thyroid storm diagnostic criteria prepared in 2008 by the Japan Thyroid Association are very simple as compared to the Burch & Wartofsky scoring system for thyroid storm. The Japanese criteria may be useful in the diagnosis

  18. On the use of information theory for detecting upper limb motor dysfunction: An application to Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, M. Elias; Menegaldo, L. L.; Lucarelli, P.; Andrade, B. L. B.; Büchler, P.

    2011-11-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Several potential early diagnostic markers of PD have been proposed. Since they have not been validated in presymptomatic PD, the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease is based on subjective clinical assessment of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this study, we investigated interjoint coordination synergies in the upper limb of healthy and parkinsonian subjects during the performance of unconstrained linear-periodic movements in a horizontal plane using the mutual information (MI). We found that the MI is a sensitive metric in detecting upper limb motor dysfunction, thus suggesting that this method might be applicable to quantitatively evaluating the effects of the antiparkinsonian medication and to monitor the disease progression.

  19. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren's syndrome. HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions.

  20. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-07-01

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  1. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung; Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201 Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131 I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201 Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131 I and 201 Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201 Tl and 131 I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201 Tl imaging was performed before the 131 I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201 Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201 Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131 I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201 Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201 Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131 I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131 I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201 Tl and 131 I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung

  2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an independent risk factor for papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarova, Barbora; Hajtman, Andrej

    2017-09-14

    The link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma has long been a topic of controversy. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis coexistence in histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. In a retrospective study, the clinicohistopathologic data of 2117 patients (1738 females/379 males), who underwent total or partial thyroidectomy for thyroid gland disorder at a single institution from the 1st of January 2005 to the 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Thyroid carcinoma was detected in 318 cases (15%) and microcarcinoma (thyroid cancer ≤10mm in diameter) was found in permanent sections in 169 cases (8%). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was detected in 318 (15%) patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly more often associated with thyroid carcinoma and microcarcinoma compare to benign condition (p=0.048, p=0.00014, respectively). Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma/thyroid microcarcinoma did not affect tumor size (p=0.251, p=0.098, respectively), or tumor multifocality (p=0.831, p=0.957, respectively). Bilateral thyroid microcarcinoma was significantly more often detected when Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed (p=0.041), but presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis did not affect bilateral occurrence of thyroid carcinoma (p=0.731). Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with significantly increased risk of developing thyroid carcinoma, especially thyroid microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The serological and biochemical markers of adrenal cortex and endocrine pancreas dysfunction in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A hospital-based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prakash Sahoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of both islet cell and adrenal autoimmunity among Asian Indian hypothyroidism patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT is lacking in literature. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of Addison's disease (AD and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in patients with HT. Materials and Methods: The patients with hypothyroidism due to HT were included in this study over 2 years. Primary hypothyroidism was defined as high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (>5.5 mIU/L with or without low thyroxine level. HT was defined by the presence of high thyroid peroxidase antibody (Ab titer (>35 IU/ml. Autoimmune markers of AD and T1DM, i.e., adrenal (21-hydroxylase Ab, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD Ab, and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 (IA-2 Ab were measured among them. In addition, 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH stimulation test was done in patients with adrenal Ab. Similarly, beta cell function was assessed in patients with GAD and/or IA-2 Ab. Results: Out of 150 patients screened, 136 patients were included in this study. Seven patients had adrenal Ab while 15 had IA-2 Ab. The GAD Ab was not present in any of the patients in the study. ACTH stimulation test was done in four of seven patients with adrenal Ab and beta cell function was assessed in 8 of 15 patients with islet cell Ab. All patients with adrenal Ab had normal adrenal function and 1 out of 15 with IA-2 Ab developed diabetes mellitus during follow-up. Conclusions: Either adrenal or islet cell Ab was found in 16% Asian Indian hypothyroidism patients with HT.

  4. Identification of novel genetic Loci associated with thyroid peroxidase antibodies and clinical thyroid disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Medici

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease. As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P<5×10(-8 were detected at TPO-rs11675434, ATXN2-rs653178, and BACH2-rs10944479 for TPOAb-positivity, and at TPO-rs11675434, MAGI3-rs1230666, and KALRN-rs2010099 for TPOAb levels. Individual and combined effects (genetic risk scores of these variants on (subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68-2.81, P = 8.1×10(-8, a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26-1.82, P = 2.9×10(-6, as well as a decreased risk of goiter (OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.89, P = 6.5×10(-4. The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, which was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with Graves' disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22-1.54, P = 1.2×10(-7 and OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, P = 6.2×10(-5. The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.10, P = 1.9×10(-3. This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. The results provide insight into why

  5. Thyroid function testing in women who had a stillbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Janna W.; Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Groen, Henk; Timmer, Albertus; Van den Berg, Gerrit; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.

    ContextThyroid dysfunction is thought to be associated with stillbirth. Therefore, thyroid function is often recommended in the diagnostic investigations for stillbirth. ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate the added value of thyroid function testing in the diagnostic investigations for stillbirth. Design

  6. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with ...

  7. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  8. NCI, NHLBI/PBMTC First International Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Endocrine Challenges--Thyroid Dysfunction, Growth Impairment, Bone Health, & Reproductive Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Christopher C.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Sanders, Jean E.; Cheng, Edward Y.; Baker, K. Scott; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Petryk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage by high-dose chemotherapy and/or irradiation prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) during childhood. The specific endocrine organs most affected by HCT include the thyroid gland, the pituitary, and the gonads. In addition, hormones that support development and stability of the skeletal system are also affected. Insufficiency of thyroid hormone is one of the most common late sequelae of HCT, and occurs more often in young children. Deficiency in the pituitary’s production of growth hormone is a problem of unique concern to the pediatric population. The reproductive risks of HCT depend on the patient’s gender and pubertal status at the time of HCT. Pubertal or gonadal failure frequently occurs, especially in females. Infertility risks for both genders remain high, while methods of fertility preservation are limited in all but post-pubertal males. Bone health post-HCT can be compromised by low bone mineral density as well as avascular necrosis, but the data on both problems in the pediatric HCT population are limited. In this paper, the current state of knowledge, gaps in that knowledge, and recommendations for future research are addressed in detail for each of these systems. PMID:22005649

  9. Thyroid lesions incidentally detected by 18F-FDG PET-CT ― a two centre retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamsek Jan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incidental 18F-FDG uptake in the thyroid on PET-CT examinations represents a diagnostic challenge. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax is one possible parameter that can help in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid PET lesions.

  10. Comparison of exercise and pharmacological stress gated SPECT in detecting transient left ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Hakan; Tan, Yusuf Z.; Isgoren, Serkan; Gorur, Gozde D.; Kozdag, Guliz; Ural, Ertan; Berk, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    Transient left ventricular contractile dysfunction (TLVD) is observed owing to post-exercise stunning in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Pharmacological stimulation differs from exercise stress because it does not cause demand ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLVD could also be seen after pharmacological stress (dipyridamole). Of the patients in whom gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) was performed in our institution from January 2004 to April 2007, 439 subjects with known or suspected CAD were included in the study. GSPECT was performed for all patients following exercise (group I, n=220) or pharmacological stress (group II, n=219) according to a 2-day (stress-rest) protocol after injection of Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI). Stress, rest, and difference (stress-rest value) left ventricular ejection fractions (SLVEF, RLVEF, and DLVEF) and transient ischemic dilatation (TID) ratio were derived automatically. Summed stress score, summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) for myocardial perfusion were calculated using a 20-segment model and a five-point scoring system. An SDS >3 was considered as ischemic. On the basis of the perfusion findings, patients were subdivided into a normal (group A, n=216) and ischemia group (group B, n=223). DLVEF and perfusion scores of all groups were compared. Relationships between DLVEF and perfusion, and between TID ratio and DLVEF were also evaluated. Stress-induced ischemia was observed in 223 of 439 patients (50.8%). In group A, the difference between stress and rest LVEF values was not significant (P=0.670 and P=0.200 for groups IA and IIA, respectively). However, LVEF was significantly decreased after stress compared with rest values for group B (P<0.0001 for groups IB and IIB). TLVD (≤-5% for DLVEF) was observed in 20 of 216 (9%) and 81 of 223 subjects (36%) in patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<0.0001). In group I, we found TLVD in 46 of

  11. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  12. Early detection of myocardial dysfunction using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a young cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-month-old intact female Scottish Fold cat was presented for cardiac evaluation. Careful auscultation detected a slight systolic murmur (Levine I/VI. The findings of electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, non-invasive blood pressure measurements and conventional echocardiographic studies were unremarkable. However, two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography revealed abnormalities in myocardial deformations, including decreased early-to-late diastolic strain rate ratios in longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions, and deteriorated segmental systolic longitudinal strain. At the follow-up examinations, the cat exhibited echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using conventional echocardiography. Relevance and novel information This is the first report on the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction in a cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the myocardial dysfunction was detected before the development of hypertrophy. The findings from this case suggest that two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography can be useful for myocardial assessment when conventional echocardiographic and Doppler findings are ambiguous.

  13. Thyroid function after mantle irradiation in Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E. Jr.; Adler, R.A.; Clark, P.; Brinck-Johnsen, T.; Tulloh, M.E.; Colten, T.

    1981-01-01

    The thyroid function of 64 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received mantle irradiation during the period 1966 to 1976 was studied. More than two-thirds (44 to 64) had some thyroid dysfunction. Twenty had mild dysfunction manifested by an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Twenty had what could be termed compensated hypothyroidism while four were overtly hypothyroid. The severity of dysfunction was not related to age, sex, or chemotherapy. We found, however, that decreased thyroid function was inversely proportional to the length of time between a diagnostic lymphangiogram and the radiation therapy. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the iodine load of the lymphangiogram renders the thyroid gland more radiosensitive. Thyroxine suppression of the thyroid gland during the period from the lymphangiogram through the termination of radiation therapy is suggested as a means of avoiding thyroid injury

  14. Graves' disease and Thyroid anaplasic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero E, Helena; Quintero A, Flor Maria; Carmona C, Antonio

    1992-01-01

    A case of a 34 year-old patient is presented, who was diagnosed with Graves' disease and developed a thyroid anaplastic carcinoma from a clinically detected nodular mass. The incidence of thyroid cancer associated with Graves' disease is revisited

  15. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  16. Thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  17. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  18. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yao-Chung Liu; Ming-Hung Hu; Yuan-Hao Yang; Jyh-Pyng Gau; Jin-Hwang Liu

    2014-01-01

    With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2). This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. T...

  19. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too low Hashimoto’s disease , of the most common cause of hypothyroidism thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer Your doctor will ... of hyperthyroidism—and Hashimoto’s disease —the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Thyroid antibodies are made when your immune system ...

  20. Detecting internet activity for erectile dysfunction using search engine query data in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Niall F; Smyth, Lisa G; Flood, Hugh D

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Despite the increasing prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED), there is reluctance among symptomatic patients to present to healthcare providers for appropriate advice and treatment. A number of Internet campaigns have been launched by the Irish healthcare media since 2007 aiming to provide easily accessible advice on ED. Novel online technologies appear to provide a useful tool for educating the general public on the symptoms of ED because there has been a significant increase in overall Internet search activity for this term since 2007. • To assess Internet search trends for erectile dysfunction (ED) subsequent to public awareness campaigns being launched within the Republic of Ireland • To assess whether the advent of such campaigns correlates with increased Internet search activity for ED. • Google insights for search was utilized to examine Internet search trends for the term 'erectile dysfunction' across all categories between January 2005 and December 2011. • Search activity was limited to users from the Republic of Ireland within this timeframe. • Additionally, the number of Irish Internet media campaigns and Irish web pages providing information on ED was assessed between January 2005 and December 2011. • Statistical analysis of the data was performed using analysis of variance and Student's t-tests for pairwise comparisons. • There has been a significant increase in mean search activity for ED on an annual basis since 2007 (P search activity for ED from 2005 to 2007 • The advent of recent Internet media campaigns and increasing number of Irish web pages is associated with a significant increase in online activity for ED in the Republic of Ireland. • Novel online technologies appear to provide a useful tool for educating the general public on the symptoms and treatment options available for ED. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  1. Detecting internet activity for erectile dysfunction using search engine query data in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2012-12-01

    What\\'s known on the subject? and What does the study add? Despite the increasing prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED), there is reluctance among symptomatic patients to present to healthcare providers for appropriate advice and treatment. A number of Internet campaigns have been launched by the Irish healthcare media since 2007 aiming to provide easily accessible advice on ED. Novel online technologies appear to provide a useful tool for educating the general public on the symptoms of ED because there has been a significant increase in overall Internet search activity for this term since 2007.

  2. A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Porcu

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3 and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2. Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2 show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Thyroid-Related Traits Reveals Novel Loci and Gender-Specific Differences in the Regulation of Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Claudia B.; Wilson, Scott G.; Cappola, Anne R.; Bos, Steffan D.; Deelen, Joris; den Heijer, Martin; Freathy, Rachel M.; Lahti, Jari; Liu, Chunyu; Lopez, Lorna M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Trompet, Stella; Arnold, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Böhringer, Stefan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Camaschella, Clara; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Davies, Gail; de Visser, Marieke C. H.; Ford, Ian; Forsen, Tom; Frayling, Timothy M.; Fugazzola, Laura; Gögele, Martin; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hermus, Ad R.; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Jensen, Richard A.; Kajantie, Eero; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Lim, Ee M.; Masciullo, Corrado; Mariotti, Stefano; Minelli, Cosetta; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Palotie, Aarno; Persani, Luca; Piras, Maria G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Richards, J. Brent; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sala, Cinzia; Sabra, Mona M.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Beverley M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Usala, Gianluca; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Heemst, Diana; van Mullem, Alies; H.Vermeulen, Sita; Visser, W. Edward; Walsh, John P.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Widen, Elisabeth; Zhai, Guangju; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fox, Caroline S.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Schlessinger, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Slagboom, Eline P.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaidya, Bijay; Visser, Theo J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Rotter, Jerome I.; Spector, Tim D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Toniolo, Daniela; Sanna, Serena; Peeters, Robin P.; Naitza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism. PMID:23408906

  4. Preoperative scintigraphic detection of lung metastases of a follicular thyroid carcinoma associated with hyperthyroidism; Detection scintigraphique preoperatoire de metastases pulmonaires d'un carcinome vesiculaire de la thyroide associe a une hyperthyroidie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyi, A.; Oufroukhi, Y.; Doudouh, A. [Hopital Militaire d' Instruction Mohammed V, Rabat Instituts, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco); Baizri, H.; El Quatni, M. [Hopital Militaire d' Instruction Mohammed V, Service d' Endocrinologie, Rabat (Morocco); Al Bouzidi, A. [Hopital Militaire d' Instruction Mohammed V, Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-10-15

    Preoperative accumulation of radioiodine in metastases of thyroid carcinoma and its association with hyperthyroidism are uncommon. We report a case of 58-year-old woman with follicular thyroid carcinoma revealed by thyrotoxicosis caused by a hot nodule, and bilateral pulmonary uptake of I-131 before total thyroidectomy. Despite four ablative doses of I-131, bone metastases were identified and the patient died 42 month after the initial diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Value of whole body 123I scan for detection of metastasis in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Odano, Ikuo; Sugita, Tadashi; Sato, Yoko; Sakai, Kunio

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of 123 I whole body scan for detection of metastasis in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, post-therapy whole body 131 I images in 55 cases were compared with pre-therapy 123 I images using diagnostic dose (74 MBq). The post-therapy studies were performed 7 days after administration of therapeutic doses (3.33-7.77 GBq) of 131 I. The pre-therapy scans showed 30 lesions (71.4%) of 42 lesions which were shown by 131 I post-therapy scans. The diagnostic accuracy of 123 I whole body scans was considered to be nearly the same as the images obtained by 131 I using diagnostic dose. 123 I has short-life and an optimum gamma ray energy for scintigraphy. It makes radiation dose to patients lower than that of 131 I. Therefore, we recommend pre-therapy 131 I image using diagnostic dose is replaced by 123 I image. (author)

  6. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  7. Detecting early cardiac dysfunction with radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kegui; Chen Daguang; Lin Haoxue

    1992-01-01

    Cardiac function was measured by radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging in 15 normal persons, 19 cases of hypertension, 32 cases of coronary heart disease, 35 cases of coronary heart disease combined with hypertension and 44 cases of myocardial infarction. Significant differences have been found in indices of cardiac function between normal subjects and patients with coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease combined with hypertension, even though the patients were without any clinical sin of cardiac failure. Lowered regional EF and decreased ventricular was motion were found in 38.8% of patients, while 65.7%of patients revealed marked abnormality in MFR. The results indicate that latent cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with coronary heart disease. The earliest change is diastolic function abnormalities

  8. SIEDY scale 3, a new instrument to detect psychological component in subjects with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Rastrelli, Giulia; Casale, Helen; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Sforza, Alessandra; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2012-08-01

    We previously developed and validated a structured interview (SIEDY) dealing with the organic (Scale 1), relational (Scale 2), and psychological (Scale 3) components of erectile dysfunction (ED). To identify a pathological threshold for SIEDY Scale 3 and to analyze Scale 3 score with biological and psychological correlates in subjects with sexual dysfunction. A pathological threshold of SIEDY Scale 3 score in predicting subjects with a medical history of psychopathology and using psychiatric drugs was identified through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in a sample of 484 patients (Sample A). Sensitivity and specificity, along with possible interactions with biological and psychological (Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, MHQ-score) correlates were verified in a further sample of 1,275 patients (Sample B). In sample A, 39 (8%) and 60 (12.4%) subjects reported a positive medical history for psychiatric disturbances or for the use of psychotropic medication, respectively. The association with both conditions was present in 28 (5.8%) subjects. ROC curve showed that SIEDY Scale 3 score predicts psychopathology with an accuracy of 69.5 ± 5.9% (Pfloating anxiety), MHQ-S (somatized anxiety) and MHQ-D (depressive symptoms) subscales, even after adjustment for age and Σ-MHQ (a broader index of general psychopathology). In the same sample, we also confirmed that pathological Scale 3 score was related to a higher risk of psychopathology at medical history or to the use of psychotropic drugs as well as with risky lifestyle behaviors, including smoking and alcohol abuse, and elevated BMI. SIEDY represents an easy tool for the identification of patients with a relevant intra-psychic component who should be considered for psychological/psychiatric treatment. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Detection of Redox Imbalance in Normal Lymphocytes with Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction - EPR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Ekaterina; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    The present study describes a new approach for direct imaging of redox status in live cells using paramagnetic spin-probes, which allows evaluation of the level of oxidative stress due to overproduction of superoxide. The method is based on redox cycling of cell/mitochondria-penetrating nitroxide radicals (e.g. mito-TEMPO) and their electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) contrast, which makes them useful molecular sensors for analysis of redox status and oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Oxidative stress was induced in normal human lymphocytes by treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol and rotenone (ME/Rot) at different concentrations. This combination provokes mitochondrial dysfunction, which is accompanied by overproduction of superoxide. The EPR measurements were performed in dynamics on X-Band spectrometer after addition of mito-TEMPO to cell suspensions. The intensity of the EPR signal in untreated cells decreased significantly, which indicates a conversion of paramagnetic mito-TEMPO to its non-contrast diamagnetic form (hydroxylamine - mito-TEMPOH) due to reduction. In ME/Rot-treated cells, the signal decreased more slowly and to a lower level with increasing the concentration of ME/Rot. These data indicate an induction of oxidative stress in the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A very good positive correlation between the intensity of EPR signal of mito-TEMPO and the intracellular level of superoxide was found, analyzed by conventional dihydroethidium test (R=0.9143, pEPR imaging of the superoxide level in live cells, as well as for EPR imaging of mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic activity, accompanied by superoxide imbalance. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  11. F-18 Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Detection of Thyroid Cancer Bone Metastasis Compared with Bone Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjong; Lee, Won Woo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performances of F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (bone PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis. We retrospectively enrolled 6 thyroid cancer patients (age = 44.7 ± 9.8 years, M:F = 1:5, papillary:follicular = 2:4) with suspected bone metastatic lesions in the whole body iodine scintigraphy or BS, who subsequently underwent bone PET/CT. Pathologic diagnosis was conducted for 4 lesions of 4 patients. Of the 17 suspected bone lesions, 10 were metastatic and 7 benign. Compared to BS, bone PET/CT exhibited superior sensitivity (10/10 = 100% vs. 2/10 = 20%, p = 0.008), and accuracy (14/17 = 82.4% vs. 7/17 = 41.2%, p 0.05). Bone PET/CT may be more sensitive and accurate than BS for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis.

  12. F-8 sodium fluoride position emission tomography/computed tomography for detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis compared with bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Won Woo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performances of F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (bone PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis. We retrospectively enrolled 6 thyroid cancer patients (age = 44.7 ± 9.8 years, M:F = 1:5, papillary:follicular = 2:4) with suspected bone metastatic lesions in the whole body iodine scintigraphy or BS, who subsequently underwent bone PET/CT. Pathologic diagnosis was conducted for 4 lesions of 4 patients. Of the 17 suspected bone lesions, 10 were metastatic and 7 benign. Compared to BS, bone PET/CT exhibited superior sensitivity (10/10 = 100% vs. 2/10 = 20%, p = 0.008), and accuracy (14/17 = 82.4% vs. 7/17 = 41.2%, p < 0.025). The specificity (4/7 = 57.1%) of bone PET/CT was not significantly different from that of BS (5/7 = 71.4%, p > 0.05). Bone PET/CT may be more sensitive and accurate than BS for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis.

  13. Functional MR imaging of the Eustachian tube in patients with clinically proven dysfunction: correlation with lesions detected on MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luekens, Anna; Guenther, Rolf W. [University Hospital, University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); DiMartino, Ercole [Ev. Diakonie-Krankenhaus, Department of Otolaryngology and Head- and Neck-Surgery, Bremen (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele A. [University Hospital, University of Technology (RWTH) Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen, University Giessen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Giessen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    To visualise the function of the Eustachian tube by MRI and assess the effect of surrounding lesions. Using 1.5 T MRI, 32 Eustachian tubes of 16 patients with clinically proven dysfunction (clinical symptoms, such as autophonia and fullness and non-opening at tympanometry) were investigated. For depiction of the anatomy and associated abnormalities, coronal and axial T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequences and a T1-weighted-2D-gradient echo sequences were acquired. Eustachian tube opening was analysed with real time turbo-gradient echo sequences during a Valsalva manoeuvre. Dysfunction, that is, failure of opening of the Eustachian tube as shown by MRI, correlated in all patients with tympanometry. Lesions detected included nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 4 patients. Mucosal swelling in the paranasal sinus was present in 9 patients. One patient had postoperative defects. In two patients both pharyngotympanic tubes did not open although no structural abnormalities could be depicted. The opening of the Eustachian tubes during the Valsalva manoeuvre is assessable on MRI. Failure of opening may be due to swelling of the mucosa and may be also associated with tumours. MRI assessment may be helpful in patients with chronic otitis media, where the information about tubal function is important in preoperative planning. (orig.)

  14. The importance of speckle tracking echocardiography in the early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirelli, Selami; Degirmenci, Husnu; Ermis, Emrah; Inci, Sinan; Nar, Gokay; Ayhan, Mehmet Emin; Fırtına, Serdar; Hamur, Hikmet; Durmaz, Senay Arikan

    2015-10-19

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hormonal and metabolic abnormalities and is thought to increase a risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study we use speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in the early period of the disease. We enrolled 31 patients with PCOS and 32 healthy volunteers as a control group. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 40 years. PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. LV strain (LS) and strain rate (SR) were evaluated using apical two-chamber (2C), three-chamber (3C), and four-chamber (4C) imaging. Global LS and SR were calculated as average of three apical views. The waist-to-hip ratio, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting insulin and triglyceride levels were higher in the PCOS group than in the controls (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.005, respectively). In the PCOS group, the mitral A wave, deceleration time (DT), and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) were significantly higher than in the controls (all pPCOS patient group (both p= 0.001). There were strong negative correlations between GLS and both fasting insulin (r=-0.64) and DT (r=-0.62) (both pPCOS patients had decreased LV function using STE. Therefore, STE imaging appears to be useful for the early detection of subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with PCOS.

  15. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  16. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  17. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  18. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Oral manifestations of thyroid disorders and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Chandna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is the major regulator of metabolism and affects all of the bodily functions. Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common glandular disorder of the endocrine system which may rear its head in any system in the body including the mouth. The oral cavity is adversely affected by either an excess or deficiency of these hormones. Before treating a patient who has thyroid disorder, the endocrinologist needs to be familiar with the oral manifestations of thyroid dysfunctions. The patient with a thyroid dysfunction, as well as the patient taking medications for it, requires proper risk management before considering dental treatment by the dentist. Thus, communication of dentist with endocrinologist must be bidirectional, to maintain patient′s oral and thyroid health.

  20. Thyroid Storm Provoked by Interleukin-2 Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chung Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing use of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease, severe autoimmune thyroid dysfunction may be provoked at an increasing rate. We herein report a 49-year-old male patient experiencing a life- threatening thyroid storm provoked by interleukin-2 (IL-2. This was a case of pulmonary metastasis of melanoma without a previous history of thyroid dysfunction. For the metastatic melanoma, he underwent combined immunochemotherapy including dacarbazine and IL-2. The 3rd course of immunochemotherapy was complicated with a thyroid storm manifested by high fever, tachycardia and even transient cardiac arrest. Fortunately, he recovered eventually from this crisis by immediate resuscitation followed by antithyroid dugs. Our case highlights the rare complication of a thyroid storm provoked by IL-2 treatment. Precaution against autoimmune thyroid dysfunction is required during treatment with IL-2 and probably also other kinds of newly-developed immunotherapy to avoid life-threatening complications.

  1. Serum Creatinine Changes Associated with Critical Illness and Detection of Persistent Renal Dysfunction after AKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolic, Ivana; Purdell-Lewis, Jeremy; Taylor, Rachelle; Pearse, Rupert M.; Kirwan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives AKI is a risk factor for development or worsening of CKD. However, diagnosis of renal dysfunction by serum creatinine could be confounded by loss of muscle mass and creatinine generation after critical illness. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A retrospective, single center analysis of serum in patients surviving to hospital discharge with an intensive care unit admission of 5 or more days between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Results In total, 700 cases were identified, with a 66% incidence of AKI. In 241 patients without AKI, creatinine was significantly lower (Pcreatinine was significantly lower than baseline in all patients except those patients with severe AKI (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes category 3), who had no significant difference. In a multivariable regression model, median duration of hospitalization was associated with a predicted 30% decrease (95% confidence interval, 8% to 45%) in creatinine from baseline in the absence of AKI; after allowing for this effect, AKI was associated with a 29% (95% confidence interval, 10% to 51%) increase in predicted hospital discharge creatinine. Using a similar model to exclude the confounding effect of prolonged major illness on creatinine, 148 of 700 patients (95% confidence interval, 143 to 161) would have eGFRcreatinine (a 135% increase in potential CKD diagnoses; Pcreatinine that persist to hospital discharge, potentially causing inaccurate assessment of renal function at discharge, particularly in survivors of AKI. Prospective measurements of GFR and creatinine generation are required to confirm the significance of these findings. PMID:24742481

  2. [Painless thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ken; Fujikawa, Megumi; Bandai, Sachiko

    2006-12-01

    Painless thyroiditis is characterized by painless low-uptake thyrotoxicosis (thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism). Destructive damage of the thyroid has been thought to be the mechanism for self-limited thyrotoxicosis. However, hydrolysis of thyroglobulin must be responsible for the release of excessive thyroid hormone. Low-uptake of iodine and excessive release of thyroid hormone suggest the uncoupling of hormone synthesis and hormone secretion in the thyroid gland. Suppressed serum TSH level, various cytokines or growth factors including TGFbeta1, and thyroglobulin itself may be responsible for the suppressed hormone synthesis. The mechanism for persistent hormone release despite suppressed hormone synthesis should be clarified. Quantitative TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin assay is helpful for the differential diagnosis of painless thyroiditis and Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  3. Phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibition assay for rapid detection of erectile dysfunction drugs and analogs in sexual enhancement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillo, Michael F; Mapa, Mapa S T

    2018-02-28

    Products marketed as dietary supplements for sexual enhancement are frequently adulterated with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, which are erectile dysfunction drugs or their analogs that can cause adverse health effects. Due to widespread adulteration, a rapid screening assay was developed to detect PDE5 inhibitors in adulterated products. The assay employs fluorescence detection and is based on measuring inhibition of PDE5 activity, the pharmacological mechanism shared among the adulterants. Initially, the assay reaction scheme was established and characterized, followed by analysis of 9 representative PDE5 inhibitors (IC 50 , 0.4-4.0 ng mL -1 ), demonstrating sensitive detection in matrix-free solutions. Next, dietary supplements serving as matrix blanks (n = 25) were analyzed to determine matrix interference and establish a threshold value; there were no false positives. Finally, matrix blanks were spiked with 9 individual PDE5 inhibitors, along with several mixtures. All 9 adulterants were successfully detected (≤ 5 % false negative rate; n = 20) at a concentration of 1.00 mg g -1 , which is over 5 times lower than concentrations commonly encountered in adulterated products. A major distinction of the PDE5 inhibition assay is the ability to detect adulterants without prior knowledge of their chemical structures, demonstrating a broad-based detection capability that can address a continuously evolving threat of new adulterants. The PDE5 inhibition assay can analyze over 40 samples simultaneously within 15 minutes and involves a single incubation step and simple data analysis, all of which are advantageous for combating the widespread adulteration of sex-enhancement products. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

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    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  6. Comparison of exercise and pharmacological stress gated SPECT in detecting transient left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hakan; Tan, Yusuf Z; Isgoren, Serkan; Gorur, Gozde D; Kozdag, Guliz; Ural, Ertan; Berk, Fatma

    2008-06-01

    Transient left ventricular contractile dysfunction (TLVD) is observed owing to post-exercise stunning in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Pharmacological stimulation differs from exercise stress because it does not cause demand ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLVD could also be seen after pharmacological stress (dipyridamole). Of the patients in whom gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) was performed in our institution from January 2004 to April 2007, 439 subjects with known or suspected CAD were included in the study. GSPECT was performed for all patients following exercise (group I, n = 220) or pharmacological stress (group II, n = 219) according to a 2-day (stress-rest) protocol after injection of Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI). Stress, rest, and difference (stress-rest value) left ventricular ejection fractions (SLVEF, RLVEF, and DLVEF) and transient ischemic dilatation (TID) ratio were derived automatically. Summed stress score, summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) for myocardial perfusion were calculated using a 20-segment model and a five-point scoring system. An SDS > 3 was considered as ischemic. On the basis of the perfusion findings, patients were subdivided into a normal (group A, n = 216) and ischemia group (group B, n = 223). DLVEF and perfusion scores of all groups were compared. Relationships between DLVEF and perfusion, and between TID ratio and DLVEF were also evaluated. Stress-induced ischemia was observed in 223 of 439 patients (50.8%). In group A, the difference between stress and rest LVEF values was not significant (P = 0.670 and P = 0.200 for groups IA and IIA, respectively). However, LVEF was significantly decreased after stress compared with rest values for group B (P good correlations between TID ratios and DLVEF values in four subgroups (r = -0.55, r = -0.62, r = -0.59, and r = -0.41; for groups IA, IB, IIA, and IIB, respectively, P stress was observed

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Evaluation against real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paja Fano, Miguel; Ugalde Olano, Aitziber; Fuertes Thomas, Elena; Oleaga Alday, Amelia

    2017-02-01

    The BRAF V600E mutation is the most common genetic change in papillary thyroid carcinoma and is associated with a poorer clinical course. Usual methods for its study (DNA sequencing or molecular test based on PCR) are expensive and time-consuming. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for BRAF mutation has been introduced. To compare the results of IHC and real time PCR (RT-PCR) in the detection of BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Analysis of clinical and pathological differences depending on RT-PCR results is included. A prospective study was performed in 82 consecutive samples, 54 of them taken through a core needle biopsy. IHC was performed on tissue fixed for 24hours with 10% neutral formalin using the anti-BRAF V600E (VE-1) mouse monoclonal primary antibody and was rated as positive or negative. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by manual microdissection, and BRAF mutation was detected by RT-PCR using the Cobas® 4800 BRAF V600 mutation test (Roche). Both techniques were concordant in 81 cases, and BRAF was positive in 49. Discordance appeared in a follicular variant showing positive IHC and negative RT-PCR, attributed to histological heterogeneity. Cost of materials for IHC was less than half of the cost for RT-PCR. IHC appears to be a reliable, economical and easily available alternative to molecular biology techniques for routine detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients, provided optimal fixation conditions are used. It may be a useful technique in hospitals with no access to molecular biology techniques. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Thyroid Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... enough thyroid hormone, usually of the thyroxine (T4) type of hormone. Your T4 levels can drop temporarily ...

  9. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  10. [Thyroid nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels thyroid nodule is suggested.

  11. The importance of speckle tracking echocardiography in the early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Demirelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is characterized by hormonal and metabolic abnormalities and is thought to increase a risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study we use speckle tracking echocardiography (STE to evaluate left ventricular (LV dysfunction in the early period of the disease. We enrolled 31 patients with PCOS and 32 healthy volunteers as a control group. The participants’ ages ranged between 18 and 40 years. PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. LV strain (LS and strain rate (SR were evaluated using apical two-chamber (2C, three-chamber (3C, and four-chamber (4C imaging. Global LS and SR were calculated as average of three apical views. The waist-to-hip ratio, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and fasting insulin and triglyceride levels were higher in the PCOS group than in the controls (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, and p = 0.005, respectively. In the PCOS group, the mitral A wave, deceleration time (DT, and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT were significantly higher than in the controls (all p< 0.05. The LV global longitudinal strain (GLS and global longitudinal SR systolic (GLSRS were significantly lower in the PCOS patient group (both p = 0.001. There were strong negative correlations between GLS and both fasting insulin (r = −0.64 and DT (r = –0.62 (both p < 0.05. The study demonstrated that PCOS patients had decreased LV function using STE. Therefore, STE imaging appears to be useful for the early detection of subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with PCOS.

  12. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamedali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4. These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD. CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient.

  13. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis

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    Suhalia Bakerywala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  14. Approach to and Treatment of Thyroid Disorders in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleontiou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Thyroid gland dysfunction is prevalent in older adults and may be associated with significant morbidity if misdiagnosed and left untreated. Due to a decreased number of symptoms at presentation, an increased susceptibility to adverse events if not treated, and a greater likelihood of harm from treatment, the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders in older adults can be challenging. This review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, risks/complications, and management of thyroid disorders (including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer) in older adults. PMID:22443977

  15. Thyroid adenoma following treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, R.; Morishima, A.; Wolff, J.A.; Ryan, B.; Walters, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Sequelae of the treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) include multiple effects on the endocrine system, especially as it relates to growth and puberty. Thyroid dysfunction, and in particular, the occurrence of thyroid neoplasia, has been only rarely described. We report the development of benign thyroid neoplasms in two patients 9 years following the diagnosis and treatment of ALL. Both patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid with noncystic cold nodules found on thyroid scan. In light of these observations, and along with previous reports of malignant thyroid neoplasia in children with ALL, long-term careful observation of children successfully treated for ALL is indicated. 17 references

  16. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwun Ha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL. A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  17. Subclinical Cardiac Dysfunction Detected by Strain Imaging During Breast Irradiation With Persistent Changes 6 Weeks After Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Queenie [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hee, Leia; Batumalai, Vikneswary [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Allman, Christine [Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); MacDonald, Peter [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); St. Vincent' s Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Delaney, Geoff P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Lonergan, Denise [Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Ingham Institute of Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Thomas, Liza, E-mail: l.thomas@unsw.edu.au [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 2-dimensional strain imaging (SI) for the detection of subclinical myocardial dysfunction during and after radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty women with left-sided breast cancer, undergoing only adjuvant RT to the left chest, were prospectively recruited. Standard echocardiography and SI were performed at baseline, during RT, and 6 weeks after RT. Strain (S) and strain rate (Sr) parameters were measured in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial planes. Correlation of change in global longitudinal strain (GLS % and Δ change) and the volume of heart receiving 30 Gy (V30) and mean heart dose (MHD) were examined. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged; however, longitudinal systolic S and Sr and radial S were significantly reduced during RT and remained reduced at 6 weeks after treatment [longitudinal S (%) −20.44 ± 2.66 baseline vs −18.60 ± 2.70* during RT vs −18.34 ± 2.86* at 6 weeks after RT; longitudinal Sr (s{sup −1}) −1.19 ± 0.21 vs −1.06 ± 0.18* vs −1.06 ± 0.16*; radial S (%) 56.66 ± 18.57 vs 46.93 ± 14.56* vs 49.22 ± 15.81*; *P<.05 vs baseline]. Diastolic Sr were only reduced 6 weeks after RT [longitudinal E Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.47 ± 0.32 vs 1.29 ± 0.27*; longitudinal A Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.19 ± 0.31 vs 1.03 ± 0.24*; *P<.05 vs baseline], whereas circumferential strain was preserved throughout. A modest correlation between S and Sr and V30 and MHD was observed (GLS Δ change and V30 ρ = 0.314, P=.05; GLS % change and V30 ρ = 0.288, P=.076; GLS Δ change and MHD ρ = 0.348, P=.03; GLS % change and MHD ρ = 0.346, P=.031). Conclusions: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction was detected by 2-dimensional SI during RT, with changes persisting 6 weeks after treatment, though long-term effects remain unknown. Additionally, a modest correlation between strain reduction and radiation dose was observed.

  18. Preoperative F-18-FDG PET for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negative I-131 whole body scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Urn, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Youn Sang

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with negative I-131 scan. All patients had total thyroidectomy and following I-131 ablation therapy. In the follow-up period, FDG-PET showed suspected cervical lymph nodes metastases and neck dissection was performed within 3 months after FDG-PET. It had shown for all patients the negative I-131 scan within 3 months before FDG-PET or negative I-131 scan during the period of cervical lymph nodes metastases suspected on the basis of FDG-PET, CT, or ultrasonography until the latest FDG-PET. Preoperative FDG-PET results were compared with the pathologic findings of lymph nodes specimens of 19 papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. Serum Tg, TSH, and Tg antibody levels at the time of latest I-131 scan were reviewed. The size of lymph node was measured by preoperative CT or ultrasonography. In 45 cervical lymph node groups dissected, 31 lymph node groups revealed metastasis. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for metastasis were 74.2% (23 of 31) and 50.0% (7 of 14), respectively. Except for patients with elevated Tg antibody levels, all patients showed the elevated serum Tg levels than normal limits at the TSH of =30uIU/ml. 8 lesions without suspected metastatic findings on FDG-PET revealed metastasis (false negative), and none of them exceeded 8mm in size (4 to 8mm, median= 6mm). On the other hand, 23 true positive lesions on FDG-PET were variable in size (6 to 17mm, median=9mm). FDG-PET is suitable for the detection of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, false positive or false negative should be considered according to the size of lymph node

  19. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  20. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  1. Disguised Thyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, John M.; Catz, Boris

    1965-01-01

    In six cases of hyperthyroidism and two of chronic thyroiditis herein described, the initial features of the diseases were misinterpreted as attributable to other kinds of illness such as myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal malignant disease, malabsorption syndrome, psychosis, simple exophthalmos and endemic goiter. The characteristic signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (in six patients) and chronic thyroiditis (in two patients) were present at the outset but were not identified. Intensive questioning and alertness were required to elicit these characteristics. The symptoms improved or disappeared after the true disease was controlled. In the studies of these cases, the usefulness of a number of laboratory tests was illustrated—thyroid suppression studies, 4 to 6-hour and 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake, T3 uptake by the red cells and determinations of 24-hour urine creatine, antithyroglobulin antibody titer and long-acting thyroid stimulating hormone. The manifestations of thyroid diseases are many and varied. The term “masked hyperthyroidism” may in part be a reflection of the “masked physician” unless he uses his clinical detective abilities. PMID:14347981

  2. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cüneyt Ünsal,1 Mustafa Oran,2 Hande Oktay Tureli,3 Seref Alpsoy,4 Sema Yesilyurt,5 Mehtap Arslan,6 Birol Topcu,7 Osman Karakaya,8 Erhan Kurt6 1Department of Psychiatry, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Cardiology, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bağcilar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Biostatistics, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 8Department of Social Service, Yalova University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova, Turkey Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with early mortality compared with the nonschizophrenic population. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in asymptomatic periods in patients with schizophrenia would enhance their quality of life and reduce mortality. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and ankle brachial index (ABI measurement are known to be beneficial methods of detecting subclinical cardiovascular diseases and of risk stratification. The present study investigated carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ABI and echocardiographic parameters measured via conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with a control group. Methods: The present case-control study included 116 patients with schizophrenia and 88 healthy patients. Participants with any current comorbid psychiatric disorder, current or lifetime neurological and medical problems, current coronary artery disease, diabetes

  3. Thyroglobulin autoantibodies: is there any added value in the detection of thyroid autoimmunity in women consulting for fertility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuane, David; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Anckaert, Ellen; Schiettecatte, Johan; Tournaye, Herman; Haentjens, Patrick; Poppe, Kris

    2013-08-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is frequent in infertile women, but to what extent thyroglobulin autoantibodies (Tg-Abs) contribute to TAI is unclear in the literature. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of TAI in women consulting for fertility problems and to investigate the impact of isolated Tg-Abs, isolated thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPO-Abs), and the presence of both autoantibody types on thyroid function. Furthermore, thyroid function was compared between women with and without TAI and between infertile and fertile women. A cross-sectional data analysis nested within an ongoing prospective cohort study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of TAI in unselected women consulting our tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine (CRM). The women underwent a determination of serum thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), TPO-Abs, and Tg-Abs. The cause of infertility, age, body-mass index (BMI), and smoking habits were recorded. The prevalence of TAI was 16% (163/992). In 8% of cases, both types of autoantibodies were present, in 5% isolated positive Tg-Abs were found, and 4% had isolated positive TPO-Abs (p=0.025 and p=0.003 respectively). The prevalence of TAI was significantly higher in infertile women as compared to that in fertile controls (19% vs. 13%; p=0.047). The median serum TSH level was significantly higher in the women with TAI and with isolated positive Tg-Abs compared to that in women without TAI (1.83 [1.44] and 1.90 [0.85] vs. 1.47 [0.94] mIU/L; phabits were comparable between the study groups. The prevalence of TAI was higher in infertile women as compared to fertile women consulting our CRM. Five percent of the women had isolated positive Tg-Abs and a significantly higher serum TSH compared to that in women without TAI.

  4. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that ... prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of ...

  5. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  6. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  7. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  8. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland. The extra thyroxine can cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as: Unexplained weight loss Increased perspiration Tremor ... seek medical care if you develop signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as: Sudden weight loss even though your ...

  9. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  10. Detection of hand and leg motor tract injury using novel diffusion tensor MRI tractography in children with central motor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Lee, Jessica; Kamson, David O; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether an objective segmenation of corticospinal tract (CST) associated with hand and leg movements can be used to detect central motor weakness in the corresponding extremities in a pediatric population. This retrospective study included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of 25 children with central paresis affecting at least one limb (age: 9.0±4.2years, 15 boys, 5/13/7 children with left/right/both hemispheric lesions including ischemia, cyst, and gliosis), as well as 42 pediatric control subjects with no motor dysfunction (age: 9.0±5.5years, 21 boys, 31 healthy/11 non-lesional epilepsy children). Leg- and hand-related CST pathways were segmented using DTI-maximum a posteriori (DTI-MAP) classification. The resulting CST volumes were then divided by total supratentorial white matter volume, resulting in a marker called "normalized streamline volume ratio (NSVR)" to quantify the degree of axonal loss in separate CST pathways associated with leg and hand motor functions. A receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to measure the accuracy of this marker to identify extremities with motor weakness. NSVR values of hand/leg CST selectively achieved the following values of accuracy/sensitivity/specificity: 0.84/0.84/0.57, 0.82/0.81/0.55, 0.78/0.75/0.55, 0.79/0.81/0.54 at a cut-off of 0.03/0.03/0.03/0.02 for right hand CST, left hand CST, right leg CST, and left leg CST, respectively. Motor weakness of hand and leg was most likely present at the cut-off values of hand and leg NSVR (i.e., 0.029/0.028/0.025/0.020 for left-hand/right-hand/left-leg/right-leg). The control group showed a moderate age-related increase in absolute CST volumes and a biphasic age-related variation of the normalized CST volumes, which were lacking in the paretic children. This study demonstrates that DTI-MAP classification may provide a new imaging tool to quantify axonal loss in children with central motor dysfunction. Using this technique, we found that early-life brain

  11. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Bégin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

  12. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  13. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  14. Severe Hypoglycemia Accompanied with Thyroid Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakatani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 32-year-old Japanese women with severe hypoglycemia accompanied with thyroid crisis. She complained of dyspnea, general fatigue, and leg edema. She was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism with congestive heart failure and liver dysfunction. Soon after admission, sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred. She was then transferred to the intensive care unit. Her serum glucose level was 7 mg/dl. Intravenous glucose, hydrocortisone, diuretics, and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF saved her. We considered that hypoglycemia occurred due to heart failure and liver dysfunction due to thyroid crisis.

  15. High-risk pregnancy due to thyroid storm: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Hasanzadeh

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Despite the rarity of thyroid storm during pregnancy, in the event of unstable hemodynamic condition and cardiac dysfunction in pregnant women, rule out of thyroid disorders should be considered. Clinician should be paid attention to past drug history and underline disease of patient.

  16. Thyroid hemiagenesis with immunthyropathy; Schilddruesenhemiagenesie mit Immunthyreopathie

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    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie

    1999-06-01

    A case of Graves` disease occurring in a patient with hemiagenesis is presented. The detection of the rare occurrence of a congential hemiagenesis is often made by either clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction or anatomical abnormalities such as nodular goiter. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning and ultrasonography of an absent lobe. Anti-thyroid antibody studies documented the presence of Graves` disease within the remaining lobe. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hemiagenesie der Schilddruese stellt eine seltene angeborene Veraenderung dar. Diese angeborene Variante der Schilddruesenanlage wird in den meisten Faellen durh Auffaelligkeiten der Funktion oder der Groesse des vorhandenen Schilddruesenlappens zufaellig gefunden. Der Fall einer 57jaehrigen Frau mit einer Schilddruesenhemiagenesie in Kombination mit einer Immunthyreopatie Basedow wird vorgestellt. Die Zuweisung der Patientin zur Untersuchung erfolgte wegen einer Schilddruesenueberfunktion. Die erforderlichen diagnostischen Schritte zur Erstellung dieser beiden Schilddruesenveraenderungen waren ein 99m-Tc-Schilddruesenszintigramm, Ultraschall und Laborparameter der Schilddruese (fT4, TT3, bTSH, TAK, TPO, TRAK). (orig.)

  17. The thyroid gland in postmenopausal women: physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of most thyroid diseases: hypothyroidism, nodular goitre, and cancer is highest among postmenopausal and elderly women. The diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in this group of patients is difficult because the symptoms can be nonspecific or common with menopausal and ageing complaints. In the interpretation of thyroid function tests the physiological changes in secretion and metabolism of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones must be considered, as well as the influence of comorbidities. Unrecognised thyroid dysfunction leads to increased: cardiovascular risk, bone fractures, cognitive impairment, depression, and mortality. Therapy of thyroid dysfunction is different in postmenopausal and elderly women than in young people; hypothyroidism should be treated with caution, because high doses of L-thyroxine can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and increased bone turnover, and hyperthyroidism should be preferentially treated with radioiodine. Thyroid status beneficially influencing longevity relates to low thyroid function. Thyroid nodules and cancer often affect women over 50 years old; the diagnostic and therapeutic approach is the same as in the general population, but the surgical risk and cancer prognosis is worse than in young patients.

  18. The Study on the Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho

    1982-01-01

    Several recent advances in our knowledge of thyroid physiology have broad application to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. For in the thyroid, more than other end-ocrine organs, pathophysiology can be translated directly into the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Graves' disease is a syndrome including goiter with hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos and dermatopathy. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease is not yet clearly identified, but various autoantibodies to the thyroid gland and immunapathalogic studied indicate that autoimmune processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diagnosis and management of Graves' disease are largely dependent on radionuclide technique as radioimmunoassay, radioactive iodine therapy and so on. Several laboratory tests are also developed to determine the remission of this disease including TRH stimulation test, T 3 , suppression test and detection of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. Autoimmune thyroiditis is almost certainly a primary immunologic disease and the incidence tends to increase recently, mainly due to the application of biopsy technique is thyroid diseases. Thyroid nodules have been a great challenge to physicians because of the possibility of malignancy. But recently, cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate provides a very simple and also reliable diagnostic method in patients with thyroid nodules. In 163 patients with thyroid nodules, only 19.3% was revealed to be malignant. Therefore cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate and thyroid biopsy should be included in the diagnosis of nodular patients prior to surgical intervention. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory findings and therapeutic modalities of various thyroid diseases on the basis of over 80 researches performed during the past 20 years at radioisotope clinic, Seoul National University Hospital.

  19. Alternatives to in vivo tests to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish and amphibians--screening for estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, S; Renner, P; Belanger, S E; Busquet, F; Davi, R; Demeneix, B A; Denny, J S; Léonard, M; McMaster, M E; Villeneuve, D L; Embry, M R

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is considered a highly relevant hazard for environmental risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, biocides and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, screening tests with a focus on interference with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways in fish and amphibians have been developed. However, they use a large number of animals and short-term alternatives to animal tests would be advantageous. Therefore, the status of alternative assays for endocrine disruption in fish and frogs was assessed by a detailed literature analysis. The aim was to (i) determine the strengths and limitations of alternative assays and (ii) present conclusions regarding chemical specificity, sensitivity, and correlation with in vivo data. Data from 1995 to present were collected related to the detection/testing of estrogen-, androgen-, and thyroid-active chemicals in the following test systems: cell lines, primary cells, fish/frog embryos, yeast and cell-free systems. The review shows that the majority of alternative assays measure effects directly mediated by receptor binding or resulting from interference with hormone synthesis. Other mechanisms were rarely analysed. A database was established and used for a quantitative and comparative analysis. For example, a high correlation was observed between cell-free ligand binding and cell-based reporter cell assays, between fish and frog estrogenic data and between fish embryo tests and in vivo reproductive effects. It was concluded that there is a need for a more systematic study of the predictive capacity of alternative tests and ways to reduce inter- and intra-assay variability.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios in Detecting Occult Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas in Benign Multinodular Goitres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR ratios in detecting occult papillary thyroid microcarcinomas in benign, multinodular goitres. Methods. 397 total thyroidectomy patients were identified from the institutional thyroid surgery database between 2007 and 2016 (94 males, 303 females, mean age 53 ± 14.5 years. NLR and PLR were calculated as the absolute neutrophil and absolute platelet counts divided by the absolute lymphocyte count, respectively, based on the preoperative complete blood cell count. Results. NLR was significantly higher in carcinomas and microcarcinomas compared to benign pathology (p=0.026, whereas a direct association could not be established for PLR. Both NLR and PLR scored low in all parameters of diagnostic accuracy, with overall accuracy ranging between 45 and 50%. Conclusions. As surrogate indices of the systemic inflammatory response, NLR and PLR are inexpensive and universally available from routine blood tests. Although we found higher NLR values in cases of malignancy, NLR and PLR cannot effectively predict the presence of occult papillary microcarcinomas in otherwise benign, multinodular goitres.

  1. Effects of the Thyroid Status Correction on the Functional State of Digestive System in Children with Diffuse Nontoxic Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ye. Mamenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the effects of the diffuse non-toxic goiter treatment on the functional state of the digestive system in children. Materials and methods. The screening survey was based on lunior comprehensive schools (695 children aged 5–11 years: questioning of families, anthropometry and examination of children, detection of ioduria, palpation of the thyroid gland. In-depth examination of children with goiter (n = 88: ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and the digestive system, determination of levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, serotonin, melatonin, vasoactive intestinal peptide. Results. The high incidence of non-toxic diffuse goiter (25.8 %, associated with a reduction in functional activity of the thyroid gland to the minimum thyroid dysfunction (42.0 % and subclinical hypothyroidism (10.2 %, was detected in school-aged children. The presence of goiter leads to a static increase of the chances for functional gastrointestinal disorders developing (odds ratio 2.33, p = 0.000, mainly due to the hypokinetic conditions. The administration of potassium iodide preparations leads to the decreasing in goiter rate in high compliance up to the 27.3 % and to the normalization of the functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system (thyroid stimulating hormone — 1.66 mIU/L, that is associated with increased level of serotonin (6.14 ng/ml and vasoactive intestinal peptide (117.86 ng/ml and decreased melatonin concentration (2.5 pmol/l. In children who consistently for six months received preparations of potassium iodide, along with the normalization of thyroid status we noted the decrease of the frequency of complaints from the digestive system. Conclusions. The treatment of diffuse nontoxic goiter by potassium iodide preparations allows to achieve reduction of thyroid size and to normalize functional activity of thyroid-pituitary system. Increase in the functional activity of the pituitary-thyroid system helps reduce the

  2. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  3. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  4. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  5. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  6. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Brandao, Luis E.; Candeiro, Ricardo E.; Rebelo, Ana M.O.; Corbo, Rossana; Dutra, Janaina

    2008-01-01

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na 131 I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131 I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131 I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131 I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131 I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131 I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 1 31 I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na 131 I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  7. Trimester- and Assay-Specific Thyroid Reference Intervals for Pregnant Women in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfang Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The guidelines of the American Thyroid Association (ATA recommend an upper limit reference interval (RI of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester of pregnancy and 3.0 mIU/L in subsequent trimesters, but some reported ranges in China are significantly higher. Our study aimed to establish trimester- and assay-specific RIs for thyroid hormones in normal pregnant Chinese women. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 2540 women with normal pregnancies (first trimester, n=398; second trimester, n=797; third trimester, n=1345 and 237 healthy nonpregnant control subjects were recruited. Serum TSH, free thyroxin (FT4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb levels were determined by automated chemiluminescence with an Immulite 2000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany. After outliers were excluded, the 2.5–97.5th percentiles were used to define the RIs. Results. The RIs of thyroid function in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy and in nonpregnant controls were 0.07–3.96, 0.27–4.53, 0.48–5.40, and 0.69–5.78 mIU/L for TSH and 9.16–18.12, 8.67–16.21, 7.80–13.90, and 8.24–16.61 pmol/L for FT4, respectively. Conclusion. The trimester- and assay-specific RIs of thyroid function during pregnancy differed between trimesters, which suggests that it is advisable to detect and avoid misclassification of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy for women in Henan, China.

  8. Hemostasis in Hypothyroidism and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D

    2017-04-01

    There are contradictory results on the effect of hypothyroidism on the changes in hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). This paper reviews the studies on laboratory and population-based findings regarding hemostatic changes and risk of VTE in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hypothyroidism; thyroiditis, autoimmune; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation tests; hemostasis, blood coagulation disorders; thyroid hormones; myxedema; venous thromboembolism; fibrinolysis, receptors thyroid hormone. The papers that were related to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorder and hemostasis are used in this review. Overt hypothyroidism is more associated with a hypocoagulable state. Decreased platelet count, aggregation and agglutination, von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, several coagulation factors such as factor VIII, IX, XI, VII, and plasminogen activator-1 are detected in overt hypothyrodism. Increased fibrinogen has been detected in subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease rendering a tendency towards a hypercoagulability state. Increased factor VII and its activity, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 are among several findings contributing to a prothrombotic state in subclinical hypothyroidism. Overt hypothyroidism is associated with a hypocoagulable state and subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disorders may induce a prothrombotic state. However, there are contradictory findings for the abovementioned thyroid disorders. Prospective studies on the risk of VTE in various levels of hypofunctioning of the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid disorders are warranted.

  9. CLINICAL CONCEPTS ON THYROID EMERGENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo ePontecorvi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyroid-related emergencies are caused by overt dysfunction of the gland that are so severe that require admission to intensive care units frequently. Nonetheless, in the ICU setting, it is crucial to differentiate patients with non-thyroidal illness and alterations in thyroid function tests from those with intrinsic thyroid disease. This review presents and discusses the main etiopathogenetical and clinical aspects of hypothyroid coma (HC and thyrotoxic storm (TS, including therapeutic strategy flow-charts. Furthermore, a special chapter is dedicated to the approach to massive goiter, which represents a surgical thyroid emergency.Data source. We searched the electronic MEDLINE database to September 2013.Data selection and Data extraction. Reviews, original articles and case reports on myxedematous coma, hypothyroid coma, thyroid storm, thyrotoxic storm, massive goiter, huge goiter, prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis were selected.Data synthesis and conclusions. Severe excess or defect of thyroid hormone are rare conditions which jeopardize the life of patients in most cases. Both HC and TS are triggered by precipitating factors, which occur in patients with severe hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, respectively. The pillars of HC therapy are: high dose l-thyroxine and/or tri-iodothyroinine; i.v. glucocorticoids; treatment of hydro-electrolyte imbalance (mainly, hyponatraemia; treatment of hypothermia; not rarely, endotracheal intubation and assisted mechanic ventilation are needed. Therapy of TS is based on beta-blockers, thyrostatics, and i.v. glucocorticoids; eventually, high-dose iodide compounds or lithium carbonate may be of benefit. Surgery represents the gold standard treatment in patients with euthyroid massive nodular goiter, although new techniques – e.g., percutaneous laser ablation - are helpful in subjects at high surgical risk or refusing operation.

  10. Silent Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Silent or painless thyroiditis is a frequent cause of transient hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by recent onset of symptoms in a patient with a normal to modestly enlarged and firm thyroid gland. The hallmarks of the disease are the absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness and a markedly reduced radioiodine uptake. Histologically, the gland is characterized by an important lymphocytic infiltration, occasionally to the point of lymphoid follicle formation. However, other indices of an autoimmune cause are usually absent. The disease appears to have a predilection for the postpartum period. Relapses may occur with subsequent pregnancies. Otherwise, the course is usually benign and transient, requiring moderate doses of β-adrenergic blocking agents for symptomatic relief. No pathogenetic factors are known, but the disease may conceivably have an autoimmune basis, particularly in the postpartum patient. PMID:21278944

  11. Thyroid disease in children and adolescents

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    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Ji Ye; Jeong, Sun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Thyroid imaging in pediatric patients is indicated for the evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) during newborn screening or for a palpable thyroid mass. The primary imaging modalities for newborn screening are ultrasonography (US) and radionuclide scintigraphy. US is useful as a first-line test for the diagnosis of thyroid abnormalities and lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients. In addition, US can be used to guide the aspiration of detected nodules and to support the evaluation of the lymph nodes.

  12. Thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A palpable mass or nodule may represent any one of a large and diverse group of conditions that involve the thyroid. Whether the patient is euthyroid, hypothyroid, or hyperthyroid can be assessed, and the cause of hypofunction or hyperfunction can usually be determined. Scintiscanning provides important information on the anatomic structure of thyroid nodules. A hot nodule should be ablated by either radioiodine or surgery. A warm nodule usually responds to suppression therapy; if regression does not occur, the problem should be reevaluated. A cold nodule should be surgically excised, as microscopic study of such a lesion is mandatory

  13. Psoriasis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Ruffilli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis (PsO is a chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune skin disease, associated with an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is a chronic inflammatory arthritis occurring approximately in 30% of PsO patients. Sporadic cases of association between PsO and autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs have been reported. However, two different recent studies did not find any association between them. In patients with PsO and PsA, an association with AITD has been shown by most of the studies in adults, but not in the juvenile form. In PsA women and men, thyroid autoimmunity [positive antithyroid peroxidase (AbTPO antibodies, hypoechoic thyroid pattern] and subclinical hypothyroidism were more prevalent than in the general population. An association has been shown also in patients with PsO, arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease, who have more frequently AITD. A Th1 immune predominance has been shown in early PsO, and PsA, with high serum CXCL10 (Th1 prototype chemokine, overall in the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis. This Th1 immune predominance might be the immunopathogenetic base of the association of these disorders. A raised incidence of new cases of hypothyroidism, thyroid dysfunction, positive AbTPO, and appearance of a hypoechoic thyroid pattern in PsA patients, especially in women, has been shown recently, suggesting to evaluate AbTPO levels, thyroid function, and thyroid ultrasound, especially in PsA women. Thyroid function follow-up and suitable treatments should be performed regularly in PsA female patients at high risk (thyroid-stimulating hormone within the normal range but at the higher limit, positive AbTPO, hypoechoic, and small thyroid.

  14. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  15. Detection system qualification for direct measurement of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine; Qualificazione di un sistema di rilevazione trasportabile per misure dirette di contaminazione interna di radioiodio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberi, V.; Battisti, P.; Gualdrini, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The work deals with a detection system qualification for direct measurements of thyroid internal contamination by radioiodine. The isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I are the most frequently used in nuclear medicine. Because of their volatility they are very dangerous for thyroid contamination by inhalation. The system has been projected to be easily and fast used and above all transportable where the control is necessary. These characteristic make it able to realise supervision programs of internal contamination by radioiodine. In fact due the very high control frequencies (each 15 days for {sup 131}I), these programs are usually very expensive and demanding when they are executed in external measurement laboratories. The following steps are described: devices presentation, calculation of energy and efficiency parameters, minimum detectable activity, time system reliability, best operative conditions in the measurements. At the end an application example of the system is reported. [Italian] Il presente lavoro consiste nella qualificazione di un sistema di rivelazione per misure dirette di contaminazione interna da radioiodio in tiroide, progettato per essere maneggevole, di semplice e rapido impiego e trasportabile sul luogo dove e' richiesta la misura. Il sistema e' stato studiato per la realizzazione di programmi di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio che, richiedendo frequenze di controllo elevate (quindicinali per lo {sup 131}I), sono estremamente impegnativi ed onerosi, soprattutto se i controlli vengono effettuati in centri di misura esterni. Dopo la determinazione dei parametri della calibrazione in energia ed efficienza, la minima attivita' rivelabile, l'affidabilita' del sistema nel tempo e le condizioni operative ottimali da adottare in sede di misura, viene verificata la piena affidabilita' del sistema in un programma di sorveglianza della contaminazione interna da radioiodio.

  16. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, L.E.; Safran, M.; Bambini, G.; Pinchera, A.; Martino, E.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T 4 and T 3 concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. 131 I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyper-thyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG)

  17. Estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in thyroid cancer patients: probe detection versus image quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Pelissoni, Rogerio Alexandre; Lima, Beatriz Christine de Godoy Diniz; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Queiroz, Marcelo Araujo, E-mail: j.willegaignon@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia

    2016-05-15

    Objective: to compare the probe detection method with the image quantification method when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and radiation doses to the red marrow and whole body in the treatment of thyroid cancer patients. Materials and methods: fourteen patients with metastatic thyroid cancer, without metastatic bone involvement, were submitted to therapy planning in order to tailor the therapeutic amount of {sup 131}I to each individual. Whole-body scans and probe measurements were performed at 4, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration in order to estimate the effective half-life (T{sub eff}) and residence time of {sup 131}I in the body. Results: the mean values for T{sub eff} and residence time, respectively, were 19 ± 9 h and 28 ± 12 h for probe detection, compared with 20 ± 13 h and 29 ± 18 h for image quantification. The average dose to the red marrow and whole body, respectively, was 0.061 ± 0.041 mGy/MBq and 0.073 ± 0.040 mGy/MBq for probe detection, compared with 0.066 ± 0.055 mGy/MBq and 0.078 ± 0.056 mGy/MBq for image quantification. Statistical analysis proved that there were no significant differences between the two methods for estimating the T{sub eff} (p = 0.801), residence time (p = 0.801), dose to the red marrow (p = 0.708), and dose to the whole body (p = 0.811), even when we considered an optimized approach for calculating doses only at 4 h and 96 h after {sup 131}I administration (p > 0.914). Conclusion: there is full agreement as to the feasibility of using probe detection and image quantification when estimating {sup 131}I biokinetics and red-marrow/whole-body doses. However, because the probe detection method is ineffective in identifying tumor sites and critical organs during radionuclide therapy and therefore liable to skew adjustment of the amount of {sup 131}I to be administered to patients under such therapy, it should be used with caution. (author)

  18. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  19. Thyroid carcinomas of Belarussian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, M.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma increases significantly following exposure to ionizing irradiation. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumorigenesis at the molecular and chromosomal levels have not been identified. In order to gain some indication of the processes affecting the thyroid epithelium, cytogenetic and molecular genetic investigations were performed on childhood thyroid carcinomas that developed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Belarussia, and on secondary thyroid tumours that developed after radiotherapy. At the cytogenetic level, the radiation-induced tumours were shown to have an increased frequency of translocations, multiple and complex chromosome aberrations, and novel breakpoints for structural chromosome aberrations. At the molecular level, different alterations of the RET protooncogene were detected in 65% of the Belarussian tumours. (orig.) [de

  20. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the touch Rapid heart rate Shaking hands (tremor) Tests that may be done include: Radioactive iodine uptake Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 TSH Treatment Treatment is based on symptoms. Medicines called beta-blockers may be used to relieve rapid heart rate ...

  1. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Drahomira; Jiskra, Jan; Limanova, Zdenka; Zima, Tomas; Potlukova, Eliska

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy. After the 14th gestational week, fetal brain development may already be irreversibly affected by lack of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of manifest hypothyroidism in pregnancy is about 0.3-0.5%. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism varies between 4 and 17%, strongly depending on the definition of the upper TSH cutoff limit. Hyperthyroidism occurs in 0.1-1% of all pregnancies. Positivity for antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) is common in women of childbearing age with an incidence rate of 5.1-12.4%. TPOAb-positivity may be regarded as a manifestation of a general autoimmune state which may alter the fertilization and implantation processes or cause early missed abortions. Women positive for TPOAb are at a significant risk of developing hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum. Laboratory diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is based upon serum TSH concentration. TSH in pregnancy is physiologically lower than the non-pregnant population. Results of multiple international studies point toward creation of trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH in pregnancy. Screening for hypothyroidism in pregnancy is controversial and its implementation varies from country to country. Currently, the case-finding approach of screening high-risk women is preferred in most countries to universal screening. However, numerous studies have shown that one-third to one

  3. Thyroid cancers: a three year retrospective histopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than-Than-Htwe; Maung-Ko

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory based retrospective study was done on thyroid tissue specimen that were received from the surgically removed thyroid swellings of various reasons. It was a three year study from 1996-1998 with a total number of cases as (n=1690). Cases were between the age range of 8-88 years including both sexes. A routine histopathological examination was done according to the standard WHO classification, using conventional methods and techniques of specimen sectioning and processing. Occurrence of thyroid cancer among total cases of thyroid dysfunction is highly significant (P 0.860). The results obtained were discussed. (author)

  4. Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus And Thyroid Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent findings have evidenced the intricate bond between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus that contributes to major complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. Insulin resistance has also been shown to play an indispensable role in connecting type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction.

  5. Recent tendency in diagnosis of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tatsuno, Ikuro

    1979-01-01

    Various new approaches have been recently investigated in diagnosis of thyroid diseases with the progress of nuclear medicine. sup(99m)TcO 4 - has become a routinely used radiopharmaceutical in thyroid scan. sup(99m)TcO 4 - thyroid uptake was evaluated by using thyroid-t-high ratio. 123 I thyroid scan is more valuable than 131 I scan because of its short half time and low radiation exposure. We use 123 I particulary in functional analysis of thyroid hot nodule. 201 Tl scans were performed in patients with cold nodule. All thyroid cancer patients showed 201 Tl positive accumulation in thyroid nodule. However, even in benign diseases 201 Tl was accumulated. 201 Tl scan will be most effectively used in detecting the metastatic lesions from thyroid cancer. Serum rT 3 concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method. Serum TBG concentration in various diseases was evaluated by RIA method and T 4 /TBG ratio was evaluated. Serum anti-thyroglobulin antibody titer in thyroid diseases was evaluated by RIA method. It was more objective than widely used tanned red cell hemagglutinin method. (author)

  6. The role of TNF-α, Fas/Fas ligand system and NT-proBNP in the early detection of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction in cancer patients treated with anthracyclines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Kouloubinis

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: SFas, sFas-L and NT-proBNP correlate with reductions in LVEF and could be used as sensitive biochemical indices for the detection of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction in cancer patients under cardiotoxic chemotherapy.

  7. Towards a further understanding of prenatal thyroid theory of homosexuality: Autoimmune thyroiditis, polycystic ovary syndrome, autism and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into the neurobiological origins of same-sex attraction is inconclusive. A recent theory of homosexuality posited that maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with an increased rate of homosexual orientation in offspring. Relevant studies from the prenatal thyroid model perspective were reviewed, the major findings of which are as follows: i An increased prevalence of Hashimoto’s disease in lesbian women suggests a maternal and even familial presence of the same autoimmune thyroid disease. Female-tomale transsexuals and lesbian women were also reported to have higher rates of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Over the last several years, reports suggesting a strong link between PCOS and thyroid autoimmunity have accumulated. ii The increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD in the offspring of mothers with thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy and the association between ASD and gender dysphoria indicate a link between maternal thyroid dysfunction and gender dysphoria/same-sex attraction in the offspring. iii The high risk of miscarriage and retarded fetal growth in pregnancies of mothers who give birth to homosexual offspring can be explained by the impact of maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. This perspective review highlights relevant research findings and integrates them into the prenatal thyroid model of homosexuality. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the generation of same-sex orientation will contribute to the betterment of individual lives, as well as of society.

  8. For early detection of ''potential patients with depression''. Correlation of sleep disorder with frontal lobe dysfunction and depression symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Fumihiko; Kubuki, Yukiko; Uragami, Ikuko

    2011-01-01

    In Phase I of the research field of ''mental health of workers'' among the 13 research fields for work-related injuries/illness etc. promoted by the Japan Labour Health and Welfare Organization, a statistical image analysis of cerebral blood flow single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ( 99 mTc-ECD) was performed for 45 workers (a group of 25 patients with depression and a control group of 20 healthy workers) to perform objective assessment of the features of depression. In the depression and remission periods, we obtained findings regarding characteristic changes in cerebral blood flow, and local decreases in cerebral blood flow that correlated with the level of cumulative fatigue and subjective feelings of fatigue. Based on these image analysis results, it was suggested that for the prevention and early detection of depression, we should focus on the fact that patients with more severe sleep disorder(s) might show a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal frontal lobe, and that a close relationship between sleep disorder and depression was suggested in the images of cerebral function. Among 17 items of the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (SIGH-D) for the general evaluation of depression state, the patients with higher scores of sleep disorder, Insomnia Score (IS), showed a significant decrease in blood flow in the dorsal frontal lobe, suggesting a decrease in attentiveness/concentration. Focusing on the biological finding that showed a correlation between sleep disorder (IS) and frontal lobe dysfunction, we further examined the correlation between the level of sleep disorder, shown in IS, and the data related to depression (total SIGH-D score and the points of individual items; total score of the self-rating depressive scale [SDS] and points of individual items) in 108 workers (57 in the depression undergoing follow-up observation group and 51 in the healthy control group). As a result, IS in 57 subjects in the

  9. Is Stimulated Thyroglobulin Necessary after Ablation in All Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Basal Thyroglobulin Detectable by a Second-Generation Assay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Weslley Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the percentage of elevated stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg and persistent or recurrent disease (PRD in patients with detectable basal Tg < 0.3 ng/mL. Methods. The sample consisted of 130 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC who were at low risk of PRD and who had neck ultrasound (US without abnormalities, negative anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb, and detectable basal Tg < 0.3 ng/mL about 6 months after ablation. Results. sTg was <1 ng/mL in 88 patients (67.7%, between 1 and 2 ng/mL in 26 (20%, and ≥2 ng/mL in 16 (12.3%. Imaging methods revealed the absence of tumors in 16 patients with elevated sTg. During follow-up, Tg increased to 0.58 ng/mL in one patient and lymph node metastases were detected. Sixty-nine patients continued to have detectable Tg < 0.3 ng/mL and US revealed recurrence in only one patient. Sixty patients progressed to persistently undetectable Tg without apparent disease on US. Conclusions. In low-risk patients with PTC who have detectable basal Tg < 0.3 ng/mL after ablation, negative TgAb, and US, persistent disease is rare and eventual recurrences can be detected by basal Tg elevation and/or subsequent US assessments, with follow-up without sTg being an “alternative” to Tg stimulation.

  10. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - an unusual case of hyalinizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm occurring in sporadic and familial patterns. A rare variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma shows microscopic features similar to hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of thyroid. Detection of this variant requires a high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical confirmation by ...

  11. Pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid cancer: Clinical, radiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis or exclusion of cancer in the thyroid nodule remains a clinical dilemma for general surgeons and endocrinologists. Nodular disease of the thyroid is very common, while cancer is rare; a definite diagnosis of either is difficult to make. The general prevalence of thyroid nodules is very high. They are detectable ...

  12. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2008-04-01

    The action of thyroid hormones (THs) in the brain is strictly regulated, since these hormones play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common endocrine maladies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify in broad terms the interactions between thyroid hormone states or actions and brain development. THs regulate the neuronal cytoarchitecture, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, and their receptors are widely distributed in the CNS. Any deficiency or increase of them (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) during these periods may result in an irreversible impairment, morphological and cytoarchitecture abnormalities, disorganization, maldevelopment and physical retardation. This includes abnormal neuronal proliferation, migration, decreased dendritic densities and dendritic arborizations. This drastic effect may be responsible for the loss of neurons vital functions and may lead, in turn, to the biochemical dysfunctions. This could explain the physiological and behavioral changes observed in the animals or human during thyroid dysfunction. It can be hypothesized that the sensitive to the thyroid hormones is not only remarked in the neonatal period but also prior to birth, and THs change during the development may lead to the brain damage if not corrected shortly after the birth. Thus, the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities might be related to the thyroid hormones is plausible. Taken together, the alterations of neurotransmitters and disturbance in the GABA, adenosine and pro/antioxidant systems in CNS due to the thyroid dysfunction may retard the neurogenesis and CNS growth and the reverse is true. In general, THs disorder during early life may lead to distortions rather than synchronized shifts in the relative development of several central transmitter systems that leads to a multitude of irreversible morphological and biochemical

  13. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basteris M, J.; Gomez D, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  14. Thyroid autoimmunity in bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuti, Margherita; Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Murru, Andrea; Verdolini, Norma; Guiso, Giovanni; Samalin, Ludovic; Maes, Michael; Stubbs, Brendon; Perugi, Giulio; Vieta, Eduard; Pacchiarotti, Isabella

    2017-10-15

    Accumulating evidence points to the pathophysiological relevance between immune dysfunction and mood disorders. High rates of thyroid dysfunction have been found in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), compared to the general population. A systematic review of the relationship between BD and thyroid autoimmunity was performed. Pubmed, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases were searched up till January 28th, 2017. This review has been conducted according to the PRISMA statements. Observational studies clearly reporting data among BD patients and the frequency of autoimmune thyroid pathologies were included. 11 original studies met inclusion criteria out of 340 titles first returned from the global search. There is evidence of increased prevalence of circulating thyroid autoantibodies in depressed and mixed BD patients, while there is no evidence showing a positive relationship between BD and specific autoimmune thyroid diseases. There is a controversy about the influence of lithium exposure on circulating thyroid autoantibodies, even if most of studies seem not to support this association. A study conducted on bipolar twins suggests that autoimmune thyroiditis is related to the genetic vulnerability to develop BD rather than to the disease process itself. Females are more likely to develop thyroid autoimmunity. The samples, study design and outcomes were heterogeneous. Thyroid autoimmunity has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for bipolar disorder with no clear association with lithium exposure and it might serve as an endophenotype for BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictive factors of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Wu, Mu Chao; Shang, Chang Zhen; Wang, Xiao Yi; Zhang, Jing Lu; Cheng, Hua; Xu, Ming Tong; Yan, Li

    2014-01-01

    The best preoperative examination in Graves' disease with thyroid cancer still remains uncertain. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Graves' disease patients, and to identify the predictive factors and ultrasonographic features of thyroid cancer that may aid the preoperative diagnosis in Graves' disease. This retrospective study included 423 patients with Graves' disease who underwent surgical treatment from 2002 to 2012 at our institution. The clinical features and ultrasonographic findings of thyroid nodules were recorded. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer was determined according to the pathological results. Thyroid cancer was discovered in 58 of the 423 (13.7 %) surgically treated Graves' disease patients; 46 of those 58 patients had thyroid nodules, and the other 12 patients were diagnosed with incidentally discovered thyroid carcinomas without thyroid nodules. Among the 58 patients with thyroid cancer, papillary microcarcinomas were discovered in 50 patients, and multifocality and lymph node involvement were detected in the other 8 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed younger age was the only significant factor predictive of metastatic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonographic findings of calcification and intranodular blood flow in thyroid nodules indicate that they are more likely to harbor thyroid cancers. Because the influencing factor of metastatic thyroid cancers in Graves' disease is young age, every suspicious nodule in Graves' disease patients should be evaluated and treated carefully, especially in younger patients because of the potential for metastasis.

  16. The clinical values of serum TRAb by RIA in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenzhen; Li Hong; Gao Yongdi

    2001-01-01

    The TRAb content of the thyroid diseases 758 cases (including the first visit thyroidism group 166 cases; the thyroidism group with normal thyroid function by medicine treatment 198 cases, the group with abnormal thyroid function by medicine treatment 86 cases, the group with lower thyroid function 24 cases, the group with normal thyroid function by 131 I treatment 104 cases, the subacute thyroiditis group 48 cases, the simple goiter group 52 cases, the primary hypothyroidism group 80 cases) and the normal control group 62 cases are detected. The results show that the values of TRAb are much higher in the groups with normal or abnormal thyroid function by medicine treatment, the group with lower thyroid function, the group with 131 I treatment and the group with primary hypothyroidism than that of control group (P 0.05). The differential of the TRAb average and positive rate is obvious between the groups with normal and abnormal thyroid function by medicine treatment (P 131 I treatment (P < 0.01). The TRAb levels in serum are higher in the patients with thyroidism and primary hypo-thyroidism, and the TRAb levels are normal in the patients with subacute thyroiditis and simple goiter. So, TRAb is a auxiliary index in the diagnosis of thyroidism and hypo-thyroidism and also a differential diagnosis index about the thyroidism and subacute thyroiditis. At the same time, TRAb is an important index in evaluating the autoimmune monitoring function of the body, and stopping the use of thyroid medicine

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  20. Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumrongpisutikul, S.; Tuchinda, S.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125 I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D 492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

  1. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ′s disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin - angiotensin - aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by a low T3 syndrome which is now considered a part of an atypical nonthyroidal illness. CKD patients also have increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. The physiological benefits of a hypothyroid state in CKD, and the risk of CKD progression with hyperthyroidism emphasize on a conservative approach in the treatment of thyroid hormone abnormalities in CKD. Thyroid dysfunction is also associated with glomerulonephritis often by a common autoimmune etiology. Several drugs could affect both thyroid and kidney functions. There are few described interactions between thyroid and renal malignancies. A detailed knowledge of all these interactions is important for both the nephrologists and endocrinologists for optimal management of the patient.

  2. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during early gestation and the subsequent risk of first onset postpartum depression : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseloo, R.; Kamperman, A.; Bergink, V.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background During the postpartum period, women are at risk for the new onset of both auto-immune thyroid disorders and depression. The presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-ab) during early gestation is predictive for postpartum auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. The aim of this study was to

  3. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during early gestation and the subsequent risk of first-onset postpartum depression: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Wesseloo (Richard); A.M. Kamperman (Astrid); V. Bergink (Veerle); V.J.M. Pop (Victor)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ During the postpartum period, women are at risk for the new onset of both auto-immune thyroid disorders and depression. The presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-ab) during early gestation is predictive for postpartum auto-immune thyroid dysfunction. The aim

  4. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertini, Roberto; Dalurzo, Liliana; Jaen, Ana del V.

    2008-01-01

    In this document the case of a 66-year old woman is presented, with record of multi nodular goiter of 5 year of evolution, which is derived to scan ultrasound office to make a puncture-aspiration with thin needle because of the growth of nodular thyroid injuries. The ultrasound scan examination made before the puncture determine multiple dominant nodules of hyperplasia aspect between 15 and 25 mm of diameter and a small nodule of 6 mm suspected proliferate process. Despite its size, it was decided to include small nodule in injuries to a biopsy. The cytological study reveals nodular hyperplasia with carcinoma in the small nodule of 6 mm. A thyroidectomy is practiced on the patient. The deferred histological study of the thyroid gland confirms the finding of multi-nodular goiter with a small focus of papillar carcinoma. The ganglions examined were negative in the deferred examination [es

  5. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - ... Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James BC, Nagar S, Grogan RH. Surgery ...

  6. May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-11-20

    The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (pdisease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (pthyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor.

  7. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P C; Boerner, W; Emrich, S; Gutekunst, R; Herrmann, J; Horn, K; Klett, M; Krueskemper, H L; Pfannenstiel, P; Pickardt, C R

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  8. Thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Reiners, C.; Reinwein, D.; Schleusener, H.

    1985-01-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Differentiated thyroid cancer following radioiodide 131I therapy of hyperthyroidism: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, J; Soumar, J; Zeman, V; Nahodil, V; Zamrazil, V; Smejkal, V Jr

    1978-01-01

    Differentiated (papillary) thyroid cancer was detected 17 years following radioiodide 131I treatment for toxic multinodular goiter. Twenty-one cases of thyroid cancers with previous 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism were summarized. This combination is rare compared to the incidence of thyroid cancers following external irradiation. This may be due to higher absorbed dose to thyroid in 131I treatment.

  10. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  11. Microscopic polyangiitis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, Sjogren′s syndrome and Hashimoto′s thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ben Ghorbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between microscopic polyangiitis (MPA and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC has seldom been reported. We describe here a patient who presented with sensorimotor neuropathy along with hypothyroidism, renal failure and liver dysfunction. Detection of antinuclear antibodies at a titer of 1/800, anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-GP210, anti-microsomial and p-ANCA anti-myeloperoxydase antibodies along with renal, salivary and liver biopsy led to a diagnosis of MPA associated with PBC, Sjogren′s syndrome and Hashimoto′s thyroiditis.

  12. The association between thyroid malignancy and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: should it alter the surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, Ahmet Oğuz; Yalçın, Erol; Celep, Bahadır; Sengül, Serkan; Yandakçı, Kemal; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Alkoy, Seval; Cöl, Cavit

    2011-01-01

    The relation between thyroid neoplasms and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is controversial. While it is accepted that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis develops secondarily to malignancy, it is not clear whether diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis has a tendency to develop into thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CLT and malignant tumours of the thyroid and evaluate the surgical approach to CLT cases. In this study, 917 patients operated on for thyroid diseases were investigated retrospectively. Seventy-seven (8.4%) patients histopathologically diagnosed as having CLT (either non-specific or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were investigated for any concurrent malignant neoplasm. Fifteen patients in whom CLT and thyroid malignancy were coexisting were included in the study. In the pathological evaluation of 917 cases, malignancy in the thyroid was found in 97 (10.6%) cases. Seventy-seven cases were categorised as CLT. Of these 77, 16 (20.8%) were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (specific CLT) and the other 61 (79.2%) were non-specific CLT. In 15 cases, thyroid malignancy was found to be concurrent with CLT. Of the malignities, nine (60%) were papillary carcinoma, three (20%) medullar carcinoma, one (6.6%) follicular carcinoma, one (6.6%) Hurthle cell carcinoma, and one (6.6%) lymphoma. In our series, the rate of the development of malignancy against the background of CLT was 19.48%, while the rate in the groups without CLT was 9.76%, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.008). CLT cases should be evaluated more carefully in terms of malignancy. If a nodule is detected on thyroiditis, the minimal surgical intervention should be lobectomy. Total thyroidectomy should be considered as preferable to subtotal thyroidectomy because of its many advantages such as controlling thyroiditis, removing the probability of reoperation, and hormonal stability.

  13. Tormenta tiroidea Thyroid storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Leal Curí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La tormenta tiroidea es una de las situaciones más críticas entre las emergencias endocrinas y tiene una significativa mortalidad. La etiología más común de tirotoxicosis es la enfermedad de Graves y el factor precipitante que predomina es la infección. Clínicamente se caracteriza por la disfunción de varios sistemas (termorregulador, nervioso central, gastrointestinal y cardiovascular, con niveles de hormonas tiroideas libres o totales por encima de los valores normales. El tratamiento debe tener un enfoque multidisciplinario, e incluye medidas de soporte en unidades de cuidados intensivos, normalización de la temperatura corporal, reducción de la producción y liberación de hormonas tiroideas, con antitiroideos de síntesis y yodo respectivamente, bloqueo de los efectos periféricos mediante la administración de beta-bloqueadores, y corrección del factor desencadenante. Una vez que el paciente se encuentra estable es necesario planificar una terapia definitiva que impida la recurrencia futura de la crisis tirotóxica.The thyroid storm is one of the most critical situations in the endocrine emergencies and exhibits a significant mortality rate. The most common etiology of thyrotoxicosis is Graves' disease and the predominant precipitating factor is infection. The clinical characteristics are dysfunction of several systems (heat-regulator, central nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular, and levels of total or free thyroid hormones that exceed the normal values. The treatment must be multidisciplinary and include support measures in intensive care units, normalization of body temperature, reduction of the production and the release of thyroid hormones by using synthesis and iodine anti-thyroid products respectively, blockade of the peripheral effects through administration of Beta-blockers and correction of the unleashing factor. Once the patients are stabilized, it is necessary to plan the final therapy that will prevent the

  14. Thyroid disease: thyroid function tests and interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases of the thyroid are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, especially in women, but the symptoms can be relatively nonspecific or mild. For this reason, clinicians have been placing increased reliance on the laboratory for assistance in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In the 1950s, only one thyroid.

  15. Factors Associated With Mortality of Thyroid Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yosuke; Ono, Sachiko; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Thyroid storm is a life-threatening and emergent manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. However, predictive features associated with fatal outcomes in this crisis have not been clearly defined because of its rarity. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of patient characteristics, treatments, and comorbidities with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with thyroid storm using a national inpatient database in Japan from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014. Of approximately 21 million inpatients in the database, we identified 1324 patients diagnosed with thyroid storm. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47 (18) years, and 943 (71.3%) patients were female. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. The number of patients was highest in the summer season. The most common comorbidity at admission was cardiovascular diseases (46.6%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that higher mortality was significantly associated with older age (≥60 years), central nervous system dysfunction at admission, nonuse of antithyroid drugs and β-blockade, and requirement for mechanical ventilation and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with hemodialysis. The present study identified clinical features associated with mortality of thyroid storm using large-scale data. Physicians should pay special attention to older patients with thyrotoxicosis and coexisting central nervous system dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to clarify treatment options that could improve the survival outcomes of thyroid storm. PMID:26886648

  16. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpartum thyroiditis and silent thyroiditis could occur closely to each other; however, the link between these disorders is not well established. This report is to remind physicians of the possibility of recurrent silent thyroiditis in women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis. PMID:24987536

  17. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  18. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen-Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerggaard, Mette; Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids

    2015-01-01

    sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle-aged......INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually...... inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. METHODS: Data from the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care-Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen-detected type...

  19. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Hala M; Teot, Lisa A; Indyk, Justin A; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2010-09-01

    Whereas thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer. Discovery of a nodule in the context of hyperthyroidism is usually comforting due to the presumption that the nodule represents a benign toxic adenoma. An 11-year-old girl presented with heavy menses, fatigue, and a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated triiodothyronine and undetectable thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 3.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule, and scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous hyper-functioning nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could not rule out malignancy, and patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy. Pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning nodule in an 11-year-old girl. Detection of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule in children and adolescents does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  1. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid and Weight Resources Thyroid and Weight Brochure PDF En Español La Tiroides y el Peso El folleto de La Tiroides y el ...

  2. Comparison of 131I whole-body imaging, 131I SPECT/CT, and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of metastatic thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong-Ryool; Chong, Ari; Kim, Jahae; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Song, Ho-Chun; Bom, Hee-Seung; Byun, Byung-Hyun; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Yoo, Su-Woong; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Min, Jung-Joon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 131 I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), WBS with 131 I single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in the detection of distant metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). A total of 140 patients with 258 foci of suspected distant metastases were evaluated. 131 I WBS, 131 I SPECT/CT, and 18 F-FDG PET/CT images were interpreted separately. The final diagnosis was obtained from histopathologic study, serum thyroglobulin level, other imaging modalities, and/or clinical follow-up. Of the 140 patients with 258 foci, 46 patients with 166 foci were diagnosed as positive for distant metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of each imaging modality were 65, 55, and 59%, respectively, for 131 I WBS; 65, 95, and 85% for 131 I SPECT/CT, respectively; and 61, 98, and 86%, respectively, for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in patient-based analyses. Lesion-based analyses demonstrated that both SPECT/CT and PET/CT were superior to WBS (p 18 F-FDG PET/CT presented the highest diagnostic performance in patients who underwent multiple challenges of radioiodine therapy. (orig.)

  3. Post Partum Depression and Thyroid Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Keshavarzi MD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risk of depression is particularly high for women during the prenatal period. Various investigators have attempted to establish a link between thyroid function and post partum depression. This study aimed to investigate whether thyroid function differs in women with postpartum depression compared to a control group.Methods: In this case-control study, subjects were selected from Obstetrics & Gynecology and Psychiatric clinics of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Forty eight patients suffering from postpartum depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition totally revised (DSM-IV-TR, and 65 normal controls underwent diagnostic evaluation by one trained psychiatrist using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Then, the demographic questionnaire and the Persian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS were completed by the participants. Finally, their thyroid functions were assessed. Data analyses were done using the SPSS program 13.Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between thyroid function tests and postpartum depression. According to multiple regression analysis with stepwise method, subjects with lower serum TSH, T3RU, T3 levels, younger age and longer period after delivery tended to have higher EPDS scores (P-value=0.008. Conclusion:The present study reports that those women with postpartum depression had a no greater prevalence of thyroid dysfunction than the control subjects. It seems that thyroid dysfunction should be considered in women with postpartum depression individually, but the role of thyroid as an important cause of this condition is not yet established. This suggests that future studies should concentrate on this concept in postpartum depression.

  4. Functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children with allergic dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 10 % of the pediatric population suffers from atopic dermatitis, and this disease is most common skin allergic pathology. The influence of thyroid hormones on the development of atopy is known. Study purpose was to evaluate the features of the functional status of the pituitary-thyroid system in children with allergic dermatosis. Materials and methods. 72 children aged from 7 to 18 years were divided into 4 groups: group I — patients who suffer from atopic dermatitis (n = 29, II — children with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 17, III group — patients with simple contact dermatitis (n = 16, IV group — healthy children (n = 10. The levels of thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, antibodies to thyroglobulin (TG were determined. Results. Erythema was found in 95.2 %, edema — in 43.5 %, exudation — in 37.1 %, excoriation — in 43.5 %, lichenification — in 56.4 % of the total group of patients. Dysfunctions of the pituitary-thyroid system, both at the central and peripheral level, were determined. The frequency of antibodies to TG detection in children of the first group was high and exceeded the average population values by 3.7 times (36.7 %, χ2 = 17.5, p < 0.05. The level of TG in all of observed patients was significantly higher than that of in the comparison group. The frequency of detection of antibo­dies to TG in the group of patients with the disease experience more than 10 years exceeded the average population values by 3.2 times (34.0 %, χ2 = 8.1, p < 0.05. Conclusions. Changes in the morpho-functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system, mainly of an autoimmune nature, are revealed in children with allergic dermatosis.

  5. Primary thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, R.; Khattak, R.; Mateen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Incidence of thyroidal masses is very high with predominance in females. Most of these masses are benign. Malignancy can be of thyroid or non-thyroid origin. Surgery is treatment of choice in the former but not in latter. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of thyroid malignancy of non-thyroid origin which is highly treatable without surgery but early diagnosis is important requisite to have better outcome. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important tool in early diagnosis of PTL, which enables doctors to treat patient better without major surgery and its morbidity. Two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma are hereby presented. The patient diagnosed on FNAC had better outcome than the one who had major surgery. (author)

  6. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other heart problems take medications that contain nitrates to help the blood flow better to the ... erectile dysfunction can affect the way that the nitrates work—and cause blood pressure to drop to ...

  7. Ultrasonography diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules: Revised Korean society of thyroid radiology consensus statement and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    The rate of detection of thyroid nodules and carcinomas has increased with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US), which is the mainstay for the detection and risk stratification of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for their biopsy and nonsurgical treatment. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published their first recommendations for the US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in 2011. These recommendations have been used as the standard guidelines for the past several years in Korea. Lately, the application of US has been further emphasized for the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the KSThR has revised the recommendations for the ultrasound diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

  8. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs also within Graves′ thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves′ disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  9. Marine-Lenhart syndrome with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Çolak, Ramis; Yazici, Zihni Acar; Kefeli, Mehmet; Tosun, Fevziye Canbaz

    2015-04-01

    Graves' disease with accompanying functioning nodules is known as Marine-Lenhart syndrome. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) also within Graves' thyroid tissue are almost always bening in nature. A 45-year-old man developed hyperthyroidism due to the coexistence of Graves' disease and AFTN. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The hyperfunctioning nodule with centrally hypoactive foci detected by technetium-99m thyroid scanning was histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma that was 2.5 cm in diameter. We report the presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma within AFTN in patients with Marine-Lenhart syndrome, which has not been reported so far.

  10. Feasibility of in vivo thyroid {sup 131}I monitoring with an imaging plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Masahiro; Saze, Takuya; Ogata, Yoshimune; Nishizawa, Kunihide E-mail: nishizawa@nucc.cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2001-10-01

    A new in vivo thyroid {sup 131}I monitoring method was devised by using an imaging plate (IP). A thyroid image obtained with a realistic neck-thyroid phantom showed a unique shape characteristic of the thyroid gland. A {sup 131}I thyroid imaging allows visual confirmation of thyroid accumulation of {sup 131}I. The detection limit of the IP system of 290 Bq was about ((1)/(100)) of the screening level of 30 kBq in cases of public emergencies. The IP system is applicable for thyroid {sup 131}I monitoring.

  11. Experience in thyroid scintigraphy with Ethiopian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demena, Solomon

    1993-01-01

    One thousand and thirty seven thyroid scintigraphy examinations done in the Nuclear Medicine Unit of Tikur Anbesma Hospital, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia between December 1984 and September 1989 were analyzed to assess their diagnostic value. Thirty one percent of the referrals were to investigate clinically detectable solitary nodules, and of these fifty-six percent had ''cold'' nodules and twenty-three percent ''hot'' nodules. Fifty-five percent of the referrals for evaluation of goitre were for multi nodular goitres and twelve percent for diffuse. Thirteen of fifty-three cases with suspected ectopic thyroid tissue were positive. Little useful information was obtained in the evaluation of goitre. It is concluded that thyroid scintigraphy was an unnecessary investigation in the evaluation of goitres in euthyroid patients. Its primary role was in the investigation of the solitary nodule, ectopic thyroid tissue and the retresternal goitre. Therefore, only selected patients should be investigated with thyroid scintigraphy

  12. Detection of the Single-Session Complete Ablation Rate by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound during Ultrasound-Guided Laser Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the single-session complete ablation rate of ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation (LA for benign thyroid nodules. LA was performed in 90 patients with 118 benign thyroid nodules. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was used to evaluate complete nodule ablation one day after ablation. Thyroid nodule volumes, thyroid functions, clinical symptoms and complications were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after ablation. Results showed that all benign thyroid nodules successfully underwent LA. The single-session complete ablation rates for nodules with maximum diameters ≤2 cm, 2-3 cm and ≥3 cm were 93.4%, 70.3% and 61.1%, respectively. All nodule volumes significantly decreased than that one day after ablation (P0.05. Three patients had obvious pain during ablation; one (1.1% had recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, but the voice returned to normal within 6 months after treatment. Thus, ultrasound-guided LA can effectively inactivate benign thyroid nodules. LA is a potentially viable minimally invasive treatment that offers good cosmetic effects.

  13. Thyroid function in neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, J H; Letarte, J; Guyda, H; Laberge, C

    1976-10-01

    Various aspects of the thyroid function have been measured in 28 cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected by means of the Quebec Screening Program for Metabolic Diseases. In all instances the T4 value in the blood of filter paper spot was below 2 SD of the mean of the day, averaging 0.39 +/- 0.04 ng/40 mul (mean +/- SEM) of eluted blood. The T4 value of a second similar sample averaged 0.22 +/- 0.04 ng/mul of eluted blood; this value was significantly lower than the first one. The serum T4 concentration was decreased in all the infants, whereas three of them had a normal serum TSH concentration. At least three groups of patients could be identified: (1) patients with primary thyroid failure, (2) those with secondary or tertiary hypothyrodism, and (3) those with abnormal synthesis of thyroid hormone.

  14. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendl, J.; Reiners, C.

    1999-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanseree, Preaw; Salvador, Vincent Bryan; Sachmechi, Issac; Kim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpar...

  16. Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Detects Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction among Adult Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE provides a sensitive measure of left ventricular (LV systolic function and may aid in the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity. 2DSTE was performed in a cross-sectional study of 134 patients (mean age: 31.4±8.8 years; 55% male; mean time since diagnosis: 15.4±9.4 years previously treated with anthracyclines (mean cumulative dose: 320±124 mg/m2, with (n=52 or without (n=82 mediastinal radiotherapy. The prevalence of LV systolic dysfunction, defined as fractional shortening < 27%, LV ejection fraction (LVEF < 55%, and global longitudinal strain (GLS ≤ 16%, was 5.2%, 6.0%, and 23.1%, respectively. Abnormal GLS was observed in 24 (18% patients despite a normal LVEF. Indices of LV systolic function were similar regardless of anthracycline dose. However, GLS was worse (18.0 versus 19.0, p=0.003 and prevalence of abnormal GLS was higher (36.5% versus 14.6%, p=0.004 in patients treated with mediastinal radiotherapy. Mediastinal radiotherapy was associated with reduced GLS (p=0.040 after adjusting for sex, age, and cumulative anthracycline dose. In adult survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer, 2DSTE frequently detects LV systolic dysfunction despite a normal LVEF and may be useful for the long-term cardiac surveillance of adult cancer survivors.

  17. Apoptotic study in Graves disease treated with thyroid arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Gao Bulang; Yi Genfa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis in the thyroid of Graves disease (GD) induced by thyroid arterial embolization. Forty one patients with clinically and laboratorily ascertained GD were treated with thyroid arterial embolization and followed up for 3-54 months following embolization. Prior to embolization and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months following embolization, thyroid autoimmune antibodies were tested respectively, including thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb). Thyroid biopsy was performed under the guidance of computed tomography for immunohistochemistry examination using semi-quantity analysis. The positive staining of Fas and FasL was mostly in the cytoplasma and cell membrane, the positive expression of Bax was mainly in the cytoplasma, and no positive expression of P53 was detected in the thyroid cells before embolization. After arterial embolziation, the positive cell number and staining degree of these genes were both greater than before embolization. The treatment method of thyroid arterial embolization can effectively enhance the positive expression of pro-apoptotic genes of Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and P53 in GD thyroid, thus promoting apoptosis of GD thyroid and helping restore the thyroid size and function to normal conditions. (author)

  18. Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley Souza [Clinica de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (CEPCEM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisa]. E-mail: pedrorosario@globo.com; Borges, Michelle A.R.; Costa, Graciela B.C.; Resende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L.; Barroso, Alvaro L.; Purish, Saulo [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tireoide. Servico de Endocrinologia; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2007-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of {sup 131}I. Patients and methods: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor {<=} 5 cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with {sup 131}I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied. Of these, 23 patients with detectable Tg on T4 (> 1 ng/ml) during the first year after initial therapy were selected. Results: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3. Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS. Eleven patients with negative US and CT received a new {sup 131}I dose (without DxWBS), and RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3 patients. Among the patients with negative RxWBS, 7 remained free of apparent disease and Tg was declining (5 with undetectable Tg on T4 at the end of the study). One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases. Conclusions: All patients with Tg on T4 > 5 ng/ml presented apparent disease. In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended. Among patients with detectable Tg on T4 {<=} 5 ng/ml and negative US and CT, only 12% presented ectopic uptake on RxWBS. These cases could be followed up by monitoring Tg on T4, and RxWBS and FDG-PET should only be performed if this marker does not decrease after 1-2 years. (author)

  19. Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley Souza; Borges, Michelle A.R.; Costa, Graciela B.C.; Resende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L.; Barroso, Alvaro L.; Purish, Saulo; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of 131 I. Patients and methods: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor ≤ 5 cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with 131 I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied. Of these, 23 patients with detectable Tg on T4 (> 1 ng/ml) during the first year after initial therapy were selected. Results: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3. Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS. Eleven patients with negative US and CT received a new 131 I dose (without DxWBS), and RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3 patients. Among the patients with negative RxWBS, 7 remained free of apparent disease and Tg was declining (5 with undetectable Tg on T4 at the end of the study). One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases. Conclusions: All patients with Tg on T4 > 5 ng/ml presented apparent disease. In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of 131 I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended. Among patients with detectable Tg on T4 ≤ 5 ng/ml and negative US and CT, only 12% presented ectopic uptake on RxWBS. These cases could be followed up by monitoring Tg on T4, and RxWBS and FDG-PET should only be performed if this marker does not decrease after 1-2 years. (author)

  20. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.

  1. Hürthle cell tumor dwelling in hot thyroid nodules: preoperative detection with technetium-99m-MIBI dual-phase scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Cintorino, M; Burroni, L; Volterrani, D; Vella, A; Lazzi, S

    1998-05-01

    Single injection dual-phase scintigraphy (early and late acquisitions) with 99mTc-MIBI was used to differentiate benign and malignant hot thyroid nodules. Thirteen euthyroid and two hyperthyroid patients displaying a hot thyroid nodule on the 99mTc scan due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) underwent early (15-30 min) and late (3-4 hr) thyroid scintigraphy after the administration of 740-1000 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Visual scoring was done to assess nodular tracer uptake and retention. In addition, the nodular-to-thyroid (N/T) uptake ratio in the early and late image and the washout rates (WO) from the nodule and thyroidal tissue were measured. All patients underwent thyroid surgery. Histopathology revealed a Hürthle cell tumor in three nodules, a benign adenoma with oxyphilic metaplasia in two nodules and a benign adenoma without oxyphilic cells in the remaining 10 nodules. The Hürthle cell tumor nodules displayed intense and persistent uptake of 99mTc-MIBI (N/T was 2.81 +/- 0.52 and 5.53 +/- 1.06 in early and late images, respectively; WO from the nodule was 12.33 +/- 0.47, WO from the thyroidal tissue was 22.00 +/- 3.56). The benign nodules showed intense uptake in the early image and intense uptake to absent retention in the late image (N/T was 2.94 +/- 1.31 and 1.62 +/- 0.50 in the early and late images, respectively; WO from the nodule was 20.25 +/- 2.92, WO from the thyroidal tissue was 20.33 +/- 2.92). Single injection dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of the thyroid with AFTN can identify nodules as a result of the activity of a Hürthle cell tumor, since these tumors cause intense and persistent tracer uptake in contrast with a benign AFTN.

  2. Thyroid Diseases and Treatment in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Aktaş

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of thyroid disease in pregnancy is important for gestational maternal health, obstetric outcome and, subsequent development of child. Pregnancy has pro­found effects on the regulation of thyroid function, and on thyroidal functional disorders, that need to be recognized, carefully evaluated and correctly managed. In women with normal thyroid function there is an increase in thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 production and inhibition of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy,. In the pregnant woman, elevated thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB and concomitant increases in total T4 and T3 levels plateau at 12-14 weeks of pregnancy, and free T4 measurements slowly decrease. The most frequent thyroid disorder in pregnancy is maternal hy­pothyroidism. It is associated with fetal loss, placental abruptions, preeclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Hyperthyroidism dur­ing pregnancy is relatively uncommon, with a prevalence estimated to range between 0.1% and 1%. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves disease, as this etiology accounts for 85% of clinical hyperthyroid­ism in pregnancy. Another cause of hyperthyroidism is hyperemesis gravidarum. This is common and requires differentiation from Graves disease. There has been much discussion and many publications on the optimal management of pregnant women who are hyperthyroid or hypothyroid. Despite the lack of consensus organiza­tions, which are based on analyses, support screening in all pregnant women in the first trimester for thyroid disease. In this article, we provide information about the current approaches of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 120-124

  3. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Akira; Murakami, Mineko; Hoya, Katsumi; Yamada, Shoko M.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Nishido, Hajime; Ide, Fuyuaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugaya, Mutsumi; Hirohata, Toshio; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Ishii, Yudo; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ishida, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  4. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  5. Cerebrovascular Accident due to Thyroid Storm: Should We Anticoagulate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gonzalez-Bossolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that occurs secondary to an uncontrolled hyperthyroid state. Atrial fibrillation is a cardiovascular complication occurring in up to 15% of patients experiencing thyroid storm, and if left untreated this condition could have up to a 25% mortality rate. Thyroid storm with stroke is a rare presentation. This case report details a left middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke with global aphasia and thyroid storm in a 53-year-old Hispanic male patient. Although uncommon, this combination has been reported in multiple case series. Although it is well documented that dysfunctional thyroid levels promote a hypercoagulable state, available guidelines from multiple entities are unclear on whether anticoagulation therapy is appropriate in this situation.

  6. Inflammation, coagulation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in prediabetes--Biomarkers as a possible tool for early disease detection for rural screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschirow, L; Khalaf, K; Al-Aubaidy, H A; Jelinek, H F

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to increase understanding of the connection between oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes disease progression to provide a basis for investigating improved diagnostic possibilities, treatment and prevention of prediabetes. Differences in the level of biochemical markers of oxidative stress (erythrocyte GSH/GSSG and urinary 8-isoprostane), inflammation (CRP, IL-6), endothelial dysfunction (plasma homocysteine, urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine) and coagulation/fibrinolysis (C5a, D-Dimer) were determined in prediabetes and control subjects. While no difference was found in the 8-isoprostane levels between the two groups, the erythrocyte GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly reduced in the prediabetes group compared to control, indicating increased oxidative stress in the prediabetic state. Both urinary 8-OHdG and surprisingly also plasma homocysteine were significantly elevated in the prediabetes group, indicating endothelial dysfunction. The inflammation markers were slightly elevated in the prediabetic subjects and the same trend was found for the coagulation/fibrinolysis markers C5a and D-Dimer. These results were however not significant. The small elevation of blood glucose levels in the prediabetic state may have a detectable influence on endothelial function as indicated by changes to 8-OHdG, indicating an increased DNA-damage and homocysteine release from endothelial cells. Increased oxidative stress as indicated by the reduced GSH/GSSG ratio is likely to be the link between the moderate hyperglycaemia in prediabetes and pathological changes in endothelial function, which in the long-term may promote atherogenesis and result in the development of cardiovascular disease. Early detection of prediabetes is essential to avoid diabetes development and the associated complications like cardiovascular disease. The GSH/GSSG ratio and biomarkers like urinary 8-OHdG and plasma homocysteine offer a possible tool for the assessment of prediabetes in

  7. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and ...

  8. Kcne2 deletion uncovers its crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roepke, Torsten K.; King, Elizabeth C.; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Paroder, Monika; Purtell, Kerry; Koba, Wade; Fine, Eugene; Lerner, Daniel J.; Carrasco, Nancy; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction affects 1?4% of the population worldwide, causing defects including neurodevelopmental disorders, dwarfism and cardiac arrhythmia. Here, we show that KCNQ1 and KCNE2 form a TSH-stimulated, constitutively-active, thyrocyte K+ channel required for normal thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Targeted disruption of Kcne2 impaired thyroid iodide accumulation up to 8-fold, impaired maternal milk ejection and halved milk T4 content, causing hypothyroidism, 50% reduced litter size, dwarf...

  9. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yulin; Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei; Yang Wei; Li Qingge

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ► The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ► method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L −1 and became 0.003 mIU L −1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L −1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  10. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  11. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  12. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  13. The immediate and late effects of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine) on murine coagulation gene transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Boelen, Anita; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Vlijmen, Bart J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is associated with changes in coagulation. The aim of our study was to gain more insight into the role of thyroid hormone in coagulation control. C57Black/6J mice received a low-iodine diet and drinking water supplemented with perchlorate to suppress endogenous triiodothyronine

  14. Effect of abnormal thyroid function on the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Mourits, M. P.; Koornneef, L.; Berghout, A.; van der Gaag, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many clinicians have the impression that treatment of thyroid dysfunction ameliorates ophthalmopathy in Graves' disease. The aim of our study was to relate thyroid function to the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy. We studied 90 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and Graves' hyperthyroidism in

  15. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenjia; Che, Kaijun; Wu, Vincent W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  16. Silencing of the Drosophila ortholog of SOX5 in heart leads to cardiac dysfunction as detected by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Airong; Ahsen, Osman O; Liu, Jonathan J; Du, Chuang; McKee, Mary L; Yang, Yan; Wasco, Wilma; Newton-Cheh, Christopher H; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Fujimoto, James G; Zhou, Chao; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2013-09-15

    The SRY-related HMG-box 5 (SOX5) gene encodes a member of the SOX family of transcription factors. Recently, genome-wide association studies have implicated SOX5 as a candidate gene for susceptibility to four cardiac-related endophenotypes: higher resting heart rate (HR), the electrocardiographic PR interval, atrial fibrillation and left ventricular mass. We have determined that human SOX5 has a highly conserved Drosophila ortholog, Sox102F, and have employed transgenic Drosophila models to quantitatively measure cardiac function in adult flies. For this purpose, we have developed a high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography imaging system, which enables rapid cross-sectional imaging of the heart tube over various cardiac cycles for the measurement of cardiac structural and dynamical parameters such as HR, dimensions and areas of heart chambers, cardiac wall thickness and wall velocities. We have found that the silencing of Sox102F resulted in a significant decrease in HR, heart chamber size and cardiac wall velocities, and a significant increase in cardiac wall thickness that was accompanied by disrupted myofibril structure in adult flies. In addition, the silencing of Sox102F in the wing led to increased L2, L3 and wing marginal veins and increased and disorganized expression of wingless, the central component of the Wnt signaling pathway. Collectively, the silencing of Sox102F resulted in severe cardiac dysfunction and structural defects with disrupted Wnt signaling transduction in flies. This implicates an important functional role for SOX5 in heart and suggests that the alterations in SOX5 levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple cardiac diseases or traits.

  17. Detection and prognostic impact of renal dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure and normal serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Passantino, Andrea; Lagioia, Rocco; Santoro, Daniela; Cacciapaglia, Erasmo

    2011-03-03

    Accurate identification of renal dysfunction (RD) is crucial to risk stratification in chronic heart failure (CHF). Patients with CHF are at special risk of having RD despite normal serum creatinine (SCr), owing to a decreased Cr generation. At low levels of SCr, the equations estimating renal function are less accurate. This study was aimed to assess and compare the prognostic value of formulas estimating renal function in CHF patients with normal SCr. We studied 462 patients with systolic CHF and normal SCr. Creatinine clearance was estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault (eCrCl) and glomerular filtration rate by the 4-variable MDRD equation (eGFR); eCrCl normalized for body-surface area (eCrCl(BSA)) was calculated. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 2 years. Seventy five patients died. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, only eCrCl(BSA) was significantly associated with mortality (p = 0.006); eGFR (p = 0.24), eCrCl (p = 0.09) and BUN (p = 0.14) were not statistically significant predictors. The patients in the lowest eCrCl(BSA) quartile had an adjusted 2.1-fold (CI: 1.06-4.1) increased risk of mortality, compared with those in the referent quartile. Two-year survival was 70.4% in the lowest eCrCl(BSA) quartile and 89.7% in the referent quartile. Other independent predictors of mortality were ischemic etiology (RR: 2.16 [CI: 1.3-3.5], p = 0.0017), NYHA III/IV class (RR: 2.45 [CI: 1.51-3.97], p = 0.0003), LVEF high-risk subgroup and can more accurately be identified by the CG formula corrected for BSA than the MDRD. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Thyroid Hormones on Leptin and Resistin Levels in Hyperthyroid Female Patients

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    Al-Hindawi Sahar H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis occurs due to excess release of thyroid hormone. These hormones regulate the body’s energy balance and have effects on adipokine level. There are several reports suggesting interrelation between adipokines (resistin and leptin with thyroid dysfunction. Objectives: This study was established to investigate the effect of thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism state on the level of some adipokines, leptin and resistin; in comparison with control. Patients and Methods: The present study included 50 Iraqi female patients with hyperthyroidism with age ranged between 30-58 years and 30 healthy controls with age ranged between 30-53 years. Serum samples were collected from study groups. The levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, T4 and T3 were determined by using automated Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA analysis system. Detection of leptin hormone and resistin hormone levels in the serum were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. Results: The results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly low (P<0.004 in hyperthyroid patient groups as compared to control, and there were significant negative correlations between T4 and leptin (P<0.0001; also, T3 and leptin (P<0.05. Resistin hormone level increased non-significantly (P˃0.05 than control level; and there was significant negative correlation between TSH and resistin (P<0.035. Conclusion: The study shows that there is complex interrelation between adipocytokines (leptin and resistin with thyroid gland and pituitary gland. Leptin levels were decreased in hyperthyroid patients than control and associated negatively with T4 and T3 levels, while resistin levels were increased non-significantly than control and associated negatively with TSH level. They affect each other in their physiological function in the human body.

  19. Central regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis: focus on clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, E; Boelen, A; van Trotsenburg, A S P

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamus is the most prominent brain region involved in setpoint regulation of the thyroid axis. It generates the diurnal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rhythm, and it plays a central role in the adaptation of the thyroid axis to environmental factors such as caloric deprivation or infection. Many studies, including studies in human post-mortem tissue samples, have confirmed a key role for the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neuron in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in thyroid axis regulation. In addition to their negative feedback action on TRH neurons in the hypothalamus, intrahypothalamic thyroid hormones can also modulate metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via the autonomic nervous system. Congenital or acquired dysfunction of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland may result in central hypothyroidism (CeH). In the Netherlands, the prevalence of permanent congenital CeH as detected by neonatal screening is approximately 1 in 18000. In most neonates congenital CeH is accompanied by additional anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, and many show clear morphological abnormalities such as a small anterior gland, a thin or absent pituitary stalk, or an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Recently, a mutation in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene was reported as a novel cause of X-linked, apparently isolated CeH occurring in neonates, children and adults. In adults, the most frequent cause of acquired CeH is a pituitary macroadenoma, usually accompanied by other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Central hyperthyroidism is a rare disorder, especially in children. In adults, it is mostly caused by a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thyroid antibody-negative euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy

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    Arshiya Tabasum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TSH receptor antibodies (TRAbs are the pathological hallmark of Graves’ disease, present in nearly all patients with the disease. Euthyroid Graves’ ophthalmopathy (EGO is a well-recognized clinical entity, but its occurrence in patients with negative TRAbs is a potential source of diagnostic confusion. A 66-year-old female presented to our endocrinology clinic with right eye pain and diplopia in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. TRAbs were negative, as measured with a highly sensitive third-generation thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII ELISA assay. CT and MRI scans of the orbit showed asymmetrical thickening of the inferior rectus muscles but no other inflammatory or malignant orbital pathology. Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical and radiological features, and she underwent surgical recession of the inferior rectus muscle with complete resolution of the diplopia and orbital pain. She remained euthyroid over the course of follow-up but ultimately developed overt clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism, 24 months after the initial presentation. By this time, she had developed positive TRAb as well as thyroid peroxidase antibodies. She responded to treatment with thionamides and remains euthyroid. This case highlights the potential for negative thyroid-specific autoantibodies in the presentation of EGO and underscores the variable temporal relationship between the clinical expression of thyroid dysfunction and orbital disease in the natural evolution of Graves’ disease.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  6. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  7. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  8. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging tests to: determine if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the ...

  14. Sarcoidosis and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Fazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies have shown a higher risk for subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, antithyroid autoantibodies [overall antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb], and in general, thyroid autoimmunity, overall in the female gender in patients with sarcoidosis (S. A significantly higher prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease was also described in female S patients with respect to controls. Gallium-67 (Ga-67 scyntigraphy in S patients, in the case of thyroid uptake, suggests the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. For this reason, ultrasonography and thyroid function should be done in the case of Ga-67 thyroid uptake. In conclusion, thyroid function, TPOAb measurement, and ultrasonography should be done to assess the clinical profile in female S patients, and the ones at high risk (female individuals, with TPOAb positivity, and hypoechoic and small thyroid should have periodically thyroid function evaluations and suitable treatments.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  16. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  17. Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cut out alcohol. Excess alcohol can contribute to erectile dysfunction. If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for men older than age 65, and up to two drinks ...

  18. [Thyroid and cardiovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-05-01

    In this study three problems concerning interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular system are discussed. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pleural effusion, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension may be consequences of thyroid disorders leading to inappropriate hormone secretion. During such illnesses as heart failure, myocardial infarction and in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery profound changes may occur in thyroid hormone metabolism known as sick euthyroid syndrome. Treatment with amiodarone may lead to changes in thyroid tests results and to development of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.

  19. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  20. Transoral videolaryngoscopic surgery for papillary carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Chisato; Shinomiya, Hirotaka; Fujii, Natsumi; Tsuruta, Tomoyuki; Morita, Naruhiko; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Teshima, Masanori; Kanzawa, Maki; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-15

    Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extremely rare entity accounting for only 1% of all reported ectopic thyroids. Here, we report a case of carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid, which has been successfully managed by transoral resection and bilateral neck dissections. A lingual mass 4-cm in diameter with calcification was incidentally detected by computed tomography at medical check-up. No thyroid tissue was observed in normal position. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral multiple lymphadenopathies. Fine needle aspiration biopsy from lymph node in his right neck was diagnosed as Class III and thyroglobulin level of the specimen was 459ng/ml. Due to the difficulty in performing FNA of the lingual masses, right neck dissection was performed in advance for diagnostic purpose. Pathological examination showed existence of large and small follicular thyroid tissues in several lymph nodes, suggesting lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma. Two months after the initial surgery, video-assisted transoral resection of lingual thyroid with simultaneous left neck dissection was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Papillary carcinoma was found in the lingual thyroid and thyroid tissues were also found in left cervical lymph nodes. Video-assisted transoral resection was useful for the treatment of thyroid cancer arising in lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THYROID LESIONS IN WARDHA DISTRICT OF CENTRAL INDIA

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    Samarth Shukla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To establish a significant predominance of thyroid lesions in and around Wardha district, and to establish specific etiological link for the predominance the thyroid lesions. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : This was a hospital based analytical prospective study, conducted in Acharya Vinobha Bhave Rural Hospital (A.V.B.R.H. involving 108 patients. The study was carried over a duration of 1 year January 2010 to December 2010. Patients attending endocrinological clinics and the newly detected cases of thyroid lesions, within set parameters of study, were the subjects of this study. OBSERVATION: Thyroid lesions which we came across in the course of the study were Thyrotoxicosis, Myxoedema, Thyroiditis, Diffuse goitre, Nodular Goitre and Carcinoma Thyroid . These were correlated with epidemiological factors like Age, Sex, Region, Diet and Iodine Intake. Significant relationship between thyroid function, age of patient, diet was seen in comparison to individual thyroid lesions. CONCLUSION : G oitre was the commest pathology encountered . Almost all of the thyroid lesions were of hypothyroid in their function with exception of thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma. Thyroid lesions were found predominantly in females, Age related lesion pathology was significant, and vegetarian and non - vegetarian diets along with low and high iodine salt uptake had obvious pathological effects on thyroid

  2. COEXISTENCE OF CARCINOMAS OF THYROID WITH MULTINODULAR GOITRES OF THYROID – A TWO-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar Epari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multinodular goitre or nodular hyperplasia or adenomatoid goitre is the most common thyroid disease, which occurs due to deficient iodine intake. Initial hyperthyroid states, followed by follicular atrophy and secondary changes like haemorrhage, calcification and cystic degeneration occurs in most of the cases. Longstanding cases of nodular goitre can be associated with carcinomas, usually follicular carcinomas, and rarely papillary carcinomas.[1] This study was done to know the incidence of coexisting malignancies, follicular and papillary carcinomas of thyroid, in longstanding nodular goitres of thyroid. METHODS All the cases of nodular goitres examined in the last two years were studied, including the thyroidectomy specimens and FNAC slides whichever was done. Extensive grossing of the thyroidectomy specimens was done to detect the possibility of malignancy in longstanding cases of nodular goitre of thyroid. Review of FNAC slides was done in cases where cytodiagnosis of coexisting malignancy was missed and detected in histopathological examination. RESULTS In the present study, conducted over a two-year period, out of 50 cases of thyroidectomy specimens of multinodular goitres studied, six cases were diagnosed to be having coexisting malignancy of thyroid, of which four were follicular carcinomas of thyroid and two were papillary carcinomas of thyroid. FNAC diagnosis of coexisting malignancy was initially missed in FNAC in two cases, i.e. one case each of follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. These FNAC slides were reviewed and the foci of malignancies detected. CONCLUSION There is a possibility of malignancy of thyroid coexisting with longstanding multinodular goitre of thyroid, which should be kept in mind, while performing the needle biopsy and thorough examination of FNAC slides is needed to avoid missing the possible detection of the coexisting malignant lesion. Thyroidectomy specimens should be extensively grossed to

  3. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India

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    Uma Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrinopathy of women in the reproductive age group seems to be adversely affected by associated thyroid dysfunction. Both pose independent risks of ovarian failure and pregnancy related complications. Aims: The present study from Eastern India is, therefore, aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of different thyroid disorders in PCOS subjects. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey-single centre observational case-control study. Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center study recruited 106 female patients with hypertrichosis and menstrual abnormality among which 80 patients were defined as having PCOS according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria and comprised the study population. Another 80 age-matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine levels (free T3 and free T4, anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab, clinical examination and ultrasound (USG of thyroid gland. Statistical Analysis Used: It was done by Student′s t-test and Chi-square test using appropriate software (SPSS version 19. Results: This case-control study revealed statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis, detected in 18 patients (22.5% vs. 1.25% of control as evidenced by raised anti-TPO antibody levels (means 28.037 ± 9.138 and 25.72 ± 8.27 respectively; P = 0.035. PCOS patients were found to have higher mean TSH level than that of the control group (4.547 ± 2.66 and 2.67 ± 3.11 respectively; P value < 0.05. There was high prevalence of goiter among PCOS patients (27.5% vs. 7.5% of control, P value < 0.001. On thyroid USG a significantly higher percentage of PCOS patients (12.5%; controls 2.5% had hypoechoic USG pattern also compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. Conclusions: High

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  5. Thyroid measurements of Iodine-125 workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.; Peggie, J.R.

    1979-02-01

    The accumulation of 125 I in the thyroid presents real hazards to workers who use this radionuclide. Recent assessments of the maximum permissible thyroid burden for 125 I have tended to be lower than those previously adopted. Workers using 125 I may receive small doses to a film badge monitor from external radiation while accumulating significant doses to the thyroid from internal contamination. It is therefore necessary to perform some form of thyroid monitoring on such workers. In the past two years the Australian Radiation Laboratory has monitored 125 I workers from six different institutations in the Melbourne area to determine the activity of 125 I in their thyroids. Most of the levels monitored were less than one tenth of the most recently recommended thyroid burden of 400 nanocurie. The highest levels were measured in workers who actually perform iodinations. Workers who handle the iodinate generally had lower levels than those performing the iodinations. Only a very small number of the workers measured were below the detectable limit of the system indicating that even when low activities of 125 I are handled in relatively stable forms it is still possible to accumulate 125 I in the thyroid

  6. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  7. Thyroid iodine content and serum thyroglobulin: cues to the natural history of destruction-induced thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallridge, R.C.; De Keyser, F.M.; Van Herle, A.J.; Butkus, N.E.; Wartofsky, L.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with destructive thyroiditis were followed to study the natural history of healing of thyroid gland injury. All had sequential measurements of thyroidal iodine [ 127 I] content by fluorescent scanning (normal mean, 10.1 mg), 17 had serial serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements (normal, less than 21 ng/ml), and 13 had perchlorate discharge studies during the recovery phase. Seventeen patients had painful subacute thyroiditis (SAT), 9 had painless thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PTT), and 2 had postpartum thyroiditis with thyrotoxicosis (PPT). Thyroidal iodine content decreased from a mean of 9.8 to a nadir of 3.8 mg in patients with SAT and from 8.5 to a nadir of 3.5 mg in patients with PTT. Mean serum Tg concentrations were highest (approximately 165 ng/ml) in both groups 1-3 months after the onset of symptoms. Abnormalities in both 127 I content and Tg levels persisted for 2 or more yr in some individuals. No patient had detectable Tg antibodies by hemagglutination, but low titers were detected intermittently by sensitive RIA in 5 PTT patients. Microsomal antibodies were positive in only 1 of 16 SAT patients, but in 4 of 7 PTT patients and in both PPT patients. Three patients had positive perchlorate discharge tests (2 of 8 with SAT, 0 of 4 with PTT, and 1 of 1 with PPT). Permanent hypothyroidism occurred in 3 patients (2 with PTT; 1 with SAT and positive antibodies), but did not correlate with perchlorate results. HLA typing and serum immunoglobulin measurements were not useful for predicting the clinical course. These data indicate that several years may be necessary for complete resolution of destructive thyroiditis; many patients have evidence of thyroid injury persisting long after serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels become normal

  8. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Thyroid imaging in goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since Cassen und Taylor and Stewart introduced 131 iodine scans of the thyroid, these have become an integral part of the routine diagnostic procedures for thyroid disease. Today 131 I is no longer used due to its excessive radioactivity; 123 iodine or 99m technetium are now preferred. Pitfalls in the use of 99m Tc are that in some thyroid disorders, such as certain forms of thyroid carcinomas and chronic thyroiditis, a normal iodine trapping (but not organification) may occur. This mechanism can lead to false conclusions. (orig.) [de