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Sample records for throughput antiviral drug

  1. Development and validation of a chemiluminescent immunodetection assay amenable to high throughput screening of antiviral drugs for Nipah and Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljofan, Mohamad; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne; Mungall, Bruce A

    2008-04-01

    There are currently no antiviral drugs approved for the highly lethal Biosafety Level 4 pathogens Nipah and Hendra virus. A number of researchers are developing surrogate assays amenable to Biosafety Level 2 biocontainment but ultimately, the development of a high throughput screening method for directly quantifying these viruses in a Biosafety Level 4 environment will be critical for final evaluation of antiviral drugs identified in surrogate assays, in addition to reducing the time required for effective antiviral drug development. By adapting an existing immunoplaque assay and using enzyme linked immunodetection in a microtitre plate format, the current experiments describe a simple two step assay protocol involving an overnight virus inoculation of Vero cell monolayers (with or without antiviral drug treatment) at Biosafety Level 4, followed by cell fixation and virus inactivation enabling removal of plates from the Biosafety Level 4 laboratory and a subsequent immunodetection assay using a chemiluminescent horse radish peroxidase substrate to be performed at Biosafety Level 2. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection) of this assay is 100 tissue culture infectious dose50/ml of either Nipah or Hendra virus. In addition this assay enables linear quantitation of virus over three orders of magnitude and is unaffected by dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations of 1% or less. Intra-assay coefficients of variation are acceptable (less than 20%) when detecting a minimum of 1000 tissue culture infectious dose50/ml of either virus although inter-assay variation is considerably greater. By an assessment of efficacies of the broad spectrum antiviral Ribavirin and an experimental fusion inhibitory peptide, this assay reveals a good correlation with previously published fluorescent immunodetection assays. The current experiments describe for the first time, a high throughput screening method amenable for direct assessment of live henipavirus antiviral drug activity.

  2. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  3. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    phogenic proteolysis is crucial for simple RNA viruses such as poliovirus and HIV, and also appears to play a central role in the assembly of more...al particles [14]; unidirectional packaging of bacteriophage T4 DNA [15]; completion of the infectious poliovirus virion in a flexible configuration...effects of an antiviral both in vitro and in vivo. Some viruses have not been adapted to grow in tissue culture cells or due to their genetic makeup are

  4. Design and development of antivirals and intervention strategies against human herpesviruses using high-throughput approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Julia; McGregor, Alistair

    2014-08-01

    Although a number of antiviral agents are licensed for treatment of some human herpesvirus (HHV) infections, effective antiviral therapy is not available for all HHVs. Additional complications are associated with approved drugs, such as toxicity and side effects, and rise in drug-resistant strains is a driving force for new drug development. Success in HHV vaccine development is limited with only vaccines against varicella-zoster virus currently in use in the clinic. In vitro, in vivo and in silico high-throughput (HTP) approaches and innovative microfluidic systems will provide novel technologies to efficiently identify and evaluate new targets and antiherpetic compounds. Coupled with HTP strategies for manipulation of herpesvirus viral genomes, these strategies will greatly accelerate the development of future antivirals as well as candidate vaccine intervention strategies. The authors provide a brief overview of the herpesvirus family and associated diseases. Further, the authors discuss the approved and investigational antiherpetic drugs in the context of current HTP technologies. HTP technology such as microfluidic systems is crucial for the identification and validation of novel drug targets and next-generation antivirals. Current drug development is limited by the unavailability of HTP preclinical model systems. Specific advancement in the development of HTP animal-specific technology, applied in parallel, allows a more rapid evaluation of drugs at the preclinical stage. The advancement of HTP combinatorial drug therapy, especially 'Organ-on-a-Chip' approaches, will aid in the evaluation of future antiviral compounds and intervention strategies.

  5. Can antiviral drugs contain pandemic influenza transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels G Becker

    Full Text Available Antiviral drugs dispensed during the 2009 influenza pandemic generally failed to contain transmission. This poses the question of whether preparedness for a future pandemic should include plans to use antiviral drugs to mitigate transmission.Simulations using a standard transmission model that allows for infected arrivals and delayed vaccination show that attempts to contain transmission require relatively few antiviral doses. In contrast, persistent use of antiviral drugs when the reproduction number remains above 1 use very many doses and are unlikely to reduce the eventual attack rate appreciably unless the stockpile is very large. A second model, in which the community has a household structure, shows that the effectiveness of a strategy of dispensing antiviral drugs to infected households decreases rapidly with time delays in dispensing the antivirals. Using characteristics of past pandemics it is estimated that at least 80% of primary household cases must present upon show of symptoms to have a chance of containing transmission by dispensing antiviral drugs to households. To determine data needs, household outbreaks were simulated with 50% receiving antiviral drugs early and 50% receiving antiviral drugs late. A test to compare the size of household outbreaks indicates that at least 100-200 household outbreaks need to be monitored to find evidence that antiviral drugs can mitigate transmission of the newly emerged virus.Use of antiviral drugs in an early attempt to contain transmission should be part of preparedness plans for a future influenza pandemic. Data on the incidence of the first 350 cases and the eventual attack rates of the first 200 hundred household outbreaks should be used to estimate the initial reproduction number R and the effectiveness of antiviral drugs to mitigate transmission. Use of antiviral drugs to mitigate general transmission should cease if these estimates indicate that containment of transmission is unlikely.

  6. New pathogenic viruses and novel antiviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; Eggink, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The journal Antiviral Research was conceived and born in 1980, and launched in 1981, a time when very few antiviral drugs were around. This 30-year celebration meeting was convened by the publisher Elsevier and chaired by Eric de Clercq (Leuven University), who has acted as editor-in-chief for the

  7. Highlights in antiviral drug research: antivirals at the horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-11-01

    This review highlights ten "hot topics" in current antiviral research: (i) new nucleoside derivatives (i.e., PSI-352938) showing high potential as a direct antiviral against hepatitis C virus (HCV); (ii) cyclopropavir, which should be further pursued for treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections; (iii) North-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT), with a N-locked conformation, showing promising activity against both α- and γ-herpesviruses; (iv) CMX001, an orally bioavailable prodrug of cidofovir with broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, including polyoma, adeno, herpes, and pox; (v) favipiravir, which is primarily pursued for the treatment of influenza virus infections, but also inhibits the replication of other RNA viruses, particularly (-)RNA viruses such as arena, bunya, and hanta; (vi) newly emerging antiarenaviral compounds which should be more effective (and less toxic) than the ubiquitously used ribavirin; (vii) antipicornavirus agents in clinical development (pleconaril, BTA-798, and V-073); (viii) natural products receiving increased attention as potential antiviral drugs; (ix) antivirals such as U0126 targeted at specific cellular kinase pathways [i.e., mitogen extracellular kinase (MEK)], showing activity against influenza and other viruses; and (x) two structurally unrelated compounds (i.e., LJ-001 and dUY11) with broad-spectrum activity against virtually all enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Antiviral activity of cationic amphiphilic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Parolin, Cristina; Baritussio, Aldo; Palù, Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral infections represent a major concern for human and veterinary public health and there is an urgent need for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. Areas covered: A recent strategy in antiviral research is based on the identification of molecules targeting host functions required for infection of multiple viruses. A number of FDA-approved drugs used to treat several human diseases are cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) that have the ability to accumulate inside cells affecting several structures/functions hijacked by viruses during infection. In this review we summarized the CADs' chemical properties and effects on the cells and reported the main FDA-approved CADs that have been identified so far as potential antivirals in drug repurposing studies. Expert commentary: Although there have been concerns regarding the efficacy and the possible side effects of the off-label use of CADs as antivirals, they seem to represent a promising starting point for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Further knowledge about their mechanism of action is required to improve their antiviral activity and to reduce the risk of side effects.

  9. 76 FR 62418 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory... enter through Building 1. Contact Person: Paul Tran, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  10. 75 FR 16151 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory... phone number is 301-589- 5200. Contact Person: Paul Tran, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (HFD...

  11. 77 FR 15110 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory... enter through Building 1. Contact Person: Yvette Waples, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food...

  12. 78 FR 56900 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory..., Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 31, Rm. 2417, Silver Spring, MD...

  13. 77 FR 17487 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 31, Rm. 2417, Silver...

  14. 76 FR 14027 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory... liver disease who are previously untreated or who have failed previous therapy. Compensated liver...

  15. 76 FR 14026 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Antiviral Drugs Advisory... who are previously untreated or who have failed previous therapy. Compensated liver disease is a stage...

  16. 78 FR 57166 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug...

  17. Antiviral drug resistance of herpes simplex virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stranska, Ruzena

    2004-01-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) usually have an asymptomatic or benign course. However, severe infections do occur, particularly in HIV/AIDS patients or transplant recipients, and may be life-threatening unless adequate antiviral therapy is given. Since its introduction in the early

  18. Aminoadamantanes versus other antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph

    2014-01-01

    months after the end of treatment) in approximately 40% to 80% of treated patients, depending on viral genotype. Recently, a new class of drugs have emerged for hepatitis C infection, the direct acting antivirals, which in combination with standard therapy or alone can lead to sustained virological...... response in 80% or more of treated patients. Aminoadamantanes, mostly amantadine, are antiviral drugs used for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We have previously systematically reviewed amantadine versus placebo or no intervention and found no significant effects of the amantadine...... on all-cause mortality or liver-related morbidity and on adverse events in patients with hepatitis C. Overall, we did not observe a significant effect of amantadine on sustained virological response. In this review, we systematically review aminoadamantanes versus other antiviral drugs. OBJECTIVES...

  19. INVESTMENT IN ANTIVIRAL DRUGS : A REAL OPTIONS APPROACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, Arthur E.; Lugner, Anna K.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2010-01-01

    Real options analysis is a promising approach to model investment under uncertainty. We employ this approach to value stockpiling of antiviral drugs as a precautionary measure against a possible influenza pandemic. Modifications of the real options approach to include risk attitude and deviations

  20. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge Cg

    2014-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release 'danger-associated molecular patterns' that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy.

  1. Systems Biology-Based Investigation of Cellular Antiviral Drug Targets Identified by Gene-Trap Insertional Mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixiong Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses require host cellular factors for successful replication. A comprehensive systems-level investigation of the virus-host interactome is critical for understanding the roles of host factors with the end goal of discovering new druggable antiviral targets. Gene-trap insertional mutagenesis is a high-throughput forward genetics approach to randomly disrupt (trap host genes and discover host genes that are essential for viral replication, but not for host cell survival. In this study, we used libraries of randomly mutagenized cells to discover cellular genes that are essential for the replication of 10 distinct cytotoxic mammalian viruses, 1 gram-negative bacterium, and 5 toxins. We herein reported 712 candidate cellular genes, characterizing distinct topological network and evolutionary signatures, and occupying central hubs in the human interactome. Cell cycle phase-specific network analysis showed that host cell cycle programs played critical roles during viral replication (e.g. MYC and TAF4 regulating G0/1 phase. Moreover, the viral perturbation of host cellular networks reflected disease etiology in that host genes (e.g. CTCF, RHOA, and CDKN1B identified were frequently essential and significantly associated with Mendelian and orphan diseases, or somatic mutations in cancer. Computational drug repositioning framework via incorporating drug-gene signatures from the Connectivity Map into the virus-host interactome identified 110 putative druggable antiviral targets and prioritized several existing drugs (e.g. ajmaline that may be potential for antiviral indication (e.g. anti-Ebola. In summary, this work provides a powerful methodology with a tight integration of gene-trap insertional mutagenesis testing and systems biology to identify new antiviral targets and drugs for the development of broadly acting and targeted clinical antiviral therapeutics.

  2. NEOGLYCOPROTEINS AS CARRIERS FOR ANTIVIRAL DRUGS - SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN DRUG CONJUGATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Grietje; Jansen, Robert W.; Visser, Jan; Herdewijn, Piet; Moolenaar, Frits; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    In order to investigate whether neoglycoproteins can potentially act as carriers for targeting of antiviral drugs to certain cell types in the body, various neoglycoproteins were synthesized using thiophosgene-activated p-aminophenyl sugar derivatives. These neoglycoproteins were conjugated with the

  3. Detection of the antiviral drug oseltamivir in aquatic environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Söderström

    Full Text Available Oseltamivir (Tamiflu is the most important antiviral drug available and a cornerstone in the defence against a future influenza pandemic. Recent publications have shown that the active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC, is not degraded in sewage treatment plants and is also persistent in aquatic environments. This implies that OC will be present in aquatic environments in areas where oseltamivir is prescribed to patients for therapeutic use. The country where oseltamivir is used most is Japan, where it is used to treat seasonal flu. We measured the levels of OC in water samples from the Yodo River system in the Kyoto and Osaka prefectures, Japan, taken before and during the flu-season 2007/8. No OC was detected before the flu-season but 2-58 ng L(-1 was detected in the samples taken during the flu season. This study shows, for the first time, that low levels of oseltamivir can be found in the aquatic environment. Therefore the natural reservoir of influenza virus, dabbling ducks, is exposed to oseltamivir, which could promote the evolution of viral resistance.

  4. SOME ASPECTS OF THE MARKETING STUDIES FOR THE PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET OF ANTIVIRAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Salnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral drugs are widely used in medicinal practice. They suppress the originator and stimulate the protection of an organism. The drugs are used for the treatment of flu and ARVI, herpetic infections, virus hepatitis, HIV-infection. Contemporary pharmaceutical market is represented by a wide range of antiviral drugs. Marketing studies are conducted to develop strategies, used for the enhancement of pharmacy organization activity efficiency. Conduction of the marketing researches of pharmaceutical market is the purpose of this study. We have used State Registry of Drugs, State Record of Drugs, List of vital drugs, questionnaires of pharmaceutical workers during our work. Historical, sociological, mathematical methods, and a method of expert evaluation were used in the paper. As the result of the study we have made the following conclusions. We have studied and generalized the literature data about classification and application of antiviral drugs, marketing, competition. The assortment of antiviral drugs on the pharmaceutical market of the Russian Federation was also studied. We have conducted an analysis for the obtainment of the information about antiviral drugs by pharmaceutical workers. We have determined the competitiveness of antiviral drugs, and on the basis of the research conducted we have submitted an offer for pharmaceutical organizations to form the range of antiviral drugs.

  5. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drooping of a corner of the mouth • Difficulty smiling, frowning, or making other facial expressions • Twitching or ... no definite added improvement. If there is any benefit to adding an antiviral to steroid treatment, it ...

  6. Mathematical modeling of multi-drugs therapy: a challenge for determining the optimal combinations of antiviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshiki; Iwami, Shingo

    2014-09-25

    In the current era of antiviral drug therapy, combining multiple drugs is a primary approach for improving antiviral effects, reducing the doses of individual drugs, relieving the side effects of strong antiviral drugs, and preventing the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. Although a variety of new drugs have been developed for HIV, HCV and influenza virus, the optimal combinations of multiple drugs are incompletely understood. To optimize the benefits of multi-drugs combinations, we must investigate the interactions between the combined drugs and their target viruses. Mathematical models of viral infection dynamics provide an ideal tool for this purpose. Additionally, whether drug combinations computed by these models are synergistic can be assessed by two prominent drug combination theories, Loewe additivity and Bliss independence. By combining the mathematical modeling of virus dynamics with drug combination theories, we could show the principles by which drug combinations yield a synergistic effect. Here, we describe the theoretical aspects of multi-drugs therapy and discuss their application to antiviral research.

  7. The majority of hepatitis C patients treated with direct acting antivirals are at risk for relevant drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Elise J; Berden, Floor Ac; de Kanter, Clara Tmm; Kievit, Wietske; Drenth, Joost Ph; Burger, David M

    2017-08-01

    Direct-acting antivirals have improved treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection significantly. Direct-acting antivirals inhibit/induce and can also be substrates of drug-metabolising enzymes and transporters. This increases the risk for drug-drug interactions. The purpose of this study was to predict drug-drug interactions with co-medication used by hepatitis C virus-infected patients. We assembled a nationwide cohort of hepatitis C patients and collected cross-sectional data on co-medication use. We compiled a list of currently available direct-acting antiviral regimens and cross-checked for potential drug-drug interactions with used co-medication. The cohort included 461 patients of which 77% used co-medication. We identified 260 drugs used as co-medication. Antidepressants (7.4%), proton pump inhibitors (7.1%) and benzodiazepines (7.1%) were most frequently used. Of the patients, 60% were at risk for a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction with at least one of the direct-acting antiviral regimens. Interactions were most common with paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir and least interactions were predicted with grazoprevir/elbasvir. Co-medication use is rich in frequency and diversity in chronic hepatitis C patients. The majority of patients are at risk for drug-drug interactions which may affect efficacy or toxicity of direct-acting antivirals or co-medication. The most recently introduced direct-acting antivirals are associated with a lower risk of drug-drug interactions.

  8. High throughput electrophysiology: new perspectives for ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J; Bech, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Proper function of ion channels is crucial for all living cells. Ion channel dysfunction may lead to a number of diseases, so-called channelopathies, and a number of common diseases, including epilepsy, arrhythmia, and type II diabetes, are primarily treated by drugs that modulate ion channels....... A cornerstone in current drug discovery is high throughput screening assays which allow examination of the activity of specific ion channels though only to a limited extent. Conventional patch clamp remains the sole technique with sufficiently high time resolution and sensitivity required for precise and direct...... characterization of ion channel properties. However, patch clamp is a slow, labor-intensive, and thus expensive, technique. New techniques combining the reliability and high information content of patch clamping with the virtues of high throughput philosophy are emerging and predicted to make a number of ion...

  9. Efficacy of Antiviral Drugs against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin; Wooding, Anita; Bergmann, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is one of the most common infectious agents affecting cats worldwide .FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share many properties: both are lifelong persistent lentiviruses that are similar genetically and morphologically and both viruses propagate in T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neural cells. Experimentally infected cats have measurable immune suppression, which sometimes progresses to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A transient initial state of infection is followed by a long latent stage with low virus replication and absence of clinical signs. In the terminal stage, both viruses can cause severe immunosuppression. Thus, FIV infection in cats has become an important natural model for studying HIV infection in humans, especially for evaluation of antiviral compounds. Of particular importance for chemotherapeutic studies is the close similarity between the reverse transcriptase (RT) of FIV and HIV, which results in high in vitro susceptibility of FIV to many RT-targeted antiviral compounds used in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of studies on antiviral treatment of FIV, focusing on commercially available compounds for human or animal use. PMID:29061953

  10. Efficacy of Antiviral Drugs against Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hartmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is one of the most common infectious agents affecting cats worldwide .FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV share many properties: both are lifelong persistent lentiviruses that are similar genetically and morphologically and both viruses propagate in T-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neural cells. Experimentally infected cats have measurable immune suppression, which sometimes progresses to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A transient initial state of infection is followed by a long latent stage with low virus replication and absence of clinical signs. In the terminal stage, both viruses can cause severe immunosuppression. Thus, FIV infection in cats has become an important natural model for studying HIV infection in humans, especially for evaluation of antiviral compounds. Of particular importance for chemotherapeutic studies is the close similarity between the reverse transcriptase (RT of FIV and HIV, which results in high in vitro susceptibility of FIV to many RT-targeted antiviral compounds used in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Thus, the aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of studies on antiviral treatment of FIV, focusing on commercially available compounds for human or animal use.

  11. A recombinant, infectious human parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein for use in high-throughput antiviral assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason P.; Li, Joseph K.-K.; Smee, Donald F.; Morrey, John D.; Barnard, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to rescue an infectious, recombinant, negative-stranded, RNA virus from a cDNA clone, has led to new opportunities for measuring viral replication from a viral expressed reporter gene. In this study, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was inserted into the human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3) antigenome and a recombinant, infectious virus was rescued. Maximum EGFP expression levels, measured by fluorescence, were seen at day 3. Comparison of a three-day, viral expressed EGFP fluorescence assay to a seven-day, neutral red assay, based on complete cell destruction in virus infected MA-104 cells, yielded Z′-factor values of 0.83 and 0.70, respectively. A three-day, endpoint EGFP-based antiviral assay and a seven-day, endpoint neutral red based antiviral assay were run in parallel to establish antiviral sensitivity profiles of 23 compounds based on selective index (SI) values. Using an SI threshold of 10, the EGFP-based antiviral assay had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 54%. Thus, the use of an EGFP-based antiviral assay for testing potential antiviral compounds against HPIV-3 in a high-throughput format may be justified. PMID:19189850

  12. Tracking TCRβ sequence clonotype expansions during antiviral therapy using high-throughput sequencing of the hypervariable region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Robinson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a persistent infection viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV employ a range of mechanisms that subvert protective T cell responses. The suppression of antigen-specific T cell responses by HCV hinders efforts to profile T cell responses during chronic infection and antiviral therapy. Conventional methods of detecting antigen-specific T cells utilise either antigen stimulation (e.g. ELISpot, proliferation assays, cytokine production or antigen-loaded tetramer staining. This limits the ability to profile T cell responses during chronic infection due to suppressed effector function and the requirement for prior knowledge of antigenic viral peptide sequences. Recently high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies have been developed for the analysis of T cell repertoires. In the present study we have assessed the feasibility of HTS of the TCRβ complementarity determining region (CDR3 to track T cell expansions in an antigen-independent manner. Using sequential blood samples from HCV-infected individuals undergoing anti-viral therapy we were able to measure the population frequencies of >35,000 TCRβ sequence clonotypes in each individual over the course of 12 weeks. TRBV/TRBJ gene segment usage varied markedly between individuals but remained relatively constant within individuals across the course of therapy. Despite this stable TRBV/TRBJ gene segment usage, a number of TCRβ sequence clonotypes showed dramatic changes in read frequency. These changes could not be linked to therapy outcomes in the present study however the TCRβ CDR3 sequences with the largest fold changes did include sequences with identical TRBV/TRBJ gene segment usage and high joining region homology to previously published CDR3 sequences from HCV-specific T cells targeting the HLA-B*0801-restricted 1395HSKKKCDEL1403 and HLA-A*0101–restricted 1435ATDALMTGY1443 epitopes. The pipeline developed in this proof of concept study provides a platform for the design of

  13. High-throughput protein crystallography and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Ian; Sharff, Andrew; Vinkovic, Mladen; Yon, Jeff; Jhoti, Harren

    2004-10-20

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction is the technique of choice for studying the interactions of small organic molecules with proteins by determining their three-dimensional structures; however the requirement for highly purified protein and lack of process automation have traditionally limited its use in this field. Despite these shortcomings, the use of crystal structures of therapeutically relevant drug targets in pharmaceutical research has increased significantly over the last decade. The application of structure-based drug design has resulted in several marketed drugs and is now an established discipline in most pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore, the recently published full genome sequences of Homo sapiens and a number of micro-organisms have provided a plethora of new potential drug targets that could be utilised in structure-based drug design programs. In order to take maximum advantage of this explosion of information, techniques have been developed to automate and speed up the various procedures required to obtain protein crystals of suitable quality, to collect and process the raw X-ray diffraction data into usable structural information, and to use three-dimensional protein structure as a basis for drug discovery and lead optimisation. This tutorial review covers the various technologies involved in the process pipeline for high-throughput protein crystallography as it is currently being applied to drug discovery. It is aimed at synthetic and computational chemists, as well as structural biologists, in both academia and industry, who are interested in structure-based drug design.

  14. Origin, diversity and maturation of human antiviral antibodies analyzed by high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponraj ePrabakaran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how antibodies are generated and function could help develop effective vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics against viruses such as HIV-1, SARS Coronavirus (CoV, and Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs against the HIV-1 were observed in patients, elicitation of such bnAbs remains a major challenge when compared to other viral targets. We previously hypothesized that HIV-1 could have evolved a strategy to evade the immune system due to absent or very weak binding of germline antibodies to the conserved epitopes that may not be sufficient to initiate and/or maintain an effective immune response. To further explore our hypothesis, we used the 454 sequence analysis of a large naïve library of human IgM antibodies which had been used for selecting antibodies against SARS Coronavirus (CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD, and soluble G proteins (sG of Hendra and Nipah viruses (henipaviruses. We found that the human IgM repertoires from the 454 sequencing have diverse germline usages, recombination patterns, junction diversity and a lower extent of somatic mutation. In this study, we identified germline intermediates of antibodies specific to HIV-1 and other viruses as observed in normal individuals, and compared their genetic diversity and somatic mutation level along with available structural and functional data. Further computational analysis will provide framework for understanding the underlying genetic and molecular determinants related to maturation pathways of antiviral bnAbs that could be useful for applying novel approaches to the design of effective vaccine immunogens and antibody-based therapeutics.

  15. Design Features of Drug-Drug Interaction Trials Between Antivirals and Oral Contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Ruben C; Arya, Vikram; Younis, Islam R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the major design features of drug-drug interaction trials between antiviral medications (AVs) and oral contraceptives (OCs). Information on these trials (n = 27) was collected from approved drug labels and clinical pharmacology reviews conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The primary objective of all trials was to evaluate changes in OC exposure following the coadministration of AVs. In addition, an evaluation of potential pharmacodynamic interaction was performed in 10 of these trials. Twenty-two trials were open label with a fixed-sequence design, and 5 trials used a double-blind crossover design. The trials were conducted using one, two, or three 28-day ovulatory cycles in 10, 8, and 9 trials, respectively. Only 1 trial enrolled HIV-infected women. The median number of women in a trial was 20 (range, 12 to 52). Norethindrone/ethinyl estradiol (EE) combination was the most commonly used OC (n = 16, 59%) followed by norgestimate/EE (n = 9, 33%). Labeling recommendations were based on exposure changes in 25 cases and on safety observations in the trial in 2 cases. In conclusion, a wide variety of trial designs was used, and there is no preferred design. The answer to the exposure question can be achieved using multiple designs. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Antiviral Drugs: A Way to Overcome Their Active Efflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dalpiaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several viruses can easily infect the central nervous system (CNS, antiviral drugs often show dramatic difficulties in penetrating the brain from the bloodstream since they are substrates of active efflux transporters (AETs. These transporters, located in the physiological barriers between blood and the CNS and in macrophage membranes, are able to recognize their substrates and actively efflux them into the bloodstream. The active transporters currently known to efflux antiviral drugs are P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 or P-gp or MDR1, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (ABCC1 or MRP1, ABCC4 or MRP4, ABCC5 or MRP5, and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2 or BCRP. Inhibitors of AETs may be considered, but their co-administration causes serious unwanted effects. Nasal administration of antiviral drugs is therefore proposed in order to overcome the aforementioned problems, but innovative devices, formulations (thermoreversible gels, polymeric micro- and nano-particles, solid lipid microparticles, nanoemulsions, absorption enhancers (chitosan, papaverine, and mucoadhesive agents (chitosan, polyvinilpyrrolidone are required in order to selectively target the antiviral drugs and, possibly, the AET inhibitors in the CNS. Moreover, several prodrugs of antiretroviral agents can inhibit or elude the AET systems, appearing as interesting substrates for innovative nasal formulations able to target anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV agents into macrophages of the CNS, which are one of the most important HIV Sanctuaries of the body.

  17. Investment decisions in influenza pandemic contingency planning : cost-effectiveness of stockpiling antiviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugner, Anna K.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The threat of an influenza pandemic has led to stockpiling of antiviral drugs in order to mitigate a plausible outbreak. If the stockpile would be used in relation to the recent pandemic alert, an investment decision about renewing the stock for a possible subsequent pandemic is

  18. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  19. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  20. Caulerpin as a potential antiviral drug against herpes simplex virus type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Regina Porto Vieira Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available About 80% of the human adult population is infected with HSV-1. Although there are many anti-HSV-1 drugs available (acyclovir, ganciclovir, valaciclovir, foscarnet, their continuous use promotes the selection of resistant strains, mainly in ACV patients. In addition to resistance, the drugs also have toxicity, particularly when administration is prolonged. The study of new molecules isolated from green algae with potential antiviral activity represents a good opportunity for the development of antiviral drugs. Caulerpin, the major product from the marine algae Caulerpa Lamouroux (Caulerpales, is known for its biological activities such as antioxidant, antifungal, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChE and antibacterial activity. In this work, we show that caulerpin could be an alternative to acyclovir as an anti-HSV-1 drug that inhibits the alpha and beta phases of the replication cycle.

  1. High throughput miniature drug-screening platform using bioprinting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Dévora, Jorge I; Reyna, Daniel; Xu Tao; Zhang Bimeng; Shi Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, new drugs are tested to find appropriate compounds for therapeutic purposes for contemporary diseases. Unfortunately, novel compounds emerge at expensive prices and current target evaluation processes have limited throughput, thus leading to an increase of cost and time for drug development. This work shows the development of the novel inkjet-based deposition method for assembling a miniature drug-screening platform, which can realistically and inexpensively evaluate biochemical reactions in a picoliter-scale volume at a high speed rate. As proof of concept, applying a modified Hewlett Packard model 5360 compact disc printer, green fluorescent protein expressing Escherichia coli cells along with alginate gel solution have been arrayed on a coverslip chip under a repeatable volume of 180% ± 26% picoliters per droplet; subsequently, different antibiotic droplets were patterned on the spots of cells to evaluate the inhibition of bacteria for antibiotic screening. The proposed platform was compared to the current screening process, validating its effectiveness. The viability and basic function of the printed cells were evaluated, resulting in cell viability above 98% and insignificant or no DNA damage to human kidney cells transfected. Based on the reduction of investment and compound volume used by this platform, this technique has the potential to improve the actual drug discovery process at its target evaluation stage. (paper)

  2. Dominant drug targets suppress the emergence of antiviral resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Liu, Hong-mei; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark; Collett, Marc S; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Treating a viral infection with a drug sometimes has an unwanted side effect?the virus quickly becomes resistant to the drug. Viruses whose genetic information is encoded in molecules of RNA mutate faster than DNA viruses and are particularly good at developing resistance to drugs. This is because the process of copying the RNA is prone to errors, and by chance some of these errors, or mutations, may allow the virus to resist the drug's effects. Treating viral infections with mos...

  3. Filovirus proteins for antiviral drug discovery: Structure/function bases of the replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Baptiste; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2017-05-01

    Filoviruses are important pathogens that cause severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans, for which no approved vaccines and antiviral treatments are yet available. In an earlier article (Martin et al., Antiviral Research, 2016), we reviewed the role of the filovirus surface glycoprotein in replication and as a target for drugs and vaccines. In this review, we focus on recent findings on the filovirus replication machinery and how they could be used for the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new antiviral compounds. First, we summarize the recent structural and functional advances on the molecules involved in filovirus replication/transcription cycle, particularly the NP, VP30, VP35 proteins, and the "large" protein L, which harbors the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and mRNA capping activities. These proteins are essential for viral mRNA synthesis and genome replication, and consequently they constitute attractive targets for drug design. We then describe how these insights into filovirus replication mechanisms and the structure/function characterization of the involved proteins have led to the development of new and innovative antiviral strategies that may help reduce the filovirus disease case fatality rate through post-exposure or prophylactic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DOMESTIC SPECTRUM OF ANTIVIRAL DRUG — UMIFENOVIR AS ETIOTROPIC THERAPY OF INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osidak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are presented the results of comparative observation of the effectiveness of the inclusion in the complex therapy of 203 hospitalized children aged 2 years and older with influenza А(Н1N1pdm09 domestic antiviral drug — Umifenovir  (Arbidol that occurred during the epidemic seasons 2009—2013 and 2015—2016 in terms of observational clinical studies.  It is shown  that this drug, possessing a wide spectrum of antiviral activity, including against Oseltamivir — and Zanamivir-resistant influenza virus strains, antioxidant activity and low toxicity (Code ATX Ј05АХ13, can be successfully used in the treatment of infants with influenza А(Н1N1pdm09.

  5. Dynamics of an HBV Model with Drug Resistance Under Intermittent Antiviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ben-Gong; Tanaka, Gouhei; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi; Chen, Luonan

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) model and the therapy regimens of HBV disease. First, we propose a new mathematical model of HBV with drug resistance, and then analyze its qualitative and dynamical properties. Combining the clinical data and theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that our model is biologically plausible and also computationally viable. Second, we demonstrate that the intermittent antiviral therapy regimen is one of the possible strategies to treat this kind of complex disease. There are two main advantages of this regimen, i.e. it not only may delay the development of drug resistance, but also may reduce the duration of on-treatment time compared with the long-term continuous medication. Moreover, such an intermittent antiviral therapy can reduce the adverse side effects. Our theoretical model and computational results provide qualitative insight into the progression of HBV, and also a possible new therapy for HBV disease.

  6. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  7. Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Bichurina, M.A.; Sovetova, M.; Boikov, Y.A.

    showed 66 ? 84% survival 3 . Administration of extract of mussel in mice, both intranasal and oral, gave signif i cant Table 1. Result of neutralization reaction with fragments of chicken embryo (VCA) with six different e x tracts... in elderly persons. The present investigatio ns showed that marine an i mals have great potential for developing useful drugs. Extra c- tion of important biologically - active compounds from marine resources will certainly be helpful in pr o tecting...

  8. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways.

  9. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Price, R.W.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Fox, J.J.; Su, T.L.; Watanabe, K.A.; Philips, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-ν-D-arabinosyluracil (FMAU) labeled with carbon-14 was used to image herpes simplex virus type 1-infected regions of rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. FMAU is a potent antiviral pyrimidine nucleoside which is selectively phosphorylated by virus-coded thymidine kinase. When the labeled FMAU was administered 6 hours before the rats were killed, the selective uptake and concentration of the drug and its metabolites by infected cells (defined by immunoperoxidase staining of viral antigens) allowed quantitative definition and mapping of HSV-1-infected structures in autoradiograms of brain sections. These results shown that quantitative autoradiography can be used to characterize the local metabolism of antiviral drugs by infected cells in vivo. They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man

  10. Identification of several high-risk HPV inhibitors and drug targets with a novel high-throughput screening assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart Toots

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are oncogenic viruses that cause numerous different cancers as well as benign lesions in the epithelia. To date, there is no effective cure for an ongoing HPV infection. Here, we describe the generation process of a platform for the development of anti-HPV drugs. This system consists of engineered full-length HPV genomes that express reporter genes for evaluation of the viral copy number in all three HPV replication stages. We demonstrate the usefulness of this system by conducting high-throughput screens to identify novel high-risk HPV-specific inhibitors. At least five of the inhibitors block the function of Tdp1 and PARP1, which have been identified as essential cellular proteins for HPV replication and promising candidates for the development of antivirals against HPV and possibly against HPV-related cancers.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of novel influenza A (H1N1 in antiviral drug users in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghi Choi

    Full Text Available Soon after the first novel influenza A (H1N1 death was documented in Korea on August 15, 2009, prompt treatment with antiviral drugs was recommended when an infection was suspected. Free antiviral drugs were distributed to patients who met the case definition in the treatment guidelines, and patients prescribed the antiviral drugs were included in the Antiviral Drug Surveillance System (ADSS. A total of 2,825,821 patients were reported to the ADSS from September 1 to December 31, 2009. Odds ratios were calculated to compare the risks of severe diseases, as indicated by general hospital admissions or intensive care unit (ICU admissions according to demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and behavioral factors. Approximately 6% of the total population received antiviral drugs during the study period. Of these, 2,709,611 (95.9% were outpatients, 114,840 (4.06% were hospitalized, and 1,370 (0.05% were admitted to the ICU. Children aged 0-9 yr accounted for 33.94% of all reported cases, whereas only 3.89% of the patients were ≥ 60 yr. The estimated incidence of novel influenza A (H1N1 during the pandemic was 5.68/100 of all reported cases. Mortality due to influenza A (H1N1 during the pandemic was 0.33/100,000, with the highest mortality of 1.31/100,000 for patients aged ≥ 60 years. Severe pandemic H1N1 influenza was associated with the presence of one or more underlying medical conditions in elderly aged ≥ 60 years and with lower economic status. Moreover, influenza A (H1N1 appeared to be age-specific in terms of mortality. Although the incidence and admission rates of influenza A (H1N1 were higher in younger age groups, fatal cases were much more likely to occur in the elderly (≥ 60 years. In contrast to earlier influenza A (H1N1 reports, the risks of a severe outcome were elevated among those who were underweight (body mass index < 18.5 kg/m(2.

  12. Advances in research and development of new drugs for antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Yanhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is one of the major disease burdens worldwide. At present, the antiviral therapy for hepatitis B includes interferons and nucleos(tide analogues. Current therapeutic regimens based on these drugs cannot significantly increase the proportion of patients with functional cure. With a better understanding of HBV replication cycle and specific virus-host cell interactions, this article summarizes and reviews the advances in the research and development of new drugs for HBV with a focus on different action targets during the above processes.

  13. Immunological and pathogenic properties of poliovirus variants selected for resistance to antiviral drug V-073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouiavskaia, Diana V; Dragunsky, Eugenia M; Liu, Hong-Mei; Oberste, M Steven; Collett, Marc S; Chumakov, Konstantin M

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council has recommended development of polio antiviral drugs to assist in management of outbreaks and to mitigate adverse consequences of vaccination. V-073 is a small molecule poliovirus capsid inhibitor that is being developed for these purposes. Antiviral use raises the potential of treatment-emergent resistance. Understanding virological consequences of resistance is important. Six independent laboratory-derived V-073-resistant poliovirus variants were characterized for their ability to be neutralized by conventional vaccine-induced immune sera, to elicit serum neutralizing antibodies upon CD-1 mouse immunization, and to replicate in and to cause paralysis of TgPVR21 mice. V-073-resistant variants were effectively neutralized by oral poliovirus vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine human immune sera. All variants elicited virus neutralizing antibody titres in CD-1 mice that were comparable to drug-susceptible parental and Sabin vaccine strain viruses. Infection efficiency of TgPVR21 mice by variants was comparable to (1 of 6 variants) or considerably lower than (5 of 6 variants) parental viruses. Drug-resistant variants replicated to levels comparable to (1 of 6 variants) or substantially less than (5 of 6 variants) their drug-susceptible parental viruses and were on average 1.4 log(10) (range 0.3 to >2.8 log₁₀) less neurovirulent. Laboratory-derived V-073-resistant variants exhibit clear attenuation of pathogenic properties while maintaining immunological features of drug-susceptible viruses.

  14. Letermovir and inhibitors of the terminase complex: a promising new class of investigational antiviral drugs against human cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melendez DP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dante P Melendez,1,2 Raymund R Razonable1,2 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2William J von Liebig Center for Transplantation and Clinical Regeneration, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Infection with cytomegalovirus is prevalent in immunosuppressed patients. In solid organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, cytomegalovirus infection is associated with high morbidity and preventable mortality. Prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus with currently approved antiviral drugs is often associated with side effects that sometimes preclude their use. Moreover, cytomegalovirus has developed mutations that confer resistance to standard antiviral drugs. During the last decade, there have been calls to develop novel antiviral drugs that could provide better options for prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus. Letermovir (AIC246 is a highly specific antiviral drug that is currently undergoing clinical development for the management of cytomegalovirus infection. It acts by inhibiting the viral terminase complex. Letermovir is highly potent in vitro and in vivo against cytomegalovirus. Because of a distinct mechanism of action, it does not exhibit cross-resistance with other antiviral drugs. It is predicted to be active against strains that are resistant to ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir. To date, early-phase clinical trials suggest a very low incidence of adverse effects. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on letermovir, from its postulated novel mechanism of action to the results of most recent clinical studies. Keywords: cytomegalovirus, letermovir, AIC246, terminase, antivirals, transplantation 

  15. A High Throughput In Vivo Model for Testing Delivery and Antiviral Effects of siRNAs in Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promise of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in antiviral therapy, few in vivo studies of them as inhibitors of viral replication and disease have been published, a lack that is most probably due to problems with obtaining successful delivery. Here we introduce a novel in vivomodel...... composed of small juvenile rainbow trout and a fish pathogenic virus to analyze the delivery and antiviral effects of formulated siRNAs. Intraperitoneally (IP) injected siRNAs formulated in polycationic liposomes, and to a lesser degree naked siRNAs, primarily entered free IP cells, including macrophage......-like cells. Uptake in these cells correlated with antiviral activity, seen as reduced mortality of virus-challenged fish. However, protection at the disease level was not dependent upon which of three tested siRNAs was used, and protection correlated with up-regulation of an interferon (IFN)-related gene...

  16. Utility of humanized BLT mice for analysis of dengue virus infection and antiviral drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Staheli, Natalia; Dorner, Marcus; Marukian, Svetlana; Billerbeck, Eva; Labitt, Rachael N; Rice, Charles M; Ploss, Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of a potentially life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The lack of a small animal model that mimics the symptoms of DENV infection in humans has slowed the understanding of viral pathogenesis and the development of therapies and vaccines. Here, we investigated the use of humanized "bone marrow liver thymus" (BLT) mice as a model for immunological studies and assayed their applicability for preclinical testing of antiviral compounds. Human immune system (HIS) BLT-NOD/SCID mice were inoculated intravenously with a low-passage, clinical isolate of DENV-2, and this resulted in sustained viremia and infection of leukocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. In addition, DENV infection increased serum cytokine levels and elicited DENV-2-neutralizing human IgM antibodies. Following restimulation with DENV-infected dendritic cells, in vivo-primed T cells became activated and acquired effector function. An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of DENV decreased the circulating viral RNA when administered simultaneously or 2 days postinfection, simulating a potential treatment protocol for DENV infection in humans. In summary, we demonstrate that BLT mice are susceptible to infection with clinical DENV isolates, mount virus-specific adaptive immune responses, and respond to antiviral drug treatment. Although additional refinements to the model are required, BLT mice are a suitable platform to study aspects of DENV infection and pathogenesis and for preclinical testing of drug and vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Infection with dengue virus remains a major medical problem. Progress in our understanding of the disease and development of therapeutics has been hampered by the scarcity of small animal models. Here, we show that humanized mice, i.e., animals engrafted with components of a human immune system, that were infected with a patient-derived dengue virus strain developed clinical symptoms of the disease and mounted

  17. Hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase - Target of current antiviral therapy and future drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel N; Hu, Jianming

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections rely on the proper functioning of the viral polymerase enzyme, a specialized reverse transcriptase (RT) with multiple activities. All currently approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, except for interferon, target the RT and belong to the same chemical class - they are all nucleoside analogs. Viral DNA synthesis is carried out by the RT enzyme in several different steps, each with distinct RT conformational requirements. In principle, each stage may be targeted by distinct antiviral drugs. In particular, the HBV RT has the unique ability to initiate viral DNA synthesis using itself as a protein primer in a novel protein priming reaction. In order to help identify RT inhibitors and study their mechanisms of action, a number of experimental systems have been developed, each varying in its ability to dissect the protein priming stage and subsequent stages of viral DNA synthesis at the molecular level. Two of the most effective drugs to date, entecavir and tenofovir, can inhibit both the protein priming and the subsequent DNA elongation stages of HBV DNA synthesis. Interestingly, clevudine, a thymidine analog, can inhibit both protein priming and DNA elongation in a non-competitive manner and without being incorporated into the viral DNA. Thus, a nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) can functionally mimic a non-NRTI (NNRTI) in its inhibition of the HBV RT. Therefore, novel NRTIs as well as NNRTIs may be developed to inhibit the DNA synthesis activity of the HBV RT. Furthermore, additional activities of the RT that are also essential to HBV replication, including specific recognition of the viral RNA and its packaging into viral nucleocapsids, may be exploited for antiviral development. To achieve a more potent inhibition of viral replication and ultimately cure chronic HBV infection, the next generation of anti-HBV therapies will likely need to include NRTIs, NNRTIs, and other agents that target the viral RT as

  18. Identification of a broad-spectrum antiviral small molecule against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses by using a novel high-throughput screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Fan, Jilao; Haddad, Christine S; Ratia, Kiira; Broder, Christopher C; Caffrey, Michael; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2014-04-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses are members of different viral families and are known causative agents of fatal viral diseases. These viruses depend on cathepsin L for entry into their target cells. The viral glycoproteins need to be primed by protease cleavage, rendering them active for fusion with the host cell membrane. In this study, we developed a novel high-throughput screening assay based on peptides, derived from the glycoproteins of the aforementioned viruses, which contain the cathepsin L cleavage site. We screened a library of 5,000 small molecules and discovered a small molecule that can inhibit the cathepsin L cleavage of all viral peptides with minimal inhibition of cleavage of a host protein-derived peptide (pro-neuropeptide Y). The small molecule inhibited the entry of all pseudotyped viruses in vitro and the cleavage of SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein in an in vitro cleavage assay. In addition, the Hendra and Nipah virus fusion glycoproteins were not cleaved in the presence of the small molecule in a cell-based cleavage assay. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the small molecule is a mixed inhibitor of cathepsin L. Our broad-spectrum antiviral small molecule appears to be an ideal candidate for future optimization and development into a potent antiviral against SARS-CoV and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses. We developed a novel high-throughput screening assay to identify small molecules that can prevent cathepsin L cleavage of viral glycoproteins derived from SARS-CoV and Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses that are required for their entry into the host cell. We identified a novel broad-spectrum small molecule that could block cathepsin L-mediated cleavage and thus inhibit the entry of pseudotypes bearing the glycoprotein derived from SARS-CoV or Ebola, Hendra, or Nipah virus. The small molecule can be further optimized and developed into a potent broad-spectrum antiviral drug.

  19. Utility of Humanized BLT Mice for Analysis of Dengue Virus Infection and Antiviral Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Staheli, Natalia; Dorner, Marcus; Marukian, Svetlana; Billerbeck, Eva; Labitt, Rachael N.; Rice, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of a potentially life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The lack of a small animal model that mimics the symptoms of DENV infection in humans has slowed the understanding of viral pathogenesis and the development of therapies and vaccines. Here, we investigated the use of humanized “bone marrow liver thymus” (BLT) mice as a model for immunological studies and assayed their applicability for preclinical testing of antiviral compounds. Human immune system (HIS) BLT-NOD/SCID mice were inoculated intravenously with a low-passage, clinical isolate of DENV-2, and this resulted in sustained viremia and infection of leukocytes in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs. In addition, DENV infection increased serum cytokine levels and elicited DENV-2-neutralizing human IgM antibodies. Following restimulation with DENV-infected dendritic cells, in vivo-primed T cells became activated and acquired effector function. An adenosine nucleoside inhibitor of DENV decreased the circulating viral RNA when administered simultaneously or 2 days postinfection, simulating a potential treatment protocol for DENV infection in humans. In summary, we demonstrate that BLT mice are susceptible to infection with clinical DENV isolates, mount virus-specific adaptive immune responses, and respond to antiviral drug treatment. Although additional refinements to the model are required, BLT mice are a suitable platform to study aspects of DENV infection and pathogenesis and for preclinical testing of drug and vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE PMID:24335303

  20. Drug-class specific impact of antivirals on the reproductive capacity of HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max von Kleist

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Predictive markers linking drug efficacy to clinical outcome are a key component in the drug discovery and development process. In HIV infection, two different measures, viral load decay and phenotypic assays, are used to assess drug efficacy in vivo and in vitro. For the newly introduced class of integrase inhibitors, a huge discrepancy between these two measures of efficacy was observed. Hence, a thorough understanding of the relation between these two measures of drug efficacy is imperative for guiding future drug discovery and development activities in HIV. In this article, we developed a novel viral dynamics model, which allows for a mechanistic integration of the mode of action of all approved drugs and drugs in late clinical trials. Subsequently, we established a link between in vivo and in vitro measures of drug efficacy, and extract important determinants of drug efficacy in vivo. The analysis is based on a new quantity-the reproductive capacity-that represents in mathematical terms the in vivo analog of the read-out of a phenotypic assay. Our results suggest a drug-class specific impact of antivirals on the total amount of viral replication. Moreover, we showed that the (drug-target half life, dominated by immune-system related clearance processes, is a key characteristic that affects both the emergence of resistance as well as the in vitro-in vivo correlation of efficacy measures in HIV treatment. We found that protease- and maturation inhibitors, due to their target half-life, decrease the total amount of viral replication and the emergence of resistance most efficiently.

  1. A method for evaluating antiviral drug susceptibility of Epstein-Barr virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Romain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte A Romain1, Henry H Balfour Jr1,2, Heather E Vezina1,3, Carol J Holman11Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: We developed an in vitro Epstein-Barr virus (EBV drug susceptibility assay using P3HR1 cells or lymphoblastoid cells from subjects with infectious mononucleosis, which were grown in the presence of various concentrations of acyclovir (ACV, ganciclovir (GCV or R-9-[4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethylbutyl]guanine (H2G and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA. On day 7, total cellular DNA was extracted and EBV DNA was detected using an in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. All three drugs had in vitro activity against EBV in both the laboratory standard producer cell line P3HR1 and in subject-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines. The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s in P3HR1 cells were: ACV, 3.4 μM; GCV, 2.6 μM; and H2G, 2.7 μM and in 3 subject-derived cells were: ACV, 2.5 μM; GCV, 1.7 μM; and H2G, 1.9 μM. Our assay can be used to screen candidate anti-EBV drugs. Because we can measure the IC50 of patients’ strains of EBV, this assay may also be useful for monitoring viral resistance especially in immunocompomised hosts receiving antiviral drugs for prevention or treatment of EBV diseases.Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus, ganciclovir, acyclovir, valomaciclovir, H2G, antivirals

  2. New Approaches for Quantitating the Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by Antiviral Drugs in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Moira A.; Shen, Lin; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review With highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-1 infection has become a manageable lifelong disease. Developing optimal treatment regimens requires understanding how to best measure anti-HIV activity in vitro and how drug dose response curves generated in vitro correlate with in vivo efficacy. Recent findings Several recent studies have indicated that conventional multi-round infectivity assays are inferior to single cycle assays at both low and high levels of inhibition. Multi-round infectivity assays can fail to detect subtle but clinically significant anti-HIV activity. The discoveries of the anti-HIV activity of the hepatitis B drug entecavir and the herpes simplex drug acyclovir were facilitated by single round infectivity assays. Recent studies using a single round infectivity assay have shown that a previously neglected parameter, the dose response curve slope, is an extremely important determinant of antiviral activity. Some antiretroviral drugs have steep slopes that result in extraordinary levels of antiviral activity. The instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP), the log reduction in infectivity in a single round assay at clinical drug concentrations, has been proposed as a novel index for comparing antiviral activity. Summary Among in vitro measures of antiviral activity, single round infection assays have the advantage of measure instantaneous inhibition by a drug. Re-evaluating the antiviral activity of approved HIV-1 drugs has shown that the slope parameter is an important factor in drug activity. Determining the IIP by using a single round infectivity assay may provide important insights that can predict the in vivo efficacy of anti-HIV-1 drugs. PMID:19841584

  3. High-Throughput Cytochrome P450 Cocktail Inhibition Assay for Assessing Drug-Drug and Drug-Botanical Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nikolic, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Detection of drug-drug interactions is essential during the early stages of drug discovery and development, and the understanding of drug-botanical interactions is important for the safe use of botanical dietary supplements. Among the different forms of drug interactions that are known, inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes is the most common cause of drug-drug or drug-botanical interactions. Therefore, a rapid and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based in vitro high-throughput P450 cocktail inhibition assay was developed that uses 10 substrates simultaneously against nine CYP isoforms. Including probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and two probes targeting different binding sites of CYP3A4/5, this cocktail simultaneously assesses at least as many P450 enzymes as previous assays while remaining among the fastest due to short incubation times and rapid analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated using known inhibitors of each P450 enzyme and then shown to be useful not only for single-compound testing but also for the evaluation of potential drug-botanical interactions using the botanical dietary supplement licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) as an example. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. The Use of Antiviral Drugs for Influenza: Guidance for Practitioners 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Y Aoki

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza in 2012/2013 is predicted to be caused by two human influenza A and one influenza B strain, all of which are anticipated to remain generally susceptible to oseltamivir.The predicted strains are A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 pdm09-like, A/Victoria/361/2011 (H3N2-like and B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like (Yamagata lineage. All are included in the seasonal influenza vaccine and are susceptible to oseltamivir.Swine-variant H3N2v, which has rarely caused infection in humans exposed to infected swine within the past year in the United States, is susceptible to oseltamivir. It is not included in the current seasonal influenza vaccine.It is still considered that initiation of antiviral therapy more than 36 h to 48 h after onset of symptoms is beneficial in patients hospitalized with complicated influenza and severe illness.Oseltamivir continues to be recommended for the treatment of influenza in pregnant women.The use of antiviral drugs among measures to control outbreaks of influenza in closed facilities such as correctional institutions is now included in the present document.

  5. Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export of influenza A nucleoprotein and nuclear export protein as a novel target for antiviral drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Mano, Takafumi; Kakisaka, Michinori; Sato, Hirotaka; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Osamu; Yokoyama, Masaru; Sato, Hironori; Aida, Yoko

    2017-07-01

    An anti-influenza compound, DP2392-E10 based on inhibition of the nuclear export function of the viral nucleoprotein-nuclear export signal 3 (NP-NES3) domain was successfully identified by our previous high-throughput screening system. Here, we demonstrated that DP2392-E10 exerts its antiviral effect by inhibiting replication of a broad range of influenza A subtypes. In regard to the molecular mechanism, we revealed that DP2392-E10 inhibits nuclear export of both viral NP and nuclear export protein (NEP). More specifically, in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DP2392-E10 directly binds cellular CRM1, which mediates nuclear export of NP and NEP. In silico docking suggested that DP2392-E10 binds at a region close to the HEAT9 and HEAT10 domains of CRM1. Together, these results indicate that the CRM1-mediated nuclear export function of influenza virus represents a new potential target for antiviral drug development, and also provide a core structure for a novel class of inhibitors that target this function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simple fluorimetric method for determination of certain antiviral drugs via their oxidation with cerium (IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Khedr, Alaa S; Askal, Hassan F; Mahmoud, Ramadan M

    2005-01-01

    A simple and sensitive fluorimetric method for determination of antiviral drugs: ribavirin, acyclovir, and amantadine hydrochloride has been developed. The method was based on the oxidation of these drugs by cerium(IV) in presence of perchloric acid and subsequent monitoring the fluorescence of the induced cerium(III) at lambdaexcitation 255 and lambdaemission 355 nm. Different variables affecting the reaction conditions such as the concentrations of cerium(IV), type and concentration of acid medium, reaction time, temperature, and the diluting solvents were carefully studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9978-0.9996) were found between the relative fluorescence intensity and the concentrations of the investigated drugs in the range of 50-1400 ng ml-1. The assay limits of detection and quantitation were 20-49, and 62-160 ng ml-1, respectively. The precision of the method was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 1.58%. No interference could be observed from the excipients commonly present in dosage forms. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the investigated drugs in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision; the recovery percentages ranged from 99.2 to 101.2+/-0.48-1.30%. The results obtained by the proposed fluorimetric method were comparable with those obtained by the official method stated in the United States Pharmacopoeia.

  7. Antiviral Drug-Resistant Influenza B Viruses Carrying H134N Substitution in Neuraminidase, Laos, February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Ketmayoon, Pakapak; Sisouk, Thongchanh; Chomlasack, Khampheng; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Nguyen, Ha Thuy; Mishin, Vasiliy P; Marjuki, Henju; Barnes, John R; Garten, Rebecca J; Stevens, James; Wentworth, David E; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2017-04-01

    In February 2016, three influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses exhibiting 4- to 158-fold reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors were detected in Laos. These viruses had an H134N substitution in the neuraminidase and replicated efficiently in vitro and in ferrets. Current antiviral drugs may be ineffective in controlling infections caused by viruses harboring this mutation.

  8. Restrictions for reimbursement of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral drugs for HCV infection in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Alison D.; Cunningham, Evan B.; Nielsen, Stine; Aghemo, Alessio; Alho, Hannu; Backmund, Markus; Bruggmann, Philip; Dalgard, Olav; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Flisiak, Robert; Foster, Graham R.; Gheorghe, Liana; Goldberg, David; Goulis, Ioannis; Hickman, Matthew; Hoffmann, Patrick; Jancorienė, Ligita; Jarcuska, Peter; Kåberg, Martin; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Makara, Mihály; Maimets, Matti; Marinho, Rui Tato; Matičič, Mojca; Norris, Suzanne; Ólafsson, Sigurður; Øvrehus, Anne; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Pocock, James; Robaeys, Geert; Roncero, Carlos; Simonova, Marieta; Sperl, Jan; Tait, Michele; Tolmane, Ieva; Tomaselli, Stefan; van der Valk, Marc; Vince, Adriana; Dore, Gregory J.; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Grebely, Jason

    2018-01-01

    All-oral direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus, which have response rates of 95% or more, represent a major clinical advance. However, the high list price of DAAs has led many governments to restrict their reimbursement. We reviewed the availability of, and national criteria

  9. Modified human serum albumins as carriers for the specific delivery of antiviral drugs to liver- and blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robert Walter

    1992-01-01

    The general goal of this study, was to determine the possibility of a targeted delivery of antiviral drugs to their site of action. We decided to focus on two viral diseases; HIV and Hepatitis B, that replicate in T,-lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and hepatocytes respectively. The specific aims

  10. Synthesis and Antiviral Evaluation of 6-(Trifluoromethylbenzyl) and 6-(Fluorobenzyl) Analogues of HIV Drugs Emivirine and GCA-186

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Brollosy, Nasser R.; Sørensen, Esben R.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerreg.

    2008-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis and antiviral evaluation of a series of novel 6-(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl) and 6-(fluorobenzyl) analogues of the HIV drugs emivirine and GCA-186. The objective was to investigate whether the fluoro or trifluoromethyl substituents could lead to an improved ...

  11. Design and evaluation of novel interferon lambda analogs with enhanced antiviral activity and improved drug attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Debin Yu,1 Mingzhi Zhao,2 Liwei Dong,1 Lu Zhao,1 Mingwei Zou,3 Hetong Sun,4 Mengying Zhang,4 Hongyu Liu,4 Zhihua Zou1 1National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 2State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, National Engineering Research Center for Protein Drugs, Beijing Proteome Research Center, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 4Prosit Sole Biotechnology, Co., Ltd., Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Type III interferons (IFNs (also called IFN-λ: IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, IFN-λ3, and IFN-λ4 are critical players in the defense against viral infection of mucosal epithelial cells, where the activity of type I IFNs is weak, and unlike type I IFNs that are associated with severe and diverse side effects, type III IFNs cause minimal side effects due to the highly restricted expression of their receptors, and thus appear to be promising agents for the treatment and prevention of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral infection. However, the antiviral potency of natural type III IFNs is weak compared to type I and, although IFN-λ3 possesses the highest bioactivity among the type III IFNs, IFN-λ1, instead of IFN-λ3, is being developed as a therapeutic drug due to the difficulty to express IFN-λ3 in the prokaryotic expression system. Here, to develop optimal IFN-λ molecules with improved drug attributes, we designed a series of IFN-λ analogs by replacing critical amino acids of IFN-λ1 with the IFN-λ3 counterparts, and vice versa. Four of the designed analogs were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with high yield and were easily purified from inclusion bodies. Interestingly, all four analogs showed potent activity in inducing the

  12. Boosting immunity by antiviral drug therapy: A simple relationship among timing, efficacy, and success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L.; Barnes, Eleanor; Klenerman, Paul; Wodarz, Dominik

    2003-02-01

    Drug therapies against persistent human infections such as hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and HIV fail to consistently eradicate the infection from the host. Hence, recent emphasis has shifted to the study of antiviral therapy aimed at boosting specific immune responses. It was argued that structured therapy interruptions were required to achieve this, because such regimes have shown promising results in early HIV infection. Using mathematical models, we show that, contrary to this notion, a single phase of drug therapy can result in the establishment of sustained immunity. We present a simple relationship between timing of therapy and efficacy of the drugs required for success. In the presence of strong viral suppression, we show that therapy should be stopped relatively early, and that a longer duration of treatment leads to failure. On the other hand, in the presence of weaker viral suppression, stopping treatment too early is detrimental, and therapy has to be continued beyond a time threshold. We discuss our modeling results primarily in the context of HCV therapy during chronic infection. Although the therapy regimes explored here also have implications for HIV, virus-mediated destruction of specific immune cells renders success unlikely during the chronic phase of the infection.

  13. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ([14C]FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional [14C]FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application

  14. Nanomedicine formulations for the delivery of antiviral drugs: a promising solution for the treatment of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Argenziano, Monica; Cavalli, Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Viral infections represent a public health problem and one of the leading causes of global mortality. Nanomedicine strategies can be considered a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of antiviral drugs, often associated with solubility and bioavailability issues. Consequently, high doses and frequent administrations are required, resulting in adverse side effects. To overcome these limitations, various nanomedicine platforms have been designed. Areas covered: This review focuses on the state of the art of organic-based nanoparticles for the delivery of approved antivirals. A brief description of the main characteristics of nanocarriers is followed by an overview of the most promising research addressing the treatment of most important viral infections. Expert opinion: The activity of antiviral drugs could be improved with nanomedicine formulations. Indeed, nanoparticles can affect the fate of the encapsulated drugs, allowing controlled release kinetics, enhanced bioavailability, modified pharmacokinetics, and reduced side effects. In addition, the physicochemical properties of nanocarriers can enable their capability to target specific sites and to interact with virus structures. In this regard, nanomedicines can be considered an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic index of antivirals. Efficacy, safety, and manufacturing issues need to be carefully assessed to bring this promising approach to the clinic.

  15. Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives: a new class of antiviral drugs against Mayaro virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Raquel; de Meneses, Marcelo Damião Ferreira; Borges, Julio Cesar; da Silva Pinheiro, Luiz Carlos; Caldas, Lucio Ayres; Cirne-Santos, Claudio Cesar; de Mello, Marcos Vinícius Palmeira; de Souza, Alessandra Mendonça Teles; Castro, Helena Carla; de Palmer Paixão, Izabel Christina Nunes; Campos, Renata de Mendonça; Bergmann, Ingrid E; Malirat, Viviana; Bernardino, Alice Maria Rolim; Rebello, Moacyr Alcoforado; Ferreira, Davis Fernandes

    2017-06-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arthropod-borne virus and a member of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Its infection leads to an acute illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia. To date, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines against infection with MAYV and resources for the prevention or treatment of other alphaviruses are very limited. MAYV has served as a model to study the antiviral potential of several substances on alphavirus replication. In this work we evaluated the antiviral effect of seven new derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine against MAYV replication in a mammalian cell line. All derivatives were able to reduce viral production effectively at concentrations that were non-toxic for Vero cells. Molecular modeling assays predicted low toxicity risk and good oral bioavailability of the substances in humans. One of the molecules, selected for further study, demonstrated a strong anti-MAYV effect at early stages of replication, as it protected pre-treated cells and also during the late stages, affecting virus morphogenesis. This study is the first to demonstrate the antiviral effect of thienopyridine derivatives on MAYV replication in vitro, suggesting the potential application of these substances as antiviral molecules against alphaviruses. Additional in vivo research will be needed to expand the putative therapeutic applications.

  16. High frequency of antiviral drug resistance and non-b subtypes in HIV-1 patients failing antiviral therapy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Alemán, Yoan; Pérez, Lissette; Pérez, Jorge; Fonseca, Carlos; Correa, Consuelo; Aragonés, Carlos; Campos, Jorge; Alvarez, Delmis; Schrooten, Yoeri; Vinken, Lore; Limia, Celia; Soto, Yudira; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance may limit the sustained benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in settings with limited laboratory monitoring and drug options. The objective is to implement the surveillance of drug resistance and subtypes in HIV-1 patients failing ART in Cuba. This study compiled clinical and genotypic drug resistance data 588 ART-experienced HIV-1 patients attending a clinical center in Havana in 2009-2013. Drug resistance testing was performed as part of routine clinical care. Drug resistance mutations and levels were determined using Rega version 8.0.2. Eighty-three percent received solely ART containing at least three drugs. Patients from 2009 to 2010 were longer treated (median: 4.9 vs 2.7 years) and exposed to more ART regimens (median: 4 vs 2 regimens) compared to patients from 2011-2013. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside RTI (NNRTI) and PI mutations were present in 83.5, 77.4 and 52.0%. Full-class resistance (FCR) to NRTI, NNRTI, PI and multidrug resistance (MDR) were detected in 25.0, 33.7, 11.4 and 6.3%. FCR to NRTI, NNRTI, PI and MDR were present in 12.8, 28.7, 0 and 0% after first-line failure (164 patients) and in 23.1, 34.6, 3.8 and 3.1% after second-line failure (130 patients). Subtype B (32.5%), BG recombinants (19.6%) and CRF19_cpx (16.2%) were the most prevalent genetic forms. Subtype distribution did not change significantly between 2009-2010 and 2011-2013, except for BG recombinants that increased from 12.2 to 21.3% (p=0.002). Our study found a high prevalence of drug resistance and supports the need for appropriate laboratory monitoring in clinical practice and access to drug options in case of virological failure.

  17. High Throughput Screening Methodologies Classified for Major Drug Target Classes According to Target Signaling Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, J.; Lingeman, H.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Irth, H.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, many different high throughput screening technologies and subsequently follow-up methodologies have been developed. All of these can be categorized, for example according to measurement of analyte classes, assay mechanisms, readout principles, or screening of drug target classes.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Three Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates and Their Susceptibility to Antiviral Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is one of the most common swine pathogens that cause severe economic losses to the pig industry worldwide irrespective of the use of live or inactivated vaccines. This study aims to investigate the biological characteristics of three PRRSV isolates and their susceptibility to two antiviral drugs. Sequence analysis of the NSP2 gene classified two isolates as highly pathogenic (isolates FY and ZS and one as classically pathogenic (isolate JX. Isolate FY grew faster than the other two isolates in MARC-145 cells; however, its RNA replication was lower than isolate ZS. By contrast, isolate JX exhibited slower growth and lower RNA replication capability. PRRSV infection suppressed the production of interferon β induced by poly (I:C. The viruses also differed in their susceptibility to antiviral drugs. Ribavirin exerted potent antiviral activity against all three viral isolates at concentrations of 7.5 and 15 μg/mL in MARC-145 cells. Acyclovir was found effective only on the classically pathogenic isolate. We suggest that ribavirin could have potential as an antiviral therapy for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome when vaccination is not able to provide effective protection.

  19. Development of specific dengue virus 2'-O- and N7-methyltransferase assays for antiviral drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, K; Sallamand, C; Petzold, C; Coutard, B; Collet, A; Thillier, Y; Zimmermann, J; Vasseur, J-J; Canard, B; Rohayem, J; Debart, F; Decroly, E

    2013-09-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 carries two mRNA cap methyltransferase (MTase) activities involved in the synthesis of a cap structure, (7Me)GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA, at the 5'-end of the viral mRNA. The methylation of the cap guanine at its N7-position (N7-MTase, (7Me)GpppA-RNA) is essential for viral replication. The development of high throughput methods to identify specific inhibitors of N7-MTase is hampered by technical limitations in the large scale synthesis of long capped RNAs. In this work, we describe an efficient method to generate such capped RNA, GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA₇₄, by ligation of two RNA fragments. Then, we use GpppA(2'OMe)-RNA₇₄ as a substrate to assess DENV N7-MTase activity and to develop a robust and specific activity assay. We applied the same ligation procedure to generate (7Me)GpppA-RNA₇₄ in order to characterize the DENV 2'-O-MTase activity specifically on long capped RNA. We next compared the N7- and 2'-O-MTase inhibition effect of 18 molecules, previously proposed to affect MTase activities. These experiments allow the validation of a rapid and sensitive method easily adaptable for high-throughput inhibitor screening in anti-flaviviral drug development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of electrolysis for inactivation of an antiviral drug that is one of possible selection pressure to drug-resistant influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hirose, Jun; Wu, Hong; Sano, Kouichi; Katsumata, Takahiro; Tsujibo, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The recent development of antiviral drugs has led to concern that the release of the chemicals in surface water due to expanded medical use could induce drug-resistant mutant viruses in zoonosis. Many researchers have noted that the appearance of an oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®))-resistant avian influenza mutant virus, which may spread to humans, could be induced by oseltamivir contamination of surface water. Although past studies have reported electrolysis as a possible method for degradation of antineoplastics and antibacterials in water, the validity of the method for treatment of antiviral drugs is unknown. In this study, electrolysis was used to degrade an antiviral prodrug, oseltamivir, and a stable active form, oseltamivir carboxylate, and the degradation process was monitored with HPLC-UV and the neuraminidase inhibitory assay. HPLC-UV-detectable oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate were decomposed by electrolysis within 60 min, and inhibitory activity of neuraminidase decreased below the detection limit of the assay used. Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity were not detected in electrolyzed fluid. These results indicate that electrolysis is a possible treatment for inactivation of the antiviral drug oseltamivir. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Critical Subset Model Provides a Conceptual Basis for the High Antiviral Activity of Major HIV Drugs**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Rabi, S. Alireza; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Shan, Liang; Lai, Jun; Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Control of HIV-1 replication was first achieved with regimens that included a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a protease inhibitor (PI); however, an explanation for the high antiviral activity of these drugs has been lacking. Indeed, conventional pharmacodynamic measures like IC50 (drug concentration causing 50% inhibition) do not differentiate NNRTIs and PIs from less active nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Drug inhibitory potential depends on the slope of the dose-response curve (m), which represents how inhibition increases as a function of increasing drug concentration and is related to the Hill coefficient, a measure of intramolecular cooperativity in ligand binding to a multivalent receptor. Although NNRTIs and PIs bind univalent targets, they unexpectedly exhibit cooperative dose-response curves (m > 1). We show that this cooperative inhibition can be explained by a model in which infectivity requires participation of multiple copies of a drug target in an individual life cycle stage. A critical subset of these target molecules must be in the unbound state. Consistent with experimental observations, this model predicts m > 1 for NNRTIs and PIs and m = 1 in situations where a single drug target/virus mediates a step in the life cycle, as is the case with NRTIs and integrase strand transfer inhibitors. This model was tested experimentally by modulating the number of functional drug targets per virus, and dose-response curves for modulated virus populations fit model predictions. This model explains the high antiviral activity of two drug classes important for successful HIV-1 treatment and defines a characteristic of good targets for antiviral drugs in general, namely, intermolecular cooperativity. PMID:21753122

  2. Approaches for high-throughput pharmacokinetic screening of low-molecular-weight drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In the face of advancing technology in combinatorial synthesis and high-throughput screening, the drug discovery process continues to evolve. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) studies play a key role in lead identification and optimization. This fast-paced development process has imposed an enormous burden on the analytical chemist to design faster and more sensitive assay techniques to aid the drug discovery and development. Various strategies aimed at increasing the throughput and reducing sample numbers in discovery DMPK have been developed for both in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, quantity and speed, often associated with technology development, do not always guarantee quality but a clear strategic focus in the spirit of 'Fit for Purpose' approach is required to implement systems to generate high-quality data and to drive research in new directions.

  3. Nanoscale determination of antiviral drug acyclovir engaging bifunctionality of single walled carbon nanotubes - nafion film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlekar, Pravin; Khan, Afsan; Chatterjee, Sanghamitra

    2018-03-20

    An elementary and exemplary approach is proposed for the accurate monitoring of antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) utilizing glassy carbon electrode (GCE) fabricated with single-walled carbon nanotubes and nafion composite film employing square wave voltammetry for the first time. The developed sensor exhibits effective and sustained electron mediating behavior displaying higher peak currents at lower potential than those obtained at bare GCE. At optimal experimental conditions, oxidation current showed a wide linear response for ACV in the concentration range from 10 nM to 30 μM. The proposed sensor exhibited pronounced analytical performance for the determination of ACV with limit of detection corresponding to 1.8 nM and high sensitivity of 15.4 μA μM -1 . The modified sensor showcased high recognition selectivity, fair reproducibility and long term stability of signal response in the physiological environment. The developed prototype was successfully implemented to quantify ACV in several commercially available pharmaceuticals. The versatile method described herein was efficaciously applied further in detecting ACV in real human urine sample of patient undergoing pharmacological treatment with ACV. The results explicitly demonstrate the applicability of the developed sensor in quality control, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing cyclopentapeptide inhibitor as potential antiviral drug for dengue virus ns5 methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Syarifuddin; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Zubaidi, Ahmad Ardilla

    2012-01-01

    NS5 methyltransferase (Mtase) has a crucial role in the replication of dengue virus. There are two active sites on NS5 Mtase i.e., SAM and RNA-cap binding sites. Inhibition of the NS5 Mtase activity is expected to prevent the propagation of dengue virus. This study was conducted to design cyclic peptide ligands as enzyme inhibitors of dengue virus NS5 Mtase through computational approach. Cyclopentapeptides were designed as ligand of SAM binding site as much as 1635 and 736 cyclopentpeptides were designed as ligand of RNA-cap binding site. Interaction between ligand and NS5 Mtase has been conducted on the Docking simulation. The result shows that cyclopentapeptide CTWYC was the best peptide candidate on SAM binding site, with estimated free binding energy -30.72 kca/mol. Cyclopentapeptide CYEFC was the best peptide on RNA-cap binding site with estimated free binding energy -22.89 kcal/mol. Both peptides did not have tendency toward toxicity properties. So it is expected that both CTWYC and CYEFC ligands could be used as a potential antiviral drug candidates, which can inhibit the SAM and RNA-cap binding sites of dengue virus NS5 Mtase.

  5. Structural basis of influenza virus fusion inhibition by the antiviral drug Arbidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2016-12-21

    The broad-spectrum antiviral drug Arbidol shows efficacy against influenza viruses by targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) fusion machinery. However, the structural basis of the mechanism underlying fusion inhibition by Arbidol has remained obscure, thereby hindering its further development as a specific and optimized influenza therapeutic. We determined crystal structures of Arbidol in complex with influenza virus HA from pandemic 1968 H3N2 and recent 2013 H7N9 viruses. Arbidol binds in a hydrophobic cavity in the HA trimer stem at the interface between two protomers. This cavity is distal to the conserved epitope targeted by broadly neutralizing stem antibodies and is ~16 Å from the fusion peptide. Arbidol primarily makes hydrophobic interactions with the binding site but also induces some conformational rearrangements to form a network of inter- and intraprotomer salt bridges. By functioning as molecular glue, Arbidol stabilizes the prefusion conformation of HA that inhibits the large conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion in the low pH of the endosome. This unique binding mode compared with the small-molecule inhibitors of other class I fusion proteins enhances our understanding of how small molecules can function as fusion inhibitors and guides the development of broad-spectrum therapeutics against influenza virus.

  6. The antiviral drug acyclovir is a slow-binding inhibitor of (D)-amino acid oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katane, Masumi; Matsuda, Satsuki; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Sekine, Masae; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Nakagome, Izumi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Hirono, Shuichi; Homma, Hiroshi

    2013-08-20

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for d-amino acids, including d-serine and d-alanine, which are believed to be coagonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. To identify a new class of DAO inhibitor(s) that can be used to elucidate the molecular details of the active site environment of DAO, manifold biologically active compounds of microbial origin and pre-existing drugs were screened for their ability to inhibit DAO activity, and several compounds were identified as candidates. One of these compounds, acyclovir (ACV), a well-known antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpesvirus infections, was characterized and evaluated as a novel DAO inhibitor in vitro. Analysis showed that ACV acts on DAO as a reversible slow-binding inhibitor, and interestingly, the time required to achieve equilibrium between DAO, ACV, and the DAO/ACV complex was highly dependent on temperature. The binding mechanism of ACV to DAO was investigated in detail by several approaches, including kinetic analysis, structural modeling of DAO complexed with ACV, and site-specific mutagenesis of an active site residue postulated to be involved in the binding of ACV. The results confirm that ACV is a novel, active site-directed inhibitor of DAO that can be a valuable tool for investigating the structure-function relationships of DAO, including the molecular details of the active site environment of DAO. In particular, it appears that ACV can serve as an active site probe to study the structural basis of temperature-induced conformational changes of DAO.

  7. Arbidol (Umifenovir): A broad-spectrum antiviral drug that inhibits medically important arthropod-borne flaviviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haviernik, J.; Štefánik, M.; Fojtíková, M.; Kali, S.; Tordo, N.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Eyer, Luděk; Růžek, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2018), č. článku 184. ISSN 1999-4915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antiviral activity * Arbidol * Cell-type dependent antiviral effect * Cytotoxicity * Flavivirus * Umifenovir Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016

  8. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of soy peptides by developing a high throughput drug screening assay

    OpenAIRE

    Dhayakaran, Rekha; Neethirajan, Suresh; Weng, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a great concern in the medical community, as well as food industry. Soy peptides were tested against bacterial biofilms for their antimicrobial activity. A high throughput drug screening assay was developed using microfluidic technology, RAMAN spectroscopy, and optical microscopy for rapid screening of antimicrobials and rapid identification of pathogens. Methods Synthesized PGTAVFK and IKAFKEATKVDKVVVLWTA soy peptides were tested against Pseudomonas aer...

  9. Restrictions for reimbursement of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral drugs for HCV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, Alison D; Cunningham, Evan B; Nielsen, Stine

    2018-01-01

    All-oral direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus, which have response rates of 95% or more, represent a major clinical advance. However, the high list price of DAAs has led many governments to restrict their reimbursement. We reviewed the availability of, and national criteria...... at stage F2 or higher, 29 (83%) had no listed restrictions based on drug or alcohol use, 33 (94%) required a specialist prescriber, and 34 (97%) had no additional restrictions for people co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus. These findings have implications for meeting WHO targets, with evidence...

  10. A High-Throughput Method for Measuring Drug Residence Time Using the Transcreener ADP Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Meera; Lowery, Robert G

    2017-08-01

    Analysis of drug-target residence times during drug development can result in improved efficacy, increased therapeutic window, and reduced side effects. Residence time can be estimated as the reciprocal of the dissociation rate ( k off ) of an inhibitor from its target. The traditional methods for measuring k off require synthesis of labeled ligands or low-throughput label-free methods. To provide an alternative that is better suited to an automated high-throughput screening (HTS) environment, we adapted a classic "jump dilution" catalytic assay method for determination of k off values for kinase inhibitor drugs. We used the Transcreener ADP 2 Kinase assay as a universal, homogenous method to monitor the recovery of kinase activity as the drugs dissociated from preformed inhibitor-kinase complexes. We measured residence times for several drugs that bind the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ABL1, and Aurora kinases and found that the rank ordering of inhibitor k off values correlated with literature values determined using ligand binding assays. Moreover, very similar results were obtained using the Transcreener assay with fluorescence polarization (FP), fluorescence intensity (FI), and time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) detection modes. This HTS-compatible, generic assay method should facilitate the use of residence time as a parameter for compound prioritization and optimization early in kinase drug discovery programs.

  11. Spectroscopic, thermal and X-ray structural study of the antiparasitic and antiviral drug nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Flavia P.; Caira, Mino R.; Monti, Gustavo A.; Kassuha, Diego E.; Sperandeo, Norma R.

    2010-12-01

    Nitazoxanide [2-(acetyloxy)- N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide, NTZ] is a potent antiparasitic and antiviral agent recently approved. The anti-protozoal activity of NTZ is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme dependent electron transfer reaction. As drug-enzyme interactions are governed by the three-dimensional stereochemistry of both participants, the crystal structure of NTZ was determined for the first time to identify the conformational preferences that may be related to biological activity. NTZ crystallizes as the carboxamide tautomer in the orthorhombic system, space group Pna2 1 with the following parameters at 100(2) K: a = 14.302(2) Å, b = 5.2800(8) Å, c = 33.183(5) Å, V = 2505.8(6) Å 3, Z = 8, D x = 1.629 g cm -3, R = 0.0319, wR2 = 0.0799 for 5121 reflections. In addition, the spectroscopic and thermal properties were determined and related to the molecular structure. The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra showed resolved signals for each carbon of NTZ, some signals being broad due to residual dipolar interaction with quadrupolar 14N nuclei. In particular, the resonance at about 127 ppm showed multiplicity, indicating more than one molecule in the asymmetric unit and this is consistent with the crystallographic data. The DSC and TG data revealed that NTZ shows a single DSC melting peak with extrapolated onset at 201 °C which is accompanied by a TG weight loss, indicating that NTZ melts with decomposition.

  12. Structures of Two Coronavirus Main Proteases: Implications for Substrate Binding and Antiviral Drug Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongwei; Yang, Haitao; Xue, Fei; Wu, Zhixin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Zhou, Zhe; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Xuejun C.; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark; Rao, Zihe (SCAU); (Tsinghua); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-07-21

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) can infect humans and multiple species of animals, causing a wide spectrum of diseases. The coronavirus main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for anti-CoV drug design. In this study, the crystal structures of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) MP{sup pro} and a severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) M{sup pro} mutant (H41A), in complex with an N-terminal autocleavage substrate, were individually determined to elucidate the structural flexibility and substrate binding of M{sup pro}. A monomeric form of IBV M{sup pro} was identified for the first time in CoV M{sup pro} structures. A comparison of these two structures to other available M{sup pro} structures provides new insights for the design of substrate-based inhibitors targeting CoV M{sup pro}s. Furthermore, a Michael acceptor inhibitor (named N3) was cocrystallized with IBV M{sup pro} and was found to demonstrate in vitro inactivation of IBV M{sup pro} and potent antiviral activity against IBV in chicken embryos. This provides a feasible animal model for designing wide-spectrum inhibitors against CoV-associated diseases. The structure-based optimization of N3 has yielded two more efficacious lead compounds, N27 and H16, with potent inhibition against SARS-CoV M{sup pro}.

  13. Unlocking the Potential of High-Throughput Drug Combination Assays Using Acoustic Dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace Ka Yan; Wilson, Stacy; Schmidt, Stephen; Moffat, John G

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of synergistic effects of drug combinations in vitro is a critical part of anticancer drug research. However, the complexities of dosing and analyzing two drugs over the appropriate range of doses have generally led to compromises in experimental design that restrict the quality and robustness of the data. In particular, the use of a single dose response of combined drugs, rather than a full two-way matrix of varying doses, has predominated in higher-throughput studies. Acoustic dispensing unlocks the potential of high-throughput dose matrix analysis. We have developed acoustic dispensing protocols that enable compound synergy assays in a 384-well format. This experimental design is considerably more efficient and flexible with respect to time, reagent usage, and labware than is achievable using traditional serial-dilution approaches. Data analysis tools integrated in Genedata Screener were used to efficiently deconvolute the combination compound mapping scheme and calculate compound potency and synergy metrics. We have applied this workflow to evaluate interactions among drugs targeting different nodes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in a panel of cancer cell lines. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. Ophthalmic antiviral chemotherapy : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athmanathan Sreedharan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral drug development has been slow due to many factors. One such factor is the difficulty to block the viral replication in the cell without adversely affecting the host cell metabolic activity. Most of the antiviral compounds are analogs of purines and pyramidines. Currently available antiviral drugs mainly inhibit viral nucleic acid synthesis, hence act only on actively replicating viruses. This article presents an overview of some of the commonly used antiviral agents in clinical ophthalmology.

  15. A multilayer microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Wang, Lei; Li, Jingmin; Ding, Xiping; Chunyu, Li; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Qi

    2012-01-01

    A multilayer polydimethylsiloxane microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening is described in this paper. This established microdevice was based on a modularization method and it integrated a drug/medium concentration gradient generator (CGG), pneumatic microvalves and a cell culture microchamber array. The CGG was able to generate five steps of linear concentrations with the same outlet flow rate. The medium/drug flowed through CGG and then into the pear-shaped cell culture microchambers vertically. This vertical perfusion mode was used to reduce the impact of the shear stress on the physiology of cells induced by the fluid flow in the microchambers. Pear-shaped microchambers with two arrays of miropillars at each outlet were adopted in this microdevice, which were beneficial to cell distribution. The chemotherapeutics Cisplatin (DDP)-induced Cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP apoptotic experiments were performed well on this platform. The results showed that this novel microdevice could not only provide well-defined and stable conditions for cell culture, but was also useful for cell-based high-throughput drug screening with less reagents and time consumption. (paper)

  16. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Feng; Wu Jinhui; Wang Shuqi; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan; Durmus, Naside Gozde

    2011-01-01

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

  17. A multilayer microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Wang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Li, Jingmin; Ding, Xiping; Wang, Qi; Chunyu, Li

    2012-06-01

    A multilayer polydimethylsiloxane microdevice for cell-based high-throughput drug screening is described in this paper. This established microdevice was based on a modularization method and it integrated a drug/medium concentration gradient generator (CGG), pneumatic microvalves and a cell culture microchamber array. The CGG was able to generate five steps of linear concentrations with the same outlet flow rate. The medium/drug flowed through CGG and then into the pear-shaped cell culture microchambers vertically. This vertical perfusion mode was used to reduce the impact of the shear stress on the physiology of cells induced by the fluid flow in the microchambers. Pear-shaped microchambers with two arrays of miropillars at each outlet were adopted in this microdevice, which were beneficial to cell distribution. The chemotherapeutics Cisplatin (DDP)-induced Cisplatin-resistant cell line A549/DDP apoptotic experiments were performed well on this platform. The results showed that this novel microdevice could not only provide well-defined and stable conditions for cell culture, but was also useful for cell-based high-throughput drug screening with less reagents and time consumption.

  18. Microengineering methods for cell-based microarrays and high-throughput drug-screening applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Feng; Wu Jinhui; Wang Shuqi; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Demirci, Utkan [Department of Medicine, Demirci Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Durmus, Naside Gozde, E-mail: udemirci@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Screening for effective therapeutic agents from millions of drug candidates is costly, time consuming, and often faces concerns due to the extensive use of animals. To improve cost effectiveness, and to minimize animal testing in pharmaceutical research, in vitro monolayer cell microarrays with multiwell plate assays have been developed. Integration of cell microarrays with microfluidic systems has facilitated automated and controlled component loading, significantly reducing the consumption of the candidate compounds and the target cells. Even though these methods significantly increased the throughput compared to conventional in vitro testing systems and in vivo animal models, the cost associated with these platforms remains prohibitively high. Besides, there is a need for three-dimensional (3D) cell-based drug-screening models which can mimic the in vivo microenvironment and the functionality of the native tissues. Here, we present the state-of-the-art microengineering approaches that can be used to develop 3D cell-based drug-screening assays. We highlight the 3D in vitro cell culture systems with live cell-based arrays, microfluidic cell culture systems, and their application to high-throughput drug screening. We conclude that among the emerging microengineering approaches, bioprinting holds great potential to provide repeatable 3D cell-based constructs with high temporal, spatial control and versatility.

  19. Identification of transformation products of antiviral drugs formed during biological wastewater treatment and their occurrence in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Jan; Prasse, Carsten; Ternes, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    The fate of five antiviral drugs (abacavir, emtricitabine, ganciclovir, lamivudine and zidovudine) was investigated in biological wastewater treatment. Investigations of degradation kinetics were accompanied by the elucidation of formed transformation products (TPs) using activated sludge lab experiments and subsequent LC-HRMS analysis. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.46 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (zidovudine) and 55.8 L d(-1) gSS(-1) (abacavir). Despite these differences of the degradation kinetics, the same main biotransformation reaction was observed for all five compounds: oxidation of the terminal hydroxyl-moiety to the corresponding carboxylic acid (formation of carboxy-TPs). In addition, the oxidation of thioether moieties to sulfoxides was observed for emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antiviral drugs were detected in influents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with concentrations up to 980 ng L(-1) (emtricitabine), while in WWTP effluents mainly the TPs were found with concentration levels up to 1320 ng L(-1) (carboxy-abacavir). Except of zidovudine none of the original antiviral drugs were detected in German rivers and streams, whereas the concentrations of the TPs ranged from 16 ng L(-1) for carboxy-lamivudine up to 750 ng L(-1) for carboxy-acyclovir. These concentrations indicate an appreciable portion from WWTP effluents present in rivers and streams, as well as the high environmental persistence of the carboxy-TPs. As a result three of the carboxylic TPs were detected in finished drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tenofovir treatment augments anti-viral immunity against drug-resistant SIV challenge in chronically infected rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Preston

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of drug-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is a major obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-infected patients. Whether antiviral immunity can augment ART by suppressing replication of drug-resistant HIV-1 in humans is not well understood, but can be explored in non-human primates infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV. Rhesus macaques infected with live, attenuated SIV develop robust SIV-specific immune responses but remain viremic, often at low levels, for periods of months to years, thus providing a model in which to evaluate the contribution of antiviral immunity to drug efficacy. To investigate the extent to which SIV-specific immune responses augment suppression of drug-resistant SIV, rhesus macaques infected with live, attenuated SIVmac239Δnef were treated with the reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitor tenofovir, and then challenged with pathogenic SIVmac055, which has a five-fold reduced sensitivity to tenofovir. Results Replication of SIVmac055 was detected in untreated macaques infected with SIVmac239Δnef, and in tenofovir-treated, naïve control macaques. The majority of macaques infected with SIVmac055 experienced high levels of plasma viremia, rapid CD4+ T cell loss and clinical disease progression. By comparison, macaques infected with SIVmac239Δnef and treated with tenofovir showed no evidence of replicating SIVmac055 in plasma using allele-specific real-time PCR assays with a limit of sensitivity of 50 SIV RNA copies/ml plasma. These animals remained clinically healthy with stable CD4+ T cell counts during three years of follow-up. Both the tenofovir-treated and untreated macaques infected with SIVmac239Δnef had antibody responses to SIV gp130 and p27 antigens and SIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses prior to SIVmac055 challenge, but only those animals receiving concurrent treatment with tenofovir resisted infection with SIVmac055. Conclusion

  1. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel

  2. Marine natural seaweed products as potential antiviral drugs against Bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Viana Pinto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an etiologic agent that causes important economic losses in the world. It is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect and antiviral properties of several marine natural products obtained from seaweeds: the indole alkaloid caulerpin (CAV, 1 and three diterpenes: 6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DA, 2, 10,18-diacetoxy-8-hydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB1, 3 and 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB3, 4. The screening to evaluate the cytotoxicity of compounds did not show toxic effects to MDBK cells. The antiviral activity of the compounds was measured by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on infected cells by plaque assay (PA and EC50 values were calculated for CAV (EC=2,0± 5.8, DA (EC 2,8± 7.7, DB1 (EC 2,0±9.7, and DB3 (EC 2,3±7.4. Acyclovir (EC50 322± 5.9 was used in all experiments as the control standard. Although the results of the antiviral activity suggest that all compounds are promising as antiviral agents against BVDV, the Selectivity Index suggests that DB1 is the safest of the compounds tested.

  3. Marine natural seaweed products as potential antiviral drugs against Bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Viana Pinto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is an etiologic agent that causes important economic losses in the world. It is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effect and antiviral properties of several marine natural products obtained from seaweeds: the indole alkaloid caulerpin (CAV, 1 and three diterpenes: 6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (DA, 2, 10,18-diacetoxy-8-hydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB1, 3 and 8,10,18-trihydroxy-2,6-dolabelladiene (DB3, 4. The screening to evaluate the cytotoxicity of compounds did not show toxic effects to MDBK cells. The antiviral activity of the compounds was measured by the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on infected cells by plaque assay (PA and EC50 values were calculated for CAV (EC=2,0± 5.8, DA (EC 2,8± 7.7, DB1 (EC 2,0±9.7, and DB3 (EC 2,3±7.4. Acyclovir (EC50 322± 5.9 was used in all experiments as the control standard. Although the results of the antiviral activity suggest that all compounds are promising as antiviral agents against BVDV, the Selectivity Index suggests that DB1 is the safest of the compounds tested.

  4. The Denver Tube Combined with Antiviral Drugs In the Treatment of HBV-related Cirrhosis with Refractory Ascites: A Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-jin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of nucleos(tide antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis can significantly improve the prognosis. But those patients with refractory ascites possibly deteriorate due to the complications of ascites before any benefit from anti-viral drugs could be observed. Therefore, it is important to find a way to help the patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and refractory ascites to receive the full benefits from antiviral therapy. Peritoneovenous shunt (PVS using Denver tube enables ascites to continuously bypass into systemic circulation, thereby reducing ascites and albumin input and improving quality of life. We report herein 3 cases of decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites, PVS using Denver tube was combined with lamivudine for antiviral treatment before and after. Then, ascites was alleviated significantly or disapeared and viral responsed well. All patients achieved a satisfactory long-term survival from 6.7 to 14.7 years. It was suggested that the Denver shunt could be used as an adjuvant method to antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites to help the patients reap the full benefits and maximize efficacy of antiviral treatment.

  5. Radioligand binding assays in the drug discovery process: potential pitfalls of high throughput screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, F; Mendonça-Silva, D L; Quintas, L E

    2001-02-01

    Radioligand binding assays evaluating directly the ability of a drug to interact with a defined molecular target is part of the drug discovery process. The need for a high throughput rate in screening drugs is actually leading to simplified experimental schemes that increase the probability of false negative results. Special concern involves voltage-gated ion channel drug discovery where a great care is required in designing assays because of frequent multiplicity of (interacting) binding sites. To clearly illustrate this situation, three different assays used in the academic drug discovery program of the authors were selected because they are rich of intrinsic artifacts: (I) (20 mmol/l caffeine almost duplicated [3H]ryanodine binding (89% higher than control) to rat heart microsomes at 0.3 mumol/l free calcium but did not exert any effect when using a high (107 mumol/l) free calcium, as mostly used in ryanodine binding assays; (II) An agonist for the ionotropic glutamate receptor of the kainate type can distinctly affect [3H]kainate binding to chicken cerebellum membranes depending on its concentration: unlabelled kainic acid per se either stimulated about 30% (at 50-100 nmol/l), had no effect (at 200 nmol/l) or even progressively decreased (at 0.3-2 mumol/l) the binding of 5 nmol/l [3H]kainate, emphasizing the risk of using a single concentration for screening a drug; (III) in a classical [3H]flunitrazepam binding assay, the stimulatory effect of a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist was only observed when using extensively washed rat brain synaptosomes (10 mumol/l GABA increased flunitrazepam binding by 90%). On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of a GABA antagonist was only observed when using crude synaptosomes (10 mumol/l bicuculine reduced [3H]flunitrazepam binding by 40%). It can be concluded that carefully designed radioligand assays which can be performed in an academic laboratory are appropriate for screening a small number of drugs, especially if

  6. Acanthamoeba castellanii: A new high-throughput method for drug screening in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Rivas, Antonio; Padrón, José M; Valladares, Basilio; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2016-12-01

    Despite significant public health impact, there is no specific antiprotozoal therapy for prevention and treatment of Acanthamoeba castellanii infection. There is a need for new and efficient anti-Acanthamoeba drugs that are less toxic and can reduce treatment duration and frequency of administration. In this context a new, rapid and sensitive assay is required for high-throughput activity testing and screening of new therapeutic compounds. A colorimetric assay based on sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining has been developed for anti-Acanthamoeba drug susceptibility testing and adapted to a 96-well microtiter plate format. Under these conditions chlorhexidine was tested to validate the assay using two clinical strains of A. castellanii (Neff strain, T4 genotype [IC 50 4.68±0.6μM] and T3 genotype [IC 50 5.69±0.9μM]). These results were in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional Alamar Blue assay, OCR cytotoxicity assay and manual cell counting method. Our new assay offers an inexpensive and reliable method, which complements current assays by enhancing high-throughput anti-Acanthamoeba drug screening capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling Hepatitis B Virus Antiviral Therapy and Drug Resistant Mutant Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Julie; Dix, Trevor; Allison, Lloyd; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Yuen, Lilly

    Despite the existence of vaccines, the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a serious global health concern. HBV targets liver cells. It has an unusual replication process involving an RNA pre-genome that the reverse transcriptase domain of the viral polymerase protein translates into viral DNA. The reverse transcription process is error prone and together with the high replication rates of the virus, allows the virus to exist as a heterogeneous population of mutants, known as a quasispecies, that can adapt and become resistant to antiviral therapy. This study presents an individual-based model of HBV inside an artificial liver, and associated blood serum, undergoing antiviral therapy. This model aims to provide insights into the evolution of the HBV quasispecies and the individual contribution of HBV mutations in the outcome of therapy.

  8. Rapid identification of antifungal compounds against Exserohilum rostratum using high throughput drug repurposing screens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available A recent large outbreak of fungal infections by Exserohilum rostratum from contaminated compounding solutions has highlighted the need to rapidly screen available pharmaceuticals that could be useful in therapy. The present study utilized two newly-developed high throughput assays to screen approved drugs and pharmaceutically active compounds for identification of potential antifungal agents. Several known drugs were found that have potent effects against E. rostratum including the triazole antifungal posaconazole. Posaconazole is likely to be effective against infections involving septic joints and may provide an alternative for refractory central nervous system infections. The anti-E. rostratum activities of several other drugs including bithionol (an anti-parasitic drug, tacrolimus (an immunosuppressive agent and floxuridine (an antimetabolite were also identified from the drug repurposing screens. In addition, activities of other potential antifungal agents against E. rostratum were excluded, which may avoid unnecessary therapeutic trials and reveals the limited therapeutic alternatives for this outbreak. In summary, this study has demonstrated that drug repurposing screens can be quickly conducted within a useful time-frame. This would allow clinical implementation of identified alternative therapeutics and should be considered as part of the initial public health response to new outbreaks or rapidly-emerging microbial pathogens.

  9. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2010-11-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  10. Corifungin, a New Drug Lead against Naegleria, Identified from a High-Throughput Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Anjan; Tunac, Josefino B.; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Shibayama, Mineko

    2012-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. The drug of choice in treating PAM is the antifungal antibiotic amphotericin B, but its use is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, few patients treated with amphotericin B have survived PAM. Therefore, fast-acting and efficient drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of PAM. To facilitate drug screening for this pathogen, an automated, high-throughput screening methodology was developed and validated for the closely related species Naegleria gruberi. Five kinase inhibitors and an NF-kappaB inhibitor were hits identified in primary screens of three compound libraries. Most importantly for a preclinical drug discovery pipeline, we identified corifungin, a water-soluble polyene macrolide with a higher activity against Naegleria than that of amphotericin B. Transmission electron microscopy of N. fowleri trophozoites incubated with different concentrations of corifungin showed disruption of cytoplasmic and plasma membranes and alterations in mitochondria, followed by complete lysis of amebae. In vivo efficacy of corifungin in a mouse model of PAM was confirmed by an absence of detectable amebae in the brain and 100% survival of mice for 17 days postinfection for a single daily intraperitoneal dose of 9 mg/kg of body weight given for 10 days. The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM. PMID:22869574

  11. Antiviral drug profile of human influenza A & B viruses circulating in India: 2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Potdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Recent influenza antiviral resistance studies in South East Asia, Europe and the United States reveal adamantane and neuraminidase inhibitor (NAIs resistance. This study was undertaken to evaluate antiviral resistance in influenza viruses isolated from various parts of India, during 2004 to 2011. Methods: Influenza viruses were analyzed genetically for known resistance markers by M2 and NA gene sequencing. Influenza A/H1N1 (n=206, A/H3N2 (n=371 viruses for amantadine resistance and A/H1N1 (n=206, A/H3N2 (n=272 and type B (n=326 for oseltamivir resistance were sequenced. Pandemic (H1N1 (n= 493 isolates were tested for H274Y mutation by real time reverse transcription (rRT-PCR. Randomly selected resistant and sensitive influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses were confirmed by phenotypic assay. Results: Serine to asparagine (S3IN mutation was detected in six isolates of 2007-2008.One dual-resistant A/H1N1 was detected for the first time in India with leucine to phenylalanine (L26F mutation in M2 gene and H274Y mutation in NA gene. A/H3N2 viruses showed an increase in resistance to amantadine from 22.5 per cent in 2005 to 100 per cent in 2008 onwards with S3IN mutation. Fifty of the 61 (82% A/H1N1 viruses tested in 2008-2009 were oseltamivir resistant with H274Y mutation, while all A/H3N2, pandemic A/H1N1 and type B isolates remained sensitive. Genetic results were also confirmed by phenotypic analysis of randomly selected 50 resistant A/H1N1 and 40 sensitive A/H3N2 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Emergence of influenza viruses resistant to amantadine and oseltamivir in spite of negligible usage of antivirals emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of antiviral resistance.

  12. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth P. Minneman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV. The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  13. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hoped to be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed.

  14. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  15. High-throughput screen of drug repurposing library identifies inhibitors of Sarcocystis neurona growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Bowden

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona is the primary etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM, a serious neurologic disease of horses. Many horses in the U.S. are at risk of developing EPM; approximately 50% of all horses in the U.S. have been exposed to S. neurona and treatments for EPM are 60–70% effective. Advancement of treatment requires new technology to identify new drugs for EPM. To address this critical need, we developed, validated, and implemented a high-throughput screen to test 725 FDA-approved compounds from the NIH clinical collections library for anti-S. neurona activity. Our screen identified 18 compounds with confirmed inhibitory activity against S. neurona growth, including compounds active in the nM concentration range. Many identified inhibitory compounds have well-defined mechanisms of action, making them useful tools to study parasite biology in addition to being potential therapeutic agents. In comparing the activity of inhibitory compounds identified by our screen to that of other screens against other apicomplexan parasites, we found that most compounds (15/18; 83% have activity against one or more related apicomplexans. Interestingly, nearly half (44%; 8/18 of the inhibitory compounds have reported activity against dopamine receptors. We also found that dantrolene, a compound already formulated for horses with a peak plasma concentration of 37.8 ± 12.8 ng/ml after 500 mg dose, inhibits S. neurona parasites at low concentrations (0.065 μM [0.036–0.12; 95% CI] or 21.9 ng/ml [12.1–40.3; 95% CI]. These studies demonstrate the use of a new tool for discovering new chemotherapeutic agents for EPM and potentially providing new reagents to elucidate biologic pathways required for successful S. neurona infection. Keywords: Drug repurposing, High-throughput screen, Sarcocystis neurona, Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

  16. Zika antiviral chemotherapy: identification of drugs and promising starting points for drug discovery from an FDA-approved library [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Pascoalino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV implicated it as the cause of serious and potentially lethal congenital conditions such microcephaly and other central nervous system defects, as well as the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in otherwise healthy patients. Recent findings showed that anti-Dengue antibodies are capable of amplifying ZIKV infection by a mechanism similar to antibody-dependent enhancement, increasing the severity of the disease. This scenario becomes potentially catastrophic when the global burden of Dengue and the advent of the newly approved anti-Dengue vaccines in the near future are taken into account. Thus, antiviral chemotherapy should be pursued as a priority strategy to control the spread of the virus and prevent the complications associated with Zika. Methods Here we describe a fast and reliable cell-based, high-content screening assay for discovery of anti-ZIKV compounds. This methodology has been used to screen the National Institute of Health Clinical Collection compound library, a small collection of FDA-approved drugs. Results and conclusion From 725 FDA-approved compounds triaged, 29 (4% were found to have anti-Zika virus activity, of which 22 had confirmed (76% of confirmation by dose-response curves. Five candidates presented selective activity against ZIKV infection and replication in a human cell line. These hits have abroad spectrum of chemotypes and therapeutic uses, offering valuable opportunities for selection of leads for antiviral drug discovery.

  17. Virus-encoded chemokine receptors--putative novel antiviral drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M

    2005-01-01

    as such a paramount role in the antiviral immune responses. It is therefore not surprising that viruses have found ways to exploit and subvert the chemokine system by means of molecular mimicry. By ancient acts of molecular piracy and by induction and suppression of endogenous genes, viruses have utilized chemokines...... and their receptors to serve a variety of roles in viral life-cycle. This review focuses on the pharmacology of virus-encoded chemokine receptors, yet also the family of virus-encoded chemokines and chemokine-binding proteins will be touched upon. Key properties of the virus-encoded receptors, compared...... to their closest endogenous homologs, are interactions with a wider range of chemokines, which can act as agonists, antagonists and inverse agonists, and the exploitation of many signal transduction pathways. High constitutive activity is another key property of some--but not all--of these receptors. The chemokine...

  18. Label-free detection of cellular drug responses by high-throughput bright-field imaging and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Mao, Ailin; Jiang, Yiyue; Guo, Baoshan; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-09-29

    In the last decade, high-content screening based on multivariate single-cell imaging has been proven effective in drug discovery to evaluate drug-induced phenotypic variations. Unfortunately, this method inherently requires fluorescent labeling which has several drawbacks. Here we present a label-free method for evaluating cellular drug responses only by high-throughput bright-field imaging with the aid of machine learning algorithms. Specifically, we performed high-throughput bright-field imaging of numerous drug-treated and -untreated cells (N = ~240,000) by optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with high throughput up to 10,000 cells/s and applied machine learning to the cell images to identify their morphological variations which are too subtle for human eyes to detect. Consequently, we achieved a high accuracy of 92% in distinguishing drug-treated and -untreated cells without the need for labeling. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that dose-dependent, drug-induced morphological change from different experiments can be inferred from the classification accuracy of a single classification model. Our work lays the groundwork for label-free drug screening in pharmaceutical science and industry.

  19. High-Throughput Lipolysis in 96-Well Plates for Rapid Screening of Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip J; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    The high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model (HTP) applicable for rapid and low-scale screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDSs) was optimized and adjusted as to be conducted in 96-well plates (HTP-96). Three different LbDDSs (I-III) loaded with danazol or cinnarizine were...

  20. Repurposing High-Throughput Image Assays Enables Biological Activity Prediction for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Jaak; Klambauer, Günter; Arany, Adam; Steijaert, Marvin; Wegner, Jörg Kurt; Gustin, Emmanuel; Chupakhin, Vladimir; Chong, Yolanda T; Vialard, Jorge; Buijnsters, Peter; Velter, Ingrid; Vapirev, Alexander; Singh, Shantanu; Carpenter, Anne E; Wuyts, Roel; Hochreiter, Sepp; Moreau, Yves; Ceulemans, Hugo

    2018-02-16

    In both academia and the pharmaceutical industry, large-scale assays for drug discovery are expensive and often impractical, particularly for the increasingly important physiologically relevant model systems that require primary cells, organoids, whole organisms, or expensive or rare reagents. We hypothesized that data from a single high-throughput imaging assay can be repurposed to predict the biological activity of compounds in other assays, even those targeting alternate pathways or biological processes. Indeed, quantitative information extracted from a three-channel microscopy-based screen for glucocorticoid receptor translocation was able to predict assay-specific biological activity in two ongoing drug discovery projects. In these projects, repurposing increased hit rates by 50- to 250-fold over that of the initial project assays while increasing the chemical structure diversity of the hits. Our results suggest that data from high-content screens are a rich source of information that can be used to predict and replace customized biological assays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake and drug-responsive vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xudong; Wang, Shiqi; Yu, Xudong; Liu, Zhuguo; Wang, Fei; Li, Wai Tsun; Cheng, Shuk Han; Dai, Qiuyun; Shi, Peng

    2015-02-07

    The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array system ("Fish-Trap") that enables high-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake larval zebrafish. Unlike the commonly practiced larva-processing methods using a rigid gel or a capillary tube, which are laborious and time-consuming, the hydrodynamic design of our microfluidic chip allows automatic, gel-free, and anesthetic-free processing of tens of larvae for microscopic imaging with single-cell resolution. Notably, this system provides the capability to directly couple pharmaceutical stimuli with real-time recording of neural activity in a large number of animals, and the local and global effects of pharmacoactive drugs on the nervous system can be directly visualized and evaluated by analyzing drug-induced functional perturbation within or across different brain regions. Using this technology, we tested a set of neurotoxin peptides and obtained new insights into how to exploit neurotoxin derivatives as therapeutic agents. The novel and versatile "Fish-Trap" technology can be readily unitized to study other stimulus (optical, acoustic, or physical) associated functional brain circuits using similar experimental strategies.

  2. Hepatitis C virus cures after direct acting antiviral-related drug-induced liver injury: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Yaakov; Shteingart, Shimon; Dahari, Harel; Gafanovich, Inna; Floru, Sharon; Braun, Marius; Shlomai, Amir; Verstandig, Anthony; Dery, Ilana; Uprichard, Susan L; Cotler, Scott J; Lurie, Yoav

    2016-07-18

    The United States Food and Drug Administration recently warned that the direct acting antiviral (DAA) combination hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment of Paritaprevir, Ombitasvir, Dasabuvir, Ritonavir, and Ribavirin (PODr + R) can cause severe liver injury in patients with advanced liver disease. Drug induced liver injury was observed in a small number of patients with decompensated cirrhosis treated with other DAAs, but has not been reported in patients with compensated cirrhosis. We report a case of a 74-year-old woman with chronic HCV and Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis (compensated cirrhosis) treated with PODr + R. The patient presented on day 14 of PODr + R therapy with jaundice and new-onset ascites. Her total bilirubin level increased to 23 mg/dL and international normalized ratio rose to 1.65, while aminotransferase levels remained relatively stable. Hepatitis C treatment was discontinued on day 24 and she gradually recovered. Follow-up testing showed that she achieved a sustained virologic response. In conclusion, hepatic decompensation developed within two weeks of starting treatment with PODr + R in a patient with Child-Pugh class A cirrhosis and was characterized by jaundice and ascites with stable aminotransferase levels. Careful monitoring is warranted in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis treated with PODr + R.

  3. Crystal Structures, Thermal Analysis, and Dissolution Behavior of New Solid Forms of the Antiviral Drug Arbidol with Dicarboxylic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex N. Manin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salts of the antiviral drug arbidol (umifenovir (Arb with maleate (Mlc and fumarate (Fum anions have been obtained, and their crystal structures have been described. The crystal structure of arbidol maleate has been redetermined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at 180K. A new arbidol cocrystal in zwitterion form with succinic acid (Suc has also been found and characterized. The arbidol zwitterion was not previously seen in any of the drug crystal forms, and the [Arb + Suc] cocrystal seems to be the first found instance. Analysis of the conformational preferences of the arbidol molecule in the crystal structures has shown that it adopts two types of conformations, namely “open” and “closed” ones. Thermal stability of the arbidol salts and cocrystal have been analyzed by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric, and mass-spectrometry analysis. The dissolution study of the arbidol salts and cocrystal performed in aqueous buffer solutions with pH 1.2 and 6.8 has shown that both the salts and the cocrystal dissolve incongruently to form an arbidol hydrochloride monohydrate at pH 1.2 and an arbidol base at pH 6.8, respectively. The cocrystal reaches the highest solubility level in both pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 solutions.

  4. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  5. Antiviral Information Management System (AIMS): a prototype for operational innovation in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Pravin R; Neal, Lauren; Florian, Jeff; Chen, Ying; Naeger, Lisa; Robertson, Sarah; Soon, Guoxing; Birnkrant, Debra

    2010-09-01

    This article presents a prototype for an operational innovation in knowledge management (KM). These operational innovations are geared toward managing knowledge efficiently and accessing all available information by embracing advances in bioinformatics and allied fields. The specific components of the proposed KM system are (1) a database to archive hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment data in a structured format and retrieve information in a query-capable manner and (2) an automated analysis tool to inform trial design elements for HCV drug development. The proposed framework is intended to benefit drug development by increasing efficiency of dose selection and improving the consistency of advice from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is also hoped that the framework will encourage collaboration among FDA, industry, and academic scientists to guide the HCV drug development process using model-based quantitative analysis techniques.

  6. Community nurse-led initiation of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C in people who inject drugs does not increase uptake of or adherence to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Kunkel, Jan; Axten, David; Dalton, Jane; Gardner, Hayley; Tippett, Andrew; Wynne, Stephanie; Wilkinson, Mandie; Foster, Graham R

    2016-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is common in people who inject drugs (PWID) and this population serves as a reservoir for infection. Treatment levels are low among this group, ranging from 1 to 19%. We explored whether a nurse-initiated community treatment model increased uptake of and adherence to interferon-based therapies. This was a cluster randomized trial of nurse-initiated versus physician-initiated antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for hepatitis C virus in community clinics (trial registration: ISRCTN07774040). The proportion of participants initiating treatment during follow-up was 10% with nurse-initiated (6/62) and 9% with physician-initiated (6/76) therapy. Adherence was similar in both groups, with only one patient in each arm not adhering to therapy. There were no serious adverse events, but interferon-related side effects were common. Drug and alcohol use did not change during therapy. Despite easy access to antiviral therapy, uptake of treatment was poor, with no significant difference between the groups. Nurse-led initiation of interferon-based antiviral therapy in PWID did not lead to increased uptake of, response to or adherence with treatment. Further service improvement is unlikely to increase the proportion of PWID undergoing antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus and early adoption of interferon-free regimens may increase the proportion initiating and completing treatment.

  7. MyoScreen, a High-Throughput Phenotypic Screening Platform Enabling Muscle Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joanne; Margaron, Yoran; Fernandes, Mathieu; Duchemin-Pelletier, Eve; Michaud, Joris; Flaender, Mélanie; Lorintiu, Oana; Degot, Sébastien; Poydenot, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Despite the need for more effective drug treatments to address muscle atrophy and disease, physiologically accurate in vitro screening models and higher information content preclinical assays that aid in the discovery and development of novel therapies are lacking. To this end, MyoScreen was developed: a robust and versatile high-throughput high-content screening (HT/HCS) platform that integrates a physiologically and pharmacologically relevant micropatterned human primary skeletal muscle model with a panel of pertinent phenotypic and functional assays. MyoScreen myotubes form aligned, striated myofibers, and they show nerve-independent accumulation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) properties characteristic of adult skeletal muscle and contraction in response to chemical stimulation. Reproducibility and sensitivity of the fully automated MyoScreen platform are highlighted in assays that quantitatively measure myogenesis, hypertrophy and atrophy, AChR clusterization, and intracellular calcium release dynamics, as well as integrating contractility data. A primary screen of 2560 compounds to identify stimulators of myofiber regeneration and repair, followed by further biological characterization of two hits, validates MyoScreen for the discovery and testing of novel therapeutics. MyoScreen is an improvement of current in vitro muscle models, enabling a more predictive screening strategy for preclinical selection of the most efficacious new chemical entities earlier in the discovery pipeline process.

  8. High Throughput Screening in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: From Drug Discovery to Functional Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.J. Gintjee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Centers for the screening of biologically active compounds and genomic libraries are becoming common in the academic setting and have enabled researchers devoted to developing strategies for the treatment of diseases or interested in studying a biological phenomenon to have unprecedented access to libraries that, until few years ago, were accessible only by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, new drugs and genetic targets have now been identified for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, the most prominent of the neuromuscular disorders affecting children. Although the work is still at an early stage, the results obtained to date are encouraging and demonstrate the importance that these centers may have in advancing therapeutic strategies for DMD as well as other diseases. This review will provide a summary of the status and progress made toward the development of a cure for this disorder and implementing high-throughput screening (HTS technologies as the main source of discovery. As more academic institutions are gaining access to HTS as a valuable discovery tool, the identification of new biologically active molecules is likely to grow larger. In addition, the presence in the academic setting of experts in different aspects of the disease will offer the opportunity to develop novel assays capable of identifying new targets to be pursued as potential therapeutic options. These assays will represent an excellent source to be used by pharmaceutical companies for the screening of larger libraries providing the opportunity to establish strong collaborations between the private and academic sectors and maximizing the chances of bringing into the clinic new drugs for the treatment of DMD.

  9. Quantifying antiviral activity optimizes drug combinations against hepatitis C virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Yoshiki [School of Medicine, College of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, Japan; Nakajim, Syo [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Ohash, Hirofumi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J; Tanaka, Yasuhito [Department of Virology and Liver Unit, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medicinal Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; Wakita, Takaji [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwami, Shingo [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan: PRESTO, JST, Saitama, Japan: CREST, JST, Saitama, Japan; Watashi, Koichi [Department of Virology II, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan: Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Sciences, Chiba, J

    2016-03-21

    Cell culture study combing a mathematical model and computer simulation quantifies the anti-hepatitis C virus drug efficacy at any concentrations and any combinations in preclinical settings, and can obtain rich basic evidences for selecting optimal treatments prior to costly clinical trials.

  10. The RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase, an emerging antiviral drug target for the Hendra virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkov, Tony; Carbone, Vincenzo; Akter, Jesmin; Sivanesan, Sivashangarie; Li, Jian; Beddoe, Travis; Marsh, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Australia is facing a major national medical challenge with the emergence of the Hendra virus (HeV) as a medically and economically important pathogen of humans and animals. Clinical symptoms of human HeV infection can include fever, hypotension, dizziness, encephalitis, respiratory haemorrhage and edema. The window of opportunity for successful patient treatment remains unknown, but is likely to be very narrow. Currently, very few effective therapeutic options are available for the case management of severe HeV infections or the rapid silencing of local outbreaks. This underscores the need for more activity in the drug discovery arena to develop much needed therapeutics that specifically targets this deadly disease. The structural analysis of HeV is very much in its infancy, which leaves many gaps in our understanding of the biology of HeV and makes structure-guided drug design difficult. Structural studies of the viral RNAdependent- RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is the heart of the viral replication machinery, will set the stage for rational drug design and fill a major gap in our understanding of the HeV replication machinery. This review examines the current knowledge based on the multi-domain architecture of the Hendra RdRp and highlights which essential domain functions represent tangible targets for drug development against this deadly disease.

  11. Role of HIV Subtype Diversity in the Development of Resistance to Antiviral Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bluma G. Brenner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that over 90% of HIV-1 infected people worldwide harbor non‑subtype B variants of HIV-1, knowledge of resistance mutations in non-B HIV-1 and their clinical relevance is limited. Due to historical delays in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART on a worldwide basis, the vast majority of reports on drug resistance deal with subtype B infections in developed countries. However, both enzymatic and virological data support the concept that naturally occurring polymorphisms among different nonB subtypes can affect HIV-1 susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, the magnitude of resistance conferred by major mutations, and the propensity to acquire some resistance mutations. Tools need to be optimized to assure accurate measurements of drug susceptibility of non-B subtypes. Furthermore, there is a need to recognize that each subtype may have a distinct resistance profile and that differences in resistance pathways may also impact on cross-resistance and the selection of second-line regimens. It will be essential to pay attention to newer drug combinations in well designed long-term longitudinal studies involving patients infected by viruses of different subtypes.

  12. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    The field of drug delivery is in essence an exercise in engineered pharmacokinetics. Methods of doing so have been developed through the introduction of a vehicle carrying the drug, either by encapsulation or covalent attachment. The emergence of polymer therapeutics in anticancer therapy has...... garnered a great deal of interest due to the substantial room for improvement inherent to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Chemotherapeutic agents and antiviral agents have a lot of features in common due to both of them typically targeting endogenous targets, unlike antibacterial compounds, though...... the examples of polymer therapeutics being applied as an antiviral treatment are few and far in-between. This work aims to explore antiviral therapeutics, specifically in context of hepatitis virus C (HCV) and HIV. The current treatment of hepatitis C consists of a combination of drugs, of which ribavirin...

  13. Direct-acting antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis C and risk of major vascular events: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini Permunian, Eleonora; Gervaso, Lorenzo; Gerdes, Victor; Moja, Lorenzo; Guasti, Luigina; Squizzato, Alessandro

    2018-04-02

    Direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) were recently approved for treating hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis. As advanced chronic liver disease may predispose patients to thrombotic events, it is still uncertain whether DAAs may influence the actual risk of major arterial and venous thrombotic events. We performed a systematic review to assess the incidence of major vascular events in patients receiving DAAs for HCV chronic hepatitis during phase-III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two reviewers identified studies through Pubmed database until October 2015. Reporting and incidence of any vascular events were compared with reporting and incidence of major bleeding, anemia (a prespecified safety outcome) and headache (a common non-prespecified safety outcome). 33 RCTs, encompassing 14,764 patients, were included. Only 13 (39%) and 4 (12%) RCTs provide data on any arterial or venous events, respectively. Occurrence of anemia and headache is reported in all studies. Crude unweighted rate of major arterial events is 0.16% (95% CI 0.10-0.24) of the total included population and 0.47% in those 13 RCTs reporting data. Crude unweighted rate of major venous events is 0.03% of the total included population (95% CI 0.01-0.08) and 0.22% in those four RCTs reporting data. Crude unweighted rate of major bleeding is 0.07% (95% CI 0.03-0.1). Incidence of thrombotic events in HCV patients receiving DAAs may be low, but an incorrect estimation cannot be excluded.

  14. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of antiviral drug nevirapine with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2017-09-02

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA with nevirapine at physiological pH was studied by using absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, salt effect studies and computational methods. The drug binds to ct-DNA in a groove binding mode, as shown by slight variation in the viscosity of ct-DNA. Furthermore, competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 indicate that nevirapine binds to DNA via groove binding. Moreover, the structure of nevirapine was optimized by DFT calculations and was used for the molecular docking calculations. The molecular docking results suggested that nevirapine prefers to bind on the minor groove of ct-DNA.

  15. Four clinically utilized drugs were identified and validated for treatment of adrenocortical cancer using quantitative high-throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilubol Naris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug repurposing for cancer treatment is an emerging approach to discover clinically approved drugs that demonstrate antineoplastic effect. The effective therapeutics for patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma(ACC are greatly needed. The objective of this study was to identify and validate drugs with antineoplastic effect in ACC cells using a novel quantitative high-throughput drug screening (qHTS technique. Methods A quantitative high-throughput proliferation assay of 2,816 clinically approved drugs was performed in the NCI-H295R ACC cell line. We validated the antiproliferative effect of candidate compounds in NCI-H295R cells. Further validation was performed in 3-dimensional multicellular aggregates (MCA of NCI-H295R and SW-13 cell lines. Results We identified 79 active compounds against ACC cells; 21 had an efficacy ≥60% and IC50 50. Methotrexate inhibited growth and caused disintegration of MCA in both cell lines at concentrations well below the maximum serum level (10 to 100 fold of IC50. Pyrimethamine caused growth inhibition in both cell lines at 10 fold of IC50 concentration. Conclusions qHTS of previously approved compounds is an effective and efficient method to identify anticancer drugs for a rare cancer such as ACC. We have validated the antineoplastic effect of Bortezomib, ouabain, Methotrexate and pyrimethamine, which could be translated into clinical trials in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic ACC.

  16. Nano molar detection of acyclovir, an antiviral drug at nanoclay modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj P. Shetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A nano level voltammetric sensing method has been developed for determination of acyclovir (ACV at nano clay modified carbon paste sensor by employing cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV techniques in pH 5.0. The electro-oxidation current of ACV was enhanced two times greater by the modification of the sensor. The modifier nano clay was characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electronic microscope (SEM. The influence of parameters like scan rate, pH, accumulation time, amount of the modifier and concentration on the peak current of the drug were studied. The effect of ACV concentration variation was studied using SWV technique and got lowest detection limit compared to the earlier reported techniques. The fabricated sensor was employed for the determination of acyclovir in pharmaceutical and biological samples.

  17. Multifunctional dendritic sialopolymersomes as potential antiviral agents: their lectin binding and drug release properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazemi, Ali; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2013-05-28

    Polymer vesicles, commonly referred to as polymersomes, are self-organized materials that result from the self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers in solution. Recently, there has been increasing interest in biomedical applications of polymersomes due to the different functions that can be imparted through encapsulation of molecules within the core or membrane or through the introduction of bioactive molecules to the polymersome surface. We describe here the development and study of poly(ethylene oxide)-polycaprolactone polymersomes designed to interact with influenza viruses at two different stages in the infection process. First, the conjugation of the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to the polymersome surface was designed to inhibit the binding of viral hemagglutinin to sialic acids on host cells, thus preventing viral entry. Second, the incorporation of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir into the polymersome core was designed to prevent the release of progeny virus from the host cells, thus inhibiting viral replication. With the aim of maximizing multivalent effects at the polymersome surface, polyester dendrons functionalized with Neu5Ac were synthesized and conjugated to polymersomes. Binding of the resulting dendritic sialopolymersomes to Limax flavus agglutinin was studied and compared to the sialodendron and a monovalent Neu5Ac derivative using an enzyme-linked lectin inhibition assay. It was found that while the sialodendron exhibited a 17-fold enhancement (per sialoside) relative to the small molecule, the dendritic sialopolymersomes resulted in an almost 2000-fold enhancement in binding affinity. It was also demonstrated that encapsulation of zanamivir into the dendritic sialopolymersomes could be performed with the same efficiency as for naked polymersomes to provide a drug loading of ~35 wt %. Drug release rates were similar for both systems with sustained release over a period of 4 days. Overall, these results suggest the promise of

  18. [THE USE OF THE MODEL MOUSE ICR--VARIOLA VIRUS FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIVIRAL DRUG EFFICACY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Shishkina, L N; Zamedyanskaya, A S; Nesterov, A E; Glotov, A G; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Mice of the ICR outbred population were infected intranasally (i/n) with the variola virus (VARV, strain Ind-3a). Clinical signs of the disease did not appear even at the maximum possible dose of the virus 5.2 lg PFU/head (plaque-forming units per head). In this case, 50% infective dose (ID50) of VARV estimated by the presence or absence of the virus in the lungs three days after infection (p.i.) was equal to 2.7 ± 0.4 lg PFU/head. Taking into account the 10% application of the virus in the lungs during the intranasal infection of the mice, it was adequate to 1.7 lg PFU/lungs. This indicates a high infectivity of the VARV for mice comparable to its infectivity for humans. After the i/n infection of mice with the VARV at a dose 30 ID50/ head the highest concentration of the virus detected in the lungs (4.9 ± 0.0 lg PFU/ml of homogenate) and in nasal cavity tissues (4.8 ± 0.0 lg PFU/ml) were observed. The pathomorphological changes in the respiratory organs of the mice infected with the VARV appeared at 3-5 days p.i., and the VARV reproduction noted in the epithelial cells and macrophages were noticed. When the preparations ST-246 and NIOCH-14 were administered orally at a dose of 60 μg/g of mouse weight up to one day before infection, after 2 hours, 1 and 2 days p.i., the VARV reproduction in the lungs after 3 days p.i. decreased by an order of magnitude. Thus, outbred ICR mice infected with the VARV can be used as a laboratory model of the smallpox when evaluating the therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of the antismallpox drugs.

  19. High-throughput identification of off-targets for the mechanistic study of severe adverse drug reactions induced by analgesics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jian-Bo; Ji, Nan; Pan, Wen; Hong, Ru; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Drugs may induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when they unexpectedly bind to proteins other than their therapeutic targets. Identification of these undesired protein binding partners, called off-targets, can facilitate toxicity assessment in the early stages of drug development. In this study, a computational framework was introduced for the exploration of idiosyncratic mechanisms underlying analgesic-induced severe adverse drug reactions (SADRs). The putative analgesic-target interactions were predicted by performing reverse docking of analgesics or their active metabolites against human/mammal protein structures in a high-throughput manner. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to identify ADR-associated proteins (ADRAPs) and pathways. Using the pathways and ADRAPs that this analysis identified, the mechanisms of SADRs such as cardiac disorders were explored. For instance, 53 putative ADRAPs and 24 pathways were linked with cardiac disorders, of which 10 ADRAPs were confirmed by previous experiments. Moreover, it was inferred that pathways such as base excision repair, glycolysis/glyconeogenesis, ErbB signaling, calcium signaling, and phosphatidyl inositol signaling likely play pivotal roles in drug-induced cardiac disorders. In conclusion, our framework offers an opportunity to globally understand SADRs at the molecular level, which has been difficult to realize through experiments. It also provides some valuable clues for drug repurposing. - Highlights: • A novel computational framework was developed for mechanistic study of SADRs. • Off-targets of drugs were identified in large scale and in a high-throughput manner. • SADRs like cardiac disorders were systematically explored in molecular networks. • A number of ADR-associated proteins were identified

  20. High-throughput identification of off-targets for the mechanistic study of severe adverse drug reactions induced by analgesics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jian-Bo [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Nan; Pan, Wen; Hong, Ru [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Wang, Hao [Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Ji, Zhi-Liang, E-mail: appo@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102 (China); Department of Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Drugs may induce adverse drug reactions (ADRs) when they unexpectedly bind to proteins other than their therapeutic targets. Identification of these undesired protein binding partners, called off-targets, can facilitate toxicity assessment in the early stages of drug development. In this study, a computational framework was introduced for the exploration of idiosyncratic mechanisms underlying analgesic-induced severe adverse drug reactions (SADRs). The putative analgesic-target interactions were predicted by performing reverse docking of analgesics or their active metabolites against human/mammal protein structures in a high-throughput manner. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to identify ADR-associated proteins (ADRAPs) and pathways. Using the pathways and ADRAPs that this analysis identified, the mechanisms of SADRs such as cardiac disorders were explored. For instance, 53 putative ADRAPs and 24 pathways were linked with cardiac disorders, of which 10 ADRAPs were confirmed by previous experiments. Moreover, it was inferred that pathways such as base excision repair, glycolysis/glyconeogenesis, ErbB signaling, calcium signaling, and phosphatidyl inositol signaling likely play pivotal roles in drug-induced cardiac disorders. In conclusion, our framework offers an opportunity to globally understand SADRs at the molecular level, which has been difficult to realize through experiments. It also provides some valuable clues for drug repurposing. - Highlights: • A novel computational framework was developed for mechanistic study of SADRs. • Off-targets of drugs were identified in large scale and in a high-throughput manner. • SADRs like cardiac disorders were systematically explored in molecular networks. • A number of ADR-associated proteins were identified.

  1. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hruby, Dennis E; Bolken, Tove C

    2005-01-01

    ...) as a model system, the goal of our currently funded work is to determine whether the 17L cysteine proteinase or the 17L metalloproteinase encoded by VV is the pox virus core protein proteinase (vCPP...

  2. Antiviral Drug Ribavirin Targets Thyroid Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the eIF4E-β-Catenin Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiawei; Zhu, Yali; Xiao, Zuixuan; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Dan; Li, Lin; Xiao, Baolai

    2017-08-01

    Although eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is important in cancer development and progression, its role in thyroid cancer is not well understood. Ribavirin, an anti-viral drug, has been identified as an eIF4E inhibitor. Herein, we investigated the effects of ribavirin on thyroid cancer and its molecular mechanisms of action. The effects of ribavirin on thyroid cancer was investigated using in vitro cellular assays and in vivo xenograft mouse model. The mechanism of its action on eIF4E-β-catenin axis was examined using genetic and biochemical approaches. We show that ribavirin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in the thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C and FTC-133. Ribavirin inhibited thyroid cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model. Ribavirin also sensitized thyroid cancer's response to paclitaxel. Mechanistically, ribavirin suppressed eIF4E phosphorylation and overexpression of its wildtype and phosphor-mimetic form (S209D) but not of the non-phosphorylatable form (S209A), which rescued the inhibitory effects of ribavirin in thyroid cancer cells. We further demonstrated that ribavirin suppressed phosphorylation and activities of β-catenin and its subsequent gene transcriptional expression. β-Catenin overexpression rescued the effects of ribavirin in thyroid cancer cells. Importantly, we show that eIF4E regulated β-catenin and that the regulation depended on phosphorylation at S209. The in vivo inhibitory effects of ribavirin on phosphorylation of eIF4E and β-catenin were also observed in thyroid tumor. Our data clearly demonstrate that ribavirin acts on thyroid cancer cells by inhibiting eIF4E/β-catenin signaling. Our findings suggest that ribavirin has the potential to be repurposed for thyroid cancer treatment and also highlight the therapeutic value of inhibiting eIF4E-β-catenin in thyroid cancer. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. poolHiTS: A Shifted Transversal Design based pooling strategy for high-throughput drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Peter J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key goal of drug discovery is to increase the throughput of small molecule screens without sacrificing screening accuracy. High-throughput screening (HTS in drug discovery involves testing a large number of compounds in a biological assay to identify active compounds. Normally, molecules from a large compound library are tested individually to identify the activity of each molecule. Usually a small number of compounds are found to be active, however the presence of false positive and negative testing errors suggests that this one-drug one-assay screening strategy can be significantly improved. Pooling designs are testing schemes that test mixtures of compounds in each assay, thereby generating a screen of the whole compound library in fewer tests. By repeatedly testing compounds in different combinations, pooling designs also allow for error-correction. These pooled designs, for specific experiment parameters, can be simply and efficiently created using the Shifted Transversal Design (STD pooling algorithm. However, drug screening contains a number of key constraints that require specific modifications if this pooling approach is to be useful for practical screen designs. Results In this paper, we introduce a pooling strategy called poolHiTS (Pooled High-Throughput Screening which is based on the STD algorithm. In poolHiTS, we implement a limit on the number of compounds that can be mixed in a single assay. In addition, we show that the STD-based pooling strategy is limited in the error-correction that it can achieve. Due to the mixing constraint, we show that it is more efficient to split a large library into smaller blocks of compounds, which are then tested using an optimized strategy repeated for each block. We package the optimal block selection algorithm into poolHiTS. The MATLAB codes for the poolHiTS algorithm and the corresponding decoding strategy are also provided. Conclusion We have produced a practical version

  4. Research priorities to achieve universal access to hepatitis C prevention, management and direct-acting antiviral treatment among people who inject drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebely, Jason; Bruneau, Julie; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2017-01-01

    of HCV infection among current PWID also remains high in many settings. Morbidity and mortality due to liver disease among PWID with HCV infection continues to increase, despite the advent of well-tolerated, simple interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV regimens with cure rates >95......, gaps in research, and develop research priorities. Topics for discussion included the epidemiology of injecting drug use, HCV, and HIV among PWID, HCV prevention, HCV testing, linkage to HCV care and treatment, DAA treatment for HCV infection, and reinfection following successful treatment. This paper...

  5. Human γδ T Cell Receptor Repertoires in Peripheral Blood Remain Stable Despite Clearance of Persistent Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Direct-Acting Antiviral Drug Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Ravens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Human γδ T cells can contribute to clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection but also mediate liver inflammation. This study aimed to understand the clonal distribution of γδ T cells in peripheral blood of chronic HCV patients and following HCV clearance by interferon-free direct-acting antiviral drug therapies. To this end, γδ T cell receptor (TCR repertoires were monitored by mRNA-based next-generation sequencing. While the percentage of Vγ9+ T cells was higher in patients with elevated liver enzymes and a few expanded Vδ3 clones could be identified in peripheral blood of 23 HCV-infected non-cirrhotic patients, overall clonality and complexity of γδ TCR repertoires were largely comparable to those of matched healthy donors. Monitoring eight chronic HCV patients before, during and up to 1 year after therapy revealed that direct-acting antiviral (DAA drug therapies induced only minor alterations of TRG and TRD repertoires of Vγ9+ and Vγ9− cells. Together, we show that peripheral γδ TCR repertoires display a high stability (1 by chronic HCV infection in the absence of liver cirrhosis and (2 by HCV clearance in the course of DAA drug therapy.

  6. High-Throughput Quantification of Nanoparticle Degradation Using Computational Microscopy and Its Application to Drug Delivery Nanocapsules

    KAUST Repository

    Ray, Aniruddha

    2017-04-25

    Design and synthesis of degradable nanoparticles are very important in drug delivery and biosensing fields. Although accurate assessment of nanoparticle degradation rate would improve the characterization and optimization of drug delivery vehicles, current methods rely on estimating the size of the particles at discrete points over time using, for example, electron microscopy or dynamic light scattering (DLS), among other techniques, all of which have drawbacks and practical limitations. There is a significant need for a high-throughput and cost-effective technology to accurately monitor nanoparticle degradation as a function of time and using small amounts of sample. To address this need, here we present two different computational imaging-based methods for monitoring and quantification of nanoparticle degradation. The first method is suitable for discrete testing, where a computational holographic microscope is designed to track the size changes of protease-sensitive protein-core nanoparticles following degradation, by periodically sampling a subset of particles mixed with proteases. In the second method, a sandwich structure was utilized to observe, in real-time, the change in the properties of liquid nanolenses that were self-assembled around degrading nanoparticles, permitting continuous monitoring and quantification of the degradation process. These cost-effective holographic imaging based techniques enable high-throughput monitoring of the degradation of any type of nanoparticle, using an extremely small amount of sample volume that is at least 3 orders of magnitude smaller than what is required by, for example, DLS-based techniques.

  7. A high throughput solubility assay for drug discovery using microscale shake-flask and rapid UHPLC-UV-CLND quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Baiwei; Pease, Joseph H

    2016-04-15

    The rapid determination of key physical properties of lead compounds is essential to the drug discovery process. Solubility is one of the most important properties since good solubility is needed not only for obtaining reliable in vitro and in vivo assay results in early discovery but also to ensure sufficient concentration of the drug being in circulation to get the desired therapeutic exposure at the target of interest. In order for medicinal chemists to tune solubility of lead compounds, a rapid assay is needed to provide solubility data that is accurate and predictive so that it can be reliably used for designing the next generation of compounds with improved properties. To ensure speed and data quality, we developed a high throughput solubility assay that utilizes a single calibration UHPLC-UV-CLND method and a 24h shake-flask format for rapid quantification. A set of 46 model compounds was used to demonstrate that the method is accurate, reproducible and predictive. Here we present development of the assay, including evaluation of quantification method, filtration membranes, equilibrium times, DMSO concentrations, and buffer conditions. A comparison of thermodynamic solubility results to our high throughput 24h shake-flask solubility assay results is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Novel "Inks" for 3D Printing Using High-Throughput Screening: Bioresorbable Photocurable Polymers for Controlled Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzao, Iria; Koch, Britta; Taresco, Vincenzo; Ruiz-Cantu, Laura; Irvine, Derek J; Roberts, Clive J; Tuck, Christopher; Alexander, Cameron; Hague, Richard; Wildman, Ricky; Alexander, Morgan R

    2018-02-28

    A robust methodology is presented to identify novel biomaterials suitable for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Currently, the application of additive manufacturing is limited by the availability of functional inks, especially in the area of biomaterials; this is the first time when this method is used to tackle this problem, allowing hundreds of formulations to be readily assessed. Several functional properties, including the release of an antidepressive drug (paroxetine), cytotoxicity, and printability, are screened for 253 new ink formulations in a high-throughput format as well as mechanical properties. The selected candidates with the desirable properties are successfully scaled up using 3D printing into a range of object architectures. A full drug release study and degradability and tensile modulus experiments are presented on a simple architecture to validating the suitability of this methodology to identify printable inks for 3D printing devices with bespoke properties.

  9. A high-throughput lab-on-a-chip interface for zebrafish embryo tests in drug discovery and ecotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Akagi, Jin; Hall, Chris J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Delaage, Pierre; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    Drug discovery screenings performed on zebrafish embryos mirror with a high level of accuracy. The tests usually performed on mammalian animal models, and the fish embryo toxicity assay (FET) is one of the most promising alternative approaches to acute ecotoxicity testing with adult fish. Notwithstanding this, conventional methods utilising 96-well microtiter plates and manual dispensing of fish embryos are very time-consuming. They rely on laborious and iterative manual pipetting that is a main source of analytical errors and low throughput. In this work, we present development of a miniaturised and high-throughput Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for automation of FET assays. The 3D high-density LOC array was fabricated in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining while the off-chip interfaces were fabricated using additive manufacturing processes (FDM and SLA). The system's design facilitates rapid loading and immobilization of a large number of embryos in predefined clusters of traps during continuous microperfusion of drugs/toxins. It has been conceptually designed to seamlessly interface with both upright and inverted fluorescent imaging systems and also to directly interface with conventional microtiter plate readers that accept 96-well plates. We also present proof-of-concept interfacing with a high-speed imaging cytometer Plate RUNNER HD® capable of multispectral image acquisition with resolution of up to 8192 x 8192 pixels and depth of field of about 40 μm. Furthermore, we developed a miniaturized and self-contained analytical device interfaced with a miniaturized USB microscope. This system modification is capable of performing rapid imaging of multiple embryos at a low resolution for drug toxicity analysis.

  10. Multi-channel counter-current chromatography for high-throughput fractionation of natural products for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shihua; Yang, Lu; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoyue; Liu, Feiyan

    2008-02-08

    A multi-channel counter-current chromatography (CCC) method has been designed and fabricated for the high-throughput fractionation of natural products without complications sometimes encountered with other conventional chromatographic systems, such as irreversible adsorptive constituent losses and deactivation, tailing of solute peaks and contamination. It has multiple independent CCC channels and each channel connects independent separation column(s) by parallel flow tubes, and thus the multi-channel CCC apparatus can achieve simultaneously two or more independent chromatographic processes. Furthermore, a high-throughput CCC fractionation method for natural products has been developed by a combination of a new three-channel CCC apparatus and conventional parallel chromatographic devices including pumps, sample injectors, effluent detectors and collectors, and its performance has been displayed on the fractionation of ethyl acetate extracts of three natural materials Solidago canadensis, Suillus placidus, and Trichosanthes kirilowii, which are found to be potent cytotoxic to tumor cell lines in the course of screening the antitumor candidates. By combination of biological screening programs and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, 22.8 mg 6 beta-angeloyloxykolavenic acid and 29.4 mg 6 beta-tigloyloxykolavenic acid for S. canadensis, 25.3mg suillin for S. placidus, and 6.8 mg 23,24-dihydrocucurbitacin B for T. Kirilowii as their major cytotoxic principles were isolated from each 1000 mg crude ethyl acetate extract. Their chemical structures were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The overall results indicate the multi-channel CCC is very useful for high-throughput fractionation of natural products for drug discovery in spite of the solvent balancing requirement and the lower resolution of the shorter CCC columns.

  11. Efficacy of combined antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C infection in intravenous drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružić Maja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis C Virus infection represents not just a medical, but also a socio-economic problem. It is estimated that among 170 million infected, 60% belongs to the category of intravenous drug users (IDUs. Objective. The aim of this paper was to compare the response to the combined therapy of pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin, in the group of patients with HCV infection who were intravenous drug users (IDUs and in patients who were identified in the other way of transmission of HCV. Also to identify the influence of the therapy on diseases of addiction, during the course of HCV infection and on the effects of the combined therapy of pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin. Methods. We conducted a retrospective-prospective study, on 60 patients, treated with combined antiviral therapy-pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin. 30 patients were from the group of IDUs, and 30 patients from other epidemiological groups. Results. There were significant differences between the age of the patients (30.2±7.1 vs. 39.3±11.2 years; p=0.002, but no significant difference in the duration of the HCV infection between the two groups of patients (8.9±7.4 vs. 13.1±7.0 years; p>0.05. A large number of the patients in the group of IDUs had a problem with the abstinence of the drug abuse. In this group, there was the influence of alcohol (30% and other substances with potential hepatotoxicity: marihuana (23.3% and psycho-active drugs (73.6%. Staging of the liver fibrosis was not influenced by those two parameters and was similar in both groups (p>0.05. The genotype 3a was dominant in intravenous drug users (50.0% and genotype 1b in the control group of the patients (76.6%. In both groups, SVR was achieved at a higher percentage (86% vs. 70.00%; p>0.05, but among the intravenous drug users the relapses of HCV infection were at a lower percentage (3.3% vs. 20.0%; p=0.044. Side effects were noticed in solitary cases in both of the examined

  12. An In Vivo Platform for Rapid High-Throughput Antitubercular Drug Discovery

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    Kevin Takaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of tuberculosis, like other infectious diseases, is increasingly hindered by the emergence of drug resistance. Drug discovery efforts would be facilitated by facile screening tools that incorporate the complexities of human disease. Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae recapitulate key aspects of tuberculosis pathogenesis and drug treatment. Here, we develop a model for rapid in vivo drug screening using fluorescence-based methods for serial quantitative assessment of drug efficacy and toxicity. We provide proof-of-concept that both traditional bacterial-targeting antitubercular drugs and newly identified host-targeting drugs would be discovered through the use of this model. We demonstrate the model’s utility for the identification of synergistic combinations of antibacterial drugs and demonstrate synergy between bacterial- and host-targeting compounds. Thus, the platform can be used to identify new antibacterial agents and entirely new classes of drugs that thwart infection by targeting host pathways. The methods developed here should be widely applicable to small-molecule screens for other infectious and noninfectious diseases.

  13. Human genetics in rheumatoid arthritis guides a high-throughput drug screen of the CD40 signaling pathway.

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    Gang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant in RA discovered by a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS and to perform a high-throughput drug screen for modulators of CD40 signaling based on human genetic findings. First, we fine-map the CD40 risk locus in 7,222 seropositive RA patients and 15,870 controls, together with deep sequencing of CD40 coding exons in 500 RA cases and 650 controls, to identify a single SNP that explains the entire signal of association (rs4810485, P = 1.4×10(-9. Second, we demonstrate that subjects homozygous for the RA risk allele have ∼33% more CD40 on the surface of primary human CD19+ B lymphocytes than subjects homozygous for the non-risk allele (P = 10(-9, a finding corroborated by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 1,469 healthy control individuals. Third, we use retroviral shRNA infection to perturb the amount of CD40 on the surface of a human B lymphocyte cell line (BL2 and observe a direct correlation between amount of CD40 protein and phosphorylation of RelA (p65, a subunit of the NF-κB transcription factor. Finally, we develop a high-throughput NF-κB luciferase reporter assay in BL2 cells activated with trimerized CD40 ligand (tCD40L and conduct an HTS of 1,982 chemical compounds and FDA-approved drugs. After a series of counter-screens and testing in primary human CD19+ B cells, we identify 2 novel chemical inhibitors not previously implicated in inflammation or CD40-mediated NF-κB signaling. Our study demonstrates proof-of-concept that human genetics can be used to guide the development of phenotype-based, high-throughput small-molecule screens to identify potential novel

  14. High-throughput liquid chromatography for drug analysis in biological fluids: investigation of extraction column life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fisher, Alison L; Musson, Donald G; Wang, Amy Qiu

    2004-07-05

    A novel method was developed and assessed to extend the lifetime of extraction columns of high-throughput liquid chromatography (HTLC) for bioanalysis of human plasma samples. In this method, a 15% acetic acid solution and 90% THF were respectively used as mobile phases to clean up the proteins in human plasma samples and residual lipids from the extraction and analytical columns. The 15% acetic acid solution weakens the interactions between proteins and the stationary phase of the extraction column and increases the protein solubility in the mobile phase. The 90% THF mobile phase prevents the accumulation of lipids and thus reduces the potential damage on the columns. Using this novel method, the extraction column lifetime has been extended to about 2000 direct plasma injections, and this is the first time that high concentration acetic acid and THF are used in HTLC for on-line cleanup and extraction column lifetime extension.

  15. Comparative QSAR studies on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drug absorption potential with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P.; Hansch, Corwin; Selassie, Cynthia D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in speed of synthesis and biological evaluation of new chemical entities, the number of compounds that survive the rigorous processes associated with drug development is low. Thus, an increased emphasis on thorough ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) studies based on in vitro and in silico approaches allows for early evaluation of new drugs in the development phase. Artificial membrane permeability measurements afford a high throughput, relatively low cost but labor intensive alternative for in vitro determination of drug absorption potential; parallel artificial membrane permeability assays have been extensively utilized to determine drug absorption potentials. The present study provides comparative QSAR analysis on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drugs with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption.

  16. High-throughput oxidation screen of antibody-drug conjugates by analytical protein A chromatography following IdeS digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecheler, Jakob W; Winzer, Matthias; Weber, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

    2018-05-01

    Oxidation of protein therapeutics is a major chemical degradation pathway which may impact bioactivity, serum half-life and stability. Therefore, oxidation is a relevant parameter which has to be monitored throughout formulation development. Methods such as HIC, RPLC and LC/MS achieve a separation of oxidized and non-oxidized species by differences in hydrophobicity. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) although are highly more complex due to the heterogeneity in linker, drug, drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) and conjugation site. The analytical protein A chromatography can provide a simple and fast alternative to these common methods. A miniature analytical protein A chromatography method in combination with an IdeS digest was developed to analyse ADCs. The IdeS digest efficiency of an IgG1 was monitored using SEC-HPLC and non-reducing SDS-PAGE. An antibody-fluorescent dye conjugate was conjugated at different dye-to-antibody ratios as model construct to mimic an ADC. With IdeS, an almost complete digest of a model IgG1 can be achieved (digested protein amount >98%). This enables subsequent analytical protein A chromatography, which consequently eliminates any interference of payload with the stationary phase. A novel high-throughput method for an interchain cysteine-linked ADC oxidation screens during formulation development was developed. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Diversity of Pharmacological Properties in Chinese and European Medicinal Plants: Cytotoxicity, Antiviral and Antitrypanosomal Screening of 82 Herbal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Efferth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive screening, the antiviral, antitrypanosomal and anticancer properties of extracts from 82 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine and European phytomedicine were determined. Several promising plants that were highly effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV—a flavivirus used here as a surrogate in vitro model of hepatitis C virus, trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei brucei and several cancer cell lines were identified. Six aqueous extracts from Celosia cristata, Ophioglossum vulgatum, Houttuynia cordata, Selaginella tamariscina, Alpinia galanga and Alpinia oxyphylla showed significant antiviral effects against BVDV without toxic effects on host embryonic bovine trachea (EBTr cells, while Evodia lepta, Hedyotis diffusa and Glycyrrhiza spp. demonstrated promising activities against the HBV without toxic effects on host human hepatoblastoma cells transfected with HBV-DNA (HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Seven organic extracts from Alpinia oxyphylla, Coptis chinensis, Kadsura longipedunculata, Arctium lappa, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Saposhnikovia divaricata inhibited T. b. brucei. Moreover, among fifteen water extracts that combined high antiproliferative activity (IC50 0.5–20 µg/mL and low acute in vitro toxicity (0–10% reduction in cell viability at IC50, Coptis chinensis presented the best beneficial characteristics. In conclusion, traditional herbal medicine from Europe and China still has a potential for new therapeutic targets and therapeutic applications.

  18. Model for High-Throughput Screening of Multitarget Drugs in Chemical Neurosciences: Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretic Study of Rasagiline Carbamates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The disappointing results obtained in recent clinical trials renew the interest in experimental/computational techniques for the discovery of neuroprotective drugs. In this context, multitarget or multiplexing QSAR models (mt-QSAR/mx-QSAR) may help to predict neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs in multiple assays, on drug targets, and in model organisms. In this work, we study a data set downloaded from CHEMBL; each data point (>8000) contains the values of one out of 37 possible measures of activity, 493 assays, 169 molecular or cellular targets, and 11 different organisms (including human) for a given compound. In this work, we introduce the first mx-QSAR model for neurotoxicity/neuroprotective effects of drugs based on the MARCH-INSIDE (MI) method. First, we used MI to calculate the stochastic spectral moments (structural descriptors) of all compounds. Next, we found a model that classified correctly 2955 out of 3548 total cases in the training and validation series with Accuracy, Sensitivity, and Specificity values > 80%. The model also showed excellent results in Computational-Chemistry simulations of High-Throughput Screening (CCHTS) experiments, with accuracy = 90.6% for 4671 positive cases. Next, we reported the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of new rasagiline derivatives. We carried out three different experimental tests: assay (1) in the absence of neurotoxic agents, assay (2) in the presence of glutamate, and assay (3) in the presence of H2O2. Compounds 11 with 27.4%, 8 with 11.6%, and 9 with 15.4% showed the highest neuroprotective effects in assays (1), (2), and (3), respectively. After that, we used the mx-QSAR model to carry out a CCHTS of the new compounds in >400 unique pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally. Consequently, this model may become a promising auxiliary tool for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23855599

  19. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control

    OpenAIRE

    Boven, M. van; Klinkenberg, D.; Pen, I.; Weissing, F.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a large-scale antiviral drug treatment program are as yet unknown. We provide population dynamical and game theoretical analyses of large-scale prophylactic antiviral treatment programs. Throughout we compare th...

  20. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of combination therapy with traditional Chinese medicine and nucleoside analogue antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REN Shuang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate whether the collected randomized controlled trials (RCTs published to date have shown that supplemental application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM improves the outcome of chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients treated with nucleoside analogue antiviral drugs. MethodsLiterature collections on the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Academic Journal Full-text Database, the Chinese Scientific Journals Database, PubMed, and Embase were searched from inception to July 2012 to identify publications of RCTs comparing the therapeutic efficacy of TCM combined with nucleoside analogues lamivudine (LDM, adefovir (ADV, entecavir (ETV to treat CHB. Inclusion criteria included: patients with CHB for more than six months, serum HbsAg-positivity, 2× upper normal limit (ULN≤alanine aminotransferase (ALT≤10× ULN, hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA-positivity, and no previous antiviral therapy for six months prior to study; a control group receiving a single nucleoside analogue; study treatment time of at least three months. The methodological quality of included RCTs was assessed using the Jadad scale. The meta-analysis was carried out with RevMan 5.0 software. Heterogeneity was examined by Chi-squared test. Pooled data was analyzed by the fixed effects model or random effects model, according to presence of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot asymmetry. ResultsA total of 14 RCTs were included in the analysis and comprised 1386 CHB patients with 703 in the trial groups and 683 in the control groups. Only one study had moderate-high methodological quality (Jadad score: 3, and the remaining studies had low methodological quality (Jadad score: 2, n=1; 1, n=12. The outcome measures included: ALT normalization rate, aspartate aminotransferase (AST normalization rate, hepatitis B e antigen (HbeAg-negativity rate, HBeAg seroconversion rate, HBV DNA-negativity rate, and incidence of the LAM-resistance YMDD

  1. Biased ligand quantification in drug discovery: from theory to high throughput screening to identify new biased μ opioid receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winpenny, David; Clark, Mellissa; Cawkill, Darren

    2016-04-01

    Biased GPCR ligands are able to engage with their target receptor in a manner that preferentially activates distinct downstream signalling and offers potential for next generation therapeutics. However, accurate quantification of ligand bias in vitro is complex, and current best practice is not amenable for testing large numbers of compound. We have therefore sought to apply ligand bias theory to an industrial scale screening campaign for the identification of new biased μ receptor agonists. μ receptor assays with appropriate dynamic range were developed for both Gαi -dependent signalling and β-arrestin2 recruitment. Δlog(Emax /EC50 ) analysis was validated as an alternative for the operational model of agonism in calculating pathway bias towards Gαi -dependent signalling. The analysis was applied to a high throughput screen to characterize the prevalence and nature of pathway bias among a diverse set of compounds with μ receptor agonist activity. A high throughput screening campaign yielded 440 hits with greater than 10-fold bias relative to DAMGO. To validate these results, we quantified pathway bias of a subset of hits using the operational model of agonism. The high degree of correlation across these biased hits confirmed that Δlog(Emax /EC50 ) was a suitable method for identifying genuine biased ligands within a large collection of diverse compounds. This work demonstrates that using Δlog(Emax /EC50 ), drug discovery can apply the concept of biased ligand quantification on a large scale and accelerate the deliberate discovery of novel therapeutics acting via this complex pharmacology. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Poor quality drugs: grand challenges in high throughput detection, countrywide sampling, and forensics in developing countries†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Facundo M.; Hostetler, Dana; Powell, Kristen; Kaur, Harparkash; Green, Michael D.; Mildenhall, Dallas C.; Newton, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, poor quality medicines have been a persistent problem, with periodical crises in the supply of antimicrobials, such as fake cinchona bark in the 1600s and fake quinine in the 1800s. Regrettably, this problem seems to have grown in the last decade, especially afflicting unsuspecting patients and those seeking medicines via on-line pharmacies. Here we discuss some of the challenges related to the fight against poor quality drugs, and counterfeits in particular, with an emphasis on the analytical tools available, their relative performance, and the necessary workflows needed for distinguishing between genuine, substandard, degraded and counterfeit medicines. PMID:21107455

  3. Drug discovery for male subfertility using high-throughput screening: a new approach to an unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins da Silva, Sarah J; Brown, Sean G; Sutton, Keith; King, Louise V; Ruso, Halil; Gray, David W; Wyatt, Paul G; Kelly, Mark C; Barratt, Christopher L R; Hope, Anthony G

    2017-05-01

    Can pharma drug discovery approaches be utilized to transform investigation into novel therapeutics for male infertility? High-throughput screening (HTS) is a viable approach to much-needed drug discovery for male factor infertility. There is both huge demand and a genuine clinical need for new treatment options for infertile men. However, the time, effort and resources required for drug discovery are currently exorbitant, due to the unique challenges of the cellular, physical and functional properties of human spermatozoa and a lack of appropriate assay platform. Spermatozoa were obtained from healthy volunteer research donors and subfertile patients undergoing IVF/ICSI at a hospital-assisted reproductive techniques clinic between January 2012 and November 2016. A HTS assay was developed and validated using intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) as a surrogate for motility in human spermatozoa. Calcium fluorescence was detected using a Flexstation microplate reader (384-well platform) and compared with responses evoked by progesterone, a compound known to modify a number of biologically relevant behaviours in human spermatozoa. Hit compounds identified following single point drug screen (10 μM) of an ion channel-focussed library assembled by the University of Dundee Drug Discovery Unit were rescreened to ensure potency using standard 10 point half-logarithm concentration curves, and tested for purity and integrity using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Hit compounds were grouped by structure activity relationships and five representative compounds then further investigated for direct effects on spermatozoa, using computer-assisted sperm assessment, sperm penetration assay and whole-cell patch clamping. Of the 3242 ion channel library ligands screened, 384 compounds (11.8%) elicited a statistically significant increase in calcium fluorescence, with greater than 3× median absolute deviation above the baseline. Seventy-four compounds eliciting ≥50% increase

  4. Acid-base characterization, coordination properties towards copper(II) ions and DNA interaction studies of ribavirin, an antiviral drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaj, Justyna; Starosta, Radosław; Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We have studied processes of copper(II) ion binding by ribavirin, an antiviral agent used in treating hepatitis C, which is accompanied usually by an increased copper level in the serum and liver tissue. Protonation equilibria and Cu(II) binding were investigated using the UV-visible, EPR and NMR spectroscopic techniques as well as the DFT (density functional theory) calculations. The spectroscopic data suggest that the first complex is formed in the water solution at pH as low as 0.5. In this compound Cu(II) ion is bound to one of the nitrogen atoms from the triazole ring. Above pH6.0, the metal ion is surrounded by two nitrogen and two oxygen atoms from two ligand molecules. The DFT calculations allowed to determine the exact structure of this complex. We found that in the lowest energy isomer two molecules of the ligand coordinate via O and N4 atoms in trans positions. The hypothetical oxidative properties of the investigated system were also examined. It proved not to generate plasmid DNA scission products. However, the calf thymus (CT)-DNA binding studies showed that it reacts with ribavirin and its cupric complex. Moreover, the interaction with the complex is much more efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Multiparametric Drug-Scoring Method for High-Throughput Screening of 3D Multicellular Tumor Spheroids Using the Celigo Image Cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbes, Scott; Kessel, Sarah; McMenemy, Scott; Qiu, Jean; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2017-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tumor models have been increasingly used to investigate and characterize cancer drug compounds. The ability to perform high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can highly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of discovering potential cancer drug candidates. Previously, the Celigo Image Cytometer has demonstrated a novel method for high-throughput screening of 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. In this work, we employed the Celigo Image Cytometer to examine the effects of 14 cancer drug compounds on 3D MCTS of the glioblastoma cell line U87MG in 384-well plates. Using parameters such as MCTS diameter and invasion area, growth and invasion were monitored for 9 and 3 d, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescent staining with calcein AM, propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, and caspase 3/7 was performed at day 9 posttreatment to measure viability and apoptosis. Using the kinetic and endpoint data generated, we created a novel multiparametric drug-scoring system for 3D MCTS that can be used to identify and classify potential drug candidates earlier in the drug discovery process. Furthermore, the combination of quantitative and qualitative image data can be used to delineate differences between drugs that induce cytotoxic and cytostatic effects. The 3D MCTS-based multiparametric scoring method described here can provide an alternative screening method to better qualify tested drug compounds.

  6. Evolution of multi-drug resistant HCV clones from pre-existing resistant-associated variants during direct-acting antiviral therapy determined by third-generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Haruhiko; Ueda, Yoshihide; Inuzuka, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Osaki, Yukio; Nasu, Akihiro; Umeda, Makoto; Takemura, Ryo; Seno, Hiroshi; Sekine, Akihiro; Marusawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Resistance-associated variant (RAV) is one of the most significant clinical challenges in treating HCV-infected patients with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We investigated the viral dynamics in patients receiving DAAs using third-generation sequencing technology. Among 283 patients with genotype-1b HCV receiving daclatasvir + asunaprevir (DCV/ASV), 32 (11.3%) failed to achieve sustained virological response (SVR). Conventional ultra-deep sequencing of HCV genome was performed in 104 patients (32 non-SVR, 72 SVR), and detected representative RAVs in all non-SVR patients at baseline, including Y93H in 28 (87.5%). Long contiguous sequences spanning NS3 to NS5A regions of each viral clone in 12 sera from 6 representative non-SVR patients were determined by third-generation sequencing, and showed the concurrent presence of several synonymous mutations linked to resistance-associated substitutions in a subpopulation of pre-existing RAVs and dominant isolates at treatment failure. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic distances between pre-existing RAVs and dominant RAVs at treatment failure. In addition, multiple drug-resistant mutations developed on pre-existing RAVs after DCV/ASV in all non-SVR cases. In conclusion, multi-drug resistant viral clones at treatment failure certainly originated from a subpopulation of pre-existing RAVs in HCV-infected patients. Those RAVs were selected for and became dominant with the acquisition of multiple resistance-associated substitutions under DAA treatment pressure.

  7. HCV Drug Resistance Challenges in Japan: The Role of Pre-Existing Variants and Emerging Resistant Strains in Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Chayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained virological response (SVR rates have increased dramatically following the approval of direct acting antiviral (DAA therapies. While individual DAAs have a low barrier to resistance, most patients can be successfully treated using DAA combination therapy. However, DAAs are vulnerable to drug resistance, and resistance-associated variants (RAVs may occur naturally prior to DAA therapy or may emerge following drug exposure. While most RAVs are quickly lost in the absence of DAAs, compensatory mutations may reinforce fitness. However, the presence of RAVs does not necessarily preclude successful treatment. Although developments in hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy in Asia have largely paralleled those in the United States, Japan’s July 2014 approval of asunaprevir plus daclatasvir combination therapy as the first all-oral interferon-free therapy was not repeated in the United States. Instead, two different combination therapies were approved: sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir. This divergence in treatment approaches may lead to differences in resistance challenges faced by Japan and the US. However, the recent approval of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in Japan and the recent submissions of petitions for approval of paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ombitasvir suggest a trend towards a new consensus on emerging DAA regimens.

  8. Study on antiviral activities, drug-likeness and molecular docking of bioactive compounds of Punica granatum L. to Herpes simplex virus - 2 (HSV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Jagadeesan; Rajarajan, Swaminathan

    2018-03-28

    Herpes simplex virus - 2 (HSV-2) causes lifelong persisting infection in the immunocompromised host and intermittent in healthy individuals with high morbidity in neonatals and also increase the transmission of HIV. Acyclovir is widely used drug to treat HSV-2 infection but it unable to control viral latency and recurrent infection and prolonged usage lead to drug resistance. Plant-based bioactive compounds are the lead structural bio-molecules play an inevitable role as a potential antiviral agent with reduced toxicity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-HSV-2 bioactive molecules to prevent viral resistance and control of latent infection. Punica granatum fruit is rich in major bioactive compounds with potential antimicrobial properties. Hence, we evaluated the anti-HSV-2 efficacy of lyophilized extracts and bioactive compounds isolated from fruit peel of P. granatum. As a result, ethanolic peel extract showed significant inhibition at 62.5 μg/ml. Hence, the fruit peel ethanolic extract was subjected for the isolation of bioactive compounds isolation by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among isolated bioactive compounds, punicalagin showed 100% anti-HSV-2 activity at 31.25 μg/ml with supportive evidence of desirable in silico ADMET properties and strong interactions to selected protein targets of HSV-2 by docking analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Limitations in a frataxin knockdown cell model for Friedreich ataxia in a high-throughput drug screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiech Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacological high-throughput screening (HTS represents a powerful strategy for drug discovery in genetic diseases, particularly when the full spectrum of pathological dysfunctions remains unclear, such as in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA. FRDA, the most common recessive ataxia, results from a generalized deficiency of mitochondrial and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster (ISC proteins activity, due to a partial loss of frataxin function, a mitochondrial protein proposed to function as an iron-chaperone for ISC biosynthesis. In the absence of measurable catalytic function for frataxin, a cell-based assay is required for HTS assay. Methods Using a targeted ribozyme strategy in murine fibroblasts, we have developed a cellular model with strongly reduced levels of frataxin. We have used this model to screen the Prestwick Chemical Library, a collection of one thousand off-patent drugs, for potential molecules for FRDA. Results The frataxin deficient cell lines exhibit a proliferation defect, associated with an ISC enzyme deficit. Using the growth defect as end-point criteria, we screened the Prestwick Chemical Library. However no molecule presented a significant and reproducible effect on the proliferation rate of frataxin deficient cells. Moreover over numerous passages, the antisense ribozyme fibroblast cell lines revealed an increase in frataxin residual level associated with the normalization of ISC enzyme activities. However, the ribozyme cell lines and FRDA patient cells presented an increase in Mthfd2 transcript, a mitochondrial enzyme that was previously shown to be upregulated at very early stages of the pathogenesis in the cardiac mouse model. Conclusion Although no active hit has been identified, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of using a cell-based approach to HTS for FRDA. Furthermore, it highlights the difficulty in the development of a stable frataxin-deficient cell model, an essential condition for productive

  10. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju; Flosi, William J.; Klein, Larry L.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Stoll, Vincent; Mamo, Mulugeta; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Kempf, Dale J. (Abbott)

    2013-03-07

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistant mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.

  11. The role of lipid-based drug delivery systems for enhancing solubility of highly selective antiviral agent acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mohsin; Al-Amri, Khalid A; Alanazi, Fars K

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to improve the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of acyclovir (ACV) using self-emulsifying lipid formulations (SEDDS/SMEDDS). ACV was formulated in various SEDDS/SMEDDS using wide ranges of oils (mono-/di-/triglycerides), nonionic surfactants and water-soluble cosolvents with the aid of phase behavior studies. The drug solubility was determined in anhydrous, 10% and 99% diluted formulations. Drug precipitation and release profiles of the SEDDS/SMEDDS were also investigated. The ACV was highly soluble in the formulations containing high concentration of hydrophilic materials. The addition of propylene glycol (PG) significantly enhanced the drug solubility. In addition, with only 1% 0.1 M HCl, the drug solubility improved 10-fold higher without any precipitation. In the dissolution studies, the representative SEDDS/SMEDDS showed superior release profiles (>90% ACV released) than marketed Zovirax® suspension (soluble cosolvent (e.g. PG), were the most suitable systems for ACV due to the extensive drug solubilization and release profile.

  12. Lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with DNA-encoded chemical libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünzner, S.; Reddavide, F. V.; Steinfelder, C.; Cui, M.; Busek, M.; Klotzbach, U.; Zhang, Y.; Sonntag, F.

    2017-02-01

    The fast development of DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECL) in the past 10 years has received great attention from pharmaceutical industries. It applies the selection approach for small molecular drug discovery. Because of the limited choices of DNA-compatible chemical reactions, most DNA-encoded chemical libraries have a narrow structural diversity and low synthetic yield. There is also a poor correlation between the ranking of compounds resulted from analyzing the sequencing data and the affinity measured through biochemical assays. By combining DECL with dynamical chemical library, the resulting DNA-encoded dynamic library (EDCCL) explores the thermodynamic equilibrium of reversible reactions as well as the advantages of DNA encoded compounds for manipulation/detection, thus leads to enhanced signal-to-noise ratio of the selection process and higher library quality. However, the library dynamics are caused by the weak interactions between the DNA strands, which also result in relatively low affinity of the bidentate interaction, as compared to a stable DNA duplex. To take advantage of both stably assembled dual-pharmacophore libraries and EDCCLs, we extended the concept of EDCCLs to heat-induced EDCCLs (hi-EDCCLs), in which the heat-induced recombination process of stable DNA duplexes and affinity capture are carried out separately. To replace the extremely laborious and repetitive manual process, a fully automated device will facilitate the use of DECL in drug discovery. Herein we describe a novel lab-on-a-chip platform for high throughput drug discovery with hi-EDCCL. A microfluidic system with integrated actuation was designed which is able to provide a continuous sample circulation by reducing the volume to a minimum. It consists of a cooled and a heated chamber for constant circulation. The system is capable to generate stable temperatures above 75 °C in the heated chamber to melt the double strands of the DNA and less than 15 °C in the cooled chamber

  13. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Tzung Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines.

  14. Delivering direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C to highly marginalised and current drug injecting populations in a targeted primary health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Phillip; Lothian, Rebecca; Chronister, Karen; Gilliver, Rosie; Kearley, John; Dore, Gregory J; van Beek, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    The Kirketon Road Centre (KRC) is a community-based public health facility in Sydney, Australia, that provides healthcare to people who inject drugs (PWID), including hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. From March 2016, the Australian Government has provided access to direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for adults with chronic HCV, without liver disease stage or drug and alcohol use restrictions. The aim of this study was to report DAA treatment outcomes among highly marginalised PWID treated at KRC. All individuals initiating DAA treatment at KRC and due for sustained virological response (SVR12) testing by end 2016 were included. Demographic, drug use behaviour, clinical parameters, adherence support and HCV treatment outcomes, including SVR12 were recorded. Factors associated with SVR12, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and delayed SVR12 testing (>SVR16) were assessed by multivariate analysis. SVR12 was assessed by intention-to-treat (ITT) and modified ITT, the latter excluding individuals with an end-of-treatment response (ETR) but no SVR12 assessment, or who postponed their SVR12 date due to treatment interruption. A total of 72 individuals commencing DAAs were included, of whom 67% were male, 30% homeless, and 32% Aboriginal. All had a lifetime history of injecting drug use, with 75% having injected within the last six months, and 44% injecting at least weekly; 25% were also enrolled in opioid substitution therapy. Twenty-five (35%) individuals elected to receive an enhanced adherence-support package. Fifty-nine of 72 (82%) individuals due for SVR12 attended for testing, of whom 59/59 (100%) achieved SVR, providing an ITT SVR of 82%. A further six individuals had undetectable HCV RNA at ETR, but no SVR12 assessment, and one interrupted treatment, providing a mITT SVR of 91%. Homelessness was associated with delayed SVR12 testing (OR 24.9 95%CI 2.9-212.8, p=0.003). There was no association between LTFU and frequency of drug injection, last drug injected, or planned

  15. Anti-viral drug treatment along with immune activator IL-2: a control-based mathematical approach for HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath Chatterjee, Amar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Recent development in antiretroviral treatment against HIV can help AIDS patients to fight against HIV. But the question that whether the disease is to be partially or totally eradicated from HIV infected individuals still remains unsolved. Usually, the most effective treatment for the disease is HAART which can only control the disease progression. But as the immune system becomes weak, the patients can not fight against other diseases. Immune cells are activated and proliferated by IL-2 after the identification of antigen. IL-2 production is impaired in HIV positive patients and intermitted administration of immune activator IL-2 together with HAART which is a more effective treatment to fight against the disease. Thus, its expediency is essential and is yet to be explored. In this article we anticipated a mathematical model of the effect of IL-2 together with RTIs therapy in HIV positive patients. Our analytical as well as numerical study shows that the optimal schedule of treatment for best result is to be obtained by systematic drug therapy. But at the last stage of treatment, the infection level raises again due to minimisation of drug dosage. Thus we study the perfect adherence of the drugs and found out if RTIs are taken with sufficient interval then for fixed interval of IL-2 therapy, certain amount of drug dosages may be able to sustain the immune system at pre-infection stage and the infected CD4+T cells are going towards extinction.

  16. Adsorption removal of antiviral drug oseltamivir and its metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate by carbon nanotubes: Effects of carbon nanotube properties and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Zheng-Ming; Niu, Li-Xia; Wang, Chao; Sun, Ming-Chao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-10-01

    This investigation evaluated the adsorption behavior of the antiviral drugs of oseltamivir (OE) and its metabolites (i.e., oseltamivir carboxylate (OC)) on three types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including single-walled CNT (SWCNT), multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), and carboxylated SWCNT (SWCNT-COOH). CNTs can efficiently remove more than 90% of the OE and OC from aqueous solution when the initial concentration was lower than 10(-4) mmol/L. The Polanyi-Manes model depicted the adsorption isotherms of OE and OC on CNTs better than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The properties of OE/OC and the characteristics of CNTs, particularly the oxygen functional groups (e.g., SWCNT-COOH) played important roles during the adsorption processes. OE showed a higher adsorption affinity than OC. By comparing the different adsorbates adsorption on each CNT and each adsorbate adsorption on different CNTs, the adsorption mechanisms of hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction, van der Waals force, and H-bonding were proposed as the contributing factors for OE and OC adsorption on CNTs. Particularly, for verifying the contribution of electrostatic interaction, the changes of adsorption partition efficiency (Kd) of OE and OC on CNTs were evaluated by varying pH from 2 to 11 and the importance of isoelectric point (pHIEP) of CNTs on OE and OC adsorption was addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA interaction studies of a copper (II) complex containing an antiviral drug, valacyclovir: the effect of metal center on the mode of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Fatahi, Parvin

    2012-07-01

    The water-soluble complex, [Cu(Val)(2)(NO(3))(2)]; in which Val = valacyclovir, an antiviral drug, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, furier transfer-infrared, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR), and UV-Vis techniques. The binding of this Cu (II) complex to calf thymus DNA was investigated using fluorimetry, spectrophotometry, circular dichroism, and viscosimetry. In fluorimetric studies, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between the complex and calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) showed that the reaction is endothermic (ΔH = 208.22 kJ mol(-1); ΔS = 851.35 J mol(-1)K(-1)). The complex showed the absorption hyperchromism in its ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum with DNA. The calculated binding constant, K(b), obtained from UV-Vis absorption studies was 2 × 10(5) M(-1). Moreover, the complex induced detectable changes in the circular dichroism spectrum of CT-DNA, as well as changes in its viscosity. The results suggest that this copper (II) complex interacts with CT-DNA via a groove-binding mode.

  18. Study on the interaction of the antiviral drug, zidovudine with DNA using neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabadi, Nahid, E-mail: nahidshahabadi@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Neda Hossein pour [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The interaction between the drug, zidovudine and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated using neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) dyes as a spectral probes by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the conformational changes in DNA helix induced by zidovudine are the reason for the fluorescence quenching of the DNA-NR system. In addition, by increasing zidovudine to DNA-MB solution, the fluorescence has no change. From the experimental results, it was found that zidovudine can cause structural changes on CT-DNA and bind with DNA via groove binding mode. At the same time, the paper proved that conformational changes of DNA can also lead to the fluorescence decrease of DNA-probe systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Search for new molecular structures which exhibit effective antitumor activities among popular drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DRUG can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several spectroscopic techniques have been used in this research.

  19. The Influenza Virus Polymerase Complex: An Update on Its Structure, Functions, and Significance for Antiviral Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevaert, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and pandemic outbreaks associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and a huge cost. Since resistance to the existing anti‐influenza drugs is rising, innovative inhibitors with a different mode of action are urgently needed. The influenza polymerase complex is widely recognized as a key drug target, given its critical role in virus replication and high degree of conservation among influenza A (of human or zoonotic origin) and B viruses. We here review the major progress that has been made in recent years in unravelling the structure and functions of this protein complex, enabling structure‐aided drug design toward the core regions of the PA endonuclease, PB1 polymerase, or cap‐binding PB2 subunit. Alternatively, inhibitors may target a protein–protein interaction site, a cellular factor involved in viral RNA synthesis, the viral RNA itself, or the nucleoprotein component of the viral ribonucleoprotein. The latest advances made for these diverse pharmacological targets have yielded agents in advanced (i.e., favipiravir and VX‐787) or early clinical testing, besides several experimental inhibitors in various stages of development, which are all covered here. PMID:27569399

  20. Chiral analysis of anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug, 9-(R)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (tenofovir), and related antiviral acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by CE using beta-CD as chiral selector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolínová, Veronika; Kašička, Václav; Sázelová, Petra; Holý, Antonín

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2009), s. 2245-2254 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1044; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antiviral drugs * capillary electrophoresis * enantioseparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.077, year: 2009

  1. Assessment of the antiviral properties of recombinant surfactant protein D against influenza B virus in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillaire, Marine L.B.; van Eijk, Martin; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; Nieuwkoop, Nella J; van Riel, Debby; Fouchier, Ron A M; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Haagsman, Henk P.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-01

    The armamentarium of antiviral drugs against influenza viruses is limited. Furthermore, influenza viruses emerge that are resistant to existing antiviral drugs like the M2 and NA inhibitors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel classes of antiviral drugs. Here we

  2. Self-assembled dopamine nanolayers wrapped carbon nanotubes as carbon-carbon bi-functional nanocatalyst for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction and antiviral drug monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafallah, Diab; Akhtar, Naeem; Alothman, Othman Y.; Fouad, H.; Abdelrazek khalil, Khalil

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts are the heart of eco-friendly energy resources particularly low temperature fuel cells. Although valuable efforts have been devoted to synthesize high performance catalysts for ORR, considerable challenges are extremely desirable in the development of energy technologies. Herein, we report a simple self-polymerization method to build a thin film of dopamine along the tubular nanostructures of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in a weak alkaline solution. The dopamine@CNT hybrid (denoted as DA@CNT) reveals an enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards ORR with highly positive onset potential and cathodic current as a result of their outstanding features of longitudinal mesoporous structure, high surface area, and ornamentation of DA layers with nitrogen moieties, which enable fast electron transport and fully exposed electroactive sites. Impressively, the as-obtained hybrid afford remarkable electrochemical durability for prolonged test time of 60,000 s compared to benchmark Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst. Furthermore, the developed DA@CNT electrode was successfully applied to access the quality of antiviral drug named Valacyclovir (VCR). The DA@CNT electrode shows enhanced sensing performance in terms of large linear range (3-75 nM), low limit of detection (2.55 nM) than CNT based electrode, indicating the effectiveness of the DA coating. Interestingly, the synergetic effect of nanostructured DA and CNT can significantly boost the electronic configuration and exposure level of active species for ORR and biomolecule recognition. Therefore, the existing carbon-based porous electrocatalyst may find numerous translational applications as attractive alternative to noble metals in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and quality control assessment of pharmaceutical and therapeutic drugs.

  3. In silico study of rotavirus VP7 surface accessible conserved regions for antiviral drug/vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarnil Ghosh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rotaviral diarrhoea kills about half a million children annually in developing countries and accounts for one third of diarrhea related hospitalizations. Drugs and vaccines against the rotavirus are handicapped, as in all viral diseases, by the rapid mutational changes that take place in the DNA and protein sequences rendering most of these ineffective. As of now only two vaccines are licensed and approved by the WHO (World Health Organization, but display reduced efficiencies in the underdeveloped countries where the disease is more prevalent. We approached this issue by trying to identify regions of surface exposed conserved segments on the surface glycoproteins of the virion, which may then be targeted by specific peptide vaccines. We had developed a bioinformatics protocol for these kinds of problems with reference to the influenza neuraminidase protein, which we have refined and expanded to analyze the rotavirus issue. RESULTS: Our analysis of 433 VP7 (Viral Protein 7 from rotavirus surface protein sequences across 17 subtypes encompassing mammalian hosts using a 20D Graphical Representation and Numerical Characterization method, identified four possible highly conserved peptide segments. Solvent accessibility prediction servers were used to identify that these are predominantly surface situated. These regions analyzed through selected epitope prediction servers for their epitopic properties towards possible T-cell and B-cell activation showed good results as epitopic candidates (only dry lab confirmation. CONCLUSIONS: The main reasons for the development of alternative vaccine strategies for the rotavirus are the failure of current vaccines and high production costs that inhibit their application in developing countries. We expect that it would be possible to use the protein surface exposed regions identified in our study as targets for peptide vaccines and drug designs for stable immunity against divergent strains of the

  4. Design of experiments utilization to map the processing capabilities of a micro-spray dryer: particle design and throughput optimization in support of drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormes, James D; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Alex M; Hou, Shirley; Krueger, Davida; Nelson, Todd; Templeton, Allen

    2013-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in amorphous solid dispersions for bioavailability enhancement in drug discovery. Spray drying, as shown in this study, is well suited to produce prototype amorphous dispersions in the Candidate Selection stage where drug supply is limited. This investigation mapped the processing window of a micro-spray dryer to achieve desired particle characteristics and optimize throughput/yield. Effects of processing variables on the properties of hypromellose acetate succinate were evaluated by a fractional factorial design of experiments. Parameters studied include solid loading, atomization, nozzle size, and spray rate. Response variables include particle size, morphology and yield. Unlike most other commercial small-scale spray dryers, the ProCepT was capable of producing particles with a relatively wide mean particle size, ca. 2-35 µm, allowing material properties to be tailored to support various applications. In addition, an optimized throughput of 35 g/hour with a yield of 75-95% was achieved, which affords to support studies from Lead-identification/Lead-optimization to early safety studies. A regression model was constructed to quantify the relationship between processing parameters and the response variables. The response surface curves provide a useful tool to design processing conditions, leading to a reduction in development time and drug usage to support drug discovery.

  5. Evaluation of herb-drug interaction of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation through high throughput cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Kanjilal, Satyajyoti; Awasthi, Anshumali; Chaudhary, Anika; Banerjee, Dipankar; Bhatt, B N; Narwaria, Avinash; Singh, Rahul; Dutta, Kakoli; Jaggi, Manu; Singh, Anu T; Sharma, Neena; Katiyar, Chandra Kant

    2017-02-02

    Arishtas are Ayurvedic formulation made with decoction of herbs. Arjunarishta formulation is being used in Ayurveda for cardio-protective activity. Ashwagandharishta formulation possesses antioxidant, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-stress properties. Ridayarishta, a novel empirical formulation was prepared using combination of selected ingredients from these two formulations to support healthy heart functions and to reduce stress. Aim of the Study was to investigate herb-drug interaction (HDI) of Ridayarishta formulation through human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme inhibition assay. Ridayarishta formulation was phyto-chemically standardized against arjunolic acid, arjunetin, berberine, piperine, resveratrol and withaferin-A using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. The formulation was standardized with respect to ethanol by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. HDI was evaluated with Ridayarishta formulation and amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide glimepiride cocktail using high throughput CYP450 enzyme inhibition assay; against CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 isozymes. Contents of arjunolic acid, arjunetin, berberine, piperine, resveratrol and withaferin-A in Ridayarishta formulation were found to be 1.76±0.12, 1.51±0.09, 1.85±0.05, 3.2±0.12, 1.21±0.08, and 2.16±0.09ppm, respectively. Quantity of ethanol in Ridayarishta was found to be 7.95±0.023% (V/V). Ridayarishta showed significantly higher (Pdrugs showed significantly (P<0.001and P<0.01) less or negligible HDI. Ridayarishta formulation alone and cocktail with amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide, glimepiride had negligible or insignificant effect on CYP450 inhibition. It may be concluded that consumption of Ridayarishta along with selective cardio protective, antihypertensive and anti-diabetic conventional medicine is safe with negligible or without any significant CYP450 (CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) inhibition mediated

  6. Conformational Analysis, Molecular Structure and Solid State Simulation of the Antiviral Drug Acyclovir (Zovirax Using Density Functional Theory Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Clara Alvarez-Ros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The five tautomers of the drug acyclovir (ACV were determined and optimised at the MP2 and B3LYP quantum chemical levels of theory. The stability of the tautomers was correlated with different parameters. On the most stable tautomer N1 was carried out a comprehensive conformational analysis, and the whole conformational parameters (R, β, Φ, φ1, φ2, φ3, φ4, φ5 were studied as well as the NBO Natural atomic charges. The calculations were carried out with full relaxation of all geometrical parameters. The search located at least 78 stable structures within 8.5 kcal/mol electronic energy range of the global minimum, and classified in two groups according to the positive or negative value of the torsional angle j1. In the nitrogen atoms and in the O2' and O5' oxygen atoms of the most stable conformer appear a higher reactivity than in the natural nucleoside deoxyguanosine. The solid state was simulated through a dimer and tetramer forms and the structural parameters were compared with the X-ray crystal data available. Several general conclusions were emphasized.

  7. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2016 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthard, Huldrych F; Saag, Michael S; Benson, Constance A; del Rio, Carlos; Eron, Joseph J; Gallant, Joel E; Hoy, Jennifer F; Mugavero, Michael J; Sax, Paul E; Thompson, Melanie A; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Landovitz, Raphael J; Smith, Davey M; Jacobsen, Donna M; Volberding, Paul A

    2016-07-12

    New data and therapeutic options warrant updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat or to prevent HIV infection in adults. To provide updated recommendations for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults (aged ≥18 years) with established HIV infection, including when to start treatment, initial regimens, and changing regimens, along with recommendations for using ARVs for preventing HIV among those at risk, including preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. A panel of experts in HIV research and patient care convened by the International Antiviral Society-USA reviewed data published in peer-reviewed journals, presented by regulatory agencies, or presented as conference abstracts at peer-reviewed scientific conferences since the 2014 report, for new data or evidence that would change previous recommendations or their ratings. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in the PubMed and EMBASE databases through April 2016. Recommendations were by consensus, and each recommendation was rated by strength and quality of the evidence. Newer data support the widely accepted recommendation that antiretroviral therapy should be started in all individuals with HIV infection with detectable viremia regardless of CD4 cell count. Recommended optimal initial regimens for most patients are 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI). Other effective regimens include nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or boosted protease inhibitors with 2 NRTIs. Recommendations for special populations and in the settings of opportunistic infections and concomitant conditions are provided. Reasons for switching therapy include convenience, tolerability, simplification, anticipation of potential new drug interactions, pregnancy or plans for pregnancy, elimination of food restrictions, virologic failure, or drug toxicities. Laboratory assessments are recommended before treatment, and

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Hepatitis C Prevalence Reduction with Antiviral Treatment Scale-Up in Persons Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Desarae; Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Major, Marian; Del Valle, Sara; Cotler, Scott J; Dahari, Harel

    2015-01-01

    New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) provide an opportunity to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons who inject drugs (PWID). Here we use a mathematical model to predict the impact of a DAA-treatment scale-up on HCV prevalence among PWID and the estimated cost in metropolitan Chicago. To estimate the HCV antibody and HCV-RNA (chronic infection) prevalence among the metropolitan Chicago PWID population, we used empirical data from three large epidemiological studies. Cost of DAAs is assumed $50,000 per person. Approximately 32,000 PWID reside in metropolitan Chicago with an estimated HCV-RNA prevalence of 47% or 15,040 cases. Approximately 22,000 PWID (69% of the total PWID population) attend harm reduction (HR) programs, such as syringe exchange programs, and have an estimated HCV-RNA prevalence of 30%. There are about 11,000 young PWID (<30 years old) with an estimated HCV-RNA prevalence of 10% (PWID in these two subpopulations overlap). The model suggests that the following treatment scale-up is needed to reduce the baseline HCV-RNA prevalence by one-half over 10 years of treatment [cost per year, min-max in millions]: 35 per 1,000 [$50-$77] in the overall PWID population, 19 per 1,000 [$20-$26] for persons in HR programs, and 5 per 1,000 [$3-$4] for young PWID. Treatment scale-up could dramatically reduce the prevalence of chronic HCV infection among PWID in Chicago, who are the main reservoir for on-going HCV transmission. Focusing treatment on PWID attending HR programs and/or young PWID could have a significant impact on HCV prevalence in these subpopulations at an attainable cost.

  9. Preparation of molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug abacavir in environmental and biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzopoulou, Zoi; Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kyzas, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber (MIP-SPME f ) was synthesized and applied for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug, abacavir (ABA). Morphology and structure characterization of fibers were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capability (Q max ) was determined by Langmuir- Freundlich model and was 149 mg/g for MIP-SPME f . In the next step, SPME methodology followed by liquid desorption and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the target compound in environmental and biological matrices (surface waters, wastewaters and urine). Parameters that could influence SPME efficiency were investigated. Then, optimization of stirring speed, extraction time and salt content was carried out by using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model between dependent and independent variables was built. Under the optimum conditions (extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 650 rpm and salt content 0.3% NaCl w/v) the validated method presented a high sensitivity and selectivity with LODs and LOQs in the range of 10.1–13.6 and 33.3–43.9 ng/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ABA in real samples. The percentage extraction efficiency ranged from 88 to 99% revealing good accuracy and absence of matrix effects. - Highlights: • Preparation of a novel SPME MIP fiber with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective removal and extraction of abacavir from environmental & biological media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of synthesized MIPs

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Hepatitis C Prevalence Reduction with Antiviral Treatment Scale-Up in Persons Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desarae Echevarria

    Full Text Available New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs provide an opportunity to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in persons who inject drugs (PWID. Here we use a mathematical model to predict the impact of a DAA-treatment scale-up on HCV prevalence among PWID and the estimated cost in metropolitan Chicago.To estimate the HCV antibody and HCV-RNA (chronic infection prevalence among the metropolitan Chicago PWID population, we used empirical data from three large epidemiological studies. Cost of DAAs is assumed $50,000 per person.Approximately 32,000 PWID reside in metropolitan Chicago with an estimated HCV-RNA prevalence of 47% or 15,040 cases. Approximately 22,000 PWID (69% of the total PWID population attend harm reduction (HR programs, such as syringe exchange programs, and have an estimated HCV-RNA prevalence of 30%. There are about 11,000 young PWID (<30 years old with an estimated HCV-RNA prevalence of 10% (PWID in these two subpopulations overlap. The model suggests that the following treatment scale-up is needed to reduce the baseline HCV-RNA prevalence by one-half over 10 years of treatment [cost per year, min-max in millions]: 35 per 1,000 [$50-$77] in the overall PWID population, 19 per 1,000 [$20-$26] for persons in HR programs, and 5 per 1,000 [$3-$4] for young PWID.Treatment scale-up could dramatically reduce the prevalence of chronic HCV infection among PWID in Chicago, who are the main reservoir for on-going HCV transmission. Focusing treatment on PWID attending HR programs and/or young PWID could have a significant impact on HCV prevalence in these subpopulations at an attainable cost.

  11. Uncertainty Quantification in High Throughput Screening: Applications to Models of Endocrine Disruption, Cytotoxicity, and Zebrafish Development (GRC Drug Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using uncertainty quantification, we aim to improve the quality of modeling data from high throughput screening assays for use in risk assessment. ToxCast is a large-scale screening program that analyzes thousands of chemicals using over 800 assays representing hundreds of bioche...

  12. High-throughput expression of animal venom toxins in Escherichia coli to generate a large library of oxidized disulphide-reticulated peptides for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, Jeremy; Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Ramond, Laurie; Peysson, Fanny; Brás, Joana L A; Saez, Natalie J; Duhoo, Yoan; Blémont, Marilyne; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Quinton, Loic; De Pauw, Edwin; Gilles, Nicolas; Darbon, Hervé; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2017-01-17

    Animal venoms are complex molecular cocktails containing a wide range of biologically active disulphide-reticulated peptides that target, with high selectivity and efficacy, a variety of membrane receptors. Disulphide-reticulated peptides have evolved to display improved specificity, low immunogenicity and to show much higher resistance to degradation than linear peptides. These properties make venom peptides attractive candidates for drug development. However, recombinant expression of reticulated peptides containing disulphide bonds is challenging, especially when associated with the production of large libraries of bioactive molecules for drug screening. To date, as an alternative to artificial synthetic chemical libraries, no comprehensive recombinant libraries of natural venom peptides are accessible for high-throughput screening to identify novel therapeutics. In the accompanying paper an efficient system for the expression and purification of oxidized disulphide-reticulated venom peptides in Escherichia coli is described. Here we report the development of a high-throughput automated platform, that could be adapted to the production of other families, to generate the largest ever library of recombinant venom peptides. The peptides were produced in the periplasm of E. coli using redox-active DsbC as a fusion tag, thus allowing the efficient formation of correctly folded disulphide bridges. TEV protease was used to remove fusion tags and recover the animal venom peptides in the native state. Globally, within nine months, out of a total of 4992 synthetic genes encoding a representative diversity of venom peptides, a library containing 2736 recombinant disulphide-reticulated peptides was generated. The data revealed that the animal venom peptides produced in the bacterial host were natively folded and, thus, are putatively biologically active. Overall this study reveals that high-throughput expression of animal venom peptides in E. coli can generate large

  13. Development of a high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model for rapid screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip; Mu, Huiling

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis (HTP) model, without any means of pH-stat-titration, to enable a fast evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: The HTP model was compared to the traditionally used dynamic in vitro lipolysis......OH to neutralize the free fatty acids (FFAs), due to an increased buffer capacity. Cinnarizine was primarily located in the aqueous phase during digestion of all three LbDDS and did not differ significantly between the two models. The distribution of danazol varied from formulation to formulation...

  14. Development of a high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model for rapid screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip; Mu, Huiling; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-08-01

    To develop a high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis (HTP) model, without any means of pH-stat-titration, to enable a fast evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDS). The HTP model was compared to the traditionally used dynamic in vitro lipolysis (DIVL) model with regard to the extent of lipid digestion and drug distribution of two poorly soluble model drugs (cinnarizine and danazol), during digestion of three LbDDS (LbDDS I-III). The HTP model was able to maintain pH around 6.5 during digestion, without the addition of NaOH to neutralize the free fatty acids (FFAs), due to an increased buffer capacity. Cinnarizine was primarily located in the aqueous phase during digestion of all three LbDDS and did not differ significantly between the two models. The distribution of danazol varied from formulation to formulation, but no significant difference between the models was observed. The triacylglycerides (TAG) in LbDDS III were digested to the same extent in both models, whereas the TAG present in LbDDS II was digested slightly less in the HTP model. No TAG was present in LbDDS I and digestion was therefore not analyzed. The HTP model is able to predict drug distribution during digestion of LbDDS containing poorly water soluble drugs in the same manner as the DIVL model. Thus the HTP model might prove applicable for high-throughput evaluation of LbDDS in e.g. 96 well plates or small scale dissolution equipment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A flow cytometry-based method for a high-throughput analysis of drug-stabilized topoisomerase II cleavage complexes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Nebel, Marcelo; Palmitelli, Micaela; González-Cid, Marcela

    2016-09-01

    Topoisomerase II (Top2) is an important target for anticancer therapy. A variety of drugs that poison Top2, including several epipodophyllotoxins, anthracyclines, and anthracenediones, are widely used in the clinic for both hematologic and solid tumors. The poisoning of Top2 involves the formation of a reaction intermediate Top2-DNA, termed Top2 cleavage complex (Top2cc), which is persistent in the presence of the drug and involves a 5' end of DNA covalently bound to a tyrosine from the enzyme through a phosphodiester group. Drug-induced Top2cc leads to Top2 linked-DNA breaks which are the major responsible for their cytotoxicity. While biochemical detection is very laborious, quantification of drug-induced Top2cc by immunofluorescence-based microscopy techniques is time consuming and requires extensive image segmentation for the analysis of a small population of cells. Here, we developed a flow cytometry-based method for the analysis of drug-induced Top2cc. This method allows a rapid analysis of a high number of cells in their cell cycle phase context. Moreover, it can be applied to almost any human cell type, including clinical samples. The methodology is useful for a high-throughput analysis of drugs that poison Top2, allowing not just the discrimination of the Top2 isoform that is targeted but also to track its removal. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Screening compounds with a novel high-throughput ABCB1-mediated efflux assay identifies drugs with known therapeutic targets at risk for multidrug resistance interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R Ansbro

    Full Text Available ABCB1, also known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp or multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1, is a membrane-associated multidrug transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter family. It is one of the most widely studied transporters that enable cancer cells to develop drug resistance. Reliable high-throughput assays that can identify compounds that interact with ABCB1 are crucial for developing new therapeutic drugs. A high-throughput assay for measuring ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux was developed using a fluorescent and phase-contrast live cell imaging system. This assay demonstrated the time- and dose-dependent accumulation of fluorescent calcein in ABCB1-overexpressing KB-V1 cells. Validation of the assay was performed with known ABCB1 inhibitors, XR9576, verapamil, and cyclosporin A, all of which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of ABCB1-mediated calcein AM efflux in this assay. Phase-contrast and fluorescent images taken by the imaging system provided additional opportunities for evaluating compounds that are cytotoxic or produce false positive signals. Compounds with known therapeutic targets and a kinase inhibitor library were screened. The assay identified multiple agents as inhibitors of ABCB1-mediated efflux and is highly reproducible. Among compounds identified as ABCB1 inhibitors, BEZ235, BI 2536, IKK 16, and ispinesib were further evaluated. The four compounds inhibited calcein AM efflux in a dose-dependent manner and were also active in the flow cytometry-based calcein AM efflux assay. BEZ235, BI 2536, and IKK 16 also successfully inhibited the labeling of ABCB1 with radiolabeled photoaffinity substrate [(125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. Inhibition of ABCB1 with XR9576 and cyclosporin A enhanced the cytotoxicity of BI 2536 to ABCB1-overexpressing cancer cells, HCT-15-Pgp, and decreased the IC50 value of BI 2536 by several orders of magnitude. This efficient, reliable, and simple high-throughput assay has identified ABCB1

  17. Preparation of molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug abacavir in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzopoulou, Zoi [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, Myrsini [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kyzas, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lambropoulou, Dimitra A., E-mail: dlambro@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber (MIP-SPME{sub f}) was synthesized and applied for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug, abacavir (ABA). Morphology and structure characterization of fibers were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capability (Q{sub max}) was determined by Langmuir- Freundlich model and was 149 mg/g for MIP-SPME{sub f}. In the next step, SPME methodology followed by liquid desorption and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the target compound in environmental and biological matrices (surface waters, wastewaters and urine). Parameters that could influence SPME efficiency were investigated. Then, optimization of stirring speed, extraction time and salt content was carried out by using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model between dependent and independent variables was built. Under the optimum conditions (extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 650 rpm and salt content 0.3% NaCl w/v) the validated method presented a high sensitivity and selectivity with LODs and LOQs in the range of 10.1–13.6 and 33.3–43.9 ng/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ABA in real samples. The percentage extraction efficiency ranged from 88 to 99% revealing good accuracy and absence of matrix effects. - Highlights: • Preparation of a novel SPME MIP fiber with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective removal and extraction of abacavir from environmental & biological media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of

  18. Analyses of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug charge, size, shape and content for uptake, drug release and antiviral activities in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, Ari S; Balkundi, Shantanu; McMillan, JoEllyn; Roy, Upal; Martinez-Skinner, Andrea; Mosley, R Lee; Kanmogne, Georgette; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana; Gendelman, Howard E

    2011-03-10

    Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection shows limitations in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution while inducing metabolic and cytotoxic aberrations. In turn, ART commonly requires complex dosing schedules and leads to the emergence of viral resistance and treatment failures. We posit that the development of nanoformulated ART could preclude such limitations and affect improved clinical outcomes. To this end, we wet-milled 20 nanoparticle formulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz, collectively referred to as "nanoART," then assessed their performance using a range of physicochemical and biological tests. These tests were based on cell-nanoparticle interactions using monocyte-derived macrophages and their abilities to uptake and release nanoformulated drugs and affect viral replication. We demonstrate that physical characteristics such as particle size, surfactant coating, surface charge, and most importantly shape are predictors of cell uptake and antiretroviral efficacy. These studies bring this line of research a step closer to developing nanoART that can be used in the clinic to affect the course of HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous high-throughput determination of interaction kinetics for drugs and cyclodextrins by high performance affinity chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caifen; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xiaonan; Liu, Botao; Xu, Xu; Sun, Lixin; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-25

    The individual determination of the apparent dissociation rate constant (kd,app) using high performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) is a tedious process requiring numerous separate tests and massive data fitting, unable to provide the apparent association rate constant (ka) and equilibrium binding constant (Ka). In this study, a HPAC with mass spectrometry detection (HPAC-MS/MS) was employed to determine the drug-cyclodextrin (CD) interaction kinetics with low sample loading quantity (drugs determined in one injection. The kd,app measured by HPAC-MS/MS approach were 0.89 ± 0.07, 4.34 ± 0.01, 1.48 ± 0.01 and 7.77 ± 0.04 s(-1) for ketoprofen, trimethoprim, indapamide and acetaminophen, with kd,app for acetaminophen consistent with that from the HPAC method with UV detector in our previous studies. For twenty drugs with diverse structures and chemical properties, good correlationship was found between kd,app measured by single compound analysis method and high-throughput HPAC-MS/MS approach, with the correlation coefficient of 0.987 and the significance F less than 0.001. Comprehensive quantification of ka,app, kd,app and Ka values was further performed based on the measurement of kd,app by peak profiling method and Ka by the peak fitting method. And the investigation of the drug-CD interaction kinetics under different conditions indicated that the column temperature and mobile phase composition significantly affected the determination of ka,app, kd,app and Ka while also dependent on the acidity and basicity of drugs. In summary, the high-throughput HPAC-MS/MS approach has been demonstrated high efficiency in determination of the drug-CD primary interaction kinetic parameter, especially, kd,app, being proven as a novel tool in screening the right CD for the solubilization of the right drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Throughput Screening for Identification of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Enhancers: A Drug Repurposing Opportunity to Rectify Vascular Amyloid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qosa, Hisham; Mohamed, Loqman A; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Duong, Quoc-Viet; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-07-06

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic interface that maintains brain homeostasis and protects it from free entry of chemicals, toxins, and drugs. The barrier function of the BBB is maintained mainly by capillary endothelial cells that physically separate brain from blood. Several neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are known to disrupt BBB integrity. In this study, a high-throughput screening (HTS) was developed to identify drugs that rectify/protect BBB integrity from vascular amyloid toxicity associated with AD progression. Assessing Lucifer Yellow permeation across in-vitro BBB model composed from mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) grown on 96-well plate inserts was used to screen 1280 compounds of Sigma LOPAC®1280 library for modulators of bEnd3 monolayer integrity. HTS identified 62 compounds as disruptors, and 50 compounds as enhancers of the endothelial barrier integrity. From these 50 enhancers, 7 FDA approved drugs were identified with EC50 values ranging from 0.76-4.56 μM. Of these 7 drugs, 5 were able to protect bEnd3-based BBB model integrity against amyloid toxicity. Furthermore, to test the translational potential to humans, the 7 drugs were tested for their ability to rectify the disruptive effect of Aβ in the human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Only 3 (etodolac, granisetron, and beclomethasone) out of the 5 effective drugs in the bEnd3-based BBB model demonstrated a promising effect to protect the hCMEC/D3-based BBB model integrity. These drugs are compelling candidates for repurposing as therapeutic agents that could rectify dysfunctional BBB associated with AD.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIVIRAL AGENTS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIVIRAL AGENTS. Chandipura virus can be regarded as a model system to design and develop antiviral agents. These agents could be small molecules or RNA/PNA aptamers or Antisense RNA to speicific gene sequence in the viral genome.

  2. Miniaturizing 3D assay for high-throughput drug and genetic screens for small patient-derived tumor samples (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Asaf; Garraway, Levi; Su, Mei-Ju; Basu, Anindita; Regev, Aviv; Struhl, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional growth conditions reflect the natural environment of cancer cells and are crucial to be performed at drug screens. We developed a 3D assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the 50-year old benchmark assay-soft agar. Using GILA, we performed high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. This phenotypic approach is complementary to our genetic approach that utilizes single-cell RNA-sequencing of a patient sample to identify putative oncogenes that confer sensitivity to drugs designed to specifically inhibit the identified oncoprotein. Currently, we are dealing with a big challenge in our field- the limited number of cells that might be extracted from a biopsy. Small patient-derived samples are hard to test in the traditional multiwell plate and it will be helpful to minimize the culture area and the experimental system. We managed to design a suitable microfluidic device for limited number of cells and perform the assay using image analysis. We aim to test drugs on tumor cells, outside of the patient body- and recommend on the ideal treatment that is tailored to the individual. This device will help to minimize biopsy-sampling volumes and minimize interventions in the patient's tumor.

  3. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, M. van; Klinkenberg, D.; Pen, I.; Weissing, F.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a

  4. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Michiel; Klinkenberg, Don; Pen, Ido; Weissing, Franz J.; Heesterbeek, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a large-scale

  5. An update on the advancing high-throughput screening techniques for patch clamp-based ion channel screens: implications for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obergrussberger, Alison; Goetze, Tom A; Brinkwirth, Nina; Becker, Nadine; Friis, Søren; Rapedius, Markus; Haarmann, Claudia; Rinke-Weiß, Ilka; Stölzle-Feix, Sonja; Brüggemann, Andrea; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2018-03-01

    Automated patch clamp (APC) devices have become commonplace in many industrial and academic labs. Their ease-of-use and flexibility have ensured that users can perform routine screening experiments and complex kinetic experiments on the same device without the need for months of training and experience. APC devices are being developed to increase throughput and flexibility. Areas covered: Experimental options such as temperature control, internal solution exchange and current clamp have been available on some APC devices for some time, and are being introduced on other devices. A comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these features for the Patchliner, QPatch and Qube and data for these features for the SyncroPatch 384/768PE, is given. In addition, novel features such as dynamic clamp on the Patchliner and light stimulation of action potentials using channelrhodosin-2 is discussed. Expert opinion: APC devices will continue to play an important role in drug discovery. The instruments will be continually developed to meet the needs of HTS laboratories and for basic research. The use of stem cells and recordings in current clamp mode will increase, as will the development of complex add-ons such as dynamic clamp and optical stimulation on high throughput devices.

  6. Cos-Seq for high-throughput identification of drug target and resistance mechanisms in the protozoan parasite Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazanion, Élodie; Fernández-Prada, Christopher; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Leprohon, Philippe; Ouellette, Marc

    2016-05-24

    Innovative strategies are needed to accelerate the identification of antimicrobial drug targets and resistance mechanisms. Here we develop a sensitive method, which we term Cosmid Sequencing (or "Cos-Seq"), based on functional cloning coupled to next-generation sequencing. Cos-Seq identified >60 loci in the Leishmania genome that were enriched via drug selection with methotrexate and five major antileishmanials (antimony, miltefosine, paromomycin, amphotericin B, and pentamidine). Functional validation highlighted both known and previously unidentified drug targets and resistance genes, including novel roles for phosphatases in resistance to methotrexate and antimony, for ergosterol and phospholipid metabolism genes in resistance to miltefosine, and for hypothetical proteins in resistance to paromomycin, amphothericin B, and pentamidine. Several genes/loci were also found to confer resistance to two or more antileishmanials. This screening method will expedite the discovery of drug targets and resistance mechanisms and is easily adaptable to other microorganisms.

  7. Highlights of the 30th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Graciela; Carter, Kara; Janeba, Zlatko; Sampath, Aruna; Schang, Luis M; Tarbet, E Bart; Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Bray, Mike; Esté, José A

    2017-09-01

    The 30th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Atlanta, GA, USA from May 18 to 21, 2017. This report provides an account of award lectures, invited keynote addresses and oral presentations during the meeting. The 2017 Gertrude Elion Memorial Lecture Award by Michael Sofia highlighted one of the most important accomplishments in recent drug discovery in antiviral research, the identification of the hepatitis C virus direct-acting antiviral sofosbuvir and new alternatives to combat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The Antonín Holý Lecture Award by David Chu on medicinal chemistry provided an overview of early developments of nucleoside analogs for the treatment of HIV and varicella zoster virus infection and how this knowledge serves to develop new drugs targeting HBV. Priscilla Yang gave the first ISAR Women in Science lecture. She reported on pharmacological validation of new antiviral targets for dengue, Zika and other flaviviruses. The William Prusoff Young Investigator Lecture Award by Maaike Everts described the Alabama Drug Discovery Alliance and the Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Consortium, and how they are helping to accelerate the development of new antivirals. The 30th ICAR was a success in promoting new discoveries in antiviral drug development and research. The 31st ICAR will be held in Porto, Portugal, June 11-15, 2018. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A High-Throughput Fluorescence-Based Assay System for Appetite-Regulating Gene and Drug Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yasuhito; Hirano, Minoru; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish). This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf), knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1), and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant) revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers. PMID:23300705

  9. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shimada

    Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  10. Human Genetics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Guides a High-Throughput Drug Screen of the CD40 Signaling Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Gang; Diogo, Dorothee; Wu, Di; Spoonamore, Jim; Dancik, Vlado; Franke, Lude; Kurreeman, Fina; Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Duclos, Grant; Hartland, Cathy; Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Kejie; Liu, Jun; De Jager, Philip L.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Eyre, Steve; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Gupta, Namrata; Clemons, Paul A.; Stahl, Eli; Tolliday, Nicola; Plenge, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Although genetic and non-genetic studies in mouse and human implicate the CD40 pathway in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are no approved drugs that inhibit CD40 signaling for clinical care in RA or any other disease. Here, we sought to understand the biological consequences of a CD40 risk variant

  11. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica by high-throughput DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Multi drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica is found in food animals and may consequently pose a risk to humans through food borne transmission. To understand the mechanisms that drive this problem, the genetic elements associated with MDR need to be determined. These MDR elements in ...

  12. Antiviral Resistance to Influenza Viruses: Clinical and Epidemiological Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    There are three classes of antiviral drugs approved for the treatment of influenza: the M2 ion channel inhibitors (amantadine, rimantadine), neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (laninamivir, oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir), and the protease inhibitor (favipiravir); some of the agents are only available

  13. High‐throughput screening of clinically approved drugs that prime polyethylenimine transfection reveals modulation of mitochondria dysfunction response improves gene transfer efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Albert; Beyersdorf, Jared; Riethoven, Jean‐Jack

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonviral gene delivery methods are advantageous over viral vectors in terms of safety, cost, and flexibility in design and application, but suffer from lower gene transfer efficiency. In addition to modifications to nucleic acid design and nonviral carriers, new tools are sought to enhance transfection. Priming is the pharmacological modulation of transfection efficiency and transgene expression, and has demonstrated transfection increase in several compounds, for example, chloroquine and glucocorticoids. To develop a library of transfection priming compounds, a high‐throughput screen was performed of the NIH Clinical Collection (NCC) to identify clinical compounds that prime polyethylenimine (PEI) transfection. HEK293T cells were treated with priming compounds, then transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)‐encoding plasmid by PEI. After 48‐hr culture, primed and transfected cells were assayed for transfection, cell proliferation, and cell viability by fluorescence measurement of EGFP reporter, Hoechst 33342 nuclei stain, and resazurin metabolic assay. From the microscope image analysis and microplate measurements, transfection fold‐changes were determined, and compounds resulting in statistically significant transfection fold‐change were identified. NCC compounds were clustered using PubChem fingerprint similarity by Tanimoto coefficients in ChemmineTools. Fold‐changes for each compound were linked to drug clusters, from which drug classes that prime transfection were identified. Among the identified drugs classes that primed transfection increases were antioxidants, GABAA receptor modulators, and glucocorticoids. Resveratrol and piceid, stilbenoid antioxidants found in grapes, and zolpidem, a GABAA modulator, increased transfection nearly three‐fold. Literature indicate interaction of the identified transfection priming drug clusters with mitochondria, which may modulate mitochondrial dysfunction known to be associated

  14. High-throughput Cos-Seq screen with intracellular Leishmania infantum for the discovery of novel drug-resistance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Prada, Christopher; Sharma, Mansi; Plourde, Marie; Bresson, Eva; Roy, Gaétan; Leprohon, Philippe; Ouellette, Marc

    2018-03-16

    Increasing drug resistance towards first line antimony-derived compounds has forced the introduction of novel therapies in leishmaniasis endemic areas including amphotericin B and miltefosine. However, their use is threatened by the emergence and spread of drug-resistant strains. In order to discover stage-dependent resistance genes, we have adapted the Cos-Seq approach through the introduction of macrophage infections in the pipeline. A L. infantum intracellular amastigote population complemented with a L. infantum cosmid library was submitted to increasing concentrations of miltefosine, amphotericin B and pentavalent antimonials in experimental infections of THP-1 cells. For each step of selection, amastigotes were extracted and cosmids were isolated and submitted to next-generation sequencing, followed by subsequent gene-enrichment analyses. Cos-Seq screen in amastigotes revealed four highly enriched loci for antimony, five for miltefosine and one for amphotericin B. Of these, a total of seven cosmids were recovered and tested for resistance in both promastigotes and amastigotes. Candidate genes within the pinpointed genomic regions were validated using single gene overexpression in wild-type parasites and/or gene disruption by means of a CRISPR-Cas9-based approach. This led to the identification and validation of a stage-independent antimony-resistance gene (LinJ.06.1010) coding for a putative leucine rich repeat protein and a novel amastigote-specific miltefosine-resistance gene (LinJ.32.0050) coding for a member of the SEC13 family of WD-repeat proteins. This study further reinforces the power of Cos-Seq approach to discover novel drug-resistance genes, some of which are life-stages specific. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) by high-throughput screening of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahan, Rana; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; Xiang, Lixin; Zhu, Guan

    2018-01-25

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (K m  = 0.309 mM, V max  = 31.72 nmol/μg/min). We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC 50  = 8.33 μM; K i  = 36.33 μM), while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC 50  = 165 μM) at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC 50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM). Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  17. Prolonged tenofovir treatment of macaques infected with K65R reverse transcriptase mutants of SIV results in the development of antiviral immune responses that control virus replication after drug withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rompay Koen K A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported previously that while prolonged tenofovir monotherapy of macaques infected with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV resulted invariably in the emergence of viral mutants with reduced in vitro drug susceptibility and a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase, some animals controlled virus replication for years. Transient CD8+ cell depletion or short-term tenofovir interruption within 1 to 5 years of treatment demonstrated that a combination of CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses and continued tenofovir therapy was required for sustained suppression of viremia. We report here follow-up data on 5 such animals that received tenofovir for 8 to 14 years. Results Although one animal had a gradual increase in viremia from 3 years onwards, the other 4 tenofovir-treated animals maintained undetectable viremia with occasional viral blips (≤ 300 RNA copies/ml plasma. When tenofovir was withdrawn after 8 to 10 years from three animals with undetectable viremia, the pattern of occasional episodes of low viremia (≤ 3600 RNA/ml plasma continued throughout the 10-month follow-up period. These animals had low virus levels in lymphoid tissues, and evidence of multiple SIV-specific immune responses. Conclusion Under certain conditions (i.e., prolonged antiviral therapy initiated early after infection; viral mutants with reduced drug susceptibility a virus-host balance characterized by strong immunologic control of virus replication can be achieved. Although further research is needed to translate these findings into clinical applications, these observations provide hope for a functional cure of HIV infection via immunotherapeutic strategies that boost antiviral immunity and reduce the need for continuous antiretroviral therapy.

  18. The antiviral drug tenofovir, an inhibitor of Pannexin-1-mediated ATP release, prevents liver and skin fibrosis by downregulating adenosine levels in the liver and skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Feig

    Full Text Available Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Belonging to the class of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, tenofovir is an analogue of AMP. We tested the hypothesis that tenofovir has direct antifibrotic effects in vivo by interfering with adenosine pathways of fibrosis using two distinct models of adenosine and A2AR-mediated fibrosis.Thioacetamide (100mg/kg IP-treated mice were treated with vehicle, or tenofovir (75mg/kg, SubQ (n = 5-10. Bleomycin (0.25U, SubQ-treated mice were treated with vehicle or tenofovir (75mg/kg, IP (n = 5-10. Adenosine levels were determined by HPLC, and ATP release was quantitated as luciferase-dependent bioluminescence. Skin breaking strength was analysed and H&E and picrosirus red-stained slides were imaged. Pannexin-1expression was knocked down following retroviral-mediated expression of of Pannexin-1-specific or scrambled siRNA.Treatment of mice with tenofovir diminished adenosine release from the skin of bleomycin-treated mice and the liver of thioacetamide-treated mice, models of diffuse skin fibrosis and hepatic cirrhosis, respectively. More importantly, tenofovir treatment diminished skin and liver fibrosis in these models. Tenofovir diminished extracellular adenosine concentrations by inhibiting, in a dose-dependent fashion, cellular ATP release but not in cells lacking Pannexin-1.These studies suggest that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, could be useful in the treatment of fibrosing diseases.

  19. Measuring topology of low-intensity DNA methylation sites for high-throughput assessment of epigenetic drug-induced effects in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertych, Arkadiusz; Farkas, Daniel L.; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2010-01-01

    valuable component in the high-throughput assessment of demethylation and risk of chromatin reorganization in epigenetic-drug screening tasks.

  20. An image-based algorithm for precise and accurate high throughput assessment of drug activity against the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Moon

    Full Text Available We present a customized high content (image-based and high throughput screening algorithm for the quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in host cells. Based solely on DNA staining and single-channel images, the algorithm precisely segments and identifies the nuclei and cytoplasm of mammalian host cells as well as the intracellular parasites infecting the cells. The algorithm outputs statistical parameters including the total number of cells, number of infected cells and the total number of parasites per image, the average number of parasites per infected cell, and the infection ratio (defined as the number of infected cells divided by the total number of cells. Accurate and precise estimation of these parameters allow for both quantification of compound activity against parasites, as well as the compound cytotoxicity, thus eliminating the need for an additional toxicity-assay, hereby reducing screening costs significantly. We validate the performance of the algorithm using two known drugs against T.cruzi: Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. Also, we have checked the performance of the cell detection with manual inspection of the images. Finally, from the titration of the two compounds, we confirm that the algorithm provides the expected half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of the anti-T. cruzi activity.

  1. An image-based algorithm for precise and accurate high throughput assessment of drug activity against the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seunghyun; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; Moraes, Carolina Borsoi; Yang, Gyongseon; Kang, Myungjoo; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Hansen, Michael A E

    2014-01-01

    We present a customized high content (image-based) and high throughput screening algorithm for the quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in host cells. Based solely on DNA staining and single-channel images, the algorithm precisely segments and identifies the nuclei and cytoplasm of mammalian host cells as well as the intracellular parasites infecting the cells. The algorithm outputs statistical parameters including the total number of cells, number of infected cells and the total number of parasites per image, the average number of parasites per infected cell, and the infection ratio (defined as the number of infected cells divided by the total number of cells). Accurate and precise estimation of these parameters allow for both quantification of compound activity against parasites, as well as the compound cytotoxicity, thus eliminating the need for an additional toxicity-assay, hereby reducing screening costs significantly. We validate the performance of the algorithm using two known drugs against T.cruzi: Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. Also, we have checked the performance of the cell detection with manual inspection of the images. Finally, from the titration of the two compounds, we confirm that the algorithm provides the expected half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the anti-T. cruzi activity.

  2. High-throughput screening platform for natural product-based drug discovery against 3 neglected tropical diseases: human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annang, F; Pérez-Moreno, G; García-Hernández, R; Cordon-Obras, C; Martín, J; Tormo, J R; Rodríguez, L; de Pedro, N; Gómez-Pérez, V; Valente, M; Reyes, F; Genilloud, O; Vicente, F; Castanys, S; Ruiz-Pérez, L M; Navarro, M; Gamarro, F; González-Pacanowska, D

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease are 3 neglected tropical diseases for which current therapeutic interventions are inadequate or toxic. There is an urgent need to find new lead compounds against these diseases. Most drug discovery strategies rely on high-throughput screening (HTS) of synthetic chemical libraries using phenotypic and target-based approaches. Combinatorial chemistry libraries contain hundreds of thousands of compounds; however, they lack the structural diversity required to find entirely novel chemotypes. Natural products, in contrast, are a highly underexplored pool of unique chemical diversity that can serve as excellent templates for the synthesis of novel, biologically active molecules. We report here a validated HTS platform for the screening of microbial extracts against the 3 diseases. We have used this platform in a pilot project to screen a subset (5976) of microbial extracts from the MEDINA Natural Products library. Tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that 48 extracts contain potentially new compounds that are currently undergoing de-replication for future isolation and characterization. Known active components included actinomycin D, bafilomycin B1, chromomycin A3, echinomycin, hygrolidin, and nonactins, among others. The report here is, to our knowledge, the first HTS of microbial natural product extracts against the above-mentioned kinetoplastid parasites. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  4. Overview on the antiviral activities and mechanisms of marine polysaccharides from seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qimin; Wang, Anjian; Lu, Zhonghua; Qin, Chunjun; Hu, Jing; Yin, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Marine polysaccharides are attracting increasing attention in medical and pharmaceutical development because of their important biological properties. The seaweed polysaccharides have now become a rich resource of potential antiviral drugs due to their antiviral activities against various viruses. The structural diversity and complexity of marine polysaccharides and their derivatives contribute to their antiviral activities in different phases of many different viral infection processes. This review mainly introduces the different types of seaweed polysaccharides and their derivatives with potent antiviral activities. Moreover, the antiviral mechanisms and medical applications of certain marine polysaccharides from seaweeds are also demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiviral chemotherapy in veterinary medicine: current applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, F; Thiry, E

    2014-12-01

    The current situation in the use of antiviral drugs in veterinary medicine is characterised by a novel and optimistic approach.Viruses of veterinary importance are still used as animal models in the developmentof human therapeutics, but there is growing interest in many of these viruses in the identification of antiviral molecules for use in both livestock and companion animals. The use of antiviral drugs in livestock animals is envisaged for the treatment or control of disease on a large scale (mass treatment), whereas in companion animals an individual approach is favoured. An overview of the most recent examples of research in the use of antivirals in veterinary medicine is presented, with particular emphasis on their in vivo applications.

  6. Recent advances in the development of antiviral agents using computer-aided structure based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Chandra, Sharat; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been affecting the human race since ancient times. Currently, a long list of diseases caused by the viruses is available and extensive research in this area has resulted in understanding the finest details of the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis caused by these pathogens. Side by side, efforts have been made towards the search and design of antiviral agents that could interfere with viral pathogenesis. As a result of these efforts a number of effective antiviral agents have been developed and are available in the market. However, the high cost and lengthy protocol of the drug discovery process are some of the major limiting factors in the development of new and more effective antiviral agents. Considering the above fact, presently the research community is trying to integrate short and cost effective techniques in the modern drug discovery process for the identification and design of novel antiviral agents. Computeraided drug design (CADD), which comprises of various techniques like molecular docking, virtual screening, three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies and many more, has the capability to speed up the antiviral drug development process. Successful design of antiviral drugs like Relenza, Saquinavir and Tamiflu have validated application of these techniques and holds a bright future in drug discovery protocol. This review explores the role of CADD in antiviral drug development and highlights the recent advances in antiviral drug research using computer-aided structure based approaches.

  7. Antiviral immunity in marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy J; Raftos, David; Speck, Peter; Montagnani, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Marine molluscs, like all living organisms, are constantly exposed to viruses and have evolved efficient antiviral defences. We review here recent developments in molluscan antiviral immunity against viruses belonging to the order Herpesvirales. Emerging results suggest an interferon-like response and autophagy are involved in the antiviral defence of bivalves to viral infection. Multi-functional plasma proteins from gastropods and bivalves have been identified to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity against mammalian viruses. The antiviral defences present in molluscs can be enhanced by genetic selection, as shown by the presence of oyster strains specifically resistant to ostreid herpesvirus type 1. Whether varying amounts or different isoforms of these antiviral plasma proteins contributes to genetic resistance is worthy of further research. Other evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanisms, such as RNA interference and apoptosis, still need further characterization.

  8. Identification of Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein-RNA binding inhibitors using a high-throughput screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Mary; Lanchy, Jean-Marc; Lodmell, J Stephen

    2012-09-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging infectious pathogen that causes severe disease in humans and livestock and has the potential for global spread. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment for RVFV infection, and there is no licensed vaccine. Inhibition of RNA binding to the essential viral nucleocapsid (N) protein represents a potential antiviral therapeutic strategy because all of the functions performed by N during infection involve RNA binding. To target this interaction, we developed a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput drug-screening assay and tested 26 424 chemical compounds for their ability to disrupt an N-RNA complex. From libraries of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, druglike molecules, and natural product extracts, we identified several lead compounds that are promising candidates for medicinal chemistry.

  9. Increasing throughput and information content for in vitro drug metabolism experiments using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Perez, Jose; Plumb, Robert; Granger, Jennifer H; Beattie, Iain; Joncour, Karine; Wright, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The field of drug metabolism has been revolutionized by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) applications with new technologies such as triple quadrupoles, ion traps and time-of-flight (ToF) instrumentation. Over the years, these developments have often relied on the improvements to the mass spectrometer hardware and software, which has allowed users to benefit from lower levels of detection and ease-of-use. One area in which the development pace has been slower is in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the case of metabolite identification, where there are many challenges due to the complex nature of the biological matrices and the diversity of the metabolites produced, there is a need to obtain the most accurate data possible. Reactive or toxic metabolites need to be detected and identified as early as possible in the drug discovery process, in order to reduce the very costly attrition of compounds in late-phase development. High-resolution, exact mass measurement plays a very important role in metabolite identification because it allows the elimination of false positives and the determination of non-trivial metabolites in a much faster throughput environment than any other standard current methodology available to this field. By improving the chromatographic resolution, increased peak capacity can be achieved with a reduction in the number of co-eluting species leading to superior separations. The overall enhancement in the chromatographic resolution and peak capacity is transferred into a net reduction in ion suppression leading to an improvement in the MS sensitivity. To investigate this, a number of in vitro samples were analyzed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system, with columns packed with porous 1.7 mum particles, coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. This technique showed very clear examples for fundamental gains in sensitivity, chromatographic resolution and speed of

  10. From genome to antivirals: SARS as a test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Yossef; Levanon, Erez Y; Gerber, Doron

    2005-03-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic brought into the spotlight the need for rapid development of effective anti-viral drugs against newly emerging viruses. Researchers have leveraged the 20-year battle against AIDS into a variety of possible treatments for SARS. Most prominently, based solely on viral genome information, silencers of viral genes, viral-enzyme blockers and viral-entry inhibitors were suggested as potential therapeutic agents for SARS. In particular, inhibitors of viral entry, comprising therapeutic peptides, were based on the recently launched anti-HIV drug enfuvirtide. This could represent one of the most direct routes from genome sequencing to the discovery of antiviral drugs.

  11. Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lipsitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The response to the next influenza pandemic will likely include extensive use of antiviral drugs (mainly oseltamivir, combined with other transmission-reducing measures. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that some strains of influenza may become resistant to oseltamivir while maintaining infectiousness (fitness. Use of antiviral agents on the scale anticipated for the control of pandemic influenza will create an unprecedented selective pressure for the emergence and spread of these strains. Nonetheless, antiviral resistance has received little attention when evaluating these plans.We designed and analyzed a deterministic compartmental model of the transmission of oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant influenza infections during a pandemic. The model predicts that even if antiviral treatment or prophylaxis leads to the emergence of a transmissible resistant strain in as few as 1 in 50,000 treated persons and 1 in 500,000 prophylaxed persons, widespread use of antivirals may strongly promote the spread of resistant strains at the population level, leading to a prevalence of tens of percent by the end of a pandemic. On the other hand, even in circumstances in which a resistant strain spreads widely, the use of antivirals may significantly delay and/or reduce the total size of the pandemic. If resistant strains carry some fitness cost, then, despite widespread emergence of resistance, antivirals could slow pandemic spread by months or more, and buy time for vaccine development; this delay would be prolonged by nondrug control measures (e.g., social distancing that reduce transmission, or use of a stockpiled suboptimal vaccine. Surprisingly, the model suggests that such nondrug control measures would increase the proportion of the epidemic caused by resistant strains.The benefits of antiviral drug use to control an influenza pandemic may be reduced, although not completely offset, by drug resistance in the virus. Therefore, the risk of resistance

  12. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  13. The Antiviral Activity of Approved and Novel Drugs against HIV-1 Mutations Evaluated under the Consideration of Dose-Response Curve Slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify common HIV-1 mutation complexes affecting the slope of inhibition curve, and to propose a new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope to evaluate phenotypic resistance.Utilizing site-directed mutagenesis, we constructed 22 HIV-1 common mutation complexes. IC50 and slope of 10 representative approved drugs and a novel agent against these mutations were measured to determine the resistance phenotypes. The values of new parameter incorporating both the IC50 and the slope of the inhibition curve were calculated, and the correlations between parameters were assessed.Depending on the class of drug, there were intrinsic differences in how the resistance mutations affected the drug parameters. All of the mutations resulted in large increases in the IC50s of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The effects of the mutations on the slope were the most apparent when examining their effects on the inhibition of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. For example, some mutations, such as V82A, had no effect on IC50, but reduced the slope. We proposed a new concept, termed IIPatoxic, on the basis of IC50, slope and the maximum limiting concentrations of the drug. The IIPatoxic values of 10 approved drugs and 1 novel agent were calculated, and were closely related to the IIPmax values (r > 0.95, p < 0.001.This study confirms that resistance mutations cannot be accurately assessed by IC50 alone, because it tends to underestimate the degree of resistance. The slope parameter is of very importance in the measurement of drug resistance and the effect can be applied to more complex patterns of resistance. This is the most apparent when testing the effects of the mutations on protease inhibitors activity. We also propose a new index, IIPatoxic, which incorporates both the IC50 and the slope. This new index could complement current IIP indices, thereby enabling predict the

  14. High Throughput Screening of Valganciclovir in Acidic Microenvironments of Polyester Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teilo Schaller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganciclovir and valganciclor are antiviral agents used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The conventional method for administering ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients is repeated intravitreal injections. In order to obviate the possible detrimental effects of repeated intraocular injections, to improve compliance and to eliminate systemic side-effects, we investigated the tuning of the ganciclovir pro-drug valganciclovir and the release from thin films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polycaprolactone (PCL, or mixtures of both, as a step towards prototyping periocular valganciclovir implants. To investigate the drug release, we established and evaluated a high throughput fluorescence-based quantification screening assay for the detection of valganciclovir. Our protocol allows quantifying as little as 20 ng of valganciclovir in 96-well polypropylene plates and a 50× faster analysis compared to traditional HPLC measurements. This improvement can hence be extrapolated to other polyester matrix thin film formulations using a high-throughput approach. The acidic microenvironment within the polyester matrix was found to protect valganciclovir from degradation with resultant increases in the half-life of the drug in the periocular implant to 100 days. Linear release profiles were obtained using the pure polyester polymers for 10 days and 60 days formulations; however, gross phase separations of PCL and acid-terminated PLGA prevented tuning within these timeframes due to the phase separation of the polymer, valganciclovir, or both.

  15. [Antiviral properties of basidiomycetes metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M

    2014-01-01

    The data on the antiviral action of the Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa, Agaricus brasiliensis and other basidiomycetes metabolites are summurized. The metabolites of these species of basidiomycetes exhibit a direct antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus types I and II, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and others. Moreover, metabolites of basidiomycetes increased antiviral immunity.

  16. Mitochondria and antiviral innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Koshiba, Takumi; Bashiruddin, Nasir; Kawabata, Shunichiro

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondria, dynamic organelles that undergo continuous cycles of fusion and fission, are the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells. Recent research indicates that mitochondria also act as platforms for antiviral immunity in vertebrates. Mitochondrial-mediated antiviral immunity depends on activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors signal transduction pathway and the participation of the mitochondrial outer membrane adaptor protein “mitochondrial antiviral signaling (M...

  17. CRM1 Inhibitors for Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Mathew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are a major global concern and despite major advancements in medical research, still cause significant morbidity and mortality. Progress in antiviral therapy is particularly hindered by appearance of mutants capable of overcoming the effects of drugs targeting viral components. Alternatively, development of drugs targeting host proteins essential for completion of viral lifecycle holds potential as a viable strategy for antiviral therapy. Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways in particular are involved in several pathological conditions including cancer and viral infections, where hijacking or alteration of function of key transporter proteins, such as Chromosome Region Maintenance1 (CRM1 is observed. Overexpression of CRM1-mediated nuclear export is evident in several solid and hematological malignancies. Interestingly, CRM1-mediated nuclear export of viral components is crucial in various stages of the viral lifecycle and assembly. This review summarizes the role of CRM1 in cancer and selected viruses. Leptomycin B (LMB is the prototypical inhibitor of CRM1 potent against various cancer cell lines overexpressing CRM1 and in limiting viral infections at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. However, the irreversible shutdown of nuclear export results in high cytotoxicity and limited efficacy in vivo. This has prompted search for synthetic and natural CRM1 inhibitors that can potentially be developed as broadly active antivirals, some of which are summarized in this review.

  18. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Skalickova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides.

  19. Broad-spectrum antiviral properties of andrographolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swati; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly

    2017-03-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid, is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. It can be isolated from various plants of the genus Andrographis, commonly known as 'creat'. This purified compound has been tested for its anti-inflammatory effects in various stressful conditions, such as ischemia, pyrogenesis, arthritis, hepatic or neural toxicity, carcinoma, and oxidative stress, Apart from its anti-inflammatory effects, andrographolide also exhibits immunomodulatory effects by effectively enhancing cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). All these properties of andrographolide form the foundation for the use of this miraculous compound to restrain virus replication and virus-induced pathogenesis. The present article covers antiviral properties of andrographolide in variety of viral infections, with the hope of developing of a new highly potent antiviral drug with multiple effects.

  20. Combined Analysis of the Prevalence of Drug-Resistant Hepatitis B Virus in Antiviral Therapy-Experienced Patients in Europe (CAPRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermans, Lucas Etienne; Svicher, Valentina; Pas, Suzan Diepstraten

    2016-01-01

    was performed to gain insight in prevalence and characteristics of NA resistance in Europe. METHODS: A survey was performed on genotypic resistance testing results acquired during routine monitoring of CHB patients with detectable serum hepatitis B virus DNA in European tertiary referral centers. RESULTS: Data...... from 1568 patients were included. The majority (73.8%) were exposed to lamivudine monotherapy. Drug-resistant strains were detected in 52.7%. The most frequently encountered primary mutation was M204V/I (48.7%), followed by A181T/V (3.8%) and N236T (2.6%). In patients exposed to entecavir (n = 102...

  1. Understanding real-world adherence in the directly acting antiviral era: A prospective evaluation of adherence among people with a history of drug use at a community-based program in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kate; Dodd, Zoë; Guyton, Mary; Tookey, Paula; Lettner, Bernadette; Matelski, John; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Altenberg, Jason; Powis, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    Direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatments for Hepatitis C (HCV) are now widely available with sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of >90%. A major predictor of response to DAAs is adherence, yet few real-world studies evaluating adherence among marginalized people who use drugs and/or alcohol exist. This study evaluates patterns and factors associated with non-adherence among marginalized people with a history of drug use who were receiving care through a primary care, community-based HCV treatment program where opiate substitution is not offered on-site. Prospective evaluation of chronic HCV patients initiating DAA treatment. Self-report medication adherence questionnaires were completed weekly. Pre/post treatment questionnaires examined socio-demographics, program engagement and substance use. Missing adherence data was counted as a missed dose. Of the 74 participants, who initiated treatment, 76% were male, the average age was 54 years, 69% reported income from disability benefits, 30% did not have stable housing and only 24% received opiate substitution therapy. Substance use was common in the month prior to treatment initiation with, 11% reported injection drug use, 30% reported non-injection drug use and 18% moderate to heavy alcohol use. The majority (85%) were treatment naïve, with 76% receiving sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (8-24 weeks) and 22% Sofosbuvir/Ribarvin (12-24 weeks). The intention to treat proportion with SVR12 was 87% (60/69). In a modified ITT analysis (excluding those with undetectable RNA at end of treatment), 91% (60/66) achieved SVR12. Overall, 89% of treatment weeks had no missed doses. 41% of participants had at least one missed dose. In multivariate analysis the only factor independently associated with weeks with missed doses was moderate to heavy alcohol use (p=0.05). This study demonstrates that strong adherence and SVR with DAAs is achievable, with appropriate supports, even in the context of substance use, and complex health

  2. WITHDRAWN. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagyor, Ildiko; Madhok, Vishnu B; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2015-05-04

    Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy), but the effectiveness of additional treatment with an antiviral agent is uncertain. Significant morbidity can be associated with severe cases of Bell's palsy. To assess the effects of antiviral treatments alone or in combination with any other therapy for Bell's palsy. On 7 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, DARE, NHS EED, and HTA. We also reviewed the bibliographies of the identified trials and contacted trial authors and known experts in the field and relevant drug companies to identify additional published or unpublished data. We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. We considered randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of antivirals with and without corticosteroids versus control therapies for the treatment of Bell's palsy. We excluded trials that had a high risk of bias in several domains. Pairs of authors independently assessed trials for relevance, eligibility, and risk of bias, using standard Cochrane procedures. Eleven trials, including 2883 participants, met the inclusion criteria and are included in the final analysis. We added four studies to the previous review for this update. Some of the trials were small, and a number were at high or unclear risk of bias. Other trials did not meet current best standards in allocation concealment and blinding. Incomplete recoveryWe found no significant benefit from adding antivirals to corticosteroids in comparison with corticosteroids alone for people with Bell's palsy (risk ratio (RR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.02, n = 1715). For people with severe Bell's palsy (House-Brackmann scores of 5 and 6 or the equivalent in other scales), we found a reduction in the rate of incomplete recovery at month six when antivirals plus corticosteroids were used (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 0

  3. La respuesta inmune antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainel Sánchez de la Rosa

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Se expone que los virus son parásitos intracelulares obligados, puesto que no tienen metabolismo propio; esto obliga al sistema inmune a poner en marcha sus mecanismos más especializados para reconocer y eliminar, tanto a los virus libres, como a las células infectadas. Se señala que las células presentadoras de antígenos, los linfocitos B y los T unidos al complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad, forman parte de la organización de la respuesta inmune antiviral; la inducción de esta respuesta con proteínas, péptidos y ADN desnudo, son alternativas actuales tanto en la prevención como en el tratamiento de las infecciones viralesIt is explained that viruses are compulsory intracellular parasites, since they don't have their own metabolism, which makes the immune system to start its mest specialized mechanisms to recognize and eliminate the free viruses and the infected cells. It is stated that the cells presenting antigens, and the B and T lymphocytes together with the major histocompatibility complex, are part of the organization of the immune antiviral response. The induction of this response with proteins, peptides and naked DNA are the present alternatives for the prevention and treatment of viral infections

  4. ANTI-VIRAL ACTIVITY OF GLYCIRRHETINIC AND GLYCIRRHIZIC ACIDS

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    V. V. Zarubaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a highly contagious human disease. In the course of use of antiviral drugs drug-resistant strains of the virus are formed, resulting in reduced efficiency of the chemotherapy. The review describes the biological activity of glycirrhetinic (GLA and glycirrhizic (GA acids in terms of their use as a therapeutic agent for viral infections. So, these compounds are against a broad spectrum of viruses, including herpes, corona-, alphaand flaviviruses, human immunodeficiency virus, vaccinia virus, poliovirus type I, vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus. These data indicate that anti-viral effect of these compounds is due to several types of activity — direct antiviral effects, effects on cellular proand anti-viral and immunomodulating pathways, in particular by activation of innate immunity system. GA interferes with early steps of the viral reproductive cycle such as virus binding to its receptor, the absorption of the virus by endocytosis or virus decapsidation in the cytoplasm. This is due to the effect of GA-induced reduction of membrane fluidity. Thus, one mechanism for the antiviral activity of GA is that GA molecule increases the rigidity of cellular and viral membranes after incorporation in there. This results in increasing of energy threshold required for the formation of negative curvature at the fusion zones, as well as difficult lateral migration of the virus-receptor complexes. In addition, glycyrrhizin prevents interaction of viral nucleoprotein with cellular protein HMGB1, which is necessary for the viral life cycle. Glycyrrhizin also inhibits the induction of oxidative stress during influenza infection, exhibiting antioxidant properties, which leads to a reduction of virus-induced production of cytokines/chemokines, without affecting the replication of the virus. A wide spectrum of biological activity and effect on various aspects of the viral pathogenesis substantiate the effect of GA and GLA as a component

  5. The Potential Impact of a Hepatitis C Vaccine for People Who Inject Drugs: Is a Vaccine Needed in the Age of Direct-Acting Antivirals?

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    Jack Stone

    Full Text Available The advent of highly effective hepatitis C (HCV treatments has questioned the need for a vaccine to control HCV amongst people who inject drugs (PWID. However, high treatment costs and ongoing reinfection risk suggest it could still play a role. We compared the impact of HCV vaccination amongst PWID against providing HCV treatment.Dynamic HCV vaccination and treatment models among PWID were used to determine the vaccination and treatment rates required to reduce chronic HCV prevalence or incidence in the UK over 20 or 40 years. Projections considered a low (50% protection for 5 years, moderate (70% protection for 10 years or high (90% protection for 20 years efficacy vaccine. Sensitivities to various parameters were examined.To halve chronic HCV prevalence over 40 years, the low, moderate and high efficacy vaccines required annual vaccination rates (coverage after 20 years of 162 (72%, 77 (56% and 44 (38% per 1000 PWID, respectively. These vaccination rates were 16, 7.6 and 4.4 times greater than corresponding treatment rates. To halve prevalence over 20 years nearly doubled these vaccination rates (moderate and high efficacy vaccines only and the vaccination-to-treatment ratio increased by 20%. For all scenarios considered, required annual vaccination rates and vaccination-to-treatment ratios were at least a third lower to reduce incidence than prevalence. Baseline HCV prevalence had little effect on the vaccine's impact on prevalence or incidence, but substantially affected the vaccination-to-treatment ratios. Behavioural risk heterogeneity only had an effect if we assumed no transitions between high and low risk states and vaccinations were targeted or if PWID were high risk for their first year.Achievable coverage levels of a low efficacy prophylactic HCV vaccine could greatly reduce HCV transmission amongst PWID. Current high treatment costs ensure vaccination could still be an important intervention option.

  6. Autodisplay of an archaeal γ-lactamase on the cell surface of Escherichia coli using Xcc_Est as an anchoring scaffold and its application for preparation of the enantiopure antiviral drug intermediate (-) vince lactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Zhao, Guogang; Zhang, Zhiwei; Liang, Qiulin; Min, Cong; Wu, Sheng

    2014-08-01

    At present, autotransporter protein mediated surface display has opened a new dimension in the development of whole-cell biocatalysts. Here, we report the identification of a novel autotransporter Xcc_Est from Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris 8004 by bioinformatic analysis and application of Xcc_Est as an anchoring motif for surface display of γ-lactamase (Gla) from thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 in Escherichia coli. The localization of γ-lactamase in the cell envelope was monitored by Western blot, activity assay and flow cytometry analysis. Either the full-length or truncated Xcc_Est could efficiently transport γ-lactamase to the cell surface. Compared with the free enzyme, the displayed γ-lactamase exhibited optimum temperature of 30 °C other than 90 °C, with a substantial decrease of 60 °C. Under the preparation system, the engineered E. coli with autodisplayed γ-lactamase converted 100 g racemic vince lactam to produce 49.2 g (-) vince lactam at 30 °C within 4 h. By using chiral HPLC, the ee value of the produced (-) vince lactam was determined to be 99.5 %. The whole-cell biocatalyst exhibited excellent stability under the operational conditions. Our results indicate that the E. coli with surface displayed γ-lactamase is an efficient and economical whole cell biocatalyst for preparing the antiviral drug intermediate (-) vince lactam at mild temperature, eliminating expensive energy cost performed at high temperature.

  7. Atividade de três drogas antivirais sobre os herpesvírus bovino tipos 1, 2 e 5 em cultivo celular Activity of three antiviral drugs against bovine herpesviruses 1, 2 and 5 in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de três fármacos antivirais (Aciclovir [ACV], Ganciclovir [GCV] e Foscarnet [PFA] foi testada in vitro frente aos herpesvírus bovino tipos 1 (BoHV-1, 2 (BoHV-2 e 5 (BoHV-5. Para isso, utilizou-se o teste de reducao de placas virais em cultivo celular, testando-se diferentes concentracoes dos farmacos frente a 100 doses infectantes para 50% dos cultivos celulares (DICC50 dos respectivos virus. Pelo teste de MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, verificou-se que concentracoes inferiores a 200ƒÊg/mL dos tres antivirais resultaram em indices de viabilidade de celulas MDBK e Hep2 superiores a 80%. Com base na concentracao citotoxica para 50% das celulas (CC50 e na concentracao dos farmacos efetiva para inibir em 50% o numero de placas virais (EC50, calculou-se o indice de seletividade (IS dos antivirais para os tres herpesvirus. Assim, o ACV demonstrou ser moderadamente ativo frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 112,9ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5, ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 114,2 ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5 e BoHV-5 (EC50: 96,9ƒÊg/mL e IS: 5,3. O GCV apresentou atividade moderada frente ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 33,5ƒÊg/mL e IS: 16,6 e, em menor grau, contra o BoHV-5 (EC50: 123,2ƒÊg/mL e IS: 4,5, sendo ineficaz frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 335,8ƒÊg/mL e IS: 1,7. O PFA apresentou atividade antiviral mais pronunciada, sendo o unico farmaco que, na concentracao de 100ƒÊg/mL, inibiu completamente a producao de placas pelos tres virus testados. O PFA foi o mais efetivo in vitro frente ao BoHV-1 (EC50: 29,5ƒÊg/mL e IS: 42,2, ao BoHV-2 (EC50: 45,2ƒÊg/mL e IS: 27,6 e ao BoHV-5 (EC50: 7,8ƒÊg/mL e IS: 160,6. Portanto, os resultados obtidos indicam que o PFA pode se constituir em um candidato para terapia experimental de infeccoes pelos herpesvirus de bovinos in vivo.The activity of three anti-herpetic drugs (Acyclovir [ACV], Gancyclovir [GCV] and Foscarnet [PFA] was tested against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1, 2 (BoHV-2 and 5 (BoHV-5 in vitro using the

  8. Antiviral immunity in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangchun; Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Although a variety of virus species can infect amphibians, diseases caused by ranaviruses ([RVs]; Iridoviridae) have become prominent, and are a major concern for biodiversity, agriculture and international trade. The relatively recent and rapid increase in prevalence of RV infections, the wide range of host species infected by RVs, the variability in host resistance among population of the same species and among different developmental stages, all suggest an important involvement of the amphibian immune system. Nevertheless, the roles of the immune system in the etiology of viral diseases in amphibians are still poorly investigated. We review here the current knowledge of antiviral immunity in amphibians, focusing on model species such as the frog Xenopus and the salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), and on recent progress in generating tools to better understand how host immune defenses control RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission.

  9. Aciclovir: nuevo antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Repetto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El aciclovir es un antiviral útil en infecciones graves causadas por el virus varicela-zoster. Es bien tolerado con escasas reacciones adversas. En pacientes deshidratados, en insuficiencia renal o si la infusión endovenosa es muy rápida, puede ocacionar una "nefropatía obstructiva" transitoria. Existen preparados de uso tópico, oftálmico, endovenoso y oral; esta última vía constituye una ventaja sobre la vidarabina con la que tiene en común el espectro de actividad. En razón de su selectividad, riesgo de resistencia y número reducido de antivirales, su prescripción debe restringirse a infecciones graves causadas por los agentes inmunodeprimidos; excluyendo por lo tanto las comunes y autolimitadas, frecuentes en el individuo normal.

  10. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  11. Cytomegalovirus Antivirals and Development of Improved Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Alistair; Choi, K. Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that establishes a life long asymptomatic infection in healthy individuals. Infection of immunesuppressed individuals causes serious illness. Transplant and AIDS patients are highly susceptible to CMV leading to life threatening end organ disease. Another vulnerable population is the developing fetus in utero, where congenital infection can result in surviving newborns with long term developmental problems. There is no vaccine licensed for CMV and current antivirals suffer from complications associated with prolonged treatment. These include drug toxicity and emergence of resistant strains. There is an obvious need for new antivirals. Candidate intervention strategies are tested in controlled pre-clinical animal models but species specificity of HCMV precludes the direct study of the virus in an animal model. Areas covered This review explores the current status of CMV antivirals and development of new drugs. This includes the use of animal models and the development of new improved models such as humanized animal CMV and bioluminescent imaging of virus in animals in real time. Expert Opinion Various new CMV antivirals are in development, some with greater spectrum of activity against other viruses. Although the greatest need is in the setting of transplant patients there remains an unmet need for a safe antiviral strategy against congenital CMV. This is especially important since an effective CMV vaccine remains an elusive goal. In this capacity greater emphasis should be placed on suitable pre-clinical animal models and greater collaboration between industry and academia. PMID:21883024

  12. Evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for support of in vitro drug discovery assays: increasing scope, robustness and throughput of the LDTD technique for use with chemically diverse compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Iain; Smith, Aaron; Weston, Daniel J; White, Peter; Szwandt, Simon; Sealey, Laura

    2012-02-05

    Within the drug discovery environment, the key process in optimising the chemistry of a structural series toward a potential drug candidate is the design, make and test cycle, in which the primary screens consist of a number of in vitro assays, including metabolic stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, and time-dependent inhibition assays. These assays are often carried out using multiple drug compounds with chemically diverse structural features, often in a 96 well-plate format for maximum time-efficiency, and are supported using rapid liquid chromatographic (LC) sample introduction with a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) endpoint, taking around 6.5 h per plate. To provide a faster time-to-decision at this critical point, there exists a requirement for higher sample throughput and a robust, well-characterized analytical alternative. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD), a relatively new ambient sample ionization technique, for compound screening assays. By systematic modification of typical LDTD instrumentation and workflow, and providing deeper understanding around overcoming a number of key issues, this work establishes LDTD as a practical, rapid alternative to conventional LC-MS/MS in drug discovery, without need for extensive sample preparation or expensive, scope-limiting internal standards. Analysis of both the five and three cytochrome P450 competitive inhibition assay samples by LDTD gave improved sample throughput (0.75 h per plate) and provided comparable data quality as the IC₅₀ values obtained were within 3 fold of those calculated from the LC-MS/MS data. Additionally when applied generically to a chemically diverse library of over 250 proprietary compounds from the AstraZeneca design, make and test cycle, LDTD demonstrated a success rate of 98%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High throughput determination log Po/w/pKa/log Do/w of drugs by combination of UHPLC and CE methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Marc Cabot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 Valkó et al. developed a generic fast gradient HPLC method, based on the calculation of the chromatographic hydrophobicity index (CHI from the gradient retention times, in order to measure lipophilicity. We have enhanced the correlations between CHI and log Po/w and adapted the rapid gradient HPLC method to UHPLC obtaining excellent resolution and repeatability in a short analysis time (<4min. log Po/w values can be easily obtained from these CHI measurements but, unfortunately, these correlations are only valid for non-ionized compounds. Consequently, in order to determine the effective log Po/w value at a particular pH, a fast high-throughput method for pKa determination was required. The IS-CE method is a fast and attractive alternative to other methods for pKa determination, since it offers multiple advantages compared to them: low amounts of test compounds and reagents are needed, high purity is not required, specific interactions between test compounds and buffers are corrected, etc. In addition, it allows the determination of a pKa value in less than 5 minutes. Both CHI and IS-CE have been combined in order to describe a high throughput alternative in order to determine the lipophilicity profiles of bioactive compounds.

  14. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Croci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity. To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221. In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery.

  15. Antiviral properties from plants of the Mediterranean flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, G; Farci, P; Busonera, B; Murgia, G; La Colla, P; Giliberti, G

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are a successful source in drug discovery, playing a significant role in maintaining human health. We investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of extracts from 18 traditionally used Mediterranean plants. Noteworthy antiviral activity was found in the extract obtained from the branches of Daphne gnidium L. against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (EC50 = 0.08 μg/mL) and coxsackievirus B5 (EC50 = 0.10 μg/mL). Other relevant activities were found against BVDV, YFV, Sb-1, RSV and HSV-1. Interestingly, extracts from Artemisia arborescens L. and Rubus ulmifolius Schott, as well as those from D. gnidium L., showed activities against two different viruses. This extensive antiviral screening allowed us to identify attractive activities, offering opportunities to develop lead compounds with a great pharmaceutical potential.

  16. Application of Combination High-Throughput Phenotypic Screening and Target Identification Methods for the Discovery of Natural Product-Based Combination Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgut, Monica; Rao, Mukkavilli; Yang, Chunhua; Subrahmanyam, Vangala; Rida, Padmashree C G; Aneja, Ritu

    2018-03-01

    Modern drug discovery efforts have had mediocre success rates with increasing developmental costs, and this has encouraged pharmaceutical scientists to seek innovative approaches. Recently with the rise of the fields of systems biology and metabolomics, network pharmacology (NP) has begun to emerge as a new paradigm in drug discovery, with a focus on multiple targets and drug combinations for treating disease. Studies on the benefits of drug combinations lay the groundwork for a renewed focus on natural products in drug discovery. Natural products consist of a multitude of constituents that can act on a variety of targets in the body to induce pharmacodynamic responses that may together culminate in an additive or synergistic therapeutic effect. Although natural products cannot be patented, they can be used as starting points in the discovery of potent combination therapeutics. The optimal mix of bioactive ingredients in natural products can be determined via phenotypic screening. The targets and molecular mechanisms of action of these active ingredients can then be determined using chemical proteomics, and by implementing a reverse pharmacokinetics approach. This review article provides evidence supporting the potential benefits of natural product-based combination drugs, and summarizes drug discovery methods that can be applied to this class of drugs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J.; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert [Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Gagnon, David [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Gjoerup, Ole [Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Archambault, Jacques [Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal (IRCM), 110 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H2W 1R7 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Bullock, Peter A., E-mail: Peter.Bullock@tufts.edu [Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. - Highlights: • Development of a high-throughput screening assay for JCV DNA replication using C33A cells. • Evidence that T-ag fails to accumulate in the nuclei of established glioma cell lines. • Evidence that NF-1 directly promotes JCV DNA replication in C33A cells. • Proof-of-concept that the HTS assay can be used to identify pharmacological inhibitor of JCV DNA replication.

  18. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Gagyor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy, but the effectiveness of additional treatment with an antiviral agent is uncertain. Significant morbidity can be associated with severe cases of Bell's palsy.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiviral treatments alone or in combination with any other therapy for Bell's palsy.METHODS:Search methods:On 7 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, DARE, NHS EED, and HTA. We also reviewed the bibliographies of the identified trials and contacted trial authors and known experts in the field and relevant drug companies to identify additional published or unpublished data. We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing studies.Selection criteria:We considered randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of antivirals with and without corticosteroids versus control therapies for the treatment of Bell's palsy.We excluded trials that had a high risk of bias in several domains.Data collection and analysis:Pairs of authors independently assessed trials for relevance, eligibility, and risk of bias, using standard Cochrane procedures.MAIN RESULTS: Eleven trials, including 2883 participants, met the inclusion criteria and are included in the final analysis. We added four studies to the previous review for this update. Some of the trials were small, and a number were at high or unclear risk of bias. Other trials did not meet current best standards in allocation concealment and blinding. Incomplete recovery:We found no significant benefit from adding antivirals to corticosteroids in comparison with corticosteroids alone for people with Bell's palsy (risk ratio (RR 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.47 to 1.02, n = 1715. For people with severe Bell's palsy (House Brackmann scores of 5 and 6 or the equivalent in other scales, we found a

  19. High Throughput Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Argonne?s high throughput facility provides highly automated and parallel approaches to material and materials chemistry development. The facility allows scientists...

  20. Assessment of the antiviral properties of recombinant surfactant protein D against influenza B virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire, Marine L B; van Eijk, Martin; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; Nieuwkoop, Nella J; van Riel, Debby; Fouchier, Ron A M; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Haagsman, Henk P; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-02

    The armamentarium of antiviral drugs against influenza viruses is limited. Furthermore, influenza viruses emerge that are resistant to existing antiviral drugs like the M2 and NA inhibitors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel classes of antiviral drugs. Here we investigated the antiviral properties of recombinant porcine surfactant protein D (RpSP-D), an innate defense molecule with lectin properties, against influenza B viruses. We have previously shown that porcine SP-D has more potent neutralizing activity against influenza A viruses than human SP-D. Here we show that RpSP-D neutralizes influenza B viruses efficiently and inhibited the binding of these viruses to epithelial cells of the human trachea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  2. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  3. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  4. MicroRNA-555 has potent antiviral properties against poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Byoung-Shik; Wu, Weilin; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Bakre, Abhijeet; Jorquera, Patricia A; Perwitasari, Olivia; Tripp, Ralph A

    2016-03-01

    Vaccination with live-attenuated polio vaccine has been the primary reason for the drastic reduction of poliomyelitis worldwide. However, reversion of this attenuated poliovirus vaccine occasionally results in the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses that may cause poliomyelitis. Thus, the development of anti-poliovirus agents remains a priority for control and eradication of the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate viral infection through targeting the viral genome or reducing host factors required for virus replication. However, the roles of miRNAs in poliovirus (PV) replication have not been fully elucidated. In this study, a library of 1200 miRNA mimics was used to identify miRNAs that govern PV replication. High-throughput screening revealed 29 miRNAs with antiviral properties against Sabin-2, which is one of the oral polio vaccine strains. In particular, miR-555 was found to have the most potent antiviral activity against three different oral polio attenuated vaccine strains tested. The results show that miR-555 reduced the level of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNP C) required for PV replication in the infected cells, which in turn resulted in reduction of PV positive-strand RNA synthesis and production of infectious progeny. These findings provide the first evidence for the role of miR-555 in PV replication and reveal that miR-555 could contribute to the development of antiviral therapeutic strategies against PV.

  5. Synergistic antiviral activity of gemcitabine and ribavirin against enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunju; Kim, Chonsaeng; Kim, Dong-eun; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Hae Soo; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Janghwan; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Su Ui; Lee, Chong-Kyo; Kim, Meehyein; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Cho, Sungchan

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses are major causative agents of various human diseases, and some of them are currently considered to be an enormous threat to public health. However, no effective therapy is currently available for the treatment of these infections. We identified gemcitabine, a nucleoside-analog drug used for cancer treatment, from a screen of bioactive chemicals as a novel inhibitor of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Gemcitabine potently inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 and EV71, as well as the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons, in cells with a low micromolar IC50 (1-5 μM). Its strong inhibitory effect was also observed in cells infected with human rhinoviruses, demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral effects on enteroviruses. Mechanistically, an extensive analysis excluded the involvement of 2C, 3A, IRES-dependent translation, and also that of polyprotein processing in the antiviral effects of gemcitabine. Importantly, gemcitabine in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug currently being used against a few RNA viruses, exhibited a synergistic antiviral effect on the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrate a new indication for gemcitabine as an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses and strongly suggest a new therapeutic strategy using gemcitabine alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of various diseases associated with enterovirus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and characterization of hepatitis C virus genotype 1-7 cell culture systems: role of CD81 and scavenger receptor class B type I and effect of antiviral drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Scheel, Troels K H; Jensen, Tanja B

    2009-01-01

    -6 viruses had similar spread kinetics, intracellular Core, NS5A, and lipid amounts, and colocalization of Core and NS5A with lipids. Treatment with interferon-alpha2b but not ribavirin or amantadine showed a significant antiviral effect. Infection with all genotypes could be blocked by specific antibodies...... against the putative coreceptors CD81 and scavenger receptor class B type I in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, neutralizing antibodies in selected chronic phase HCV sera had differential effects against genotype 1-7 viruses. Conclusion: We completed and characterized a panel of JFH1-based cell culture...... systems of all seven major HCV genotypes and important subtypes and used these viruses in comparative studies of antivirals, HCV receptor interaction, and neutralizing antibodies....

  7. Fast Gradient Elution Reversed-Phase HPLC with Diode-Array Detection as a High Throughput Screening Method for Drugs of Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter W. Carr; K.M. Fuller; D.R. Stoll; L.D. Steinkraus; M.S. Pasha; Glenn G. Hardin

    2005-12-30

    A new approach has been developed by modifying a conventional gradient elution liquid chromatograph for the high throughput screening of biological samples to detect the presence of regulated intoxicants. The goal of this work was to improve the speed of a gradient elution screening method over current approaches by optimizing the operational parameters of both the column and the instrument without compromising the reproducibility of the retention times, which are the basis for the identification. Most importantly, the novel instrument configuration substantially reduces the time needed to re-equilibrate the column between gradient runs, thereby reducing the total time for each analysis. The total analysis time for each gradient elution run is only 2.8 minutes, including 0.3 minutes for column reequilibration between analyses. Retention times standard calibration solutes are reproducible to better than 0.002 minutes in consecutive runs. A corrected retention index was adopted to account for day-to-day and column-to-column variations in retention time. The discriminating power and mean list length were calculated for a library of 47 intoxicants and compared with previous work from other laboratories to evaluate fast gradient elution HPLC as a screening tool.

  8. Novel medium-throughput technique for investigating drug-cyclodextrin complexation by pH-metric titration using the partition coefficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargó, Gergő; Boros, Krisztina; Péter, László; Malanga, Milo; Sohajda, Tamás; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, György T

    2018-05-05

    The present study was aimed to develop a medium-throughput screening technique for investigation of cyclodextrin (CD)-active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) complexes. Dual-phase potentiometric lipophilicity measurement, as gold standard technique, was combined with the partition coefficient method (plotting the reciprocal of partition coefficients of APIs as a function of CD concentration). A general equation was derived for determination of stability constants of 1:1 CD-API complexes (K 1:1,CD ) based on solely the changes of partition coefficients (logP o/w N -logP app N ), without measurement of the actual API concentrations. Experimentally determined logP value (-1.64) of 6-deoxy-6[(5/6)-fluoresceinylthioureido]-HPBCD (FITC-NH-HPBCD) was used to estimate the logP value (≈ -2.5 to -3) of (2-hydroxypropyl)-ß-cyclodextrin (HPBCD). The results suggested that the amount of HPBCD can be considered to be inconsequential in the octanol phase. The decrease of octanol volume due to the octanol-CD complexation was considered, thus a corrected octanol-water phase ratio was also introduced. The K 1:1,CD values obtained by this developed method showed a good accordance with the results from other orthogonal methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitors of the influenza A virus M2 proton channel discovered using a high-throughput yeast growth restoration assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna D Balgi

    Full Text Available The M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus is the target of the anti-influenza drugs amantadine and rimantadine. The effectiveness of these drugs has been dramatically limited by the rapid spread of drug resistant mutations, mainly at sites S31N, V27A and L26F in the pore of the channel. Despite progress in designing inhibitors of V27A and L26F M2, there are currently no drugs targeting these mutated channels in clinical trials. Progress in developing new drugs has been hampered by the lack of a robust assay with sufficient throughput for discovery of new active chemotypes among chemical libraries and sufficient sensitivity to provide the SAR data essential for their improvement and development as drugs. In this study we adapted a yeast growth restoration assay, in which expression of the M2 channel inhibits yeast growth and exposure to an M2 channel inhibitor restores growth, into a robust and sensitive high-throughput screen for M2 channel inhibitors. A screen of over 250,000 pure chemicals and semi-purified fractions from natural extracts identified 21 active compounds comprising amantadine, rimantadine, 13 related adamantanes and 6 non-adamantanes. Of the non-adamantanes, hexamethylene amiloride and a triazine derivative represented new M2 inhibitory chemotypes that also showed antiviral activity in a plaque reduction assay. Of particular interest is the fact that the triazine derivative was not sufficiently potent for detection as an inhibitor in the traditional two electrode voltage clamp assay for M2 channel activity, but its discovery in the yeast assay led to testing of analogues of which one was as potent as amantadine.

  10. Antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagyor, Ildiko; Madhok, Vishnu B; Daly, Fergus; Somasundara, Dhruvashree; Sullivan, Michael; Gammie, Fiona; Sullivan, Frank

    2015-11-09

    Corticosteroids are widely used in the treatment of idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy), but the effectiveness of additional treatment with an antiviral agent is uncertain. Significant morbidity can be associated with severe cases of Bell's palsy. This review was first published in 2001 and revised several times, most recently in 2009. This version replaces an update of the review in Issue 7 of the Cochrane Library subsequently withdrawn because of an ongoing investigation into the reliability of data from an included study. To assess the effects of antiviral treatments alone or in combination with any other therapy for Bell's palsy. On 7 October 2014 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, DARE, NHS EED, and HTA. We also reviewed the bibliographies of the identified trials and contacted trial authors and known experts in the field and relevant drug companies to identify additional published or unpublished data. We searched clinical trials registries for ongoing studies. We considered randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of antivirals with and without corticosteroids versus control therapies for the treatment of Bell's palsy. We excluded trials that had a high risk of bias in several domains. Pairs of authors independently assessed trials for relevance, eligibility, and risk of bias, using standard Cochrane procedures. Ten trials, including 2280 participants, met the inclusion criteria and are included in the final analysis. Some of the trials were small, and a number were at high or unclear risk of bias. Other trials did not meet current best standards in allocation concealment and blinding. Incomplete recoveryWe found a significant benefit from adding antivirals to corticosteroids in comparison with corticosteroids alone for people with Bell's palsy (risk ratio (RR) 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.97, n = 1315). For people with severe Bell

  11. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    polymerized in a controlled manner with carrier monomers of historically proven biocompatible polymers. The carrier polymers, the loading of ribavirin as well as the size of the polymer were varied systematically with the aid of an automated synthesis platform. These polymers were tested in a cellular assay...... of reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, which not only controls the size of polymer, but also allows the introduction of a terminal amine on the polymer which can be used for further conjugation. This has allowed for not only fluorescent labeling of the polymer, but also protein......The field of drug delivery is in essence an exercise in engineered pharmacokinetics. Methods of doing so have been developed through the introduction of a vehicle carrying the drug, either by encapsulation or covalent attachment. The emergence of polymer therapeutics in anticancer therapy has...

  12. Antiviral Effect Assay of Aqueous Extract of Echium Amoenum-L against HSV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farahani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants have been used for different diseases in past. There is an increasing need for substances with antiviral activity since the treatment of viral infections with the available antiviral drugs often leads to the problem of viral resistance. Therefore in the present study Echium amoenum L plant with ethnomedical background was screened for antiviral activity against HSV-1 in different times. Materials and Methods: Flower part of Echium amoenum L plant collected from Iran was extracted with different methods to obtain crude aqueous extract. This extract was screened for its cytotoxicity against Hep II cell line by CPE assay. Antiviral properties of the plant extract were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay.Results: Echium amoenum L extract exhibited significant antiviral activity at non toxic concentrations to the cell line used. Findings indicated that plant extract has the most antiviral activity when it used an hour after virus inoculation.Conclusion: Echium amoenum L plant had not toxic effect at highest concentrations to the cell lines used and showed the most antiviral activity when it used an hour after virus inoculation. Further research is needed to elucidate the active constituents of this plant which may be useful in the development of new and effective antiviral agents.

  13. High-throughput analysis of drugs in biological fluids by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with thin liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosting, Cecilie; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Hansen, Steen Honore'

    2013-01-01

    Biological fluids such as urine, saliva and whole blood were analyzed for contents of drugs by a new combination of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) and thin liquid membrane extraction (TLME). Analytes from the sample were extracted into a thin liquid membrane...... into the method, methadone was detected in urine in full-scan mode with an LOD of 4 ng mL(-1), while amitriptyline, nortriptyline and pethidine showed LODs of 17 ng mL(-1). Quantification was possible for several basic drugs using one common internal standard, providing relative accuracies in the range of 10...

  14. Assessment of the Antiviral Properties of Recombinant Porcine SP-D against Various Influenza A Viruses In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillaire, M.L.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341413933; van Eijk, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255160216; Trierum, S.E.; van Riel, D.; Saelens, X.; Romijn, R.A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/26228359X; Hemrika, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/121631362; Fouchier, R.A.M.; Kuiken, T.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074960172; Haagsman, H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069273278; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to existing classes of antiviral drugs raises concern and there is a need for novel antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically or prophylacticaly. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) belongs to the family of Ctype lectins which are important effector

  15. Assessment of the antiviral properties of recombinant porcine SP-D against various influenza A viruses in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.B. Hillaire (Marine); M. van Eijk (Martin); S.E. Trierum (Stella); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); X. Saelens (Xavier); R.A. Romijn (Roland); W. Hemrika (Wieger); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.P. Haagsman (Henk); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe emergence of influenza viruses resistant to existing classes of antiviral drugs raises concern and there is a need for novel antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically or prophylacticaly. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) belongs to the family of C-type lectins which are important

  16. The future of antiviral immunotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, K.; Høy Jakobsen, Mette; Kledal, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need for new therapeutic interventions in a wide range of infectious diseases. Over the past few years, the immunotoxins have entered the stage as promising antiviral treatments. Immunotoxins have been extensively explored in cancer treatment and have achieved FDA approval...

  17. Interfering antiviral immunity: application, subversion, hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, N; Kumar, Priti; Lee, Sang Kyung; Shankar, Premlata

    2006-07-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), initially recognized as a natural antiviral mechanism in plants, has rapidly emerged as an invaluable tool to suppress gene expression in a sequence-specific manner in all organisms, including mammals. Its potential to inhibit the replication of a variety of viruses has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in mouse and monkey models. These results have generated profound interest in the use of this technology as a potential treatment strategy for viral infections for which vaccines and drugs are unavailable or inadequate. In this review, we discuss the progress made within the past 2-3 years towards harnessing the potential of RNAi for clinical application in viral infections and the hurdles that have yet to be overcome.

  18. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  19. Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2004-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is becoming a more prevalent clinical problem, especially in HBV-endemic areas. It is estimated that 1.25 million people in the United States and more than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV. Despite the introduction of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in over 100 countries, persistent HBV infection is still a serious problem worldwide, causing an estimated annual death rate of one million. It may take several decades until the effect of vaccination will be translated into reduced transmission and morbidity. Meanwhile, patients with persistent HBV infection require better antiviral therapeutic modalities than are currently available. It is well accepted that antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B is effective to improve prognosis of patients with HBV by preventing development of hepatitis state and HCC. The therapeutic endpoints for hepatitis B treatment are: 1) sustained suppression of HBV replication, as indicated by HBsAg and HBeAg loss, 2) decrease of serum HBV DNA of an undetectable level by a non-PCR method, 3) remission of disease, as shown by normalization of ALT, 4) improvement in liver histology, and 5) reduction of the acute exacerbation, cirrhosis, and HCC. In the present, the antiviral treatment of hepatitis B consists of either interferon alpha or oral lamivudine alone or in combination with existing therapy. Each major antiviral drug of interferon alpha and lamivudine has pros and cons, and effect of combination therapy of both drugs is also still limited. More powerful and safe new antiviral therapies are required to achieve final goal of these therapeutic endpoints. Management of chronic hepatitis B requires significant knowledge of approved pharmacotherapeutic agents and their limitations. Therapeutic options for managing hepatitis infection after liver transplantation (LT

  20. Treatment of antiviral-resistant recurrent erythema multiforme with dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Allen S W; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Sami, Naveed

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent erythema multiforme (REM) is a chronic disease characterized by frequent episodes of target cutaneous lesions in an acral distribution. Conventional treatment includes systemic corticosteroids and antiviral therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate dapsone as a potential steroid sparing-agent for the treatment of REM after a failed trial of at least one antiviral therapy (acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir). A retrospective chart review was conducted on thirteen patients with a diagnosis of REM who underwent treatment with dapsone after failing at least one antiviral therapy. Out of 13 patients, 6 showed complete response (CR) and 5 showed partial response (PR). The underlying cause was identified in 5 patients with all showing at least PR. Adverse effects, observed in 4 patients, included fatigue, macrocytic anemia, anxiety, insomnia and involuntary movements, and drug-induced lupus erythematosus. A continuous course of dapsone, titrated up from 25 mg/day to a dose at which clinical improvement is seen with acceptable patient tolerance, is a viable steroid sparing-agent for REM treatment after a failed trial of antiviral therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antiviral Activities of Several Oral Traditional Chinese Medicines against Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin-Lin; Ge, Miao; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is still a serious threat to human health with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses poses a great challenge to existing antiviral drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) may be an alternative to overcome the challenge. Here, 10 oral proprietary Chinese medicines were selected to evaluate their anti-influenza activities. These drugs exhibit potent inhibitory effects against influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2, and influenza B virus. Importantly, they demonstrate potent antiviral activities against drug-resistant strains. In the study of mechanisms, we found that Xiaoqinglong mixture could increase antiviral interferon production by activating p38 MAPK, JNK/SAPK pathway, and relative nuclear transcription factors. Lastly, our studies also indicate that some of these medicines show inhibitory activities against EV71 and CVB strains. In conclusion, the 10 traditional Chinese medicines, as kind of compound combination medicines, show broad-spectrum antiviral activities, possibly also including inhibitory activities against strains resistant to available antiviral drugs.

  2. Antiviral strategies for emerging influenza viruses in remote communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Laskowski

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of timely access to resources for critical care, strategic use of antiviral drugs is crucial for mitigating the impact of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential in remote and isolated communities. We sought to evaluate the effect of antiviral treatment and prophylaxis of close contacts in a Canadian remote northern community.We used an agent-based, discrete-time simulation model for disease spread in a remote community, which was developed as an in-silico population using population census data. Relative and cumulative age-specific attack rates, and the total number of infections in simulated model scenarios were obtained.We found that early initiation of antiviral treatment is more critical for lowering attack rates in a remote setting with a low population-average age compared to an urban population. Our results show that a significant reduction in the relative, age-specific attack rates due to increasing treatment coverage does not necessarily translate to a significant reduction in the overall arrack rate. When treatment coverage varies from low to moderate, targeted prophylaxis has a very limited impact in reducing attack rates and should be offered at a low level (below 10% to avoid excessive waste of drugs.In contrast to previous work, for conservative treatment coverages, our results do not provide any convincing evidence for the implementation of targeted prophylaxis. The findings suggest that public health strategies in remote communities should focus on the wider availability (higher coverage and timely distribution of antiviral drugs for treatment of clinically ill individuals.

  3. Escape Mutations in NS4B Render Dengue Virus Insensitive to the Antiviral Activity of the Paracetamol Metabolite AM404.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Cleef, Koen W R; Overheul, Gijs J; Thomassen, Michael C; Marjakangas, Jenni M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the enormous disease burden associated with dengue virus infections, a licensed antiviral drug is lacking. Here, we show that the paracetamol (acetaminophen) metabolite AM404 inhibits dengue virus replication. Moreover, we find that mutations in NS4B that were previously found to confer resistance to the antiviral compounds NITD-618 and SDM25N also render dengue virus insensitive to AM404. Our work provides further support for NS4B as a direct or indirect target for antiviral drug development. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. A novel 96-microwell-based high-throughput spectrophotometric assay for pharmaceutical quality control of crizotinib, a novel potent drug for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed Wani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and validation of a novel 96-microwell-based high throughput spectrophotometric assay for pharmaceutical quality control of crizotinib (CZT, a novel drug for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. We examined the reaction between CZT and 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate, a chromogenic reagent. A red-colored product showing a maximum absorption peak (λmax at 490 nm was produced in an alkaline medium (pH 9. We examined stoichiometry of the reaction and postulated the reaction mechanism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe a color-developing reaction for the proposed assay. The reaction was performed in a 96-microwell plate, and the absorbance of the colored product was measured using an absorbance reader at 490 nm. Under optimized reaction conditions, Beer's law, which shows a correlation between absorbance and CZT concentration, was obeyed in the range of 4-50 µg/well with an appropriate correlation coefficient (0.999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.73 and 5.23 µg/well, respectively. The assay showed high precision and accuracy. The proposed assay was applied successfully for the determination of CZT in capsules. Thus, the assay proposed in this study is practical and valuable for routine application in pharmaceutical quality control laboratories.

  5. A Sensitive in Vitro High-Throughput Screen To Identify Pan-filoviral Replication Inhibitors Targeting the VP35–NP Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gai; Nash, Peter J.; Johnson, Britney; Pietzsch, Colette; Ilagan, Ma. Xenia G.; Bukreyev, Alexander; Basler, Christopher F.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Moir, Donald T.; Leung, Daisy W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. (WU-MED); (GSU); (Texas-MED); (Microbiotix)

    2017-01-24

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the largest outbreak on record, highlighted the need for novel approaches to therapeutics targeting Ebola virus (EBOV). Within the EBOV replication complex, the interaction between polymerase cofactor, viral protein 35 (VP35), and nucleoprotein (NP) is critical for viral RNA synthesis. We recently identified a peptide at the N-terminus of VP35 (termed NPBP) that is sufficient for interaction with NP and suppresses EBOV replication, suggesting that the NPBP binding pocket can serve as a potential drug target. Here we describe the development and validation of a sensitive high-throughput screen (HTS) using a fluorescence polarization assay. Initial hits from this HTS include the FDA-approved compound tolcapone, whose potency against EBOV infection was validated in a nonfluorescent secondary assay. High conservation of the NP–VP35 interface among filoviruses suggests that this assay has the capacity to identify pan-filoviral inhibitors for development as antivirals.

  6. A Modified P1 Moiety Enhances in vitro Antiviral Activity against Various Multi-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants and in vitro CNS Penetration Properties of a Novel Nonpeptidic Protease Inhibitor, GRL-10413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Masayuki; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Zhao, Rui; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Das, Debananda; Bulut, Haydar; Delino, Nicole S.; Sheri, Venkata Reddy; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki (Kumamoto); (NIH); (Purdue)

    2016-09-12

    We here report that GRL-10413, a novel non-peptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a modified P1 moiety and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (EC50: 0.00035 - 0.0018 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 35.7 μM). GRL-10413 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3variants selected by up to 5 μM concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, or amprenavir (EC50: 0.0021 - 0.0023 μM). GRL-10413 also maintained its strong antiviral activity against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients, who no longer responded to various antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy. The development of resistance against GRL-10413 was significantly delayed compared to that of APV. In addition, GRL-10413 showed a favorable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property as assessed with anin vitroblood brain barrier (BBB) reconstruction system. Analysis of the crystal structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with GRL-10413 demonstrated that the modified P1 moiety of GRL-10413 has a greater hydrophobic surface area and makes greater van der Waals contacts with active-site amino acids of protease than in the case of darunavir. Moreover, the chlorine substituent in the P1 moiety interacts with protease in two distinct configurations. The present data demonstrate that GRL-10413 has desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants with favorable CNS-penetration capability and that the newly modified P1-moiety may confer desirable features in designing novel anti-HIV-1 PIs.

  7. Spectral characterisation, antiviral activities, in silico ADMET and molecular docking of the compounds isolated from Tectona grandis to chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Sangeetha; Purushothaman, Indu; S, Rajarajan

    2017-03-01

    Chikungunya infection is treated symptomatically with antipyretics and anti-inflammatory drugs without any specific antiviral drug till date. The lack of an approved antiviral drug and the emergence of virulent strains after 2006 epidemics emphasize the need for the development of potential antiviral drugs to Chikungunya virus. Hence, we studied the antiviral activity of the extracts and compounds isolated from Tectona grandis leaves to both the Asian and East central South African strains of Chikungunya virus. Five compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of Tectona grandis by bioactivity guided fractionation followed by Spectral Characterisation through GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy and investigated for the antiviral activity. Also in silico ADMET and Molecular Docking of the characterised compounds against the structural and non structural proteins of Chikungunya virus were performed. The characterised compound Benzene-1-carboxylic acid hexadeconate was effective at IC 50 3.036μg/ml (7.5μM) and 76.46μg/ml (189.02μM) to Asian and ECSA strain of CHIKV respectively. The compound showed desirable pharmacokinetic properties and significant molecular interactions with the E1 protein of Chikungunya virus by in silico analysis. Thus Benzene-1-carboxylic acid-2-hexadeconate isolated from Tectona grandis was found to be a promising drug candidate to both the Asian and ECSA strains of Chikungunya virus with high selectivity indices in comparison to the reference RNA antiviral drug Ribavirin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiviral activity of lanatoside C against dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yan Yi; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Chen, Huixin; Seng, Eng Khuan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2014-11-01

    Dengue infection poses a serious threat globally due to its recent rapid spread and rise in incidence. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or effective antiviral drug for dengue virus infection. In response to the urgent need for the development of an effective antiviral for dengue virus, the US Drug Collection library was screened in this study to identify compounds with anti-dengue activities. Lanatoside C, an FDA approved cardiac glycoside was identified as a candidate anti-dengue compound. Our data revealed that lanatoside C has an IC50 of 0.19μM for dengue virus infection in HuH-7 cells. Dose-dependent reduction in dengue viral RNA and viral proteins synthesis were also observed upon treatment with increasing concentrations of lanatoside C. Time of addition study indicated that lanatoside C inhibits the early processes of the dengue virus replication cycle. Furthermore, lanatoside C can effectively inhibit all four serotypes of dengue virus, flavivirus Kunjin, alphavirus Chikungunya and Sindbis virus as well as the human enterovirus 71. These findings suggest that lanatoside C possesses broad spectrum antiviral activity against several groups of positive-sense RNA viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro evaluation of marine-microorganism extracts for anti-viral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhara-Bell Jarred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral-induced infectious diseases represent a major health threat and their control remains an unachieved goal, due in part to the limited availability of effective anti-viral drugs and measures. The use of natural products in drug manufacturing is an ancient and well-established practice. Marine organisms are known producers of pharmacological and anti-viral agents. In this study, a total of 20 extracts from marine microorganisms were evaluated for their antiviral activity. These extracts were tested against two mammalian viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, using Vero cells as the cell culture system, and two marine virus counterparts, channel catfish virus (CCV and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV, in their respective cell cultures (CCO and EPC. Evaluation of these extracts demonstrated that some possess antiviral potential. In sum, extracts 162M(4, 258M(1, 298M(4, 313(2, 331M(2, 367M(1 and 397(1 appear to be effective broad-spectrum antivirals with potential uses as prophylactic agents to prevent infection, as evident by their highly inhibitive effects against both virus types. Extract 313(2 shows the most potential in that it showed significantly high inhibition across all tested viruses. The samples tested in this study were crude extracts; therefore the development of antiviral application of the few potential extracts is dependent on future studies focused on the isolation of the active elements contained in these extracts.

  10. Antiviral activity of gemcitabine against human rhinovirus in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Seong-Ryeol; Heo, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Young; Kim, Dong-Eun; Cho, Sungchan; Chang, Sun-Young; Yoon, Byung-Il; Seong, Jeongmin; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2017-09-01

    Rhinovirus, a major causative agent of the common cold, is associated with exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, there is no antiviral treatment or vaccine for human rhinovirus (HRV). Gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine, dFdC) is a deoxycytidine analog with antiviral activity against rhinovirus, as well as enterovirus 71, in vitro. However, the antiviral effects of gemcitabine in vivo have not been investigated. In the current study, we assessed whether gemcitabine mediated antiviral effects in the murine HRV infection model. Intranasal administration of gemcitabine significantly lowered pulmonary viral load and inflammation by decreasing proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β, and reduction in the number of lung-infiltrating lymphocytes. Interestingly, we found that the addition of UTP and CTP significantly attenuated the antiviral activity of gemcitabine. Thus the limitation of UTP and CTP by the addition of gemcitabine may inhibit the viral RNA synthesis. These results suggest that gemcitabine, an antineoplastic drug, can be repositioned as an antiviral drug to inhibit HRV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling viral infections using zebrafish: Innate immune response and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Mónica; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    Zebrafish possess a highly developed immune system that is remarkably similar to the human one. Therefore, it is expected that the majority of the signalling pathways and molecules involved in the immune response of mammals exist and behave similarly in fish. The innate antiviral response depends on the recognition of viral components by host cells. Pattern recognition receptors initiate antimicrobial defence mechanisms via several well-conserved signalling pathways. In this paper, we review current knowledge of the antiviral innate immune response in zebrafish by considering the main molecules that have been characterized and the infection models used for the in vivo study of the antiviral innate immune response. We next summarize published studies in which larval and adult zebrafish were used to study viral diseases of fish, then provide a similar review of studies of human viral diseases in zebrafish and experience with antiviral drug screening in this model organism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Green throughput taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, A.; Ibenholt, K.

    1998-01-01

    According to optimal taxation theory, raw materials should be taxed to capture the embedded scarcity rent in their value. To reduce both natural resource use and the corresponding emissions, or the throughput in the economic system, the best policy may be a tax on material inputs. As a first approach to throughput taxation, this paper considers a tax on intermediates in the framework of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with environmental feedbacks. To balance the budget, payroll taxes are reduced. As a result, welfare indicators as material consumption and leisure time consumption are reduced, while on the other hand all the environmental indicators improve. 27 refs

  13. Historical Perspectives in the Development of Antiviral Agents Against Poxviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik De Clercq

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VV served as the model virus for which the first antivirals, the thiosemicarbazones, were identified. This dates back to 1950; and, although there is at present no single antiviral drug specifically licensed for the chemotherapy or -prophylaxis of poxvirus infections, numerous candidate compounds have been described over the past 50 years. These compounds include interferon and inducers thereof (i.e., polyacrylic acid, 5-substituted 2’-deoxyuridines (i.e., idoxuridine, IMP dehydrogenase inhibitors, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors, acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (such as cidofovir and alkoxyalkyl prodrugs thereof (such as CMX001, viral egress inhibitors (such as tecovirimat, and cellular kinase inhibitors (such as imatinib.

  14. Genetic Consequences of Antiviral Therapy on HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of enzyme inhibitors have been developed in combating HIV-1, however the fast evolutionary rate of this virus commonly leads to the emergence of resistance mutations that finally allows the mutant virus to survive. This review explores the main genetic consequences of HIV-1 molecular evolution during antiviral therapies, including the viral genetic diversity and molecular adaptation. The role of recombination in the generation of drug resistance is also analyzed. Besides the investigation and discussion of published works, an evolutionary analysis of protease-coding genes collected from patients before and after treatment with different protease inhibitors was included to validate previous studies. Finally, the review discusses the importance of considering genetic consequences of antiviral therapies in models of HIV-1 evolution that could improve current genotypic resistance testing and treatments design.

  15. Throughput of ADSL modems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Bruin, N.; Hurink, Johann L.; Meester, L.E.; op de Beek, S.S.; Westhuis, J.; Westhuis, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the throughput of ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) modems, used for high-speed data transmission over relatively unreliable connections, e.g. copper telephone wires. The modem technique uses an error correcting code and interleaving. The settings include a grouping

  16. A high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification of a hydrophobic drug candidate and its hydrophilic metabolite in human urine with a fully automated liquid/liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Perry G; Zhang, Jun; Gage, Eric M; Schmidt, Jeffrey M; Rodila, Ramona C; Ji, Qin C; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2006-01-01

    ABT-869 (A-741439) is an investigational new drug candidate under development by Abbott Laboratories. ABT-869 is hydrophobic, but is oxidized in the body to A-849529, a hydrophilic metabolite that includes both carboxyl and amino groups. Poor solubility of ABT-869 in aqueous matrix causes simultaneous analysis of both ABT-869 and its metabolite within the same extraction and injection to be extremely difficult in human urine. In this paper, a high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for high-speed simultaneous quantitation of the hydrophobic ABT-869 and its hydrophilic metabolite, A-849529, in human urine. The deuterated internal standards, A-741439D(4) and A-849529D(4), were used in this method. The disparate properties of the two analytes were mediated by treating samples with acetonitrile, adjusting pH with an extraction buffer, and optimizing the extraction solvent and mobile phase composition. For a 100 microL urine sample volume, the lower limit of quantitation was approximately 1 ng/mL for both ABT-869 and A-849529. The calibration curve was linear from 1.09 to 595.13 ng/mL for ABT-869, and 1.10 to 600.48 ng/mL for A-849529 (r2 > 0.9975 for both ABT-869 and A-849529). Because the method employs simultaneous quantification, high throughput is achieved despite the presence of both a hydrophobic analyte and its hydrophilic metabolite in human urine. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. New antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Vincent; Barreiro, Pablo; Benitez, Laura; Peña, Jose M; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-07-01

    Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription. Alongside these antivirals, agents that enhance anti-HBV specific immune responses are being tested, including TLR agonists, checkpoint inhibitors and therapeutic vaccines. Expert opinion: The achievement of a 'functional cure' for chronic HBV infection, with sustained HBsAg clearance and undetectable viremia once medications are stopped, represents the next step in the pace towards HBV elimination. Hopefully, the combination of new drugs that eliminate or functionally inactivate the genomic HBV reservoirs (cccDNA and integrated HBV-DNA) along with agents that enhance or activate immune responses against HBV will lead to a 'definitive cure' for chronic HBV infection.

  18. Antiviral lectins: Selective inhibitors of viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carter A; Ramessar, Koreen; O'Keefe, Barry R

    2017-06-01

    Many natural lectins have been reported to have antiviral activity. As some of these have been put forward as potential development candidates for preventing or treating viral infections, we have set out in this review to survey the literature on antiviral lectins. The review groups lectins by structural class and class of source organism we also detail their carbohydrate specificity and their reported antiviral activities. The review concludes with a brief discussion of several of the pertinent hurdles that heterologous proteins must clear to be useful clinical candidates and cites examples where such studies have been reported for antiviral lectins. Though the clearest path currently being followed is the use of antiviral lectins as anti-HIV microbicides via topical mucosal administration, some investigators have also found systemic efficacy against acute infections following subcutaneous administration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The RNA Template Channel of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as a Target for Development of Antiviral Therapy of Multiple Genera within a Virus Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Lonneke; Vives-Adrián, Laia; Selisko, Barbara; Ferrer-Orta, Cristina; Liu, Xinran; Lanke, Kjerstin; Ulferts, Rachel; De Palma, Armando M; Tanchis, Federica; Goris, Nesya; Lefebvre, David; De Clercq, Kris; Leyssen, Pieter; Lacroix, Céline; Pürstinger, Gerhard; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Boehr, David D; Arnold, Jamie J; Cameron, Craig E; Verdaguer, Nuria; Neyts, Johan; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2015-01-01

    The genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae contains many important human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71) for which no antiviral drugs are available. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for antiviral therapy.

  20. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potent antiviral flavone glycosides from Ficus benjamina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Huleihel, Mahmoud; Zaccai, Michele; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2012-03-01

    Crude ethanol extracts from Ficus benjamina leaves strongly inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) as well as Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) cell infection in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract demonstrated that the most efficient inhibition of HSV-1 and HSV-2 was obtained with the flavonoid fraction. The present study was aimed to further isolate, purify and identify substances with potent antiviral activity from the flavonoid fraction of F. benjamina extracts. Flavonoids were collected from the leaf ethanol extracts through repeated purification procedure and HPLC analysis. The antiviral activity of each substance was then evaluated in cell culture. Three known flavone glycosides, (1) quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, (2) kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and (3) kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside, showing highest antiviral efficiency were selected and their structure was determined by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and mass spectrometry (MS). These three flavones were highly effective against HSV-1 reaching a selectivity index (SI) of 266, 100 and 666 for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively, while the SI of their aglycons, quercetin and kaempferol amounted only in 7.1 and 3.2, respectively. Kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside showed similar SI to that of acyclovir (ACV), the standard anti-HSV drug. Although highly effective against HSV-1 and HSV-2, these flavone glycosides did not show any significant activity against VZV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using the ferret as an animal model for investigating influenza antiviral effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern of the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus has sparked an increased effort towards the development and testing of novel influenza antivirals. Central to this is the animal model of influenza infection, which has played an important role in understanding treatment effectiveness and the effect of antivirals on host immune responses. Among the different animal models of influenza, ferrets can be considered the most suitable for antiviral studies as they display most of the human-like symptoms following influenza infections, they can be infected with human influenza virus without prior viral adaptation and have the ability to transmit influenza virus efficiently between one another. However, an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an antiviral treatment in ferrets is dependent on three major experimental considerations encompassing firstly, the volume and titre of virus, and the route of viral inoculation. Secondly, the route and dose of drug administration, and lastly, the different methods used to assess clinical symptoms, viral shedding kinetics and host immune responses in the ferrets. A good understanding of these areas is necessary to achieve data that can accurately inform the human use of influenza antivirals. In this review, we discuss the current progress and the challenges faced in these three major areas when using the ferret model to measure influenza antiviral effectiveness.

  3. Strategies for antiviral stockpiling for future influenza pandemics: a global epidemic-economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R; Lee, Vernon J; Chen, Mark I; Matchar, David B; Thompson, James P; Cook, Alex R

    2011-09-07

    Influenza pandemics present a global threat owing to their potential mortality and substantial economic impacts. Stockpiling antiviral drugs to manage a pandemic is an effective strategy to offset their negative impacts; however, little is known about the long-term optimal size of the stockpile under uncertainty and the characteristics of different countries. Using an epidemic-economic model we studied the effect on total mortality and costs of antiviral stockpile sizes for Brazil, China, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Singapore, the UK, the USA and Zimbabwe. In the model, antivirals stockpiling considerably reduced mortality. There was greater potential avoidance of expected costs in the higher resourced countries (e.g. from $55 billion to $27 billion over a 30 year time horizon for the USA) and large avoidance of fatalities in those less resourced (e.g. from 11.4 to 2.3 million in Indonesia). Under perfect allocation, higher resourced countries should aim to store antiviral stockpiles able to cover at least 15 per cent of their population, rising to 25 per cent with 30 per cent misallocation, to minimize fatalities and economic costs. Stockpiling is estimated not to be cost-effective for two-thirds of the world's population under current antivirals pricing. Lower prices and international cooperation are necessary to make the life-saving potential of antivirals cost-effective in resource-limited countries.

  4. Strategies for antiviral stockpiling for future influenza pandemics: a global epidemic-economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Luis R.; Lee, Vernon J.; Chen, Mark I.; Matchar, David B.; Thompson, James P.; Cook, Alex R.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza pandemics present a global threat owing to their potential mortality and substantial economic impacts. Stockpiling antiviral drugs to manage a pandemic is an effective strategy to offset their negative impacts; however, little is known about the long-term optimal size of the stockpile under uncertainty and the characteristics of different countries. Using an epidemic–economic model we studied the effect on total mortality and costs of antiviral stockpile sizes for Brazil, China, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Singapore, the UK, the USA and Zimbabwe. In the model, antivirals stockpiling considerably reduced mortality. There was greater potential avoidance of expected costs in the higher resourced countries (e.g. from $55 billion to $27 billion over a 30 year time horizon for the USA) and large avoidance of fatalities in those less resourced (e.g. from 11.4 to 2.3 million in Indonesia). Under perfect allocation, higher resourced countries should aim to store antiviral stockpiles able to cover at least 15 per cent of their population, rising to 25 per cent with 30 per cent misallocation, to minimize fatalities and economic costs. Stockpiling is estimated not to be cost-effective for two-thirds of the world's population under current antivirals pricing. Lower prices and international cooperation are necessary to make the life-saving potential of antivirals cost-effective in resource-limited countries. PMID:21296791

  5. Viral respiratory diseases: vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennette, E H

    1981-01-01

    Acute respiratory diseases, most of which are generally attributed to viruses, account for about 6% of all deaths and for about 60% of the deaths associated with all respiratory disease. The huge cost attributable to viral respiratory infections as a result of absenteeism and the disruption of business and the burden of medical care makes control of these diseases an important objective. The viruses that infect the respiratory tract fall taxonomically into five viral families. Although immunoprophylaxis would appear to be the logical approach, the development of suitable vaccines has been confronted with numerous obstacles, including antigenic drift and shift in the influenzaviruses, the large number of antigenically distinct immunotypes among rhinoviruses, the occurrence after immunization of rare cases of a severe form of the disease following subsequent natural infection with respiratory syncytial virus, and the risk of oncogenicity of adenoviruses for man. Considerable expenditure on the development of new antiviral drugs has so far resulted in only three compounds that are at present officially approved and licensed for use in the USA. Efforts to improve the tools available for control should continue and imaginative and inventive approaches are called for. However, creativity and ingenuity must operate within the constraints imposed by economic, political, ethical, and legal considerations.

  6. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  7. Antiviral Perspectives for Chikungunya Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Parashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a threat to further expand in the near future. However, there is no vaccine against CHIKV infection licensed for human use, and therapy for CHIKV infection is still mainly limited to supportive care as antiviral agents are yet in different stages of testing or development. In this review we explore the different perspectives for chikungunya treatment and the effectiveness of these treatment regimens and discuss the scope for future directions.

  8. Drug: D06512 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06512 Drug Freeze-dried live attenuated rubella vaccine (JP17) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine... ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BJ01 ... PubChem: 47208168 ...

  9. Drug: D10214 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10214 Drug Adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus-inactivated polio combined vaccine...; Quattrovac (TN); Tetrabik (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6361 ... PubChem: 163312245 ...

  10. Drug: D08776 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08776 Drug Pneumococcus vaccine; Pneumococcal vaccine; Pneumovax 23 (TN) ... An...tiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6311 ATC code: J07AL01 ... PubChem: 96025459 ...

  11. Drug: D05544 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05544 Drug Live oral polimyelitis vaccine (JP17); Poliovirus vaccine live oral; O...rimune (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ... DG01688 ... Oral live vaccine ATC code: J07BF01 ... PubChem: 17398306 ...

  12. Drug: D05356 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05356 Drug Adsorbed diphtheria-purified pertussis-tetanus combined vaccine (JP17)... ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6361 ... PubChem: 17398290 ...

  13. Drug: D10213 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10213 Drug Pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (adsorbed); Prevenar (TN...) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine ATC code: J07AL02 Chemical group: DG00672 ... PubChem: 163312244 ...

  14. Drug: D10455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10455 Drug Pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine; Prevenar 13 (TN) ... Antiv...iral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6311 ATC code: J07AL02 Chemical group: DG00672 ... PubChem: 172232548 ...

  15. Drug: D04536 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04536 Drug Influenza virus vaccine (USP); FluShield (TN); Fluarix quadrivalent (T...N) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine ATC code: J07BB01 Chemical group: DG00674 ... PubChem: 47206383 ...

  16. Drug: D10212 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10212 Drug Recombinant adsorbed bivalent human papillomavirus-like particle vaccine... (derived from Trichoplusia ni cells); Cervarix (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BM02 ... PubChem: 163312243 ...

  17. Drug: D10192 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10192 Drug Recombinant adsorbed quadrivalent human papillomavirus virus-like particle vaccine... (yeast origin); Gardasil (TN); Silgard (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BM01 ... PubChem: 135626910 ...

  18. Drug: D04866 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04866 Drug Freeze-dried live attenuated measles vaccine (JP17) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine... ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BD01 ... PubChem: 17398201 ...

  19. Drug: D05313 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05313 Drug Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JP17); Freeze-dried japanese encephalitis vaccine... (JP17); Ixiaro (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BA02 ... PubChem: 17398274 ...

  20. Drug: D03063 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03063 Drug BCG vaccine (USP); Tice BCG (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine... ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine ATC code: L03AX03 Chemical group: DG00738 ... PubChem: 17397218 ...

  1. Antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osidak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.

  2. Cytotoxic, virucidal, and antiviral activity of South American plant and algae extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faral-Tello, Paula; Mirazo, Santiago; Dutra, Carmelo; Pérez, Andrés; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Frabasile, Sandra; Koncke, Elina; Davyt, Danilo; Cavallaro, Lucía; Heinzen, Horacio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI) obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  3. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  4. Potential of small-molecule fungal metabolites in antiviral chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Biswajit G

    2017-08-01

    Various viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, influenza, and hepatitis, have emerged as leading causes of human death worldwide. Scientific endeavor since invention of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of pox virus in 1967 resulted in better understanding of virus replication and development of various novel therapeutic strategies. Despite considerable advancement in every facet of drug discovery process, development of commercially viable, safe, and effective drugs for these viruses still remains a big challenge. Decades of intense research yielded a handful of natural and synthetic therapeutic options. But emergence of new viruses and drug-resistant viral strains had made new drug development process a never-ending battle. Small-molecule fungal metabolites due to their vast diversity, stereochemical complexity, and preapproved biocompatibility always remain an attractive source for new drug discovery. Though, exploration of therapeutic importance of fungal metabolites has started early with discovery of penicillin, recent prediction asserted that only a small percentage (5-10%) of fungal species have been identified and much less have been scientifically investigated. Therefore, exploration of new fungal metabolites, their bioassay, and subsequent mechanistic study bears huge importance in new drug discovery endeavors. Though no fungal metabolites so far approved for antiviral treatment, many of these exhibited high potential against various viral diseases. This review comprehensively discussed about antiviral activities of fungal metabolites of diverse origin against some important viral diseases. This also highlighted the mechanistic details of inhibition of viral replication along with structure-activity relationship of some common and important classes of fungal metabolites.

  5. Transdermal Delivery and Cutaneous Targeting of Antivirals using a Penetration Enhancer and Lysolipid Prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diblíková, D.; Kopečná, M.; Školová, B.; Krečmerová, Marcela; Roh, J.; Hrabálek, A.; Vávrová, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2014), s. 1071-1081 ISSN 0724-8741 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0365 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antivirals * lysolipid prodrug * penetration enhancer * skin absorption * transdermal drug delivery Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2014

  6. Antiviral activity of Dianthus superbusn L. against hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis is a viral infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Limitations of drug used in the management of it opens the interest related to alternative medicine. The given study deals with the antiviral activity of Dianthus superbusn L. (DSL) against HBV in vitro & in vivo. Material and Methods: In vitro study liver cell line ...

  7. Influenza A virus infection in zebrafish recapitulates mammalian infection and sensitivity to anti-influenza drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A. Gabor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza virus infections cause annual epidemics and sporadic pandemics. These present a global health concern, resulting in substantial morbidity, mortality and economic burdens. Prevention and treatment of influenza illness is difficult due to the high mutation rate of the virus, the emergence of new virus strains and increasing antiviral resistance. Animal models of influenza infection are crucial to our gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of and host response to influenza infection, and for screening antiviral compounds. However, the current animal models used for influenza research are not amenable to visualization of host-pathogen interactions or high-throughput drug screening. The zebrafish is widely recognized as a valuable model system for infectious disease research and therapeutic drug testing. Here, we describe a zebrafish model for human influenza A virus (IAV infection and show that zebrafish embryos are susceptible to challenge with both influenza A strains APR8 and X-31 (Aichi. Influenza-infected zebrafish show an increase in viral burden and mortality over time. The expression of innate antiviral genes, the gross pathology and the histopathology in infected zebrafish recapitulate clinical symptoms of influenza infections in humans. This is the first time that zebrafish embryos have been infected with a fluorescent IAV in order to visualize infection in a live vertebrate host, revealing a pattern of vascular endothelial infection. Treatment of infected zebrafish with a known anti-influenza compound, Zanamivir, reduced mortality and the expression of a fluorescent viral gene product, demonstrating the validity of this model to screen for potential antiviral drugs. The zebrafish model system has provided invaluable insights into host-pathogen interactions for a range of infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate a novel use of this species for IAV research. This model has great potential to advance our

  8. Viruses and Antiviral Immunity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Cherry, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Viral pathogens present many challenges to organisms, driving the evolution of a myriad of antiviral strategies to combat infections. A wide variety of viruses infect invertebrates, including both natural pathogens that are insect-restricted, and viruses that are transmitted to vertebrates. Studies using the powerful tools available in the model organism Drosophila have expanded our understanding of antiviral defenses against diverse viruses. In this review, we will cover three major areas. First, we will describe the tools used to study viruses in Drosophila. Second, we will survey the major viruses that have been studied in Drosophila. And lastly, we will discuss the well-characterized mechanisms that are active against these diverse pathogens, focusing on non-RNAi mediated antiviral mechanisms. Antiviral RNAi is discussed in another paper in this issue. PMID:23680639

  9. Developing Novel Antimicrobial and Antiviral Textile Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigundogdu, Zeynep Ustaoglu; Demir, Okan; Asutay, Ayla Burcin; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2017-03-01

    In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Moreover, modified cotton fabrics were tested against adenovirus type 5 and poliovirus type 1. According to the test results, the modified textile goods attained very good antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan solution-treated textiles can be considered in the development of antimicrobial and antiviral textile finishes.

  10. Optimization of Influenza Antiviral Response in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    originated 38 from Texas- Mexico border counties, TAVRS would average the 150 treatable curves that apply to that influenza scenario to be used in... INFLUENZA ANTIVIRAL RESPONSE IN TEXAS by Travis L. Chambers March 2015 Advisor: Nedialko B. Dimitrov Co-Advisor: Michael Atkinson Second...DATES COVERED March 2015 Master ’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF INFLUENZA ANTIVIRAL RESPONSE IN TEXAS 6. AUTHOR(S) Travis L. Chambers

  11. Antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis B.

    OpenAIRE

    Zoulim, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of chronic hepatitis B remains a clinical challenge. Long-term viral suppression is a major goal of antiviral therapy to improve the clinical outcome of the patients. Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis B relies currently on immune modulators such as interferon alpha and its pegylated form, and viral polymerase inhibitors. Because of the slow kinetics of viral clearance and the spontaneous viral genome variability, viral mutants resistant to nucleoside analogs may be selected. ...

  12. Antiviral resistance in herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2016-12-01

    Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy. Genotypic testing is more frequently performed for the diagnosis of infections caused by drug-resistant HSV or VZV isolates. Molecular biology-based systems for the generation of recombinant viruses have been developed to link unknown mutations with their drug phenotypes. Fast and sensitive methods based on next-generation sequencing will improve the detection of heterogeneous viral populations of drug-resistant viruses and their temporal changes during antiviral therapy, which could allow better patient management. Novel promising compounds acting on targets that differ from the viral DNA polymerase are under clinical development. Antiviral drug resistance monitoring for HSV and VZV is required for a rational use of antiviral therapy in high-risk populations.

  13. Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Michelle M.; Cotler, Scott J.

    2003-12-01

    Current treatment for hepatitis C virus infection consists of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The most important predictors of response to antiviral therapy for HCV include genotype 2 or 3 infection, baseline viral load less than 2 million copies/mL, and the absence of cirrhosis. Hepatitis C genotype and viral load should be obtained prior to initiating therapy. Liver biopsy can be used to stage the liver disease, to provide prognostic information, and to evaluate for coexisting causes of liver injury. Patients with genotype 1 infection require 48 weeks of therapy and a ribavirin dosage of 1000 to 1200 mg/d to achieve an optimal response. Patients with genotype 2 or 3 infection require only 24 weeks of treatment and a ribavirin dose of 800 mg/d. Treatment may be discontinued in patients who do not have a 100-fold reduction in hepatitis C virus RNA level from baseline at week 12 because they are unlikely to achieve a sustained response with further therapy. Patients with cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation or a small hepatocellular carcinoma should be evaluated for liver transplantation.

  14. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Tabassum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and pre-clinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  15. In-vitro antiviral efficacy of ribavirin and interferon-alpha against canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Otávio V; Saraiva, Giuliana L; Ferreira, Caroline G T; Felix, Daniele M; Fietto, Juliana L R; Bressan, Gustavo C; Almeida, Márcia R; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2014-10-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious disease with high incidence and lethality in the canine population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral action with ribavirin (RBV), interferon-alpha (IFNα), and combinations of RBV and IFNα against canine distemper virus (CDV). Vero cells inoculated with CDV were treated with RBV, IFNα, and combinations of these drugs. The efficacy to inhibit viral replication was evaluated by adding the compounds at different times to determine which step of the viral replicative process was affected. Both drugs were effective against CDV in vitro. The IFNα was the most active compound, with an average IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) value lower than the IC50 of the RBV. Ribavirin (RBV) was more selective than IFNα, however, and neither drug showed extracellular antiviral activity. The combination of RBV and IFNα exhibited antiviral activity for the intra- and extracellular stages of the replicative cycle of CDV, although the intracellular viral inhibition was higher. Both RBV and IFNα showed high antiviral efficacy against CDV, and furthermore, RBV + IFNα combinations have shown greater interference range in viral infectivity. These compounds could potentially be used to treat clinical disease associated with CDV infection.

  16. Viral Response to Specifically Targeted Antiviral Therapy for Hepatitis C and the Implications for Treatment Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis L Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hepatitis C virus (HCV antiviral therapy is characterized by long duration, a multitude of side effects, difficult administration and suboptimal success; clearly, alternatives are needed. Collectively, specifically targeted antiviral therapy for HCV (STAT-C molecules achieve rapid viral suppression and very high rapid virological response rates, and improve sustained virological response rates. The attrition rate of agents within this class has been high due to various toxicities. Regardless, several STAT-C molecules are poised to become the standard of care for HCV treatment in the foreseeable future. Optimism must be tempered with concerns related to the rapid development of drug resistance with resulting HCV rebound. Strategies including induction dosing with interferon and ribavirin, use of combination high-potency STAT-C molecules and an intensive emphasis on adherence to HCV antiviral therapy will be critical to the success of this promising advance in HCV therapy.

  17. Nucleoside Phosphate-Conjugates Come of Age: Catalytic Transformation, Polymerase Recognition and Antiviral Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groaz, Elisabetta; Herdewijn, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, different types of nucleoside phosphate-conjugates have been under extensive investigation due to their favorable molecular lability with interesting catalytic hydrolysis mechanisms, recognition as polymerase substrates, and especially for their development as antiviral/ anticancer protide therapeutics. The antiviral conjugates such as nucleoside phosphoesters and phosphoramidates that were discovered and developed in the initial years have been well reviewed by the pioneers in the field. In the present review, we will discuss the basic chemical and biological principles behind consideration of some representative structural classes. We will also summarize the chemical and biological properties of some of the more recent analogues that were synthesized and evaluated in our laboratory and by others. This includes new principles for their application as direct substrates of polymerases, nucleobasedependent catalytic and antiviral activity, and a plausible 'prodrug of a prodrug' strategy for tissue/organ-specific targeted drug delivery.

  18. Improving Preoperative Throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jennifer; Franklin, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Preoperative throughput is an important piece in achieving the perioperative goal for first case on time starts. An inefficient preoperative (preop) department can delay surgery starts and impact the patient flow throughout the day. Research is abundant in applying lean six sigma principles in the operating room, however there are minimal studies that specifically apply these tools in the preop. The perioperative process includes the preop, operating room, and the postoperative departments. All areas have to run like a well-oiled machine to improve performance and achieve positive outcomes. This article will discuss the implementation of new practices in preop along with the benefits and obstacles identified during the pilot study. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct-acting antiviral agents for hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Jennifer J; Flexner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Two selective inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease nearly double the cure rates for this infection when combined with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin. These drugs, boceprevir and telaprevir, received regulatory approval in 2011 and are the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) that selectively target HCV. During 2012, at least 30 additional DAAs were in various stages of clinical development. HCV protease inhibitors, polymerase inhibitors, and NS5A inhibitors (among others) can achieve high cure rates when combined with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin and demonstrate promise when used in combination with one another. Current research is attempting to improve the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of these agents, define the best regimens, and determine treatment strategies that produce the best outcomes. Several DAAs will reach the market simultaneously, and resources will be needed to guide the use of these drugs. We review the clinical pharmacology, trial results, and remaining challenges of DAAs for the treatment of HCV.

  20. Antiviral activity of Acacia nilotica against Hepatitis C Virus in liver infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Tariq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV belonging to the family Flaviviridae has infected 3% of the population worldwide and 6% of the population in Pakistan. The only recommended standard treatment is pegylated INF-α plus ribavirin. Due to less compatibility of the standard treatment, thirteen medicinal plants were collected from different areas of Pakistan on the basis of undocumented antiviral reports against different viral infections. Medicinal plants were air dried, extracted and screened out against HCV by infecting HCV inoculums of 3a genotype in liver cells. RT-PCR results demonstrate that acetonic and methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (AN showed more than 50% reduction at non toxic concentration. From the above results, it can be concluded that by selecting different molecular targets, specific structure-activity relationship can be achieved by doing mechanistic analysis. So, additional studies are required for the isolation and recognition of antiviral compound in AN to establish its importance as antiviral drug against HCV. For further research, we will scrutinize the synergistic effect of active antiviral compound in combination with standard PEG INF-α and ribavirin which may be helpful in exploring further gateways for antiviral therapy against HCV.

  1. A Review of the Antiviral Properties of Black Elder (Sambucus nigra L.) Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Randall S; Bode, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) has a long ethnobotanical history across many disparate cultures as a treatment for viral infection and is currently one of the most-used medicinal plants worldwide. Until recently, however, substantial scientific research concerning its antiviral properties has been lacking. Here, we evaluate the state of current scientific research concerning the use of elderberry extract and related products as antivirals, particularly in the treatment of influenza, as well as their safety and health impacts as dietary supplements. While the extent of black elder's antiviral effects are not well known, antiviral and antimicrobial properties have been demonstrated in these extracts, and the safety of black elder is reflected by the United States Food and Drug Administration approval as generally recognized as safe. A deficit of studies comparing these S. nigra products and standard antiviral medications makes informed and detailed recommendations for use of S. nigra extracts in medical applications currently impractical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Antiviral therapy with nucleotide/nucleoside analogues in chronic hepatitis B: A meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedre, Renesh H; Raj, Utkarsh; Misra, Sri Prakash; Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (antiviral therapy) are used in the therapy of HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. We analyzed ten selected randomized controlled with 2557 patients to estimate the effect of antiviral drugs in chronic hepatitis B with compared to placebo. Virological response, biochemical response, histological response, seroconversion of HBeAg, and loss of HBeAg were estimated as primary efficacy measures. The included studies were subjected for heterogeneity and publication bias. The heterogeneity was assessed with χ2 and I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot. Greater rates of improvement obtained in antiviral group for virological response [43.96 % vs. 3.15 %, RR = 0.57, 95 % CI = 0.54-0.61, p-value Antiviral therapy provided significant benefit for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with no measurable adverse effects.

  3. Hepatitis B virus reactivation after withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei Ping; Wang, Xiao Pei; Zheng, Wen; Ping, Ling Yan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Gui Qiang; Song, Yu Qin; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The exact incidence and severity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy (delayed HBV reactivation) is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 107 newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients with HBV infection who received chemotherapy. The median time from the cessation of antitumor therapy to the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy was 6.1 months. The incidence of delayed HBV reactivation was 21.7% in HBsAg-positive group and 0 in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive group (P 8 cycles) were independent risk factors of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive patients. In conclusion, prophylactic antiviral therapy could be withdrawn 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients. However, a longer course of prophylactic antiviral drug administration may be an optimal option to prevent delayed HBV reactivation for HBsAg-positive patients.

  4. GRL-09510, a Unique P2-Crown-Tetrahydrofuranylurethane -Containing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Maintains Its Favorable Antiviral Activity against Highly-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Masayuki; Miguel Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Delino, Nicole S.; Nakata, Hirotomo; Venkateswara Rao, Kalapala; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-09-25

    We report that GRL-09510, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a newly-generated P2-crown-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (Crwn-THF), a P2'-methoxybenzene, and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory and primary clinical HIV-1 isolates (EC50: 0.0014–0.0028 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 39.0 μM). Similarly, GRL-09510 efficiently blocked the replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants, which were capable of propagating at high-concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, and amprenavir (APV). GRL-09510 was also potent against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants and HIV-2ROD. Under the selection condition, where HIV-1NL4-3 rapidly acquired significant resistance to APV, an integrase inhibitor raltegravir, and a GRL-09510 congener (GRL-09610), no variants highly resistant against GRL-09510 emerged over long-term in vitro passage of the virus. Crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the Crwn-THF moiety of GRL-09510 forms strong hydrogen-bond-interactions with HIV-1 protease (PR) active-site amino acids and is bulkier with a larger contact surface, making greater van der Waals contacts with PR than the bis-THF moiety of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-09510 has favorable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants, that the newly generated P2-Crwn-THF moiety confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency. The use of the novel Crwn-THF moiety sheds lights in the design of novel PIs.

  5. Hedging against antiviral resistance during the next influenza pandemic using small stockpiles of an alternative chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Wu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains.We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics. We considered two strategies for the use of the secondary stockpile: early combination chemotherapy (ECC; individuals are treated with both drugs in combination while both are available; and sequential multidrug chemotherapy (SMC; individuals are treated only with the secondary drug until it is exhausted, then treated with the primary drug. We investigated all potentially important regions of unknown parameter space and found that both ECC and SMC reduced the cumulative attack rate (AR and the resistant attack rate (RAR unless the probability of emergence of resistance to the primary drug p(A was so low (less than 1 in 10,000 that resistance was unlikely to be a problem or so high (more than 1 in 20 that resistance emerged as soon as primary drug monotherapy began. For example, when the basic reproductive number was 1.8 and 40% of symptomatic individuals were treated with antivirals, AR and RAR were 67% and 38% under monotherapy if p(A = 0.01. If the probability of resistance emergence for the secondary drug was also 0.01, then SMC reduced AR and RAR to 57% and 2%. The effectiveness of ECC was similar if combination chemotherapy reduced the probabilities of resistance emergence by at least ten times. We extended our model using travel data between 105

  6. NaVirCept - Nucleic Acid-Based Anti-Viral Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, E. R.; Wong, J.; Van Loon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines are generally considered to be the most effective countermeasures to bacterial and viral diseases, however, licensed vaccines against many disease agents are either not available or their efficacies have not been demonstrated. Vaccines are generally agent specific in terms of treatment spectrum and are subject to defeat through natural mutation or through directed efforts. With respect to viral therapeutics, one of the major limitations associated with antiviral drugs is acquired drug resistance caused by antigenic shift or drift. A number of next-generation prophylactic and/or therapeutic measures are on the horizon. Of these, nucleic acid-based drugs are showing great antiviral potential. These drugs elicit long-lasting, broad spectrum protective immune responses, especially to respiratory viral pathogens. The Nucleic Acid-Based Antiviral (NaVirCept) project provides the opportunity to demonstrate the effectiveness of novel medical countermeasures against military-significant endemic and other viral threat agents. This project expands existing DRDC drug delivery capability development, in the form of proprietary liposome intellectual property, by coupling it with leading-edge nucleic acid-based technology to deliver effective medical countermeasures that will protect deployed personnel and the warfighter against a spectrum of viral disease agents. The technology pathway will offer a means to combat emerging viral diseases or modified threat agents such as the bird flu or reconstructed Spanish flu without going down the laborious, time-consuming and expensive paths to develop countermeasures for each new and/or emerging viral disease organism.(author)

  7. Use of tissue culture cell lines to evaluate HIV antiviral resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krowicka, Halina; Robinson, James E; Clark, Rebecca; Hager, Shannon; Broyles, Stephanie; Pincus, Seth H

    2008-07-01

    Most current assays of HIV antiviral resistance are based on either sequencing of viral genes (genotypic assays) or amplification and insertion of these genes into standardized virus backbones and culture. These latter are called phenotypic assays. But the only generally accepted phenotypic assay is based upon culture of intact patient virus, performed in phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PHA blasts) in the presence of differing drug concentrations. However, PHA blast culture is difficult and not always reproducible. Therefore we have sought cell lines that may produce more predictable results, yet faithfully mirror results in PHA blasts. We have compared 10 different cell lines for receptor and coreceptor expression, growth of laboratory-adapted strains of HIV, growth by direct inoculation of PBMC from infected patients, and in assays of antiviral drug effects. One of these cell lines, C8166-R5, is statistically not inferior to CD8-depleted PHA blasts for culturing HIV from the peripheral blood cells of patients. The effective concentrations of antiviral drugs of all classes were similar when assayed in C8166-R5 or PHA blasts. Known drug-resistant isolates grown in C8166-R5 demonstrated the predicted effects. We followed a patient longitudinally and demonstrated that resistance testing in C8166-R5 was predictive of clinical outcome. These experiments represent the first steps in developing a clinically useful phenotypic drug resistance assay based upon culturing the patient's own virus.

  8. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation.

  9. Antiviral activity of gliotoxin, gentian violet and brilliant green against Nipah and Hendra virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Adam G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a recently described monolayer assay amenable to high throughput screening format for the identification of potential Nipah virus and Hendra virus antivirals, we have partially screened a low molecular weight compound library (>8,000 compounds directly against live virus infection and identified twenty eight promising lead molecules. Initial single blind screens were conducted with 10 μM compound in triplicate with a minimum efficacy of 90% required for lead selection. Lead compounds were then further characterised to determine the median efficacy (IC50, cytotoxicity (CC50 and the in vitro therapeutic index in live virus and pseudotype assay formats. Results While a number of leads were identified, the current work describes three commercially available compounds: brilliant green, gentian violet and gliotoxin, identified as having potent antiviral activity against Nipah and Hendra virus. Similar efficacy was observed against pseudotyped Nipah and Hendra virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3 while only gliotoxin inhibited an influenza A virus suggesting a non-specific, broad spectrum activity for this compound. Conclusion All three of these compounds have been used previously for various aspects of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal therapy and the current results suggest that while unsuitable for internal administration, they may be amenable to topical antiviral applications, or as disinfectants and provide excellent positive controls for future studies.

  10. MXIbus data throughput tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botlo, M.; Dunning, J.; Jagieski, M.; Miller, L.; Romero, A.

    1992-11-01

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate data transfer rates using the MXIbus architecture. The tests were conducted by the DAQ group in the Physics Research Division. The MXIbus from National Instruments provides a multisystem extension interface bus. It allows multiple VME chassis to be networked. Other bus architectures that can participate in the network include VXIbus, IBM PC-AT bus, Sun Sbus, Mac NuBus and stand-alone instruments with the appropriate MXIbus adapter cards. From a functional standpoint the MXIbus provides the capability to enlarge the address space in a fashion that is transparent to the software application. The tests were designed to measure data throughput when using the MSIbus with other industry off-the-shelf hardware. This report contains discussions on: MXIbus architecture and general guidelines; the commercial hardware and software used in each set of tests; and a brief description of each set of tests, observations and guidelines; the commercial hardware and software used in each set of tests; and a brief description of each set of tests, observations and conclusions

  11. E. fischeriana Root Compound Dpo Activates Antiviral Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxuan Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available E. fischeriana has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies reported that some compounds of E. fischeriana exhibited antimicrobial and immune enhance activity. Innate immune system is essential for the immune surveillance of inner and outer threats, initial host defense responses and immune modulation. The role of natural drug compounds, including E. fischeriana, in innate immune regulation is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that E. fischeriana compound Dpo is involved in antiviral signaling. The genome wide RNA-seq analysis revealed that the induction of ISGs by viral infection could be synergized by Dpo. Consistently, Dpo enhanced the antiviral immune responses and protected the mice from death during viral infection. Dpo however was not able to rescue STING deficient mice lethality caused by HSV-1 infection. The enhancement of ISG15 by Dpo was also impaired in STING, IRF3, IRF7, or ELF4 deficient cells, demonstrating that Dpo activates innate immune responses in a STING/IRFs/ELF4 dependent way. The STING/IRFs/ELF4 axis is therefore important for Dpo induced ISGs expression, and can be used by host to counteract infection.

  12. The interferon response circuit in antiviral host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, O; Weber, F

    2009-01-01

    Viruses have learned to multiply in the face of a powerful innate and adaptive immune response of the host. They have evolved multiple strategies to evade the interferon (IFN) system which would otherwise limit virus growth at an early stage of infection. IFNs induce the synthesis of a range of antiviral proteins which serve as cell-autonomous intrinsic restriction factors. For example, the dynamin-like MxA GTPase inhibits the multiplication of influenza and bunyaviruses (such as La Crosse virus, Hantaan virus, Rift Valley Fever virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) by binding and sequestering the nucleocapsid protein into large perinuclear complexes. To overcome such intracellular restrictions, virulent viruses either inhibit IFN synthesis, bind and inactivate secreted IFN molecules, block IFN-activated signaling, or disturb the action of IFN-induced antiviral proteins. Many viruses produce specialized proteins to disarm the danger signal or express virulence genes that target members of the IFN regulatory factor family (IRFs) or components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. An alternative evasion strategy is based on extreme viral replication speed which out-competes the IFN response. The identification of viral proteins with IFN antagonistic functions has great implications for disease prevention and therapy. Virus mutants lacking IFN antagonistic properties represent safe yet highly immunogenic candidate vaccines. Furthermore, novel drugs intercepting viral IFN-antagonists could be used to disarm the viral intruders.

  13. High-Throughput Process Development for Biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Abhinav A; Rameez, Shahid; Wolfe, Leslie S; Oien, Nathan

    2017-11-14

    The ability to conduct multiple experiments in parallel significantly reduces the time that it takes to develop a manufacturing process for a biopharmaceutical. This is particularly significant before clinical entry, because process development and manufacturing are on the "critical path" for a drug candidate to enter clinical development. High-throughput process development (HTPD) methodologies can be similarly impactful during late-stage development, both for developing the final commercial process as well as for process characterization and scale-down validation activities that form a key component of the licensure filing package. This review examines the current state of the art for HTPD methodologies as they apply to cell culture, downstream purification, and analytical techniques. In addition, we provide a vision of how HTPD activities across all of these spaces can integrate to create a rapid process development engine that can accelerate biopharmaceutical drug development. Graphical Abstract.

  14. Plants as sources of antiviral agents | Abonyi | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of plants or plant products, traditionally, as antiviral agents is relatively wider than their use in modern medicine. Some antiviral substances have so far been isolated from higher plants, algae and lichens. Suitable methods for evaluating antiviral properties of plants and their extracts include use of animal models, ...

  15. Meeting report: 4th ISIRV antiviral group conference: Novel antiviral therapies for influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Fry, Alicia M

    2016-05-01

    The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) held its 4th Antiviral Group Conference at the University of Texas on 2-4 June, 2015. With emerging resistance to the drugs currently licensed for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza viruses, primarily the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) and the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, and the lack of effective interventions against other respiratory viruses, the 3-day programme focused on the discovery and development of inhibitors of several virus targets and key host cell factors involved in virus replication or mediating the inflammatory response. Virus targets included the influenza haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and M2 proteins, and both the respiratory syncytial virus and influenza polymerases and nucleoproteins. Therapies for rhinoviruses and MERS and SARS coronaviruses were also discussed. With the emerging development of monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics, the potential implications of antibody-dependent enhancement of disease were also addressed. Topics covered all aspects from structural and molecular biology to preclinical and clinical studies. The importance of suitable clinical trial endpoints and regulatory issues were also discussed from the perspectives of both industry and government. This meeting summary provides an overview, not only for the conference participants, but also for those interested in the current status of antivirals for respiratory viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro inhibition of canine distemper virus by flavonoids and phenolic acids: implications of structural differences for antiviral design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, O V; Botelho, C V; Ferreira, C G T; Ferreira, H C C; Santos, M R; Diaz, M A N; Oliveira, T T; Soares-Martins, J A P; Almeida, M R; Silva, A

    2013-10-01

    Infection caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious disease with high incidence and lethality in the canine population. Antiviral activity of flavonoids quercetin, morin, rutin and hesperidin, and phenolic cinnamic, trans-cinnamic and ferulic acids were evaluated in vitro against the CDV using the time of addition assay to determine which step of the viral replicative cycle was affected. All flavonoids displayed great viral inhibition when they were added at the times 0 (adsorption) and 1h (penetration) of the viral replicative cycle. Both quercetin and hesperidin presented antiviral activity at the time 2h (intracellular). In the other hand, cinnamic acid showed antiviral activity at the times 0 and 2h while trans-cinnamic acid showed antiviral effect at the times -1h (pre-treatment) and 0 h. Ferulic acid inhibited CDV replicative cycle at the times 0 and 1h. Our study revealed promising candidates to be considered in the treatment of CDV. Structural differences among compounds and correlation to their antiviral activity were also explored. Our analysis suggest that these compounds could be useful in order to design new antiviral drugs against CDV as well as other viruses of great meaning in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ANTIVIRAL EFFECT OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of the different morphological parts of three medicinal plants, Diospyros bateri, Diospyros monbutensis and Sphenocentrum jollyanum were evaluated for their antiviral activities on polio virus Types 1, 2, and 3. The leaf and root extracts of S. jollyanum, the seed extracts of D. monbutensis as well as the ...

  18. Curcumin Shows Antiviral Properties against Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minji; Lee, GilJae; Si, Jiyeon; Lee, Sung-Joon; You, Hyun Ju; Ko, GwangPyo

    2016-10-20

    Phytochemicals provide environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive natural products, which could potentially benefit public health by controlling human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. In this study, 18 different phytochemicals were evaluated for antiviral effects against norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a model for norovirus biology. Among these phytochemicals, curcumin (CCM) was the most potent anti-noroviral phytochemical, followed by resveratrol (RVT). In a cell culture infection model, exposure to CCM or RVT for 3 days reduced infectivity of norovirus by 91% and 80%, respectively. To confirm the antiviral capability of CCM, we further evaluated its antiviral efficacy at various doses (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 2 mg/mL) and durations (short-term: 10, 30, 60, and 120 min; long-term: 1, 3, 7, and 14 days). The anti-noroviral effect of CCM was verified to occur in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of each phytochemical on the replication of HuNoV using a HuNoV replicon-bearing cell line (HG23). Neither CCM nor RVT had a strong inhibitory effect on HuNoV replication, which suggests that their antiviral mechanism may involve viral entry or other life cycle stages rather than the replication of viral RNA. Our results demonstrated that CCM may be a promising candidate for development as an anti-noroviral agent to prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness.

  19. Antiviral effects of the milk protein lactoferrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Floris, R.; Recio, I.; Visser, S.

    2003-01-01

    Milk forms a rich source of biologically interesting components and the protein fraction is known to facilitate many different biological functions. In this manuscript, we focus on the antiviral properties of the milk protein lactoferrin (LF), in particular against the human immunodeficiency virus

  20. Antiviral Prophylaxis and H1N1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Richard Pebody, a consultant epidemiologist at the Health Protection Agency in London, UK, discusses the use of antiviral post-exposure prophylaxis and pandemic H1N1.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  1. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  2. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at. 30, 40 ...

  3. Mechanism of action of a pestivirus antiviral compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Scott G.; Pevear, Daniel C.; Seipel, Marty; Sun, Siu Chi Chang; Benetatos, Christopher A.; Chunduru, Srinivas K.; Rice, Charles M.; Collett, Marc S.

    2000-01-01

    We report here the discovery of a small molecule inhibitor of pestivirus replication. The compound, designated VP32947, inhibits the replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cell culture at a 50% inhibitory concentration of approximately 20 nM. VP32947 inhibits both cytopathic and noncytopathic pestiviruses, including isolates of BVDV-1, BVDV-2, border disease virus, and classical swine fever virus. However, the compound shows no activity against viruses from unrelated virus groups. Time of drug addition studies indicated that VP32947 acts after virus adsorption and penetration and before virus assembly and release. Analysis of viral macromolecular synthesis showed VP32947 had no effect on viral protein synthesis or polyprotein processing but did inhibit viral RNA synthesis. To identify the molecular target of VP32947, we isolated drug-resistant (DR) variants of BVDV-1 in cell culture. Sequence analysis of the complete genomic RNA of two DR variants revealed a single common amino acid change located within the coding region of the NS5B protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. When this single amino acid change was introduced into an infectious clone of drug-sensitive wild-type (WT) BVDV-1, replication of the resulting virus was resistant to VP32947. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of the NS5B proteins derived from WT and DR viruses expressed and purified from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells confirmed the drug sensitivity of the WT enzyme and the drug resistance of the DR enzyme. This work formally validates NS5B as a target for antiviral drug discovery and development. The utility of VP32947 and similar compounds for the control of pestivirus diseases, and for hepatitis C virus drug discovery efforts, is discussed. PMID:10869440

  4. Mouse lung slices: An ex vivo model for the evaluation of antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; An, Liwei; Liu, Ge; Li, Xiaoyu; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xulin

    2015-08-01

    The influenza A virus is notoriously known for its ability to cause recurrent epidemics and global pandemics. Antiviral therapy is effective when treatment is initiated within 48h of symptom onset, and delaying treatment beyond this time frame is associated with decreased efficacy. Research on anti-inflammatory therapy to ameliorate influenza-induced inflammation is currently underway and seems important to the impact on the clinical outcome. Both antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Current methods for evaluating the efficacy of anti-influenza drugs rely mostly on transformed cells and animals. Transformed cell models are distantly related to physiological and pathological conditions. Although animals are the best choices for preclinical drug testing, they are not time- or cost-efficient. In this study, we established an ex vivo model using mouse lung slices to evaluate both antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against influenza virus infection. Both influenza virus PR8 (H1N1) and A/Human/Hubei/3/2005 (H3N2) can replicate efficiently in mouse lung slices and trigger significant cytokine and chemokine responses. The induction of selected cytokines and chemokines were found to have a positive correlation between ex vivo and in vivo experiments, suggesting that the ex vivo cultured lung slices may closely resemble the lung functionally in an in vivo configuration when challenged by influenza virus. Furthermore, a set of agents with known antiviral and/or anti-inflammatory activities were tested to validate the ex vivo model. Our results suggested that mouse lung slices provide a robust, convenient and cost-efficient model for the assessment of both antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against influenza virus infection in one assay. This ex vivo model may predict the efficacy of drug candidates' antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The antiviral effect of jiadifenoic acids C against coxsackievirus B3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Ge

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Coxsackievirus B type 3 (CVB3 is one of the major causative pathogens associated with viral meningitis and myocarditis, which are widespread in the human population and especially prevalent in neonates and children. These infections can result in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM and other severe clinical complications. There are no vaccines or drugs approved for the prevention or therapy of CVB3-induced diseases. During screening for anti-CVB3 candidates in our previous studies, we found that jiadifenoic acids C exhibited strong antiviral activities against CVB3 as well as other strains of Coxsackie B viruses (CVBs. The present studies were carried out to evaluate the antiviral activities of jiadifenoic acids C. Results showed that jiadifenoic acids C could reduce CVB3 RNA and proteins synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Jiadifenoic acids C also had a similar antiviral effect on the pleconaril-resistant variant of CVB3. We further examined the impact of jiadifenoic acids C on the synthesis of viral structural and non-structural proteins, finding that jiadifenoic acids C could reduce VP1 and 3D protein production. A time-course study with Vero cells showed that jiadifenoic acids C displayed significant antiviral activities at 0–6 h after CVB3 inoculation, indicating that jiadifenoic acids C functioned at an early step of CVB3 replication. However, jiadifenoic acids C had no prophylactic effect against CVB3. Taken together, we show that jiadifenoic acids C exhibit strong antiviral activities against all strains of CVB, including the pleconaril-resistant variant. Our study could provide a significant lead for anti-CVB3 drug development.

  6. The Antiviral Mechanism of an Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Single-Domain Antibody Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Leo; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Brewer, R. Camille; van Diest, Eline; Schmidt, Florian I.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L. (Whitehead); (MIT)

    2016-12-13

    Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP. The VHH binds to a nonconserved region on the body domain of NP, which has been associated with binding to host factors and serves as a determinant of host range. Several of the NP/VHH interface residues determine sensitivity of NP to antiviral Mx GTPases. The structure of the NP/αNP-VHH1 complex affords a plausible explanation for the inhibitory properties of the VHH and suggests a rationale for the antiviral properties of Mx proteins. Such knowledge can be leveraged for much-needed novel antiviral strategies.

    IMPORTANCEInfluenza virus strains can rapidly escape from protection afforded by seasonal vaccines or acquire resistance to available drugs. Additional ways to interfere with the virus life cycle are therefore urgently needed. The influenza virus nucleoprotein is one promising target for antiviral interventions. We have previously isolated alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that protect cells from influenza virus infection if expressed intracellularly. We show here that one such VHH exhibits antiviral activities similar to those of proteins of the cellular antiviral defense (Mx proteins). We determined the three-dimensional structure of this VHH in complex with the influenza virus nucleoprotein and identified the interaction site, which overlaps regions that determine sensitivity of the virus to Mx proteins. Our data define a new vulnerability of influenza virus, help us to better understand the cellular antiviral mechanisms, and

  7. Targeting Innate Immunity for Antiviral Therapy through Small Molecule Agonists of the RLR Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattabhi, Sowmya; Wilkins, Courtney R.; Dong, Ran; Knoll, Megan L.; Posakony, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Shari; Mire, Chad E.; Wang, Myra L.; Ireton, Renee C.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Bedard, Kristin M.; Iadonato, Shawn P.

    2015-01-01

    selectively activate IRF3 for the purpose of identifying drug-like molecules that can be developed for the treatment of viral infections. Here, we report the discovery of a hydroxyquinoline family of small molecules that can activate IRF3 to promote cellular antiviral responses. These molecules can prophylactically or therapeutically control infection in cell culture by pathogenic RNA viruses, including West Nile virus, dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, Nipah virus, Lassa virus, and Ebola virus. Our study thus identifies a class of small molecules with a novel mechanism to enhance host immune responses for antiviral activity against a variety of RNA viruses that pose a significant health care burden and/or that are known to cause infections with high case fatality rates. PMID:26676770

  8. The Antiviral Mechanism of an Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Single-Domain Antibody Fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Leo; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Brewer, R Camille; van Diest, Eline; Schmidt, Florian I; Schwartz, Thomas U; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-12-13

    Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP. The VHH binds to a nonconserved region on the body domain of NP, which has been associated with binding to host factors and serves as a determinant of host range. Several of the NP/VHH interface residues determine sensitivity of NP to antiviral Mx GTPases. The structure of the NP/αNP-VHH1 complex affords a plausible explanation for the inhibitory properties of the VHH and suggests a rationale for the antiviral properties of Mx proteins. Such knowledge can be leveraged for much-needed novel antiviral strategies. Influenza virus strains can rapidly escape from protection afforded by seasonal vaccines or acquire resistance to available drugs. Additional ways to interfere with the virus life cycle are therefore urgently needed. The influenza virus nucleoprotein is one promising target for antiviral interventions. We have previously isolated alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that protect cells from influenza virus infection if expressed intracellularly. We show here that one such VHH exhibits antiviral activities similar to those of proteins of the cellular antiviral defense (Mx proteins). We determined the three-dimensional structure of this VHH in complex with the influenza virus nucleoprotein and identified the interaction site, which overlaps regions that determine sensitivity of the virus to Mx proteins. Our data define a new vulnerability of influenza virus, help us to better understand the cellular antiviral mechanisms, and provide a well-characterized tool to

  9. Clinical case of Successful Treatment by Antiviral Preparations of a Patient with Guillain — Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Vinnyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is described a clinical case of treatment of patients with acute Guillain — Barre syndrome of significant viral etiology. It was used the complex therapy with antiviral drugs according to the recommendations of the infectious disease specialist. In addition to basic therapy and plasma depletion, there were prescribed the preparation of acyclic nucleosides group, interferon and normal human immunoglobulin. The age of the latter significantly reduced the period of recovery of the patient and allow avoid complications.

  10. Synthesis and antiviral activity of PB1 component of the influenza A RNA polymerase peptide fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, O V; Egorov, V V; Gluzdikov, I A; Titov, M I; Zarubaev, V V; Shtro, A A; Slita, A V; Dukov, M I; Shurygina, A-P S; Smirnova, T D; Kudryavtsev, I V; Vasin, A V; Kiselev, O I

    2015-01-01

    This study is devoted to the antiviral activity of peptide fragments from the PB1 protein - a component of the influenza A RNA polymerase. The antiviral activity of the peptides synthesized was studied in MDCK cell cultures against the pandemic influenza strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pdm09. We found that peptide fragments 6-13, 6-14, 26-30, 395-400, and 531-540 of the PB1 protein were capable of suppressing viral replication in cell culture. Terminal modifications i.e. N-acetylation and C-amidation increased the antiviral properties of the peptides significantly. Peptide PB1 (6-14) with both termini modified showed maximum antiviral activity, its inhibitory activity manifesting itself during the early stages of viral replication. It was also shown that the fluorescent-labeled analog of this peptide was able to penetrate into the cell. The broad range of virus-inhibiting activity of PB1 (6-14) peptide was confirmed using a panel of influenza A viruses of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes including those resistant to oseltamivir, the leading drug in anti-influenza therapy. Thus, short peptide fragments of the PB1 protein could serve as leads for future development of influenza prevention and/or treatment agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sustained virological response to antiviral therapy reduces mortality in HCV reinfection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotto, Francesco Paolo; Tritto, Giovanni; Lanza, Alfonso Galeota; Addario, Luigi; De Luca, Massimo; Di Costanzo, Giovan Giuseppe; Lampasi, Filippo; Tartaglione, Maria Teresa; Marsilia, Giuseppina Marino; Calise, Fulvio; Cuomo, Oreste; Ascione, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    HCV infection recurs almost in all HCV-positive patients receiving liver transplantation and carries a poor prognosis. Aim of this study was to analyze efficacy and effect on survival of antiviral therapy in this clinical setting. Pegylated-interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin were administered at a dose of 1 microg/kg of bwt weekly and 600-800 mg/day. Planned duration of treatment was 24 or 48 weeks according to HCV genotype. Patients who failed to respond at week 24 were considered as non-responders. 61 patients were enrolled. According to intention-to-treat analysis, 44 (72%) patients were considered as treatment failure (31 non-responders, 4 relapsers, 9 dropout). Sustained virological response was achieved in 17 cases (28%). Genotype 2, higher doses of antivirals and absence of histological cirrhosis were predictors of sustained virological response. In the follow up, patients with sustained virological response had a significantly lower mortality compared to patients with treatment failure (chi2=6.9; P<0.01). Response rate to antiviral therapy in HCV reinfection after liver transplantation is higher if a full dose of antiviral drugs is administered and if treatment starts before histological cirrhosis has developed. Sustained virological response improves patient survival.

  12. Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Perusina, M; Alfonso, V; Wagner, M L; Suriano, M; Vicente, C; Campos, R; Cavallaro, L

    2002-07-01

    Natural products are a relevant source of antiviral drugs. Five medicinal plants used in Argentina have been assayed to detect inhibition of viral growth. Antiviral activity of the infusions and methanolic extracts of Aristolochia macroura, Celtis spinosa, Plantago major, Schinus areira, Petiveria alliacea and four extracts obtained from the leaves and stems of the last plant were evaluated by the plaque assay. P. alliacea, unlike A. macroura, C. spinosa, P. major and S. areira, inhibited bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) replication. Neither P. alliacea nor the assays of the other plants were active against herpes simplex virus type 1, poliovirus type 1, adenovirus serotype 7 and vesicular stomatitis virus type 1. Four extracts of P. alliacea were assayed to detect anti-BVDV activity. Ethyl acetate (EC(50) of 25 microg/ml) and dichloromethane (EC(50) of 43 microg/ml) extracts were active; moreover, promising SI (IC(50)/EC(50)) values were obtained. BVDV is highly prevalent in the cattle population, there are no antiviral compounds available; additionally, it is a viral model of the hepatitis C virus. For these reasons and in view of the results obtained, the isolation and characterization of the antiviral components present in the P. alliacea extracts is worth carrying out in the future. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Antiviral effect of cimicifugin from Cimicifuga foetida against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Chih; Chang, Jung-San; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious infection of the lower respiratory tract in children and an effective antiviral therapy against the viral pathogen remains unavailable. We previously demonstrated that the oriental medicinal plant, Cimicifuga foetida L. (C. foetida), possessed inhibitory activity against RSV. Since cimicifugin is a major constituent of C. foetida, we sought to examine in this study its anti-RSV effect on both the human upper (HEp-2) and lower (A549) respiratory tract cell lines. Results revealed that cimicifugin dose-dependently inhibited RSV-induced plaque formation in both HEp-2 and A549 cells (p < 0.0001), with a superior effect in the latter cell type (p < 0.0001). The antiviral activity of cimicifugin was time-dependent (p < 0.0001) and was most effective when cells were treated with the compound before viral inoculation. Additional experiments demonstrated that cimicifugin could inhibit viral attachment (p < 0.0001) and viral internalization (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the drug could potentiate heparin's effect against attachment of RSV, particularly in A549 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of antiviral cytokines induction revealed that cimicifugin could also stimulate epithelial cells to secrete IFN-β to counteract viral infection. Taken together, these results indicate that cimicifugin is an efficient antiviral agent against RSV infection. We suggest that cimicifugin might be useful for the management of RSV pathogenesis.

  14. High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambaugh, Morgan A; Shakya, Viplendra P S; Lewis, Adam J; Mulvey, Matthew A; Brown, Jessica C S

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify. High-throughput identification of synergistic pairs is limited by the scale of potential combinations: a modest collection of 1,000 small molecules involves 1 million pairwise combinations. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for rapid identification of synergistic small-molecule pairs, the overlap2 method (O2M). O2M extracts patterns from chemical-genetic datasets, which are created when a collection of mutants is grown in the presence of hundreds of different small molecules, producing a precise set of phenotypes induced by each small molecule across the mutant set. The identification of mutants that show the same phenotype when treated with known synergistic molecules allows us to pinpoint additional molecule combinations that also act synergistically. As a proof of concept, we focus on combinations with the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethizole, which had been standard treatment against urinary tract infections until widespread resistance decreased efficacy. Using O2M, we screened a library of 2,000 small molecules and identified several that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim and/or sulfamethizole. The most potent of these synergistic interactions is with the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT). We then demonstrate that understanding the molecular mechanism underlying small-molecule synergistic interactions allows the rational design of additional combinations that

  15. High-throughput identification and rational design of synergistic small-molecule pairs for combating and bypassing antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan A Wambaugh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant infections kill approximately 23,000 people and cost $20,000,000,000 each year in the United States alone despite the widespread use of small-molecule antimicrobial combination therapy. Antibiotic combinations typically have an additive effect: the efficacy of the combination matches the sum of the efficacies of each antibiotic when used alone. Small molecules can also act synergistically when the efficacy of the combination is greater than the additive efficacy. However, synergistic combinations are rare and have been historically difficult to identify. High-throughput identification of synergistic pairs is limited by the scale of potential combinations: a modest collection of 1,000 small molecules involves 1 million pairwise combinations. Here, we describe a high-throughput method for rapid identification of synergistic small-molecule pairs, the overlap2 method (O2M. O2M extracts patterns from chemical-genetic datasets, which are created when a collection of mutants is grown in the presence of hundreds of different small molecules, producing a precise set of phenotypes induced by each small molecule across the mutant set. The identification of mutants that show the same phenotype when treated with known synergistic molecules allows us to pinpoint additional molecule combinations that also act synergistically. As a proof of concept, we focus on combinations with the antibiotics trimethoprim and sulfamethizole, which had been standard treatment against urinary tract infections until widespread resistance decreased efficacy. Using O2M, we screened a library of 2,000 small molecules and identified several that synergize with the antibiotic trimethoprim and/or sulfamethizole. The most potent of these synergistic interactions is with the antiviral drug azidothymidine (AZT. We then demonstrate that understanding the molecular mechanism underlying small-molecule synergistic interactions allows the rational design of additional

  16. High-throughput methods for electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, David L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Gonen, Tamir; Engel, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins play a tremendously important role in cell physiology and serve as a target for an increasing number of drugs. Structural information is key to understanding their function and for developing new strategies for combating disease. However, the complex physical chemistry associated with membrane proteins has made them more difficult to study than their soluble cousins. Electron crystallography has historically been a successful method for solving membrane protein structures and has the advantage of providing a native lipid environment for these proteins. Specifically, when membrane proteins form two-dimensional arrays within a lipid bilayer, electron microscopy can be used to collect images and diffraction and the corresponding data can be combined to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction, which under favorable conditions can extend to atomic resolution. Like X-ray crystallography, the quality of the structures are very much dependent on the order and size of the crystals. However, unlike X-ray crystallography, high-throughput methods for screening crystallization trials for electron crystallography are not in general use. In this chapter, we describe two alternative methods for high-throughput screening of membrane protein crystallization within the lipid bilayer. The first method relies on the conventional use of dialysis for removing detergent and thus reconstituting the bilayer; an array of dialysis wells in the standard 96-well format allows the use of a liquid-handling robot and greatly increases throughput. The second method relies on titration of cyclodextrin as a chelating agent for detergent; a specialized pipetting robot has been designed not only to add cyclodextrin in a systematic way, but to use light scattering to monitor the reconstitution process. In addition, the use of liquid-handling robots for making negatively stained grids and methods for automatically imaging samples in the electron microscope are described.

  17. Antiviral Drug–Resistant Influenza B Viruses Carrying H134N Substitution in Neuraminidase, Laos, February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovich, Tatiana; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Ketmayoon, Pakapak; Sisouk, Thongchanh; Chomlasack, Khampheng; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Nguyen, Ha Thuy; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Marjuki, Henju; Barnes, John R.; Garten, Rebecca J.; Stevens, James; Wentworth, David E.

    2017-01-01

    In February 2016, three influenza B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses exhibiting 4- to 158-fold reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors were detected in Laos. These viruses had an H134N substitution in the neuraminidase and replicated efficiently in vitro and in ferrets. Current antiviral drugs may be ineffective in controlling infections caused by viruses harboring this mutation. PMID:28322707

  18. Critical challenges and emerging opportunities in hepatitis C virus research in an era of potent antiviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartenschlager, Ralf; Baumert, Thomas F.; Bukh, Jens

    2018-01-01

    The development and clinical implementation of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Infection with any hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype can now be eliminated in more than 95% of patients with short courses of all-oral, well-tolerated drugs, even...

  19. Oral antiviral drugs in experimental herpes simplex keratitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, H E; Varnell, E D; Centifanto-Fitzgerald, Y M; De Clercq, E; Kissling, G E

    1983-01-01

    Chronic oral administration of acyclovir or bromovinyl deoxyuridine to rabbits did not prevent recurrence of virus shedding or clinical corneal disease, nor did it alter the clinical course of recurrences of ocular herpetic disease or result in the appearance of resistant virus in tears.

  20. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: A key class of antiviral drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Clercq, E.; Holý, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 13 (2005), 928-940 ISSN 1474-1776 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : tenofovir * adefovir * cidofovir Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 18.775, year: 2005

  1. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease) Kidney disorders Liver disorders Metabolic disorders (such ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  2. Novel approaches in anti-arenaviral drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Andrew M.; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses are among the most devastating emerging human diseases. Considering the number of individuals affected, the current lack of a licensed vaccine, and the limited therapeutic options, arenaviruses are arguably among the most neglected tropical pathogens and the development of efficacious anti-arenaviral drugs is of high priority. Over the past years significant efforts have been undertaken to identify novel potent inhibitors of arenavirus infection. High throughput screening of small molecule libraries employing pseudotype platforms led to the discovery of several potent and broadly active inhibitors of arenavirus cell entry that are effective against the major hemorrhagic arenaviruses. Mechanistic studies revealed that these novel entry inhibitors block arenavirus membrane fusion and provided novel insights into the unusual mechanism of this process. The success of these approaches highlights the power of small molecule screens in antiviral drug discovery and establishes arenavirus membrane fusion as a robust drug target. These broad screenings have been complemented by strategies targeting cellular factors involved in productive arenavirus infection. Approaches targeting the cellular protease implicated in maturation of the fusion-active viral envelope glycoprotein identified the proteolytic processing of the arenavirus glycoprotein precursor as a novel and promising target for anti-arenaviral strategies.

  3. Separation methods for acyclovir and related antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loregian, A; Gatti, R; Palù, G; De Palo, E F

    2001-11-25

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral drug, which selectively inhibits replication of members of the herpes group of DNA viruses with low cell toxicity. Valaciclovir (VACV), a prodrug of ACV is usually preferred in the oral treatment of viral infections, mainly herpes simplex virus (HSV). Also other analogues such as ganciclovir and penciclovir are discussed here. The former acts against cytomegalovirus (CMV) in general and the latter against CMV retinitis. The action mechanism of these antiviral drugs is presented briefly here, mainly via phosphorylation and inhibition of the viral DNA polymerase. The therapeutic use and the pharmacokinetics are also outlined. The measurement of the concentration of acyclovir and related compounds in biological samples poses a particularly significant challenge because these drugs tend to be structurally similar to endogenous substances. The analysis requires the use of highly selective analytical techniques and chromatography methods are a first choice to determine drug content in pharmaceuticals and to measure them in body fluids. Chromatography can be considered the procedure of choice for the bio-analysis of this class of antiviral compounds, as this methodology is characterised by good specificity and accuracy and it is particularly useful when metabolites need to be monitored. Among chromatographic techniques, the reversed-phase (RP) HPLC is widely used for the analysis. C18 Silica columns from 7.5 to 30 cm in length are used, the separation is carried out mainly at room temperature and less than 10 min is sufficient for the analysis at 1.0-1.5 ml/min of flow-rate. The separation methods require an isocratic system, and various authors have proposed a variety of mobile phases. The detection requires absorbance or fluorescence measurements carried out at 250-254 nm and at lambdaex=260-285 nm, lambdaem=375-380 nm, respectively. The detection limit is about 0.3-10 ng/ml but the most important aspect is related to the sample treatment

  4. The effect of antiviral therapy on patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Xiao; Cheng, Jian-Wen; Huang, Ao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jian; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Xin-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that antiviral therapy performed after curative resection improves the postoperative prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the evidence has been contradictory. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogs (NAs) after curative resection on the long-term postoperative survival of patients with HBV-related HCC. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched up to August 2017 with no limits. Outcome measures were the primary parameter of overall survival (OS) after radical resection of HBV-related HCC and the secondary parameter of postoperative recurrence-free survival (RFS). A total of 9,009 patients (2,546 of whom received antiviral therapy and 6,463 received no treatment) were included. The pooled analysis revealed that antiviral therapy was associated with significantly improved OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51-0.67; P antiviral drug. In the subgroup analysis, anti-viral therapy significantly prolonged both OS (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P =0.01) and RFS (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.49-0.70; P Antiviral therapy with NAs confers significant survival benefits in patients with HBV-related HCC after curative resection, especially in patients with high baseline HBV DNA level (≥20,000 IU/mL).

  5. High throughput assays for analyzing transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Jiang, Xin; Yaoi, Takuro

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors are a group of proteins that modulate the expression of genes involved in many biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations in transcription factor function are associated with many human diseases, and therefore these proteins are attractive potential drug targets. A key issue in the development of such therapeutics is the generation of effective tools that can be used for high throughput discovery of the critical transcription factors involved in human diseases, and the measurement of their activities in a variety of disease or compound-treated samples. Here, a number of innovative arrays and 96-well format assays for profiling and measuring the activities of transcription factors will be discussed.

  6. Steroid plus antiviral treatment for Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H M; Jung, S Y; Byun, J Y; Park, M S; Yeo, S G

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of antiviral agents for the treatment of Bell's palsy is uncertain. We evaluated whether a steroid with an antiviral agent (S + A group) provided better recovery outcomes than a steroid alone (S group) in patients with Bell's palsy. A total of 1342 patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy who visited the Kyung Hee Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, from 2002 to 2012 were included in this study. Patients in the S + A group were treated with prednisolone and antiviral agents (n = 569) and those in the S group with prednisolone alone (n = 773). Outcomes were measured using the House-Brackmann (HB) scale according to age, initial disease severity, electroneurography (ENoG) findings and underlying comorbidities. The rate of recovery (HB grades I and II) with initially severe Bell's palsy (HB grades V and VI) was higher in the S + A than in the S group (P = 0.001). However, the rates of recovery were similar with initially moderate palsy (HB grades II-IV) (P = 0.502). In patients classified according to age and ENoG-determined severity of palsy, the overall recovery rate was higher in the S + A than in the S group, but the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05 for both). The recovery rate without diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) was higher in the S + A group than in the S group (P = 0.031). But in the patients with HTN and DM, the difference in recovery rates between the S + A and S groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.805). Treatment with a steroid plus antiviral agent resulted in significantly higher recovery rates than steroid therapy alone in patients with initially severe Bell's palsy and without either HTN or DM, and a nonsignificant trend towards higher recovery rates in all patients with Bell's palsy in this study. Antiviral agents may therefore help in the treatment of Bell's palsy. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  7. In Vitro Antiviral Effect of "Nanosilver" on Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mehrbod

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza is a viral infectious disease with frequent seasonal epidemics causing world-wide economical and social effects. Due to antigenic shifts and drifts of influenza virus, long-lasting vaccine has not been developed so far. The current annual vaccines and effective antiviral drugs are not available sufficiently. Therefore in order to prevent spread of infectious agents including viruses, antiseptics are considered by world health authorities. Small particles of silver have a long history as general antiseptic and disinfectant. Silver does not induce resistance in microorganisms and this ability in Nano-size is stronger. Materials and methods: The aim of this study was to determine antiviral effects of Nanosilver against influenza virus. TCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose of the virus as well as CC50 (50% Cytotoxic Concentration of Nanosilver was obtained by MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Sigma method. This compound was non-toxic to MDCK (Madin-Darbey Canin Kidney cells at concentration up to 1 µg/ml.  Effective minimal cytotoxic concentration and 100 TCID50 of the virus were added to the confluent cells.  Inhibitory effects of Nanosilver on the virus and its cytotoxicity were assessed at different temperatures using Hemagglutination (HA assay, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and DIF (Direct Immunofluorescent. RT-PCR and free band densitometry software were used to compare the volume of the PCR product bands on the gel. Results and Discussion:  In this study it was found that Nanosilver has destructive effect on the virus membrane glycoprotein knobs as well as the cells.

  8. Searching for synergy: Identifying optimal antiviral combination therapy using Hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents in a replicon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Justin J; Drusano, George L; Rodriquez, Jaime L; Brown, Ashley N

    2017-10-01

    Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are potent inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) that have revolutionized the treatment landscape for this important viral disease. There are currently four classes of DAAs that inhibit HCV replication via distinct mechanisms of action: nonstructural protein (NS) 3/4a protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, and NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors. Combination therapy with two or more DAAs has great potential to further enhance antiviral potency. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal combinations of DAAs against genotype 1 HCV replicons that maximized the inhibition of replicon replication. All possible two-drug combinations were evaluated against genotype 1a and 1b HCV replicons using a 96-well plate luciferase-based assay in triplicate. The Greco Universal Response Surface Area mathematical model was fit to the luciferase data to identify drug-drug interactions (i.e.: synergy, additivity, and antagonism) for antiviral effect against both genotypes. This information was used to rank-order combinations of DAAs based on their ability to inhibit replicon replication against genotype 1a and 1b HCV. These preclinical findings can provide information as to which antiviral regimens should move on in the development process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Antiviral Properties of Peramivir against H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus in an Experimental Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Amber; Huang, Linxi; Wu, Suwu; Cai, Yingmu; Su, Min; Lin, Pengzhou; Chen, Weihong; Fang, Xibin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Yisu; Zeng, Tiansheng; Paquette, Stephane G; Khan, Adnan; Kelvin, Alyson A; Kelvin, David J

    2015-12-01

    The H7N9 influenza virus causes a severe form of disease in humans. Neuraminidase inhibitors, including oral oseltamivir and injectable peramivir, are the first choices of antiviral treatment for such cases; however, the clinical efficacy of these drugs is questionable. Animal experimental models are essential for understanding the viral replication kinetics under the selective pressure of antiviral agents. This study demonstrates the antiviral activity of peramivir in a mouse model of H7N9 avian influenza virus infection. The data show that repeated administration of peramivir at 30 mg/kg of body weight successfully eradicated the virus from the respiratory tract and extrapulmonary tissues during the acute response, prevented clinical signs of the disease, including neuropathy, and eventually protected mice against lethal H7N9 influenza virus infection. Early treatment with peramivir was found to be associated with better disease outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Farooqui et al.

  10. Inkjet printing of antiviral PCL nanoparticles and anticancer cyclodextrin inclusion complexes on bioadhesive film for cervical administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Cem; Wickström, Henrika; Sandler, Niklas; Aktaş, Yeşim; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-10-15

    Personalized medicine is an important treatment approach for diseases like cancer with high intrasubject variability. In this framework, printing is one of the most promising methods since it permits dose and geometry adjustment of the final product. With this study, a combination product consisting of anticancer (paclitaxel) and antiviral (cidofovir) drugs was manufactured by inkjet printing onto adhesive film for local treatment of cervical cancers as a result of HPV infection. Furthermore, solubility problem of paclitaxel was overcome by maintaining this poorly soluble drug in a cyclodextrin inclusion complex and release of cidofovir was controlled by encapsulation in polycaprolactone nanoparticles. In vitro characterization studies of printed film formulations were performed and cell culture studies showed that drug loaded film formulation was effective on human cervical adenocarcinoma cells. Our study suggests that inkjet printing technology can be utilized in the development of antiviral/anticancer combination dosage forms for mucosal application. The drug amount in the delivery system can be accurately controlled and modified. Moreover, prolonged drug release time can be obtained. Printing of anticancer and antiviral drugs on film seem to be a potential approach for HPV-related cervical cancer treatment and a good candidate for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie B; Reinert, Line S; Thomsen, Martin K

    2016-01-01

    we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at epithelial surfaces before the IFNs. The pathway is activated independently of known innate sensors of viral infections through a mechanism dependent on viral O-linked glycans, which induce CXCR3 chemokines and stimulate antiviral activity...... in a manner dependent on neutrophils. This study therefore identifies a previously unknown layer of antiviral defense that exerts its action on epithelial surfaces before the classical IFN response is operative....

  12. Antiviral Effect of Sub Fraction Cassia alata Leaves Extract to Dengue Virus Serotype-2 strain New Guinea C in Human Cell Line Huh-7 it-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelina, Marissa; Hanafi, Muhammad; Suyatna, Franciscus D.; Mirawati S., T.; Ratnasari, Shirley; Ernawati Dewi, Beti

    2017-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most common viral infections found Indonesia and tropical regions, and no specific antiviral for DENV. Indonesia has several of herbal medicine that were not explored of their potency as antiviral DENV. This study was done to evaluate the activity and toxicity of 4 derived fractions: Hexane (CA1), ethyl acetate (CA2), buthanol (CA3 ) and water (CA4) of Cassia alata leaf extract (CA) as an antiviral drug to DENV. The DENV was treated with various concentration of extract and added to Huh-7 it-1. The decrease of virus titer was determined by Focus assay. The toxicity of extract was measured by MTT assay. In our previous study, we found that CA on Huh-7 cells showed IC50, CC50 and SI values of <10 μg/mL, 323.45 μg/mL, and more than 32.3, respectively. For the fractions, CA3 showed best antiviral activity among other, with IC50, CC50 and SI of <10 μg/mL, 645.8 μg/mL, and more than 64.5, respectively. CA and CA3 were proven to possess antiviral activity that is potent when tested against DENV-2. Future study was needed to explore the inhibition mechanism and compound of CA that have potency as antiviral drug to DENV.

  13. Hydrogen bonds and antiviral activity of benzaldehyde derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    We have obtained the Fourier transform IR spectra of solutions of benzaldehyde derivatives having different antiviral activities against a herpes virus. We observe a correlation between the presence of hydrogen bonds in the benzaldehyde molecules and the appearance of antiviral properties in the compounds. For compounds having antiviral activity, we have obtained spectral data suggesting the existence of hydrogen bonds of the type C=OṡṡṡH-O and O-HṡṡṡO in the molecules. When the hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl groups are replaced by a methyl group, no intramolecular hydrogen bonds are formed and the compounds lose their antiviral activity.

  14. Systems biology: A tool for charting the antiviral landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James R; Ferris, Martin T; Suthar, Mehul S

    2016-06-15

    The host antiviral programs that are initiated following viral infection form a dynamic and complex web of responses that we have collectively termed as "the antiviral landscape". Conventional approaches to studying antiviral responses have primarily used reductionist systems to assess the function of a single or a limited subset of molecules. Systems biology is a holistic approach that considers the entire system as a whole, rather than individual components or molecules. Systems biology based approaches facilitate an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of the antiviral landscape, while allowing for the discovery of emergent properties that are missed by conventional approaches. The antiviral landscape can be viewed as a hierarchy of complexity, beginning at the whole organism level and progressing downward to isolated tissues, populations of cells, and single cells. In this review, we will discuss how systems biology has been applied to better understand the antiviral landscape at each of these layers. At the organismal level, the Collaborative Cross is an invaluable genetic resource for assessing how genetic diversity influences the antiviral response. Whole tissue and isolated bulk cell transcriptomics serves as a critical tool for the comprehensive analysis of antiviral responses at both the tissue and cellular levels of complexity. Finally, new techniques in single cell analysis are emerging tools that will revolutionize our understanding of how individual cells within a bulk infected cell population contribute to the overall antiviral landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding and addressing hepatitis C reinfection in the oral direct-acting antiviral era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade-Nwulia, O; Sulkowski, M S; Merkow, A; Latkin, C; Mehta, S H

    2018-03-01

    The availability of effective, simple, well-tolerated oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) hepatitis C regimens has raised optimism for hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination at the population level. HCV reinfection in key populations such as people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) however threatens the achievement of this goal from a patient, provider and population perspective. The goal of this review was to synthesize our current understanding of estimated rates and factors associated with HCV reinfection. This review also proposes interventions to aid understanding of and reduce hepatitis C reinfection among PWID and HIV-infected MSM in the oral direct-acting antiviral era. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Antiviral potential of medicinal plants against HIV, HSV, influenza, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali; Mahmood, Zahed; Altaf, Awais; Ahmad, Khalil; Munir, Naveed; Daniyal, Muhammad; Nasir, Suhaila; Mehboob, Huma

    2018-01-22

    Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections. It is widely accepted that medicinal plant heritage is nature gifted, precious, and fueled with the valuable resources for treatment of metabolic and infectious disorders. The aims of this review are to assemble the facts and to conclude the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants in the eradication and management of various viral diseases such as influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis, and coxsackievirus infections, which have been proven in diverse clinical studies. The articles, published in the English language since 1982 to 2017, were included from Web of Science, Cochrane Library, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed by using relevant keywords including plants possessing antiviral activity, the antiviral effects of plants, and plants used in viral disorders. The scientific literature mainly focusing on plant extracts and herbal products with therapeutic efficacies against experimental models of influenza, HIV, HSV, hepatitis, and coxsackievirus were included in the study. Pure compounds possessing antiviral activity were excluded, and plants possessing activity against viruses other than viruses in inclusion criteria were excluded. Hundreds of plant extracts with antiviral effect were recognized. However, the data from only 36 families investigated through in vitro and in vivo

  17. Atividade antiviral de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Otaviano Martins

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a atividade antiviral de extratos e frações de Musa acuminata Colla, Musaceae, coletada em duas regiões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Petrópolis e Santo Antônio de Pádua. As inflorescências de M. acuminata apresentaram excelente atividade para os dois vírus avaliados: herpesvírus simples humano tipo 1 e herpesvírus simples humano tipo 2, ambos resistentes ao Aciclovir. Os resultados indicam que os extratos de M. acuminata testados podem constituir alvo potencial para uso em terapias antivirais.

  18. Electronic absorption spectra of antiviral aminophenol derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, M. V.; Ksendzova, G. A.; Raichyonok, T. F.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Sorokin, V. L.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Shadyro, O. I.

    2011-03-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of aminophenol derivatives in solutions have been studied. A general property of the absorption spectra of these compounds, the dependence of the maximum of a long-wavelength absorption band on the solvent polarity, is revealed. As a rule, the absorption band maximum of compounds possessing pharmacological properties shows a greater shift to short wavelength with an increase in the medium polarity than that of inactive compounds. Absorption measurements of solutions of aminophenol derivatives can be used for a tentative estimation of their antiviral activity.

  19. Antitheilerial Chemical Drugs: A Review | Hayat | Bulletin of Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthetic or semi synthetic chemical drugs were used for treatment of Theileria species. These drugs include antimalarial, trypanocides and antibiotics, antiviral, etc. The aim of this study was to over-view chemical drugs tested for treatment of theileriosis. Keywords: Theileria, treatment, chemical drug ...

  20. New alloferon analogues: synthesis and antiviral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczer, Mariola; Majewska, Anna; Zahorska, Renata

    2013-02-01

    We have extended our study on structure/activity relationship studies of insect peptide alloferon (H-His-Gly-Val-Ser-Gly-His-Gly-Gln-His-Gly-Val-His-Gly-OH) by evaluating the antiviral effects of new alloferon analogues. We synthesized 18 alloferon analogues: 12 peptides with sequences shortened from N- or C-terminus and 6 N-terminally modified analogues H-X(1)-Gly-Val-Ser-Gly-His-Gly-Gln-His-Gly-Val-His-Gly-OH, where X(1) = Phe (13), Tyr (14), Trp (15), Phg (16), Phe(p-Cl) (17), and Phe(p-OMe) (18). We found that most of the evaluated peptides inhibit the replication of Human Herpesviruses or Coxsackievirus B2 in Vero, HEp-2 and LLC-MK(2) cells. Our results indicate that the compound [3-13]-alloferon (1) exhibits the strongest antiviral activity (IC(50) = 38 μM) among the analyzed compound. Moreover, no cytotoxic activity against the investigated cell lines was observed for all studied peptides at concentration 165 μM or higher. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Molecular strategies to design an escape-proof antiviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2011-01-01

    Two antiviral approaches against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were presented at the Antivirals Congress in Amsterdam. The common theme among these two separate therapeutic research lines is the wish to develop a durable therapy that prevents viral escape. We will present a brief

  2. In vitro antiviral activity of Orthosiphon stamineus extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antiviral activity of Orthosiphon stamineus extract against dengue virus type 2. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The antiviral activity towards Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) was investigated by observing the morphological changes, which were further confirmed the cellular viability evaluated by ...

  3. Antiviral activities of streptomycetes against tobacco mosaic virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiviral activities of streptomycetes against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Datura plant: Evaluation of different organic compounds in their metabolites. ... of different compounds. Key words: Antiviral activity, tobacco mosaic virus, actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Datura metel, GC-MS analysis, human pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Antiviral activity and mechanism of action of arbidol against Hantaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Hantavirus, Arbidol, Toll-like receptors, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Antiviral activity, ... hantavirus infection. Arbidol is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that has been shown to have inhibitory effect on influenza virus [4,5], respiratory syncytial virus [6], ..... species in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.

  5. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  6. Antivirals Market Offering High-growth Opportunities for Market Players

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Deshmukh

    2016-01-01

    Transparency Market Research Reports incorporated a definite business overview and investigation inclines on "Antivirals Market". This report likewise incorporates more illumination about fundamental review of the business including definitions, requisitions and worldwide business sector industry structure. Read Full Report: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/antivirals-market.html

  7. Plants as sources of antiviral agents | Abonyi | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antivirals are substances other than a virus or virus containing vaccine or specific antibody which can produce either a protective or therapeutic effect to the clear detectable advantage of the virus infected host. The search for antiviral agents began in earnest in the 1950s but this was directed mainly by chance, with little or ...

  8. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity Against Herpesvirus Replication and Gene Expression. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To evaluate the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of peptide H9 (H9) in vitro in order to gain insight into its underlying molecular mechanisms.

  9. Drug: D08778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08778 Drug Freeze-dried, inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (JAN); Freeze-dried inac...tivated tissue cluture hepatitis A vaccine; Aimmugen (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BC02 ... PubChem: 96025461 ...

  10. Drug: D10193 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10193 Drug Live attenuated human rota virus vaccine, oral; Rotarix (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vac...cine ... DG01688 ... Oral live vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BH01 ... G1 and non-G1 (G3, G4, and G9) types ... PubChem: 135626911 ...

  11. Drug: D09725 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09725 Drug Emulsified influenza HA vaccine (A/H1N1); Arepanrix (H1N1) (TN) ... ...Antiviral ... DG01686 ... Inactivated vaccine ATC code: J07BB02 ... H1N1 influenza ... PubChem: 124490465 ...

  12. Drug: D10211 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10211 Drug Rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent; Rotateq (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine... ... DG01688 ... Oral live vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BH02 ... Serotypes G1, G2, G3, and G4 ... PubChem: 163312242 ...

  13. Drug: D05089 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05089 Drug Freeze-dried live attenuated mumps vaccine (JP17); Freeze-dried live attenuated mumps vaccine... (TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine Therapeutic category: 6313 ATC code: J07BE01 ... PubChem: 17398246 ...

  14. Drug: D06466 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06466 Drug Freeze-dried BCG vaccine (for percutaneous use) (JP17); Immunobladder ...(TN) ... Antiviral ... DG01689 ... Live vaccine ... DG01687 ... Parenteral live vaccine Therapeutic category: 6311 6391 ATC code: L03AX03 Chemical group: DG00738 ... PubChem: 47208122 ...

  15. Assessment of the antiviral properties of recombinant porcine SP-D against various influenza A viruses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaire, Marine L B; van Eijk, Martin; van Trierum, Stella E; van Riel, Debby; Saelens, Xavier; Romijn, Roland A; Hemrika, Wieger; Fouchier, Ron A M; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Haagsman, Henk P; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to existing classes of antiviral drugs raises concern and there is a need for novel antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically or prophylacticaly. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) belongs to the family of C-type lectins which are important effector molecules of the innate immune system with activity against bacteria and viruses, including influenza viruses. In the present study we evaluated the potential of recombinant porcine SP-D as an antiviral agent against influenza A viruses (IAVs) in vitro. To determine the range of antiviral activity, thirty IAVs of the subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 that originated from birds, pigs and humans were selected and tested for their sensitivity to recombinant SP-D. Using these viruses it was shown by hemagglutination inhibition assay, that recombinant porcine SP-D was more potent than recombinant human SP-D and that especially higher order oligomeric forms of SP-D had the strongest antiviral activity. Porcine SP-D was active against a broad range of IAV strains and neutralized a variety of H1N1 and H3N2 IAVs, including 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Using tissue sections of ferret and human trachea, we demonstrated that recombinant porcine SP-D prevented attachment of human seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 virus to receptors on epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract. It was concluded that recombinant porcine SP-D holds promise as a novel antiviral agent against influenza and further development and evaluation in vivo seems warranted.

  16. Assessment of the antiviral properties of recombinant porcine SP-D against various influenza A viruses in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine L B Hillaire

    Full Text Available The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to existing classes of antiviral drugs raises concern and there is a need for novel antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically or prophylacticaly. Surfactant protein D (SP-D belongs to the family of C-type lectins which are important effector molecules of the innate immune system with activity against bacteria and viruses, including influenza viruses. In the present study we evaluated the potential of recombinant porcine SP-D as an antiviral agent against influenza A viruses (IAVs in vitro. To determine the range of antiviral activity, thirty IAVs of the subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 that originated from birds, pigs and humans were selected and tested for their sensitivity to recombinant SP-D. Using these viruses it was shown by hemagglutination inhibition assay, that recombinant porcine SP-D was more potent than recombinant human SP-D and that especially higher order oligomeric forms of SP-D had the strongest antiviral activity. Porcine SP-D was active against a broad range of IAV strains and neutralized a variety of H1N1 and H3N2 IAVs, including 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Using tissue sections of ferret and human trachea, we demonstrated that recombinant porcine SP-D prevented attachment of human seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 virus to receptors on epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract. It was concluded that recombinant porcine SP-D holds promise as a novel antiviral agent against influenza and further development and evaluation in vivo seems warranted.

  17. Development of a Scintillation Proximity Assay (SPA) Based, High Throughput Screening Feasible Method for the Identification of PDE12 Activity Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Samuel; Bucher, Hannes; Nickolaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The scintillation proximity assay (SPA) technology has been widely used to establish high throughput screens (HTS) for a range of targets in the pharmaceutical industry. PDE12 (aka. 2'- phosphodiesterase) has been published to participate in the degradation of oligoadenylates that are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state via the activation of ribonuclease L (RNAse-L). Degradation of oligoadenylates by PDE12 terminates these antiviral activities, leading to decreased resistance of cells for a variety of viral pathogens. Therefore inhibitors of PDE12 are discussed as antiviral therapy. Here we describe the use of the yttrium silicate SPA bead technology to assess inhibitory activity of compounds against PDE12 in a homogeneous, robust HTS feasible assay using tritiated adenosine-P-adenylate ([3H]ApA) as substrate. We found that the used [3H]ApA educt, was not able to bind to SPA beads, whereas the product [3H]AMP, as known before, was able to bind to SPA beads. This enables the measurement of PDE12 activity on [3H]ApA as a substrate using a wallac microbeta counter. This method describes a robust and high throughput capable format in terms of specificity, commonly used compound solvents, ease of detection and assay matrices. The method could facilitate the search for PDE12 inhibitors as antiviral compounds.

  18. Hepatitis C virus cell-cell transmission and resistance to direct-acting antiviral agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is transmitted between hepatocytes via classical cell entry but also uses direct cell-cell transfer to infect neighboring hepatocytes. Viral cell-cell transmission has been shown to play an important role in viral persistence allowing evasion from neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, the role of HCV cell-cell transmission for antiviral resistance is unknown. Aiming to address this question we investigated the phenotype of HCV strains exhibiting resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs in state-of-the-art model systems for cell-cell transmission and spread. Using HCV genotype 2 as a model virus, we show that cell-cell transmission is the main route of viral spread of DAA-resistant HCV. Cell-cell transmission of DAA-resistant viruses results in viral persistence and thus hampers viral eradication. We also show that blocking cell-cell transmission using host-targeting entry inhibitors (HTEIs was highly effective in inhibiting viral dissemination of resistant genotype 2 viruses. Combining HTEIs with DAAs prevented antiviral resistance and led to rapid elimination of the virus in cell culture model. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that cell-cell transmission plays an important role in dissemination and maintenance of resistant variants in cell culture models. Blocking virus cell-cell transmission prevents emergence of drug resistance in persistent viral infection including resistance to HCV DAAs.

  19. Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp: P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Scopel e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, canine coronavirus (CCoV, canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2, equine arteritis virus (EAV, equine influenza virus (EIV, feline calicivirus (FCV and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1. The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5 TCID50 to 10(2.75 TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections.

  20. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L. DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50=35.88 μg/mL and CVA16 (IC50=42.91 μg/mL. Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions.

  1. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

  3. Signatures of Nucleotide Analog Incorporation by an RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Revealed Using High-Throughput Magnetic Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dulin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RNA viruses pose a threat to public health that is exacerbated by the dearth of antiviral therapeutics. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp holds promise as a broad-spectrum, therapeutic target because of the conserved nature of the nucleotide-substrate-binding and catalytic sites. Conventional, quantitative, kinetic analysis of antiviral ribonucleotides monitors one or a few incorporation events. Here, we use a high-throughput magnetic tweezers platform to monitor the elongation dynamics of a prototypical RdRp over thousands of nucleotide-addition cycles in the absence and presence of a suite of nucleotide analog inhibitors. We observe multiple RdRp-RNA elongation complexes; only a subset of which are competent for analog utilization. Incorporation of a pyrazine-carboxamide nucleotide analog, T-1106, leads to RdRp backtracking. This analysis reveals a mechanism of action for this antiviral ribonucleotide that is corroborated by cellular studies. We propose that induced backtracking represents a distinct mechanistic class of antiviral ribonucleotides.

  4. A high-throughput, fully automated liquid/liquid extraction liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of a new investigational drug ABT-869 and its metabolite A-849529 in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodila, Ramona C; Kim, Joseph C; Ji, Qin C; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol A

    2006-01-01

    ABT-869 is a novel ATP-competitive inhibitor for all the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). It is one of the oncology drugs in development at Abbott Laboratories and has great potential for enhanced anti-tumor efficacy as well as activity in a broad range of human cancers. We report here an accurate, precise and rugged liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for the quantitative measurement of ABT-869 and its acid metabolite A-849529. A fully automated 96-well liquid/liquid extraction method was achieved utilizing a Hamilton liquid handler. The only manual intervention required prior to LC/MS/MS injection is to transfer the 96-well plate to a drying rack to dry the extracts then transfer the plate back to the Hamilton for robotic reconstitution. The linear dynamic ranges were from 1.1 to 598.8 ng/mL for ABT-869 and from 1.1 to 605.8 ng/mL for A-849529. The coefficient of determination (r2) for all analytes was greater than 0.9995. For the drug ABT-869, the intra-assay coefficient of variance (CV) was between 0.4% and 3.7% and the inter-assay CV was between 0.9% and 2.8%. The inter-assay mean accuracy, expressed as percent of theoretical, was between 96.8% and 102.2%. For the metabolite A-849529, the intra-assay CV was between 0.5% and 5.1% and the inter-assay CV was between 0.8% and 4.9%. The inter-assay mean accuracy, expressed as percent of theoretical, was between 96.9% and 100.6%. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mapper: high throughput maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, V.; Kampherbeek, B. J.; Wieland, M. J.; de Boer, G.; ten Berge, G. F.; Boers, J.; Jager, R.; van de Peut, T.; Peijster, J. J. M.; Slot, E.; Steenbrink, S. W. H. K.; Teepen, T. F.; van Veen, A. H. V.

    2009-01-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive [1]. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off [2]. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. A new platform has been designed and built which contains a 300 mm wafer stage, a wafer handler and an electron beam column with 110 parallel electron beams. This manuscript describes the first patterning results with this 300 mm platform.

  6. High throughput protein production screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  7. MIPHENO: data normalization for high throughput metabolite analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Shannon M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput methodologies such as microarrays, mass spectrometry and plate-based small molecule screens are increasingly used to facilitate discoveries from gene function to drug candidate identification. These large-scale experiments are typically carried out over the course of months and years, often without the controls needed to compare directly across the dataset. Few methods are available to facilitate comparisons of high throughput metabolic data generated in batches where explicit in-group controls for normalization are lacking. Results Here we describe MIPHENO (Mutant Identification by Probabilistic High throughput-Enabled Normalization, an approach for post-hoc normalization of quantitative first-pass screening data in the absence of explicit in-group controls. This approach includes a quality control step and facilitates cross-experiment comparisons that decrease the false non-discovery rates, while maintaining the high accuracy needed to limit false positives in first-pass screening. Results from simulation show an improvement in both accuracy and false non-discovery rate over a range of population parameters (p -16 and a modest but significant (p -16 improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.955 for MIPHENO vs 0.923 for a group-based statistic (z-score. Analysis of the high throughput phenotypic data from the Arabidopsis Chloroplast 2010 Project (http://www.plastid.msu.edu/ showed ~ 4-fold increase in the ability to detect previously described or expected phenotypes over the group based statistic. Conclusions Results demonstrate MIPHENO offers substantial benefit in improving the ability to detect putative mutant phenotypes from post-hoc analysis of large data sets. Additionally, it facilitates data interpretation and permits cross-dataset comparison where group-based controls are missing. MIPHENO is applicable to a wide range of high throughput screenings and the code is

  8. Contribution of autophagy to antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Riedel, Claudia A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-11-14

    Although identified in the 1960's, interest in autophagy has significantly increased in the past decade with notable research efforts oriented at understanding as to how this multi-protein complex operates and is regulated. Autophagy is commonly defined as a "self-eating" process evolved by eukaryotic cells to recycle senescent organelles and expired proteins, which is significantly increased during cellular stress responses. In addition, autophagy can also play important roles during human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, novel findings suggest that autophagy contributes to the host defense against microbial infections. In this article, we review the role of macroautophagy in antiviral immune responses and discuss molecular mechanisms evolved by viral pathogens to evade this process. A role for autophagy as an effector mechanism used both, by innate and adaptive immunity is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mouse models for dengue vaccines and antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Emily M; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) has substantial global impact, with an estimated 390million people infected each year. In spite of this, there is currently no approved DENV-specific vaccine or antiviral. One reason for this is the difficulty involved with development of an adequate animal model. While non-human primates support viral replication, they do not exhibit signs of clinical disease. A mouse model is an ideal alternative; however, wild-type mice are resistant to DENV-induced disease. Infection of interferon receptor-deficient mice results in disease that recapitulates key features of severe dengue disease in humans. For the development of vaccines, interferon receptor-deficient mice provide a stringent model for testing vaccine-induced immune components from vaccinated wild-type mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. RNAi: antiviral therapy against dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Sobia; Ashfaq, Usman A

    2013-03-01

    Dengue virus infection has become a global threat affecting around 100 countries in the world. Currently, there is no licensed antiviral agent available against dengue. Thus, there is a strong need to develop therapeutic strategies that can tackle this life threatening disease. RNA interference is an important and effective gene silencing process which degrades targeted RNA by a sequence specific process. Several studies have been conducted during the last decade to evaluate the efficiency of siRNA in inhibiting dengue virus replication. This review summarizes siRNAs as a therapeutic approach against dengue virus serotypes and concludes that siRNAs against virus and host genes can be next generation treatment of dengue virus infection.

  11. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  12. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylactic antiviral therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in hepatitis B virus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ya-Ping; Jiang, Jia-Lu; Zou, Wai-Yi; Xu, Duo-Rong; Li, Juan

    2015-04-14

    To investigate the timing, safety and efficacy of prophylactic antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This prospective study recruited a total of 57 patients diagnosed with malignant hematological diseases and HBV infection at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between 2006 and 2013. The patients were classified as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive or HBsAg-negative/ antiHBc-positive. Patients were treated with chemotherapy followed by antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogues. Patients underwent allo-HSCT when serum HBV DNA was antiviral therapy was continued for 1 year after the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy. A total of 105 patients who underwent allo-HSCT and had no HBV infection were recruited as controls. The three groups were compared for incidence of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), drug-induced liver injury, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, death and survival time. A total of 29 of the 41 subjects with chronic GVHD exhibited extensive involvement and 12 exhibited focal involvement. Ten of the 13 subjects with chronic GVHD in the HBsAg(-)/hepatitis B core antibody(+) group exhibited extensive involvement and 3 exhibited focal involvement. Five of the 10 subjects with chronic GVHD in the HBsAg(+) group exhibited extensive involvement and 5 exhibited focal involvement. The non HBV-infected group did not differ significantly from the HBsAg-negative/antiHBc-positive and the HBsAg-positive groups which were treated with nucleoside analogues in the incidence of graft-vs-host disease (acute GVHD; 37.1%, 46.9% and 40%, respectively; P = 0.614; chronic GVHD; 39%, 40.6% and 40%, respectively; P = 0.98), drug-induced liver injury (25.7%, 18.7% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.7), death (37.1%, 40.6% and 52%, respectively; P = 0.4) and survival times (P = 0.516). One patient developed HBV reactivation (HBsAg-positivity) due to

  14. Throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, M.H.

    1996-10-01

    An engineering assessment is presented for factors that could significantly limit the throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit. The assessment focuses mainly on volumetric throughput capacity (and related mass rate and feed density), and energy input. Important conclusions that were reached during this assessment are that the throughput is limited by feed densification capability and that the design energy input rating appears to be adequate

  15. Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology (441st Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, Wally (Ph.D., Biology Department)

    2008-10-15

    Vaccines are effective against viruses such as polio and measles, but vaccines against other important viruses, such as HIV and flu viruses, may be impossible to obtain. These viruses change their genetic makeup each time they replicate so that the immune system cannot recognize all their variations. Hence it is important to develop new antiviral agents that inhibit virus replication. During this lecture, Dr. Mangel will discuss his group's work with a model system, the human adenovirus, which causes, among other ailments, pink eye, blindness and obesity. Mangel's team has developed a promising drug candidate that works by inihibiting adenovirus proteinase, an enzyme necessary for viral replication.

  16. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tajima, Shigeru [Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko [Influenza and Prion Disease Research Center, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 3-1-5 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan); Aida, Yoko, E-mail: aida@riken.jp [Viral Infectious Diseases Unit, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  17. Antiviral effect of HPMPC (Cidofovir (R)), entrapped in cationic liposomes: In vitro study on MDBK cell and BHV-1 virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korvasová, Z.; Drašar, L.; Mašek, J.; Turánek Knotigová, P.; Kulich, P.; Matiašovic, J.; Kovařčík, K.; Bartheldyová, E.; Koudelka, Š.; Škrabalová, M.; Miller, A. D.; Holý, Antonín; Ledvina, Miroslav; Turánek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 2 (2012), s. 330-338 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cationic lipids * BHV-1 virus * Cidofovir * HPMC * antiviral drugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.633, year: 2012

  18. High-Throughput Screening in Primary Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Punita; Ando, D. Michael; Daub, Aaron; Kaye, Julia A.; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Despite years of incremental progress in our understanding of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), there are still no disease-modifying therapeutics. The discrepancy between the number of lead compounds and approved drugs may partially be a result of the methods used to generate the leads and highlights the need for new technology to obtain more detailed and physiologically relevant information on cellular processes in normal and diseased states. Our high-throughput screening (HTS) system in a primary neuron model can help address this unmet need. HTS allows scientists to assay thousands of conditions in a short period of time which can reveal completely new aspects of biology and identify potential therapeutics in the span of a few months when conventional methods could take years or fail all together. HTS in primary neurons combines the advantages of HTS with the biological relevance of intact, fully differentiated neurons which can capture the critical cellular events or homeostatic states that make neurons uniquely susceptible to disease-associated proteins. We detail methodologies of our primary neuron HTS assay workflow from sample preparation to data reporting. We also discuss our adaptation of our HTS system into high-content screening (HCS), a type of HTS that uses multichannel fluorescence images to capture biological events in situ, and is uniquely suited to study dynamical processes in living cells. PMID:22341232

  19. 76 FR 20689 - Guidance for Industry on Influenza: Developing Drugs for Treatment and/or Prophylaxis; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Drug Information, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New..., Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 22... authorizations of antiviral drugs for influenza. This guidance is being issued consistent with FDA's good...

  20. Development of Small-Molecule Antivirals for Ebola

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 6 (2015), s. 1175-1194 ISSN 0198-6325 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antiviral * filovirus * Ebola virus * Marburg virus * hemorrhagic fever Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.135, year: 2015

  1. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  2. Mushrooms as a source of substances with antiviral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water extracts the fructifications of 56 species of fungi were examined as a source of antiviral substances with activity against VS and vaccinia viruses. Extracts from 16 fungal species exhibited the antiviral activity. Water extracts from Boletus edulis active against vaccinia virus and extract from Armillariella mellea active against VS virus are particularly worth nothing. Both of them in applied concentrations were not toxic in chick embryo fibroblasts tissue culture.

  3. Meeting report: 27th International conference on antiviral research, in Raleigh, NC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2014-11-01

    The 27th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA from May 12 to 16, 2014. This article summarizes the principal invited lectures. John Drach (Elion Award) described the early days of antiviral drugs and their novel modes of action. Piet Herdewijn (Holý Award) used evolutionary pressure to select DNA polymerases that accept nucleoside analogs. Replacing thymine by 5-chlorouracil led to the generation of a new form of Escherichia coli. Adrian Ray (Prusoff Award) demonstrated how prodrugs can markedly improve both the efficacy and safety of potential drugs. The keynote addresses, by David Margolis and Myron Cohen, tackled two emerging areas of HIV research, to find an HIV "cure" and to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. These topics were discussed further in other presentations - a cure seems to be a distant prospect but there are exciting developments for reducing HIV transmission. TDF-containing vaginal rings and GSK-744, as a long-lasting injection, offer great hope. There were three mini-symposia. Although therapy with TDF/FTC gives excellent control of HBV replication, there are only a few patients who achieve a functional cure. Myrcludex, an entry inhibitor, is active against both HBV and HDV. The recent progress with HBV replication in cell cultures has transformed the search for new antiviral compounds. The HBV capsid protein has been recognized as key player in HBV DNA synthesis. Unexpectedly, compounds which enhance capsid formation, markedly reduce HBV DNA synthesis. The development of BCX4430, which is active against Marburg and Ebola viruses, is of great current interest. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural Products as Source of Potential Dengue Antivirals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbson Ricardo Teixeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a neglected disease responsible for 22,000 deaths each year in areas where it is endemic. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for human beings, even though there have been great efforts to accomplish these goals. Several approaches have been used in the search for dengue antivirals such as screening of compounds against dengue virus enzymes and structure-based computational discovery. During the last decades, researchers have turned their attention to nature, trying to identify compounds that can be used as dengue antivirals. Nature represents a vast reservoir of substances that can be explored with the aim of discovering new leads that can be either used directly as pharmaceuticals or can serve as lead structures that can be optimized towards the development of new antiviral agents against dengue. In this review we describe an assortment of natural products that have been reported as possessing dengue antiviral activity. The natural products are organized into classes of substances. When appropriate, structure-activity relationships are outlined. The biological assays used to assess antiviral activity are briefly described.

  5. Effects of Smoking on Pegylated Interferon alpha 2a and First Generation Protease Inhibitor-based Antiviral Therapy in Naïve Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tim; Hueppe, Dietrich; Mauss, Stefan; Buggisch, Peter; Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Heike; Grimm, Daniel; Galle, Peter R; Alshuth, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Smoking has multiple effects on factors influencing hepatitis C and antiviral therapy, including lipid metabolism, fibrosis, platelet count and adherence aspects. The aim of this analysis was to determine the impact of smoking on hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy. Data of two cohorts of an observational multicenter study including therapy-naïve patients infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) treated with dual antiviral therapy (n=7,796) with pegylated interferon alpha 2a in combination with ribavirin, or triple antiviral therapy (n=1,122) containing telaprevir or boceprevir, were analysed. In the univariate matched pair analysis of dual antiviral therapy patients (n=584), smoking was significantly associated with lower sustained viral response rates (p=0.026, OR 0.69 CI: 0.50 - 0.96). The effect of smoking on sustained viral response remained significant (p=0.028, OR 0.67 CI: 0.47 - 0.96) in the multivariate analysis when adjusting for all other baseline parameters with a significant association in the univariate analysis, i.e. diabetes, fibrosis, body mass index, transaminases and baseline viral load. Under protease inhibitors the influence of smoking on virological response did not arise. Smoking has a negative impact on antiviral therapy in naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 independently of age, gender, history of drug use or alcoholic liver disease. The effects of smoking might be overcome by the new antiviral agents.

  6. Integrated Automation of High-Throughput Screening and Reverse Phase Protein Array Sample Preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    into automated robotic high-throughput screens, which allows subsequent protein quantification. In this integrated solution, samples are directly forwarded to automated cell lysate preparation and preparation of dilution series, including reformatting to a protein spotter-compatible format after the high......High-throughput screening of genome wide siRNA- or compound libraries is currently applied for drug target and drug discovery. Commonly, these approaches deal with sample numbers ranging from 100,000 to several millions. Efforts to decrease costs and to increase information gained include......-throughput screening. Tracking of huge sample numbers and data analysis from a high-content screen to RPPAs is accomplished via MIRACLE, a custom made software suite developed by us. To this end, we demonstrate that the RPPAs generated in this manner deliver reliable protein readouts and that GAPDH and TFR levels can...

  7. T cell--associated immunoregulation and antiviral effect of oxymatrine in hydrodynamic injection HBV mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiuxiu; Wang, Ruilin; Han, Yanzhong; Zhang, Cong'en; Shen, Honghui; Yang, Zhirui; Xiong, Yin; Liu, Huimin; Liu, Shijing; Li, Ruisheng; Yang, Ruichuang; Wang, Jiabo; Wang, Xuejun; Bai, Zhaofang; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2017-05-01

    Although oxymatrine (OMT) has been shown to directly inhibit the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro , limited research has been done with this drug in vivo . In the present study, the antiviral effect of OMT was investigated in an immunocompetent mouse model of chronic HBV infection. The infection was achieved by tail vein injection of a large volume of DNA solution. OMT (2.2, 6.7 and 20 mg/kg) was administered by daily intraperitoneal injection for 6 weeks. The efficacy of OMT was evaluated by the levels of HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). The immunoregulatory activity of OMT was evaluated by serum ELISA and flow cytometry. Results shows that OMT at 20 mg/kg inhibited HBV replication, and it was more efficient than entecavir (ETV) in the elimination of serum HBsAg and intrahepatic HBcAg. In addition, OMT accelerated the production of interferon- γ (IFN- γ ) in a dose-dependent manner in CD4 + T cells. Our findings demonstrate the beneficial effects of OMT on the enhancement of immunological function and in the control of HBV antigens. The findings suggest this drug to be a good antiviral therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV infection.

  8. Broad-spectrum non-toxic antiviral nanoparticles with a virucidal inhibition mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, Valeria; Andreozzi, Patrizia; D'Alicarnasso, Marco; Jacob Silva, Paulo; Mueller, Marie; Galloux, Marie; Le Goffic, Ronan; Jones, Samuel T.; Vallino, Marta; Hodek, Jan; Weber, Jan; Sen, Soumyo; Janeček, Emma-Rose; Bekdemir, Ahmet; Sanavio, Barbara; Martinelli, Chiara; Donalisio, Manuela; Rameix Welti, Marie-Anne; Eleouet, Jean-Francois; Han, Yanxiao; Kaiser, Laurent; Vukovic, Lela; Tapparel, Caroline; Král, Petr; Krol, Silke; Lembo, David; Stellacci, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Viral infections kill millions yearly. Available antiviral drugs are virus-specific and active against a limited panel of human pathogens. There are broad-spectrum substances that prevent the first step of virus-cell interaction by mimicking heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), the highly conserved target of viral attachment ligands (VALs). The reversible binding mechanism prevents their use as a drug, because, upon dilution, the inhibition is lost. Known VALs are made of closely packed repeating units, but the aforementioned substances are able to bind only a few of them. We designed antiviral nanoparticles with long and flexible linkers mimicking HSPG, allowing for effective viral association with a binding that we simulate to be strong and multivalent to the VAL repeating units, generating forces (~190 pN) that eventually lead to irreversible viral deformation. Virucidal assays, electron microscopy images, and molecular dynamics simulations support the proposed mechanism. These particles show no cytotoxicity, and in vitro nanomolar irreversible activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papilloma virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), dengue and lenti virus. They are active ex vivo in human cervicovaginal histocultures infected by HSV-2 and in vivo in mice infected with RSV.

  9. Effectiveness of topical corticosteroids in addition to antiviral therapy in the management of recurrent herpes labialis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Nasira; Paravastu, Sharath C V; Arain, Mubashir A

    2015-02-21

    Recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) is one of the most common viral infections worldwide. The available treatments have limited efficacy in preventing the recurrence of ulcerative lesions and reducing the duration of illness. The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of topical corticosteroids in addition to antiviral therapy in the treatment of RHL infection. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials comparing the efficacy of combined therapy (topical corticosteroids with antiviral) with placebo or antiviral alone in the management of RHL was conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane library, and Google Scholar databases were searched. We used RevMan software to conduct the meta-analysis. A fixed-effects model was used for mild to moderate heterogeneity, whereas a random-effects model was used for significant heterogeneity. Heterogeneity among trials was established using I(2) and chi-square test for heterogeneity. Four studies that fulfilled the selection criteria were included in this review. The total number of participants across included studies was 1,891 (range, 29 to 1,443). The antiviral drugs used were acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir. Corticosteroids used were 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% fluocinonide. Pooled results showed that patients receiving combined therapy had a significantly lower recurrence rate of ulcerative lesions compared to those in both the placebo group (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.39-0.66; P antiviral treatment alone group (OR, 0.73, 95% CI, 0.58-0.92; P = .007). The healing time was also significantly shorter in combined therapy in comparison to placebo (P therapy and antiviral alone. The adverse reactions in combined therapy were not significantly different than the placebo group (OR, 1.09; 95% C, 0.75-1.59; P = .85). Treatment with combined therapy is safe and more effective than placebo or antiviral alone for preventing the recurrence of ulcerative lesions in RHL infection.

  10. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against hepatitis C virus in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizin (GL has been used in Japan to treat patients with chronic viral hepatitis, as an anti-inflammatory drug to reduce serum alanine aminotransferase levels. GL is also known to exhibit various biological activities, including anti-viral effects, but the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV effect of GL remains to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that GL treatment of HCV-infected Huh7 cells caused a reduction of infectious HCV production using cell culture-produced HCV (HCVcc. To determine the target step in the HCV lifecycle of GL, we used HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp, replicon, and HCVcc systems. Significant suppressions of viral entry and replication steps were not observed. Interestingly, extracellular infectivity was decreased, and intracellular infectivity was increased. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopic analysis of GL treated cells, HCV core antigens and electron-dense particles had accumulated on endoplasmic reticulum attached to lipid droplet (LD, respectively, which is thought to act as platforms for HCV assembly. Furthermore, the amount of HCV core antigen in LD fraction increased. Taken together, these results suggest that GL inhibits release of infectious HCV particles. GL is known to have an inhibitory effect on phospholipase A2 (PLA2. We found that group 1B PLA2 (PLA2G1B inhibitor also decreased HCV release, suggesting that suppression of virus release by GL treatment may be due to its inhibitory effect on PLA2G1B. Finally, we demonstrated that combination treatment with GL augmented IFN-induced reduction of virus in the HCVcc system. GL is identified as a novel anti-HCV agent that targets infectious virus particle release.

  11. Uplink SDMA with Limited Feedback: Throughput Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G. Andrews

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined space division multiple access (SDMA and scheduling exploit both spatial multiplexing and multiuser diversity, increasing throughput significantly. Both SDMA and scheduling require feedback of multiuser channel sate information (CSI. This paper focuses on uplink SDMA with limited feedback, which refers to efficient techniques for CSI quantization and feedback. To quantify the throughput of uplink SDMA and derive design guidelines, the throughput scaling with system parameters is analyzed. The specific parameters considered include the numbers of users, antennas, and feedback bits. Furthermore, different SNR regimes and beamforming methods are considered. The derived throughput scaling laws are observed to change for different SNR regimes. For instance, the throughput scales logarithmically with the number of users in the high SNR regime but double logarithmically in the low SNR regime. The analysis of throughput scaling suggests guidelines for scheduling in uplink SDMA. For example, to maximize throughput scaling, scheduling should use the criterion of minimum quantization errors for the high SNR regime and maximum channel power for the low SNR regime.

  12. Antiviral resistance due to deletion in the neuraminidase gene and defective interfering-like viral polymerase basic 2 RNA of influenza A virus subtype H3N2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2018-01-01

    Background and objective: Antiviral treatment of influenza virus infections can lead to drug resistance of virus. This study investigates a selection of mutations in the full genome of H3N2 influenza A virus isolated from a patient in treatment with oseltamivir. Study design: Respiratory samples...... from a patient were collected before, during, and after antiviral treatment. Whole genome sequencing of the influenza virus by next generation sequencing, and low-frequency-variant analysis was performed. Neuraminidase-inhibition tests were performed with oseltamivir and zanamivir, and viruses were......, indicating a potential risk for transmission of the deleted virus. Full genome deep sequencing was useful to reveal variant mutations that might be selected due to antiviral treatment, and defective interfering-like viral PB2 RNA in the respiratory samples was detected....

  13. INDeGenIUS, a new method for high-throughput identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation of the predicted GIs in pathogens may lead to identification of potential drug/vaccine candidates. [Shrivastava S, Reddy Ch V S K and Mande S S 2010 INDeGenIUS, a new method for high-throughput identification of specialized functional islands in completely sequenced organisms; J. Biosci. 35 351–364] DOI ...

  14. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  15. Response to antiviral therapy in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation according to the donor CMV serological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servais, S; Dumontier, N; Biard, L; Schnepf, N; Resche-Rigon, M; Peffault de Latour, R; Scieux, C; Robin, M; Meunier, M; Xhaard, A; Sicre de Fontbrune, F; Le Goff, J; Socié, G; Simon, F; Mazeron, M-C

    2016-03-01

    Pre-emptive antiviral treatment efficiently prevents occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. However, successive treatment courses can be necessary. The current study was aimed at determining factors that could influence the response to antiviral treatment, in particular the donor CMV serostatus. A total of 147 consecutive CMV-seropositive recipients (R+) were included and prospectively monitored for 6 months after transplantation. Reactivation of CMV occurred in 111 patients, 61 of 78 with a CMV-positive donor (D+) and in 50 of 69 with a CMV-negative donor (D-) (p 0.45). Baseline viral loads and initial viral doubling times did not differ between D+/R+ and D-/R+. Fifteen D+/R+ and four D-/R+ had self-resolving CMV infections. A total of 92 patients received antiviral treatment and 81 (88%) had a significant decrease in CMV load under therapy. Repeated CMV episodes were observed in 67% of those and were significantly more frequent in D-/R+ than in D+/R+ (p antivirals were found in two D-/R+. Donor CMV serostatus influenced neither CMV reactivation occurrence nor the kinetics of CMV DNA load in the early phase of CMV replication but had a significant impact on response to antiviral therapy. Virological drug-resistance remained rare. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life in the fast lane: high-throughput chemistry for lead generation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D

    2001-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has come under increasing pressure due to regulatory restrictions on the marketing and pricing of drugs, competition, and the escalating costs of developing new drugs. These forces can be addressed by the identification of novel targets, reductions in the development time of new drugs, and increased productivity. Emphasis has been placed on identifying and validating new targets and on lead generation: the response from industry has been very evident in genomics and high throughput screening, where new technologies have been applied, usually coupled with a high degree of automation. The combination of numerous new potential biological targets and the ability to screen large numbers of compounds against many of these targets has generated the need for large diverse compound collections. To address this requirement, high-throughput chemistry has become an integral part of the drug discovery process. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Direct-Acting Antivirals for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C: Open Issues and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Bok Chae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two direct-acting antivirals (DAAs show well-established efficacy against hepatitis C virus (HCV, namely, first-wave protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Most clinical trials have examined DAAs in combination with standard of care (SOC regimens. Future therapeutic drugs were divided into three categories. They are second-wave protease inhibitors, second-generation protease inhibitors, and polymerase inhibitors. Second-wave protease inhibitors are more improved form and can be administered once a day. Oral drug combinations can be favored because interferon (IFN not only has to be given as intradermal injection, but also can cause several serious side effects. Combination of drugs with different mechanisms shows a good sustained virological response (SVR. But several mutations are associated with viral resistance to DAAs. Therefore, genotypic resistance data may provide insights into strategies aimed at maximizing SVR rates and minimizing resistance. Combined drug regimens are necessary to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant HCV. Many promising DAA candidates have been identified. Of these, a triple regimen containing sofosbuvir shows promise, and treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir yields a high SVR rate (95%. Oral drug combinations will be standard of care in the near future.

  18. Modeling Viral Infectious Diseases and Development of Antiviral Therapies Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Trevisan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent biotechnology breakthrough of cell reprogramming and generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which has revolutionized the approaches to study the mechanisms of human diseases and to test new drugs, can be exploited to generate patient-specific models for the investigation of host–pathogen interactions and to develop new antimicrobial and antiviral therapies. Applications of iPSC technology to the study of viral infections in humans have included in vitro modeling of viral infections of neural, liver, and cardiac cells; modeling of human genetic susceptibility to severe viral infectious diseases, such as encephalitis and severe influenza; genetic engineering and genome editing of patient-specific iPSC-derived cells to confer antiviral resistance.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in chronic hepatitis C infection: does it still matter in the era of directly acting antiviral therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim TR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TR Lim Centre for Liver Research and NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Liver Disease, University of Birmingham and Liver and Hepatobiliary Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, UK Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Given the pandemic spread of HCV infection and metabolic syndrome, the burden of their interaction is a major public health issue. The presence of metabolic syndrome accelerates the progression of liver disease in patients with HCV infection. New drug development in HCV has seen an unprecedented rise in the last year, which resulted in better efficacy, better tolerance, and a shorter treatment duration. This review describes the underlying mechanisms and clinical effects of metabolic syndrome in HCV infection, as well as their importance in the era of new directly acting antiviral therapy. Keywords: HCV, genotype 3, metabolic syndrome, steatosis, directly acting antiviral agents

  20. Herpes simplex virus-1 entrapped in Candida albicans biofilm displays decreased sensitivity to antivirals and UVA1 laser treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ascione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet and laser UVA1 irradiation. We also investigated whether fungus growth pattern, either sessile or planktonic, influences HSV-1 sensitivity to antivirals. Methods Mature Candida biofilms were exposed to HSV-1 and then irradiated with laser light (UVA1, 355 λ. In another set of experiments, mature Candida biofilm were co-cultured with HSV-1 infected VERO cells in the presence of different concentrations of acyclovir or foscarnet. In both protocols, controls unexposed to laser or drugs were included. The viral yield of treated and untreated samples was evaluated by end-point titration. To evaluate whether this protective effect might occur in relation with a different growth pattern, HSV-1 infected cells were co-cultured with either sessile or planktonic forms of Candida and then assessed for susceptibility to antiviral drugs. Results UVA1 irradiation caused a 2 Log reduction of virus yield in the control cultures whereas the reduction was only 1 Log with Candida biofilm, regardless to the laser dose applied to the experimental samples (50 or 100 J/cm2. The presence of biofilm increased the IC90 from 18.4–25.6 J/cm2. Acyclovir caused a 2.3 Log reduction of virus yield in the control cultures whereas with Candida biofilm the reduction was only 0.5 Log; foscarnet determined a reduction of 1.4 Log in the controls and 0.2 Log in biofilm cultures. Consequently, the ICs50 for acyclovir and foscarnet increased by 4- and 12-folds, respectively, compared to controls. When HSV-1 was exposed to

  1. Herpes simplex virus-1 entrapped in Candida albicans biofilm displays decreased sensitivity to antivirals and UVA1 laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Cristian; Sala, Arianna; Mazaheri-Tehrani, Elham; Paulone, Simona; Palmieri, Beniamino; Blasi, Elisabetta; Cermelli, Claudio

    2017-11-14

    Recently, we published data suggesting a mutualistic relationship between HSV-1 and Candida. albicans; in particular: (a) HSV-1 infected macrophages are inhibited in their anti-Candida effector function and (b) Candida biofilm protects HSV-1 from inactivation. The present in vitro study is aimed at testing the effects of Candida biofilm on HSV-1 sensitivity to pharmacological and physical stress, such as antiviral drugs (acyclovir and foscarnet) and laser UVA1 irradiation. We also investigated whether fungus growth pattern, either sessile or planktonic, influences HSV-1 sensitivity to antivirals. Mature Candida biofilms were exposed to HSV-1 and then irradiated with laser light (UVA1, 355 λ). In another set of experiments, mature Candida biofilm were co-cultured with HSV-1 infected VERO cells in the presence of different concentrations of acyclovir or foscarnet. In both protocols, controls unexposed to laser or drugs were included. The viral yield of treated and untreated samples was evaluated by end-point titration. To evaluate whether this protective effect might occur in relation with a different growth pattern, HSV-1 infected cells were co-cultured with either sessile or planktonic forms of Candida and then assessed for susceptibility to antiviral drugs. UVA1 irradiation caused a 2 Log reduction of virus yield in the control cultures whereas the reduction was only 1 Log with Candida biofilm, regardless to the laser dose applied to the experimental samples (50 or 100 J/cm 2 ). The presence of biofilm increased the IC 90 from 18.4-25.6 J/cm 2 . Acyclovir caused a 2.3 Log reduction of virus yield in the control cultures whereas with Candida biofilm the reduction was only 0.5 Log; foscarnet determined a reduction of 1.4 Log in the controls and 0.2 Log in biofilm cultures. Consequently, the ICs 50 for acyclovir and foscarnet increased by 4- and 12-folds, respectively, compared to controls. When HSV-1 was exposed to either sessile or planktonic fungal cells, the

  2. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Zebrafish Behavioral Ototoxicity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Douglas W; Philip, Rohit C; Niihori, Maki; Ringle, Ryan A; Coyle, Kelsey R; Zehri, Sobia F; Zabala, Leanne; Mudery, Jordan A; Francis, Ross H; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Jacob, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Zebrafish animal models lend themselves to behavioral assays that can facilitate rapid screening of ototoxic, otoprotective, and otoregenerative drugs. Structurally similar to human inner ear hair cells, the mechanosensory hair cells on their lateral line allow the zebrafish to sense water flow and orient head-to-current in a behavior called rheotaxis. This rheotaxis behavior deteriorates in a dose-dependent manner with increased exposure to the ototoxin cisplatin, thereby establishing itself as an excellent biomarker for anatomic damage to lateral line hair cells. Building on work by our group and others, we have built a new, fully automated high-throughput behavioral assay system that uses automated image analysis techniques to quantify rheotaxis behavior. This novel system consists of a custom-designed swimming apparatus and imaging system consisting of network-controlled Raspberry Pi microcomputers capturing infrared video. Automated analysis techniques detect individual zebrafish, compute their orientation, and quantify the rheotaxis behavior of a zebrafish test population, producing a powerful, high-throughput behavioral assay. Using our fully automated biological assay to test a standardized ototoxic dose of cisplatin against varying doses of compounds that protect or regenerate hair cells may facilitate rapid translation of candidate drugs into preclinical mammalian models of hearing loss.

  3. Antiviral responses of arthropod vectors: an update on recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückert, Claudia; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Fazakerley, John K; Fragkoudis, Rennos

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, biting midges and sand flies, transmit many viruses that can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals around the world. Arthropod vector species are invading new areas due to globalisation and environmental changes, and contact between exotic animal species, humans and arthropod vectors is increasing, bringing with it the regular emergence of new arboviruses. For future strategies to control arbovirus transmission, it is important to improve our understanding of virus-vector interactions. In the last decade knowledge of arthropod antiviral immunity has increased rapidly. RNAi has been proposed as the most important antiviral response in mosquitoes and it is likely to be the most important antiviral response in all arthropods. However, other newly-discovered antiviral strategies such as melanisation and the link between RNAi and the JAK/STAT pathway via the cytokine Vago have been characterised in the last few years. This review aims to summarise the most important and most recent advances made in arthropod antiviral immunity.

  4. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus

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    Stuart D. Dowall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine. A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna. The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8 were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease.

  5. 3,7-Dideazaneplanocin: Synthesis and antiviral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Qiang; Schneller, Stewart W

    2017-12-01

    Objective To synthesize 3,7-dideazaneplanocin and evaluate its antiviral potential. Methods The target 3,7-dideazaneplanocin has been prepared in five steps from a readily available cyclopentenol. A thorough in vitro antiviral analysis was conducted versus both DNA and RNA viruses. Results A rational synthesis of 3,7-dideazaneplanocin was conceived and successfully pursued in such a way that it can be adapted to various analogs of 3,7-dideazaneplanocin. Using standard antiviral assays, no activity for 3,7-dideazaneplanocn was found. Conclusion Two structural features are necessary for adenine-based carbocyclic nucleosides (like neplanocin) for potential antiviral properties: (i) inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and/or (ii) C-5' activation via the mono-nucleotide. These two requisite adenine structural features to fit these criteria are not present in in the target 3,7-dideazaneplanocin: (i) an N-7 is necessary for inhibition of the hydrolase and the N-3 is claimed to be essential for phosphorylation at C-5'. Thus, it is not surprising that 3,7-dideazaneplaoncin lacked antiviral properties.

  6. Mechanisms of virus resistance and antiviral activity of snake venoms

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    JVR Rivero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses depend on cell metabolism for their own propagation. The need to foster an intimate relationship with the host has resulted in the development of various strategies designed to help virus escape from the defense mechanisms present in the host. Over millions of years, the unremitting battle between pathogens and their hosts has led to changes in evolution of the immune system. Snake venoms are biological resources that have antiviral activity, hence substances of significant pharmacological value. The biodiversity in Brazil with respect to snakes is one of the richest on the planet; nevertheless, studies on the antiviral activity of venom from Brazilian snakes are scarce. The antiviral properties of snake venom appear as new promising therapeutic alternative against the defense mechanisms developed by viruses. In the current study, scientific papers published in recent years on the antiviral activity of venom from various species of snakes were reviewed. The objective of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of resistance developed by viruses and the components of snake venoms that present antiviral activity, particularly, enzymes, amino acids, peptides and proteins.

  7. Screening of Brazilian medicinal plants for antiviral activity against rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Alzira Batista; de Faria, Déborah Behr; Oliveira, Pollyana de Carvalho; Caldas, Sérgio; de Oliveira, Dario Alves; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Duarte, Maria Gorette Resende; Moreira, Carolina Paula de Souza; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo; de Almeida, Vera Lúcia

    2012-06-14

    Brazilian medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea were investigated for their in vitro antiviral activity against the simian rotavirus SA11. The ethanolic crude extracts of plants collected in the cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil were submitted to phytochemical screening. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was inferred by cellular morphologic alterations. Antiviral activity was assessed by the ability of the extracts to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE) of rotavirus on the treated cells. RT-PCR was performed to confirm and/or confront antiviral assay data. The maximum non-toxic concentration ranged from 50 to 500 μg/mL. All extracts were toxic at a concentration of 5000 μg/mL but no extract showed cytotoxicity at 50 μg/mL. The species Byrsonima verbascifolia, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Eugenia dysenterica and Hymenaea courbaril exhibited the strongest in vitro activity against rotavirus. Their extracts prevented the formation of CPE, and RT-PCR analysis detected no amplification of genetic material from rotavirus. Tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and terpenes were the major classes of natural products found in the leaf extracts that showed antiviral activity. Among the species studied, Byrsonima verbascifolia, Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea courbaril and Myracrodruon urundeuva showed potential activity against rotavirus and are worthy of further study. The present study corroborates ethnopharmacological data as a valuable source in the selection of plants with antiviral activity and to some extent validates their traditional uses. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee Wah; Lai, Jeffrey Kam Fatt; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2014-02-12

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease.

  9. Herpes simplex virus 1 infection dampens the immediate early antiviral innate immunity signaling from peroxisomes by tegument protein VP16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfu; Su, Chenhe

    2017-02-21

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an archetypal member of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily with a large genome encoding over 80 proteins, many of which play a critical role in virus-host interactions and immune modulation. Upon viral infections, the host cells activate innate immune responses to restrict their replications. Peroxisomes, which have long been defined to regulate metabolic activities, are reported to be important signaling platforms for antiviral innate immunity. It has been verified that signaling from peroxisomal MAVS (MAVS-Pex) triggers a rapid interferon (IFN) independent IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) production against invading pathogens. However, little is known about the interaction between DNA viruses such as HSV-1 and the MAVS-Pex mediated signaling. HSV-1 could activate the MAVS-Pex signaling pathway at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI), while infection at a high MOI dampens MAVS-Pex induced immediately early ISGs production. A high-throughput screen assay reveals that HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 inhibits the immediate early ISGs expression downstream of MAVS-Pex signaling. Moreover, the expression of ISGs was recovered when VP16 was knockdown with its specific short hairpin RNA. HSV-1 blocks MAVS-Pex mediated early ISGs production through VP16 to dampen the immediate early antiviral innate immunity signaling from peroxisomes.

  10. Antiviral activity of stachyflin on influenza A viruses of different hemagglutinin subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yurie; Igarashi, Manabu; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Noshi, Takeshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Ryu; Kida, Hiroshi

    2013-04-16

    The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses is a possible target for antiviral drugs because of its key roles in the initiation of infection. Although it was found that a natural compound, Stachyflin, inhibited the growth of H1 and H2 but not H3 influenza viruses in MDCK cells, inhibitory activity of the compound has not been assessed against H4-H16 influenza viruses and the precise mechanism of inhibition has not been clarified. Inhibitory activity of Stachyflin against H4-H16 influenza viruses, as well as H1-H3 viruses was examined in MDCK cells. To identify factors responsible for the susceptibility of the viruses to this compound, Stachyflin-resistant viruses were selected in MDCK cells and used for computer docking simulation. It was found that in addition to antiviral activity of Stachyflin against influenza viruses of H1 and H2 subtypes, it inhibited replication of viruses of H5 and H6 subtypes, as well as A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in MDCK cells. Stachyflin also inhibited the virus growth in the lungs of mice infected with A/WSN/1933 (H1N1) and A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2). Substitution of amino acid residues was found on the HA2 subunit of Stachyflin-resistant viruses. Docking simulation indicated that D37, K51, T107, and K121 are responsible for construction of the cavity for the binding of the compound. In addition, 3-dimensional structure of the cavity of the HA of Stachyflin-susceptible virus strains was different from that of insusceptible virus strains. Antiviral activity of Stachyflin was found against A(H1N1)pdm09, H5, and H6 viruses, and identified a potential binding pocket for Stachyflin on the HA. The present results should provide us with useful information for the development of HA inhibitors with more effective and broader spectrum.

  11. Antiviral activity of A771726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, against Junín virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Claudia S; García, Cybele C; Damonte, Elsa B

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of A771726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, (CONICET-UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad against the infection with Junín virus (JUNV), agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF). The treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of A771726 of Vero and A549 cells infected with JUNV inhibited virus replication in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by virus yield reduction assay. The antiviral effectiveness of A771726 was not importantly affected by the multiplicity of infection and the virus strain. Moreover, the combination of A771726 and ribavirin had a significantly more potent antiviral activity than each single drug treatment. Mechanistic studies showed that the main action of A771726 is exerted before 6 h of JUNV infection. Accordingly, inhibition of viral RNA synthesis was detected in treated infected cells by real time RT-PCR. The exogenous addition of uridine or orotic acid produced a partial reversal of the inhibitory effect of A771726 on infective virus production whereas a total reversion was detected on JUNV RNA synthesis, probably by restoration of the enzymatic activity of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) and the intracellular pyrimidine pools. In conclusion, these results suggest that the antiviral target would be viral RNA synthesis through pyrimidine depletion, but any other effect of the compound on JUNV infection cannot be excluded. This study opens the possibility of the therapeutic application of a wide spectrum host-targeted compound alone or in combination with ribavirin to combat AHF as well as other human pathogenic arenaviruses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Structural Basis for Suppression of a Host Antiviral Response by Influenza A Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das,K.; Ma, L.; Xiao, R.; Radvansky, B.; Aramini, J.; Zhao, L.; Marklund, J.; Kuo, R.; Twu, K.; Arnold, E.

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics and high mortality pandemics. A major function of the viral NS1A protein, a virulence factor, is the inhibition of the production of IFN-{beta}{beta} mRNA and other antiviral mRNAs. The NS1A protein of the human influenza A/Udorn/72 (Ud) virus inhibits the production of these antiviral mRNAs by binding the cellular 30-kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30), which is required for the 3' end processing of all cellular pre-mRNAs. Here we report the 1.95- Angstroms resolution X-ray crystal structure of the complex formed between the second and third zinc finger domain (F2F3) of CPSF30 and the C-terminal domain of the Ud NS1A protein. The complex is a tetramer, in which each of two F2F3 molecules wraps around two NS1A effector domains that interact with each other head-to-head. This structure identifies a CPSF30 binding pocket on NS1A comprised of amino acid residues that are highly conserved among human influenza A viruses. Single amino acid changes within this binding pocket eliminate CPSF30 binding, and a recombinant Ud virus expressing an NS1A protein with such a substitution is attenuated and does not inhibit IFN-{beta} pre-mRNA processing. This binding pocket is a potential target for antiviral drug development. The crystal structure also reveals that two amino acids outside of this pocket, F103 and M106, which are highly conserved (>99%) among influenza A viruses isolated from humans, participate in key hydrophobic interactions with F2F3 that stabilize the complex.

  13. Bleomycin has antiviral properties against drug-resistant HIV strains and sensitises virus to currently used antiviral agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiou, N.A.; Bruggen, T. van der; Healy, D.M.; Tienen, C. van; Bie, P. de; Oudshoorn, M.; Marx, J.J.M.; Asbeck, B.S. van

    2006-01-01

    In this study we performed phenotypic assays to assess involvement of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin (BLM) in replication inhibition of mutant HIV-1 viral strains. Three clinically relevant mutant HIV variants, including one containing the Q151M mutation conferring multinucleoside

  14. Terapia antiviral para VIH-SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Tarinas Reyes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, muchos agentes antivirales nuevos han sido incorporados a la quimioterapéutica. En esta revisión se resumen tanto los fármacos establecidos de años atrás como los nuevos medicamentos desarrollados para el tratamiento de individuos infectados por VIH. El AZT fue el primero aprobado en marzo de 1987, le siguió el ddl (1991, ddC (1992, d4T (1994, 3TC (1995. Luego fue aprobado el primer inhibidor de proteasa, saquinavir en diciembre de 1995, seguido de ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, nelfinavir (1997; además de otros inhibidores de la reverso transcriptasa como nevirapine (1996, delavirdine (1997, efavirenz (1998, entre otros. En estos momentos se siguen buscando y desarrollando nuevas terapias alternativas para esta afección. En este trabajo se exponen algunas de las características de dichos medicamentos, como son: mecanismos de acción (sobre qué enzima actúa cada uno y cómo lo hacen, el ciclo viral, dosificación, incompatibilidades y reacciones adversas.During the last years many new antiviral agents have been incorporated to the chemotherapeutics. The pharmaceuticals established years ago as well as the new ones developed to treat HIV infected individuals are included in this review. The AZT was the first approved in March, 1987, followed by ddl (1991, ddc (1992, d4t (1994, and 3TC (1995. Later, the first protease inhibitor, saquinovir, was approved in December, 1995, followed by ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, and nelfinavir (1997; in addition to other inhibitors of the reverse transcriptase as neviparine (1996, delavirdine (1997, and efavirenz (1998, among others. At present new alternative therapies for this affection are being searched and developed. Some of the characteristics of these dugs, such as: action mechanisms (on which enzime each of them act and how they do it, viral cycle, dosage, incompatibilites and adverse reactions are dealt with in this paper.

  15. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Is antiviral treatment really necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Övet, Gültekin; Alataş, Necat; Kocacan, Fatma Nur; Gürcüoğlu, Sermin Selver; Görgülü, Hakan; Güzelkara, Fatih; Övet, Habibe

    2015-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the necessity of antiviral agents in the ISSHL treatment. In this study, the patients, diagnosed with sudden hearing loss and admitted in the first 7 days of hearing loss were divided into two groups; a combination therapy was administered to one of the groups, and famciclovir was administered to the other group as an antiviral treatment in addition to the combined therapy. Both groups were compared in terms of levels of recovery. No statistically significant difference was found in the recovery rates between the two groups (p=0.7). In this study, the additional antiviral treatment was found to have no effect on the remission rates in patients with ISSHL treated with combined therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  17. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

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    Xiang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71 is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways.

  18. Resveratrol exhibits a strong cytotoxic activity in cultured cells and has an antiviral action against polyomavirus: potential clinical use

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    Galati Gaspare

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a non flavonoid polyphenol compound present in many plants and fruits and, at especially high concentrations, in the grape berries of Vitis vinifera. This compound has a strong bioactivity and its cytoprotective action has been demonstrated, however at high concentrations the drug exhibits also an effective anti-proliferative action. We recently showed its ability to abolish the effects of oxidative stress in cultured cells. In this work we assayed the bioactivity of resveratrol as antiproliferative and antiviral drug in cultured fibroblasts. Studies by other Authors showed that this natural compound inhibits the proliferation of different viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella-zoster and influenza A. The results presented here show an evident toxic activity of the drug at high concentrations, on the other hand at sub-cytotoxic concentrations, resveratrol can effectively inhibit the synthesis of polyomavirus DNA. A possible interpretation is that, due to the damage caused by resveratrol to the plasma membrane, the transfer of the virus from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus, may be hindered thus inhibiting the production of viral DNA. Methods The mouse fibroblast line 3T6 and the human tumor line HL60 were used throughout the work. Cell viability and vital cell count were assessed respectively, by the MTT assay and Trypan Blue staining. Cytotoxic properties and evaluation of viral DNA production by agarose gel electrophoresis were performed according to standard protocols. Results Our results show a clear dose dependent both cytotoxic and antiviral effect of resveratrol respectively at high and low concentrations. The cytotoxic action is exerted towards a stabilized cell-line (3T6 as well as a tumor-line (HL60. Furthermore the antiviral action is evident after the phase of virion entry, therefore data suggest that the drug acts during the synthesis of the viral progeny DNA. Conclusion Resveratrol is

  19. A Novel Iminosugar UV-12 with Activity against the Diverse Viruses Influenza and Dengue (Novel Iminosugar Antiviral for Influenza and Dengue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Plummer, Emily; Alonzi, Dominic S; Wolfe, Gary W; Sampath, Aruna; Nguyen, Tam; Butters, Terry D; Enterlein, Sven G; Stavale, Eric J; Shresta, Sujan; Ramstedt, Urban

    2015-05-13

    Iminosugars are capable of targeting the life cycles of multiple viruses by blocking host endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidase enzymes that are required for competent replication of a variety of enveloped, glycosylated viruses. Iminosugars as a class are approved for use in humans with diseases such as diabetes and Gaucher's disease, providing evidence for safety of this class of compounds. The in vitro antiviral activity of iminosugars has been described in several publications with a subset of these demonstrating in vivo activity against flaviviruses, herpesviruses, retroviruses and filoviruses. Although there is compelling non-clinical in vivo evidence of antiviral efficacy, the efficacy of iminosugars as antivirals has yet to be demonstrated in humans. In the current study, we report a novel iminosugar, UV-12, which has efficacy against dengue and influenza in mouse models. UV-12 exhibits drug-like properties including oral bioavailability and good safety profile in mice and guinea pigs. UV-12 is an example of an iminosugar with activity against multiple virus families that should be investigated in further safety and efficacy studies and demonstrates potential value of this drug class as antiviral therapeutics.

  20. Antiviral activity of the Indian medicinal plant extract, Swertia chirata against herpes simplex viruses: A study by in-vitro and molecular approach

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    Verma H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The antiviral activity of Indian Medicinal plant extract Swertia chirata was tested against Herpes simplex virus (HSV type-1, using multiple approaches both at cellular and molecular level. Methods: Cytotoxicity, plaque reduction, virus infectivity, antigen expression and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays were conducted to test the antiviral activity of the plant extract. Results: Swertia plant crude extract (1gm/mL at 1:64 dilution inhibited HSV-1, plaque formation at more than 70% level. HSV antigen expression and time kinetics experiments conducted by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA test, revealed a characteristic pattern of small foci of single fluorescent cells in Swertia extract treated HSV-1 infected cells at 4 hours post infection dose, suggested drug inhibited viral dissemination. Infected cell cultures treated with Swertia extract at various time intervals, tested by PCR, failed to show amplification at 12, 24-72 hours. HSV-1 infected cells treated with Acyclovir (antiviral drug did not show any amplification by PCR. Conclusions: In this preliminary study, the Indian medicinal plant extract, Swertia chirata showed antiviral properties against Herpes simplex virus type-1.

  1. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of cell-free synthesized Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein capsids enables in vitro screening to identify novel antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broce, Sean; Hensley, Lisa; Sato, Tomoharu; Lehrer-Graiwer, Joshua; Essrich, Christian; Edwards, Katie J; Pajda, Jacqueline; Davis, Christopher J; Bhadresh, Rami; Hurt, Clarence R; Freeman, Beverly; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Kelleher, Colm A; Karpuj, Marcela V

    2016-05-14

    Viral capsid assembly involves the oligomerization of the capsid nucleoprotein (NP), which is an essential step in viral replication and may represent a potential antiviral target. An in vitro transcription-translation reaction using a wheat germ (WG) extract in combination with a sandwich ELISA assay has recently been used to identify small molecules with antiviral activity against the rabies virus. Here, we examined the application of this system to viruses with capsids with a different structure, such as the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the etiological agent of a severe emerging infectious disease. The biochemical and immunological characterization of the in vitro-generated RVFV NP assembly products enabled the distinction between intermediately and highly ordered capsid structures. This distinction was used to establish a screening method for the identification of potential antiviral drugs for RVFV countermeasures. These results indicated that this unique analytical system, which combines nucleoprotein oligomerization with the specific immune recognition of a highly ordered capsid structure, can be extended to various viral families and used both to study the early stages of NP assembly and to assist in the identification of potential antiviral drugs in a cost-efficient manner. Reviewed by Jeffry Skolnick and Noah Isakov. For the full reviews please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  2. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound.

  3. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  4. Structure and Function of the Non-Structural Protein of Dengue Virus and its Applications in Antiviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Zhang, Bao; Yu, JianHai; Wu, Qinghua; Yang, Fangji; Cao, Hong; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever, a type of global and tropical infectious disease, and its prevention has become a challenging issue worldwide. Antibody-dependent enhancement effects and the virus pathogenic mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated, hindering the development of dengue fever prevention and suitable drug treatment. There is currently no specific prevention and therapy in clinical trials, however, in recent years, studies have focused on the pathogenesis and treatment of dengue. Research focusing on dengue virus nonstructural protein in special drugs for the prevention and control of dengue fever is a new progress leading to improved understanding regarding the prevention and control of dengue fever and suitable drugs for the treatment. The main challenges regarding the structure of dengue virus nonstructural protein and the drugs for antiviral therapy are summarized in this paper.

  5. Antiviral Activity of MK-4965, a Novel Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Tain; Munshi, Vandna; Touch, Sinoeun; Tynebor, Robert M.; Tucker, Thomas J.; McKenna, Philip M.; Williams, Theresa M.; DiStefano, Daniel J.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Miller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are the mainstays of therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. However, the effectiveness of NNRTIs can be hampered by the development of resistance mutations which confer cross-resistance to drugs in the same class. Extensive efforts have been made to identify new NNRTIs that can suppress the replication of the prevalent NNRTI-resistant viruses. MK-4965 is a novel NNRTI that possesses both diaryl ether and indazole moieties. The compound displays potency at subnanomolar concentrations against wild-type (WT), K103N, and Y181C reverse transcriptase (RT) in biochemical assays. MK-4965 is also highly potent against the WT virus and two most prevalent NNRTI-resistant viruses (viruses that harbor the K103N or the Y181C mutation), against which it had 95% effective concentrations (EC95s) of antiviral EC95 of MK-4965 was reduced approximately four- to sixfold when it was tested in 50% human serum. Moreover, MK-4965 was evaluated with a panel of 15 viruses with NNRTI resistance-associated mutations and showed a superior mutant profile to that of efavirenz but not to that of etravirine. MK-4965 was similarly effective against various HIV-1 subtypes and viruses containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor resistance-conferring mutations. A two-drug combination study showed that the antiviral activity of MK-4965 was nonantagonistic with each of the 18 FDA-licensed drugs tested vice versa in the present study. Taken together, these in vitro data show that MK-4965 possesses the desired properties for further development as a new NNRTI for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:19289522

  6. Antiviral therapy for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Dahl, Emilie Kristine; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether antiviral therapy reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C.......To determine whether antiviral therapy reduces the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C....

  7. Enhancement of the antiviral activity against caprine herpesvirus type 1 of Acyclovir in association with Mizoribine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Michele; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Lucente, Maria Stella; Losurdo, Michele; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Trerotoli, Paolo; Casalino, Elisabetta; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Tempesta, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection in goats is responsible for genital lesions resembling the lesions induced by herpesvirus 2 in humans (HHV-2). The immunosuppressive drug Mizoribine (MIZ) is able to increase the antiviral activity of Acyclovir (ACV) against herpesvirus infections, raising interesting perspectives on new combined therapeutic strategies. In this study the anti-CpHV-1 activity in vitro of ACV alone or in combination with MIZ was evaluated. ACV (100μg/ml) displayed an antiviral effect on CpHV-1 replication. This inhibitory effect was higher when ACV (100μg/ml) was used in association with MIZ (20μg/ml). Other combinations of ACV and MIZ in various concentrations were not as effective as ACV 100μg/ml/MIZ 20μg/ml. These findings suggest that the association of ACV and MIZ is potentially useful for treatment of genital infection by herpesviruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural features and antiviral activity of sulphated fucans from the brown seaweed Cystoseira indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pinaki; Mateu, Cecilia Gabriela; Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Pujol, Carlos Alberto; Damonte, Elsa Beatriz; Ray, Bimalendu

    2007-01-01

    Natural compounds offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development. In this study, we have analysed sulphated-fucan-containing fractions isolated from the brown seaweed Cystoseira indica. The crude water extract (CiWE) and the main fraction (CiF3) obtained by anion exchange chromatography had potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) without cytotoxicity for Vero cell cultures. Furthermore, they had no direct inactivating effect on virions in a virucidal assay, and lacked anticoagulant activity. The mode of action of these compounds could be mainly ascribed to an inhibitory effect on virus adsorption. Chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods showed that the major polysaccharide had an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa and contained a backbone of alpha-(1 --> 3)-linked fucopyranosyl residues substituted at C-2 with fucopyranosyl and xylopyranosyl residues. This sulphated fucan, considered the active principle of the C. indica water extract, also contained variously linked xylose and galactose units and glucuronic acid residues. Sulphate groups, if present, are located mostly at C-4 of (1 --> 3)-linked fucopyranosyl units, and appeared to be very important for the anti-herpetic activity of this polymer.

  9. The Roles of Direct Recognition by Animal Lectins in Antiviral Immunity and Viral Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are a group of proteins with carbohydrate recognition activity. Lectins are categorized into many families based on their different cellular locations as well as their specificities for a variety of carbohydrate structures due to the features of their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD modules. Many studies have indicated that the direct recognition of particular oligosaccharides on viral components by lectins is important for interactions between hosts and viruses. Herein, we aim to globally review the roles of this recognition by animal lectins in antiviral immune responses and viral pathogenesis. The different classes of mammalian lectins can either recognize carbohydrates to activate host immunity for viral elimination or can exploit those carbohydrates as susceptibility factors to facilitate viral entry, replication or assembly. Additionally, some arthropod C-type lectins were recently identified as key susceptibility factors that directly interact with multiple viruses and then facilitate infection. Summarization of the pleiotropic roles of direct viral recognition by animal lectins will benefit our understanding of host-virus interactions and could provide insight into the role of lectins in antiviral drug and vaccine development.

  10. Antiviral Effects of ABMA against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenwen; Wu, Yu; Bi, Jinpeng; Wang, Shuai; Li, Fang; Kong, Wei; Barbier, Julien; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gao, Feng; Gillet, Daniel; Su, Weiheng; Jiang, Chunlai

    2018-03-09

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative pathogen of genital herpes and is closely associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The absence of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance to commonly used nucleoside analogs emphasize the urgent need for alternative antivirals against HSV-2. Recently, ABMA [1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine] has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of several pathogens exploiting host-vesicle transport, which also participates in the HSV-2 lifecycle. Here, we showed that ABMA inhibited HSV-2-induced cytopathic effects and plaque formation with 50% effective concentrations of 1.66 and 1.08 μM, respectively. We also preliminarily demonstrated in a time of compound addition assay that ABMA exerted a dual antiviral mechanism by impairing virus entry, as well as the late stages of the HSV-2 lifecycle. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that ABMA protected BALB/c mice from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge with an improved survival rate of 50% at 5 mg/kg (8.33% for the untreated virus infected control). Consequently, our study has identified ABMA as an effective inhibitor of HSV-2, both in vitro and in vivo, for the first time and presents an alternative to nucleoside analogs for HSV-2 infection treatment.

  11. Antiviral Effects of Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus) Seed and Its Gallic Acid against Influenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Lee, Dan Bi; Bae, Garam; Bae, Hae-In; Bae, Seon Young; Hong, Young-Min; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Lee, Dong-Hun; Song, Chang-Seon; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-06

    Influenza is a serious public health concern worldwide, as it causes significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains requires new approaches for the treatment of influenza. In this study, Rubus coreanus seed (RCS) that is left over from the production of wine or juice was found to show antiviral activities against influenza type A and B viruses. Using the time-of-addition plaque assay, viral replication was almost completely abolished by simultaneous treatment with the RCS fraction of less than a 1-kDa molecular weight (RCSF1). One of the polyphenols derived from RCSF1, gallic acid (GA), identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against both influenza type A and B viruses, albeit at relatively high concentrations. RCSF1 was bound to hemagglutinin protein, inhibited hemagglutination significantly and disrupted viral particles, whereas GA was found to only disrupt the viral particles by using transmission electron microscopy. In BALB/c mice infected with influenza virus, oral administration of RCSF1 significantly improved the survival rate and reduced the viral titers in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that RCSF1 and GA show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  12. Antiviral effect of compounds derived from the seeds of Mammea americana and Tabernaemontana cymosa on Dengue and Chikungunya virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Calderón, Cecilia; Mesa-Castro, Carol; Robledo, Sara; Gómez, Sergio; Bolivar-Avila, Santiago; Diaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Martínez-Gutierrez, Marlen

    2017-01-18

    The transmission of Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has increased worldwide, due in part to the lack of a specific antiviral treatment. For this reason, the search for compounds with antiviral potential, either as licensed drugs or in natural products, is a research priority. The objective of this study was to identify some of the compounds that are present in Mammea americana (M. americana) and Tabernaemontana cymosa (T. cymosa) plants and, subsequently, to evaluate their cytotoxicity in VERO cells and their potential antiviral effects on DENV and CHIKV infections in those same cells. Dry ethanolic extracts of M. americana and T. cymosa seeds were subjected to open column chromatographic fractionation, leading to the identification of four compounds: two coumarins, derived from M. americana; and lupeol acetate and voacangine derived from T. cymosa.. The cytotoxicity of each compound was subsequently assessed by the MTT method (at concentrations from 400 to 6.25 μg/mL). Pre- and post-treatment antiviral assays were performed at non-toxic concentrations; the resulting DENV inhibition was evaluated by Real-Time PCR, and the CHIKV inhibition was tested by the plating method. The results were analyzed by means of statistical analysis. The compounds showed low toxicity at concentrations ≤ 200 μg/mL. The compounds coumarin A and coumarin B, which are derived from the M. americana plant, significantly inhibited infection with both viruses during the implementation of the two experimental strategies employed here (post-treatment with inhibition percentages greater than 50%, p treatment with percentages of inhibition greater than 40%, p treatment strategy (at inhibition percentages greater than 70%, p < 0.01). In vitro, the coumarins are capable of inhibiting infection by DENV and CHIKV (with inhibition percentages above 50% in different experimental strategies), which could indicate that these two compounds are potential antivirals for

  13. Transgenic parasites accelerate drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana; Tarleton, Rick L.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic neglected diseases are in dire need of new drugs either to replace old drugs rendered ineffective because of resistance development, to cover clinical needs that had never been addressed or to tackle other associated problems of existing drugs such as high cost, difficult administration, restricted coverage or toxicity. The availability of transgenic parasites expressing reporter genes facilitates the discovery of new drugs through high throughput screenings, but also by allowing rapid screening in animal models of disease. Taking advantage of these, we propose an alternative pathway of drug development for neglected diseases, going from high throughput screening directly into in vivo testing of the top ranked compounds selected by medicinal chemistry. Rapid assessment animal models allow for identification of compounds with bona fide activity in vivo early in the development chain, constituting a solid basis for further development and saving valuable time and resources. PMID:22277131

  14. Pros and cons of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, D.M.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Hugen, P.W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring has the promise to become a part of routine patient care in the treatment of HIV infection. It is known that plasma drug concentrations of protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are better predictors of antiviral response or toxicity than

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of antiviral therapy in patients with advanced hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Yu; Wen, Feng; Wheeler, John; Fu, Ping; Li, Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Antiviral therapy has been demonstrated to significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy in patients with advanced HBV-related HCC treated with sorafenib. To conduct the analysis, a Markov model comprising three health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease, and death) was created. The efficacy data were derived from medical records. Cost data were collected based on the Chinese national drug prices. Utility data came from the previously published studies. One-way sensitivity analyses as well as probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore model uncertainties. In the base-case analysis, addition of antiviral therapy to sorafenib generated an effectiveness of 0.68 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of $25 026.04, while sorafenib monotherapy gained an effectiveness of 0.42 QALYs at a cost of $20 249.64. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $18 370.77/QALY for antiviral therapy group versus non-antiviral therapy group. On the other hand, the ICER between the two groups in patients with high or low HBV-DNA load, with or without cirrhosis, normal or elevated alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase were $16 613.97/QALY, $19 774.16/QALY, $14 587.66/QALY, $19 873.84/QALY, $17 947.07/QALY, and $18 785.58/QALY, respectively. Based on the cost-effectiveness threshold ($20 301.00/QALY in China), addition of antiviral therapy to sorafenib is considered to be a cost-effective option compared with sorafenib monotherapy in patients with advanced HBV-related HCC in China from the patient's perspective. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Antiviral activity of Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis against Coxsackievirus A and Enterovirus 71 infection in human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lei Yin Emily; Too, Horng Khit Issac; Tan, Eng Lee; Chow, Tak-Kwong Vincent; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Tham, Elizabeth Huiwen; Alonso, Sylvie

    2016-06-24

    Recurrence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) pandemics continues to threaten public health. Despite increasing awareness and efforts, effective vaccine and drug treatment have yet to be available. Probiotics have gained recognition in the field of healthcare worldwide, and have been extensively prescribed to babies and young children to relieve gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances and diseases, associated or not with microbial infections. Since the faecal-oral axis represents the major route of HFMD transmission, transient persistence of probiotic bacteria in the GI tract may confer some protection against HFMD and limit transmission among children. In this work, the antiviral activity of two commercially available probiotics, namely Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis (L. reuteri Protectis) and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota), was assayed against Coxsackieviruses and Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the main agents responsible for HFMD. In vitro infection set-ups using human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines were designed to assess the antiviral effect of the probiotic bacteria during entry and post-entry steps of the infection cycle. Our findings indicate that L. reuteri Protectis displays a significant dose-dependent antiviral activity against Coxsackievirus type A (CA) strain 6 (CA6), CA16 and EV71, but not against Coxsackievirus type B strain 2. Our data support that the antiviral effect is likely achieved through direct physical interaction between bacteria and virus particles, which impairs virus entry into its mammalian host cell. In contrast, no significant antiviral effect was observed with L. casei Shirota. Should the antiviral activity of L. reuteri Protectis observed in vitro be translated in vivo, such probiotics-based therapeutic approach may have the potential to address the urgent need for a safe and effective means to protect against HFMD and limit its transmission among children.

  17. DMPD: What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15283983 What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? Mbow ML, Sarisky RT. Tr...ends Biotechnol. 2004 Aug;22(8):395-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show What is disrupting IFN-alpha's ant...iviral activity? PubmedID 15283983 Title What is disrupting IFN-alpha's antiviral activity? Authors Mbow ML,

  18. DMPD: Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18703349 Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Komur...Show Negative regulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. PubmedID 18703349 Title Negative r...egulation of cytoplasmic RNA-mediated antiviral signaling. Authors Komuro A, Bamm

  19. DMPD: Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18549796 Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Moore CB, Ting J...P. Immunity. 2008 Jun;28(6):735-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways.... PubmedID 18549796 Title Regulation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling pathways. Author

  20. DMPD: TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16027039 TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Schroder M, Bowie AG.... Trends Immunol. 2005 Sep;26(9):462-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key pl...ayer or bystander? PubmedID 16027039 Title TLR3 in antiviral immunity: key player or bystander? Authors Schr