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Sample records for three-dimensional flow structure

  1. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay

    2002-01-01

    Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density Jm...... and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...

  2. THREE DIMENSIONAL CFD MODELLING OF FLOW STRUCTURE IN COMPOUND CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ghani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The computational modeling of three dimensional flows in a meandering compound channel has been performed in this research work. The flow calculations are performed by solving 3D steady state continuity and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence closure is approximated with standard - turbulence model. The model equations are solved numerically with a general purpose software package. A comprehensive validation of the simulated results against the experimental data and a demonstration that the software used in this study has matured enough for investigating practical engineering problems are the major contributions of this paper. The model was initially validated. This was achieved by computing streamwise point velocities at different depths of various sections and depth averaged velocities at three cross sections along the main channel and comparing these results with experimental data. After the validation of the model, predictions were made for different flow parameters including velocity contours at the surface, pressure distribution, turbulence intensity etc. The results gave an overall understanding of these flow variables in meandering channels. The simulation also established the good prediction capability of the standard - turbulence model for flows in compound channels.

  3. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  4. Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1996-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified

  5. Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1997-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)

  6. PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Goranovic, Goran; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2002-01-01

    . The structures are often of complex geometry and include strongly three-dimensional flow behaviour, which poses a challenge for the micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique. The flow in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure has been measured throughout the volume using micro-PIV. In addition......, a stereoscopic principle was applied to obtain all three velocity components, showing the feasibility of obtaining full volume mapping (x, y, z, U, V, W) from micro-PIV measurements. The results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations....

  7. Measuring three-dimensional flow structures in the conductive airways using 3D-PTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Thomas; Schwarze, Rüdiger; Bauer, Katrin

    2017-10-01

    Detailed information about flow patterns and mass transport in the conductive airways is of crucial interest to improve ventilation strategies as well as targeted drug delivery. Despite a vast number of flow studies in this field, there is still a dearth in experimental data of three-dimensional flow patterns, in particular for the validation of numerical results. Therefore, oscillating flow within a realistic model of the upper human conductive airways is studied here experimentally. The investigated range of Reynolds numbers is Re = 250-2000 and the Womersley number is varied between α = 1.9-5.1, whereby physiological flow at rest conditions is included. In employing the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry measurement technique, we can directly visualize airway specific flow structures as well as examine Lagrangian trajectory statistics, which has not been covered to date. The systematic variation of characteristic flow parameters in combination with the advanced visualization technique sheds new light on the mechanisms of evolving flow patterns. By determining Lagrangian properties such as pathline curvature and torsion, we find that both strongly depend on the Reynolds number. Moreover, the probability density function of the curvature reveals a unique shape for certain flow regions and resembles a turbulent like behavior at the small scales.

  8. Three-dimensional flow structure measurements behind a queue of studied model vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.F.; Chan, T.L.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional flow structures of a queue of studied model vehicles (i.e., one-, two- and three-vehicle cases) were investigated comprehensively in a closed-circuit wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the typical urban vehicle speeds (i.e., 10, 30 and 50 km/h). In this three-dimensional vehicle wake, a pair of longitudinal vortices is characterized by counter-rotating and moving downstream at relatively low velocity than their surrounding flow. The flow structures of multiple studied model vehicles are dominated by the wake generated from the last studied model vehicle but the preceding studied model vehicle(s) also has/have some minor effects. Cross-sectional turbulence distribution is non-uniform in the far-wake region for all studied cases. The lowest turbulence occurs at the center part of the vehicle wake while high turbulence occurs at its two sides. As such, it may lead to considerable underestimation in turbulence magnitude if the measurement is only taken along the centerline of the vehicle wake.

  9. Coherent structures and flow topology of transitional separated-reattached flow over two and three dimensional geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabil, Hayder Azeez; Li, Xin Kai; Abdalla, Ibrahim Elrayah

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale organized motions (commonly referred to coherent structures) and flow topology of a transitional separated-reattached flow have been visualised and investigated using flow visualisation techniques. Two geometrical shapes including two-dimensional flat plate with rectangular leading edge and three-dimensional square cylinder are chosen to shed a light on the flow topology and present coherent structures of the flow over these shapes. For both geometries and in the early stage of the transition, two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls are formed downstream of the leading edge. They are observed to be twisting around the square cylinder while they stay flat in the case of the two-dimensional flat plate. For both geometrical shapes, the two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls move downstream of the leading edge and they are subjected to distortion to form three-dimensional hairpin structures. The flow topology in the flat plate is different from that in the square cylinder. For the flat plate, there is a merging process by a pairing of the Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls to form a large structure that breaks down directly into many hairpin structures. For the squire cylinder case, the Kelvin-Helmholtz roll evolves topologically to form a hairpin structure. In the squire cylinder case, the reattachment length is much shorter and a forming of the three-dimensional structures is closer to the leading edge than that in the flat plate case.

  10. Viscoelastic polymer flows and elastic turbulence in three-dimensional porous structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Lyons, Kyle; Howe, Andrew M; Clarke, Andrew

    2016-01-14

    Viscoelastic polymer solutions flowing through reservoir rocks have been found to improve oil displacement efficiency when the aqueous-phase shear-rate exceeds a critical value. A possible mechanism for this enhanced recovery is elastic turbulence that causes breakup and mobilization of trapped oil ganglia. Here, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion measurements in a novel way to detect increased motion of disconnected oil ganglia. The data are acquired directly from a three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous structure (sandstone) when viscoelastic fluctuations are expected to be present in the continuous phase. The measured increase in motion of trapped ganglia provides unequivocal evidence of fluctuations in the flowing phase in a fully complex 3D system. This work provides direct evidence of elastic turbulence in a realistic reservoir rock - a measurement that cannot be readily achieved by conventional laboratory methods. We support the NMR data with optical microscopy studies of fluctuating ganglia in simple two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic networks, with consistent apparent rheological behaviour of the aqueous phase, to provide conclusive evidence of elastic turbulence in the 3D structure and hence validate the proposed flow-fluctuation mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.

  11. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  12. Characterization of coherent structures in three-dimensional turbulent flows using the finite-size Lyapunov exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, João H; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) to characterize Lagrangian coherent structures in three-dimensional (3D) turbulent flows. Lagrangian coherent structures act as the organizers of transport in fluid flows and are crucial to understand their stirring and mixing properties. Generalized maxima (ridges) of the FSLE fields are used to locate these coherent structures. 3D FSLE fields are calculated in two phenomenologically distinct turbulent flows: a wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and a regional oceanic flow obtained by the numerical solution of the primitive equations where two-dimensional (2D) turbulence dominates. In the channel flow, autocorrelations of the FSLE field show that the structure is substantially different from the near wall to the mid-channel region and relates well to the more widely studied Eulerian coherent structure of the turbulent channel flow. The ridges of the FSLE field have complex shapes due to the 3D character of the turbulent fluctuations. In the oceanic flow, strong horizontal stirring is present and the flow regime is similar to that of 2D turbulence where the domain is populated by coherent eddies that interact strongly. This in turn results in the presence of high FSLE lines throughout the domain leading to strong non-local mixing. The ridges of the FSLE field are quasi-vertical surfaces, indicating that the horizontal dynamics dominates the flow. Indeed, due to rotation and stratification, vertical motions in the ocean are much less intense than horizontal ones. This suppression is absent in the channel flow, as the 3D character of the FSLE ridges shows. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  13. Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow structures in annular swirling jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percin, M.; Vanierschot, M.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Annular jet flows are of practical interest in view of their occurrence in many industrial applications in the context of bluff-body combustors [1]. They feature different complex flow characteristics despite their simple geometry: a central recirculation zone (CRZ) as a result of flow separation

  14. Three dimensional turbulence structure measurements in air/water two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.K.L.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomena of turbulent air/water two phase upward and downward flows in a circular test section were investigated. Important flow quantities such as void fraction, liquid velocity, and Reynolds stresses were measured by using both single sensor and three sensor hot film probes. A digital data processing technique based on combined derivative and level thresholding was developed to determine the local void fraction from hot-film anemometer signals. The measured local void fraction was integrated and the result was compared with the chordal averaged void fraction measured by a gamma ray densitometer. It was found that the local measurement underestimated local void fraction due to surface tension effects and bubble deflection by the probe. A correlation based on local parameters characterizing probe/bubble interaction was developed, and it corrected the measured void fraction successfully. The measured void fraction profiles in upward flow and downward flow showed two distinct patterns. In upward flow, bubbles tend to migrate toward the wall and the void fraction profile shows a sharp peak near the wall. In downward flow, as the liquid velocity increases, the wall peaking phenomenon fades out and bubbles tend to migrate toward the center of the pipe

  15. Three-dimensional flow structure and patterns of bed shear stress in an evolving compound meander bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Frank; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound meander bends with multiple lobes of maximum curvature are common in actively evolving lowland rivers. Interaction among spatial patterns of mean flow, turbulence, bed morphology, bank failures and channel migration in compound bends is poorly understood. In this paper, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) flow velocities in a compound bend are examined to evaluate the influence of channel curvature and hydrologic variability on the structure of flow within the bend. Flow structure at various flow stages is related to changes in bed morphology over the study timeframe. Increases in local curvature within the upstream lobe of the bend reduce outer bank velocities at morphologically significant flows, creating a region that protects the bank from high momentum flow and high bed shear stresses. The dimensionless radius of curvature in the upstream lobe is one-third less than that of the downstream lobe, with average bank erosion rates less than half of the erosion rates for the downstream lobe. Higher bank erosion rates within the downstream lobe correspond to the shift in a core of high velocity and bed shear stresses toward the outer bank as flow moves through the two lobes. These erosion patterns provide a mechanism for continued migration of the downstream lobe in the near future. Bed material size distributions within the bend correspond to spatial patterns of bed shear stress magnitudes, indicating that bed material sorting within the bend is governed by bed shear stress. Results suggest that patterns of flow, sediment entrainment, and planform evolution in compound meander bends are more complex than in simple meander bends. Moreover, interactions among local influences on the flow, such as woody debris, local topographic steering, and locally high curvature, tend to cause compound bends to evolve toward increasing planform complexity over time rather than stable configurations.

  16. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  17. Turbulent structure of three-dimensional flow behind a model car: 1. Exposed to uniform approach flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaka, Orçun E.; Özkan, Gökhan; Özdemir, Bedii I.

    2004-01-01

    Turbulent structure of flow behind a model car is investigated with local velocity measurements with emphasis on large structures and their relevance to aerodynamic forces. Results show that two counter-rotating helical vortices, which are formed within the inner wake region, play a key role in determining the flux of kinetic energy. The turbulence is generated within the outermost shear layers due to the instabilities, which also seem to be the basic drive for these relatively organized structures. The measured terms of the turbulent kinetic energy production, which are only part of the full expression, indicate that vortex centres act similar to the manifolds draining the energy in the streamwise direction. As the approach velocity increases, the streamwise convection becomes the dominant means of turbulent transport and, thus, the acquisition of turbulence by relatively non-turbulent flow around the wake region is suppressed.

  18. Computational study of three-dimensional wake structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, R.; Shirayama, S.; Kamo, K.; Kuwahara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional wake structure is studied by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Results are visualized by a three-dimensional color graphic system. It was found that a pair of vortex tubes separated from a body plays the most important role in the wake. Near the body vortex tubes are rather stable, however, they gradually become unsteady as they flow down

  19. Analysis of the three dimensional flow in a turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.

    1979-01-01

    The present analysis describes the three-dimensional compressible inviscid flow in the scroll and the vaneless nozzle of a radial inflow turbine. The solution to this flow field, which is further complicated by the geometrical shape of the boundaries, is obtained using the finite element method. Symmetric and nonsymmetric scroll cross sectional geometries are investigated to determine their effect on the general flow field and on the exit flow conditions.

  20. Three-Dimensional Adjustment of Stratified Flow Over a Sloping Bottom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapman, David

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on understanding how advection of density within the bottom boundary layer influence the three-dimensional structure, evolution, and dynamics of both the bottom boundary layer and the overlying (interior) flow...

  1. Pattern formation and three-dimensional instability in rotating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erik A.; Aubry, Nadine; Sorensen, Jens N.

    1997-03-01

    A fluid flow enclosed in a cylindrical container where fluid motion is created by the rotation of one end wall as a centrifugal fan is studied. Direct numerical simulations and spatio-temporal analysis have been performed in the early transition scenario, which includes a steady-unsteady transition and a breakdown of axisymmetric to three-dimensional flow behavior. In the early unsteady regime of the flow, the central vortex undergoes a vertical beating motion, accompanied by axisymmetric spikes formation on the edge of the breakdown bubble. As traveling waves, the spikes move along the central vortex core toward the rotating end-wall. As the Reynolds number is increased further, the flow undergoes a three-dimensional instability. The influence of the latter on the previous patterns is studied.

  2. Three Dimensional Steady Subsonic Euler Flows in Bounded Nozzles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady Euler flows in rectangular nozzles when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the exit are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal compon...

  3. Magnetic structure of two- and three-dimensional supramolecular compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decurtins, S.; Schmalle, H.W.; Pellaux, R. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland); Fischer, P.; Fauth, F. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Supramolecular chiral networks of oxalato-bridged transition metals show either two- or three-dimensional structural features. The magnetic structures of such compounds have been investigated by means of elastic neutron powder diffraction. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  4. Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Ray

    1997-01-01

    ...) Based on the structure of the neurotoxin, understand the toxins mechanism of action. We have accomplished the first goal of determining the three-dimensional structure of the 150 kD botulinum neurotoxin serotype...

  5. Three-Dimensional Structure Determination of Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Ray

    1998-01-01

    ...) Based on the structure of the neurotoxin, understand the toxins mechanism of action. We have accomplished the first goal of determining the three-dimensional structure of the 150 kD botulinum neurotoxin serotype...

  6. Predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional separated flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutrone, L.; De Palma, P.; Pascazio, G.; Napolitano, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical prediction of two- and three-dimensional transitional separated flows of turbomachinery interest. The recently proposed single-point transition model based on the use of a laminar kinetic energy transport equation is considered, insofar as it does not require to evaluate any integral parameter, such as boundary-layer thickness, and is thus directly applicable to three-dimensional flows. A well established model, combining a transition-onset correlation with an intermittency transport equation, is also used for comparison. Both models are implemented within a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver employing a low-Reynolds-number k-ω turbulence model. The performance of the transition models have been evaluated and tested versus well-documented incompressible flows past a flat plate with semi-circular leading edge, namely: tests T3L2, T3L3, T3L5, and T3LA1 of ERCOFTAC, with different Reynolds numbers and free-stream conditions, the last one being characterized by a non-zero pressure gradient. In all computations, the first model has proven as adequate as or superior to the second one and has been then applied with success to two more complex test cases, for which detailed experimental data are available in the literature, namely: the two- and three-dimensional flows through the T106 linear turbine cascade

  7. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  8. Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus

    2018-05-01

    According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.

  9. Discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.

    1982-12-01

    A discretization model for nonlinear dynamic analysis of three dimensional structures is presented. The discretization is achieved through a three dimensional spring-mass system and the dynamic response obtained by direct integration of the equations of motion using central diferences. First the viability of the model is verified through the analysis of homogeneous linear structures and then its performance in the analysis of structures subjected to impulsive or impact loads, taking into account both geometrical and physical nonlinearities is evaluated. (Author) [pt

  10. Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.

  11. New "sandwich" structures conformed from three dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba, Juan J.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor interlaminar properties as well as poor-skin-to-core adhesion properties are very often the common existing problems we find when designing with "sandwich" structures. A new type of 3D-fabric "sandwich" structure is being developed in order to avoid these problems. Although the manufacturing process is very simple, a very complex "sandwich" structure is obtained as a result of the complexity of the 3D-fabric used. This 3D-fabric is a 3D woven glass fabric produced on velvet weaving machines with glass yarns. It is an integrally woven "sandwich" laminate for all kinds of composite products. The strength of the vertical fibers makes, that also after impregnation with a resin matrix, the "sandwich" structure is maintained. The result is a laminate with high strength and stiffness and low weight. On each side of this "sandwich" laminate additional reinforcement materials can be laminated and a synthetic foam can be injected in the hollow structure. This will allow to establish the mechanical properties of a finished product.

    Las pobres propiedades, tanto interlaminares como de adhesión entre piel y núcleo, constituyen uno de los grandes problemas cuando se diseñan estructuras utilizando paneles tipo "sandwich". Un nuevo tipo de panel "sandwich", configurado a partir de tejidos tridimensionales, está siendo desarrollado en la actualidad con el objetivo de eliminar esos problemas. Aunque el proceso de fabricación es muy simple, el panel "sandwich" obtenido es de estructura compleja, como resultado de la complejidad del tejido tridimensional utilizado. Este tejido tridimensional (3D es un tejido de fibra de vidrio producido en máquinas de tejer especializadas. La resistencia de las fibras verticales hace que, después de la impregnación con una resina, se mantenga la configuración tipo "sandwich". El resultado es un laminado de alta resistencia, gran rigidez y bajo peso. Sobre cada uno de los lados del panel "sandwich" se pueden

  12. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  13. Three-Dimensional Aeroelastic and Aerothermoelastic Behavior in Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Jack J.; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Thuruthimattam, Biju J.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic behavior of three-dimensional configurations in hypersonic flow regime are studied. The aeroelastic behavior of a low aspect ratio wing, representative of a fin or control surface on a generic hypersonic vehicle, is examined using third order piston theory, Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics. The sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior generated using Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics to parameters governing temporal accuracy is also examined. Also, a refined aerothermoelastic model, which incorporates the heat transfer between the fluid and structure using CFD generated aerodynamic heating, is used to examine the aerothermoelastic behavior of the low aspect ratio wing in the hypersonic regime. Finally, the hypersonic aeroelastic behavior of a generic hypersonic vehicle with a lifting-body type fuselage and canted fins is studied using piston theory and Euler aerodynamics for the range of 2.5 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 28, at altitudes ranging from 10,000 feet to 80,000 feet. This analysis includes a study on optimal mesh selection for use with Euler aerodynamics. In addition to the aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented, three time domain flutter identification techniques are compared, namely the moving block approach, the least squares curve fitting method, and a system identification technique using an Auto-Regressive model of the aeroelastic system. In general, the three methods agree well. The system identification technique, however, provided quick damping and frequency estimations with minimal response record length, and therefore o ers significant reductions in computational cost. In the present case, the computational cost was reduced by 75%. The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented illustrate the applicability of the CFL3D code for the hypersonic flight regime.

  14. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.

  15. Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1990-01-01

    We discuss our work using critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations to generate surfaces representing the topology of the associated flow separations.

  16. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    , causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011.......This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the other...

  17. Three-Dimensional Structure of CeO2 Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Tan, Hui Ru; Boothroyd, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Visualization of three-dimensional (3D) structures of materials at the nanometer scale can shed important information on the performance of their applications and provide insight into the growth mechanism of shape-controlled nanomaterials. In this paper, the 3D structures and growth pathway of Ce...

  18. Three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in bounded nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing

    The existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in rectangular nozzles were obtained when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the entrance are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum approaches the critical number, the associated flows converge to a subsonic-sonic flow. Furthermore, when the normal component of vorticity and the variation of Bernoulli function are both small, the existence and uniqueness of subsonic Euler flows with non-zero vorticity are established. The proof of these results is based on a new formulation for the Euler system, a priori estimate for nonlinear elliptic equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, detailed study for a linear div-curl system, and delicate estimate for the transport equations.

  19. Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1987-07-01

    A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)

  20. A coupled three dimensional model of vanadium redox flow battery for flow field designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Cong; Gao, Yan; Guo, Shaoyun; Tang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A 3D (three-dimensional) model of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) with interdigitated flow channel design is proposed. Two different stack inlet designs, single-inlet and multi-inlet, are structured in the model to study the distributions of fluid pressure, electric potential, current density and overpotential during operation of VRB cell. Electrolyte flow rate and stack channel dimension are proved to be the critical factors affecting flow distribution and cell performance. The model developed in this paper can be employed to optimize both VRB stack design and system operation conditions. Further improvements of the model concerning current density and electrode properties are also suggested in the paper. - Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of vanadium redox flow cell is proposed. • Interdigitated flow channels with two different manifold designs are simulated. • Manifold structure affects uniformity of distribution patterns significantly. • Increased electrolyte flow rate improves cell performance for both designs. • Decreased channel size and enlarged land width enhance cell voltage

  1. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Wei; Chen, Yun-Tai; Wang, Pei-De

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude M L=1.7 6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  2. Three-dimensional simulation of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, M J; Schmid, H -J; Peukert, W

    2009-08-01

    The viscous-flow sintering of different agglomerate particle morphologies is studied by three-dimensional computer simulations based on the concept of fractional volume of fluid. For a fundamental understanding of particle sintering characteristics, the neck growth kinetics in agglomerate chains and in doublets consisting of differently sized primary particles is investigated. Results show that different sintering contacts in agglomerates even during the first stages are not completely independent from each other, even though differences are small. The neck growth kinetics of differently sized primary particles is determined by the smaller one up to a size difference by a factor of approximately 2, whereas for larger size differences, the kinetics becomes faster. In particular, the agglomerate sintering kinetics is investigated for particle chains of different lengths and for different particle morphologies each having ten primary particles and nine initial sintering contacts. For agglomerate chains, the kinetics approximately can be normalized by using the radius of the fully coalesced sphere. In general, different agglomerate morphologies show equal kinetics during the first sintering stages, whereas during advanced stages, compact morphologies show significantly faster sintering progress than more open morphologies. Hence, the overall kinetics cannot be described by simply using constant morphology correction factors such as fractal dimension or mean coordination number which are used in common sintering models. However, for the first stages of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering, which are the most important for many particle processes, a sintering equation is presented. Although we use agglomerates consisting of spherical primary particles, our methodology can be applied to other aggregate geometries as well.

  3. Nanofluidic structures with complex three-dimensional surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavis, Samuel M; Gaitan, Michael; Strychalski, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluidic devices have typically explored a design space of patterns limited by a single nanoscale structure depth. A method is presented here for fabricating nanofluidic structures with complex three-dimensional (3D) surfaces, utilizing a single layer of grayscale photolithography and standard integrated circuit manufacturing tools. This method is applied to construct nanofluidic devices with numerous (30) structure depths controlled from ∼10 to ∼620 nm with an average standard deviation of 1 cm. A prototype 3D nanofluidic device is demonstrated that implements size exclusion of rigid nanoparticles and variable nanoscale confinement and deformation of biomolecules.

  4. Three-dimensional flow structures past a bio-prosthetic valve in an in-vitro model of the aortic root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, David; Obrist, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    The flow field past a prosthetic aortic valve comprises many details that indicate whether the prosthesis is functioning well or not. It is, however, not yet fully understood how an optimal flow scenario would look, i.e. which subtleties of the fluid dynamics in place are essential regarding the durability and compatibility of a prosthetic valve. In this study, we measured and analyzed the 3D flow field in the vicinity of a bio-prosthetic heart valve in function of the aortic root size. The measurements were conducted within aortic root phantoms of different size, mounted in a custom-built hydraulic setup, which mimicked physiological flow conditions in the aorta. Tomographic particle image velocimetry was used to measure the 3D instantaneous velocity field at various instances. Several 3D fields (e.g. instantaneous and mean velocity, 3D shear rate) were analyzed and compared focusing on the impact of the aortic root size, but also in order to gain general insight in the 3D flow structure past the bio-prosthetic valve. We found that the diameter of the aortic jet relative to the diameter of the ascending aorta is the most important parameter in determining the characteristics of the flow. A large aortic cross-section, relative to the cross-section of the aortic jet, was associated with higher levels of turbulence intensity and higher retrograde flow in the ascending aorta.

  5. Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel bundle for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Ho; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly mock-up of a Japanese loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor, Monju, were investigated with a numerical analysis using a general-purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code, CFX. Complicated and vortical flow phenomena in the wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly were captured by a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow simulation using a shear stress transport turbulence model. The main purpose of the current study is to understand the three-dimensional complex flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped fuel assembly to support the license issue for the core design. Computational fluid dynamics results show good agreement with friction factor correlation models. The secondary flow in the corner and edge subchannels is much stronger than that in an interior subchannel. The axial velocity averaged in the corner and edge subchannels is higher than that averaged in the interior subchannels. Three-dimensional multiscale vortex structures start to be formed by an interaction between secondary flows around each wire-wrapped pin. Behavior of the large-scale vortex structures in the corner and edge subchannels is closely related to the relative position between the hexagonal duct wall and the helically wrapped wire spacer. The small-scale vortex is axially developed in the interior subchannels. Furthermore, a driving force on each wire spacer surface is closely related to the relative position between the hexagonal duct wall and the wire spacer.

  6. The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Scott, D.L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Westbrook, E.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

  7. Three dimensional computation of turbulent flow in meandering channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Thinh Nguyen

    2000-07-01

    In this study a finite element calculation procedure together with two-equation turbulent model k-{epsilon} and mixing length are applied to the problem of simulating 3D turbulent flow in closed and open meandering channels. Near the wall a special approach is applied in order to overcome the weakness of the standard k-{epsilon} in the viscous sub-layer. A specialized shape function is used in the special near wall elements to capture accurately the strong variations of the mean flow variables in the viscosity-affected near wall region. Based on the analogy of water and air flows, a few characteristics of hydraulic problems can be examined in aerodynamic models, respectively. To study the relationships between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model many experiments have been carried out by Federal Waterway Engineering and Research Institute of Karlsruhe, Germany. In order to test and examine the results of these physical models, an appropriated numerical model is necessary. The numerical mean will capture the limitations of the experimental setup. The similarity and the difference between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model will be found out by the results of numerical computations and will be depicted in this study. Despite the presence of similarities between the flow in closed channels and the flow in open channels, it should be stated that the presence of a free surface in the open channel introduces serious complications to three dimensional computation. A new unknown, which represents the position of nodes on this free surface, is introduced. A special approach is required for solving this unknown. A procedure surface tracking is applied to the free surface boundary like a moving boundary. Grid nodes on the free surface are free to move in such a way that they belong to the spines, which are the generator lines to define the allowed motion of the nodes on the free surface. (orig.) [German] Die numerische Simulation ist heute ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel fuer die

  8. Effects of forcing in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a numerical investigation of three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, stirred by a random forcing with a power-law spectrum, Ef(k)~k3-y. Numerical simulations are performed at different resolutions up to 5123. We show that at varying the spectrum slope y,

  9. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  10. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  11. Three-dimensional structure of the γ-secretase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Toshihiko; Mio, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Ikuo; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Rie; Kopan, Raphael; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao; Iwastubo, Takeshi; Tomita, Taisuke; Sato, Chikara

    2006-01-01

    γ-Secretase belongs to an atypical class of aspartic proteases that hydrolyzes peptide bonds within the transmembrane domain of substrates, including amyloid-β precursor protein and Notch. γ-Secretase is comprised of presenilin, nicastrin, APH-1, and PEN-2 which form a large multimeric membrane protein complex, the three-dimensional structure of which is unknown. To gain insight into the structure of this complex enzyme, we purified functional γ-secretase complex reconstituted in Sf9 cells and analyzed it using negative stain electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction techniques. Analysis of 2341 negatively stained particle images resulted in the three-dimensional representation of γ-secretase at a resolution of 48 A. The structure occupies a volume of 560 x 320 x 240 A and resembles a flat heart comprised of two oppositely faced, dimpled domains. A low density space containing multiple pores resides between the domains. Some of the dimples in the putative transmembrane region may house the catalytic site. The large dimensions are consistent with the observation that γ-secretase activity resides within a high molecular weight complex

  12. Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)

  13. Three-Dimensional Structural Aspects of Protein–Polysaccharide Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Nagae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polysaccharides are typically composed of repeating mono- or disaccharide units and are ubiquitous among living organisms. Polysaccharide diversity arises from chain-length variation, branching, and additional modifications. Structural diversity is associated with various physiological functions, which are often regulated by cognate polysaccharide-binding proteins. Proteins that interact with linear polysaccharides have been identified or developed, such as galectins and polysaccharide-specific antibodies, respectively. Currently, data is accumulating on the three-dimensional structure of polysaccharide-binding proteins. These proteins are classified into two types: exo-type and endo-type. The former group specifically interacts with the terminal units of polysaccharides, whereas the latter with internal units. In this review, we describe the structural aspects of exo-type and endo-type protein-polysaccharide interactions. Further, we discuss the structural basis for affinity and specificity enhancement in the face of inherently weak binding interactions.

  14. Three-dimensional flow measurements induced from serpentine plasma actuators in quiescent air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durscher, R J; Roy, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional flow measurements performed on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator with the electrodes in a serpentine design. Such a configuration induces a local pinching and a local spreading of the fluid as one follows along the span of the actuator. In this work two different variations on the serpentine configuration are evaluated: one constructed from patterned circular arcs and one from patterned rectangles. The influence of applied voltage is studied for the former case. To quantify these effects stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to generate time averaged, spatially resolved measurements of the detailed flow structure. The three components of the velocity vector are measured along spanwise and streamwise cuts. These slices are then reconstructed to provide a three-dimensional view of the induced flow field. The results for the induced flow fields are also compared with stereo-PIV measurements made on a standard linear DBD actuator. A truly three-dimensional induced flow field was observed as a result of the serpentine configuration. These designs could be beneficial for rapid mixing of the local fluid. (paper)

  15. Three-dimensional protein structure prediction: Methods and computational strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Márcio; E Silva, Mariel Barbachan; Buriol, Luciana S; Lamb, Luis C

    2014-10-12

    A long standing problem in structural bioinformatics is to determine the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein when only a sequence of amino acid residues is given. Many computational methodologies and algorithms have been proposed as a solution to the 3-D Protein Structure Prediction (3-D-PSP) problem. These methods can be divided in four main classes: (a) first principle methods without database information; (b) first principle methods with database information; (c) fold recognition and threading methods; and (d) comparative modeling methods and sequence alignment strategies. Deterministic computational techniques, optimization techniques, data mining and machine learning approaches are typically used in the construction of computational solutions for the PSP problem. Our main goal with this work is to review the methods and computational strategies that are currently used in 3-D protein prediction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: ryuta@tokai-u.jp [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  17. Three-dimensional micro structured nanocomposite beams by microfluidic infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, L L; Paez, O A; Therriault, D; Aïssa, B; El Khakani, M A

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro structured beams reinforced with a single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT)/polymer nanocomposite were fabricated using an approach based on the infiltration of 3D microfluidic networks. The 3D microfluidic network was first fabricated by the direct-write assembly method, which consists of the robotized deposition of fugitive ink filaments on an epoxy substrate, forming thereby a 3D micro structured scaffold. After encapsulating the 3D micro-scaffold structure with an epoxy resin, the fugitive ink was liquefied and removed, resulting in a 3D network of interconnected microchannels. This microfluidic network was then infiltrated by a polymer loaded with C-SWNTs and subsequently cured. Prior to their incorporation in the polymer matrix, the UV-laser synthesized C-SWNTs were purified, functionalized and dispersed into the matrix using a three-roll mixing mill. The final samples consist of rectangular beams having a complex 3D skeleton structure of C-SWNT/polymer nanocomposite fibers, adapted to offer better performance under flexural solicitation. Dynamic mechanical analysis in flexion showed an increase of 12.5% in the storage modulus compared to the resin infiltrated beams. The nanocomposite infiltration of microfluidic networks demonstrated here opens new prospects for the achievement of 3D reinforced micro structures

  18. Three-dimensional flow structures past a bio-prosthetic valve in an in-vitro model of the aortic root

    OpenAIRE

    Hasler, David; Obrist, Dominik

    2018-01-01

    The flow field past a prosthetic aortic valve comprises many details that indicate whether the prosthesis is functioning well or not. It is, however, not yet fully understood how an optimal flow scenario would look, i.e. which subtleties of the fluid dynamics in place are essential regarding the durability and compatibility of a prosthetic valve. In this study, we measured and analyzed the 3D flow field in the vicinity of a bio-prosthetic heart valve in function of the aortic root size. The m...

  19. Micromagnetic studies of three-dimensional pyramidal shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knittel, A; Franchin, M; Fischbacher, T; Fangohr, H; Nasirpouri, F; Bending, S J

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic numerical analysis of the magnetic properties of pyramidal-shaped core-shell structures in a size range below 400 nm. These are three-dimensional structures consisting of a ferromagnetic shell which is grown on top of a non-magnetic core. The standard micromagnetic model without the magnetocrystalline anisotropy term is used to describe the properties of the shell. We vary the thickness of the shell between the limiting cases of an ultra-thin shell and a conventional pyramid and delineate different stable magnetic configurations. We find different kinds of single-domain states, which predominantly occur at smaller system sizes. In analogy to equivalent states in thin square films we term these onion, flower, C and S states. At larger system sizes, we also observe two types of vortex states, which we refer to as symmetric and asymmetric vortex states. For a classification of the observed states, we derive a phase diagram that specifies the magnetic ground state as a function of structure size and shell thickness. The transitions between different ground states can be understood qualitatively. We address the issue of metastability by investigating the stability of all occurring configurations for different shell thicknesses. For selected geometries and directions hysteresis measurements are analysed and discussed. We observe that the magnetic behaviour changes distinctively in the limit of ultra-thin shells. The study has been motivated by the recent progress made in the growth of faceted core-shell structures.

  20. The three-dimensional structures of bacterial reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T L; Williams, J C; Allen, J P

    2014-05-01

    This review presents a broad overview of the research that enabled the structure determination of the bacterial reaction centers from Blastochloris viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, with a focus on the contributions from Duysens, Clayton, and Feher. Early experiments performed in the laboratory of Duysens and others demonstrated the utility of spectroscopic techniques and the presence of photosynthetic complexes in both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. The laboratories of Clayton and Feher led efforts to isolate and characterize the bacterial reaction centers. The availability of well-characterized preparations of pure and stable reaction centers allowed the crystallization and subsequent determination of the structures using X-ray diffraction. The three-dimensional structures of reaction centers revealed an overall arrangement of two symmetrical branches of cofactors surrounded by transmembrane helices from the L and M subunits, which also are related by the same twofold symmetry axis. The structure has served as a framework to address several issues concerning bacterial photosynthesis, including the directionality of electron transfer, the properties of the reaction center-cytochrome c 2 complex, and the coupling of proton and electron transfer. Together, these research efforts laid the foundation for ongoing efforts to address an outstanding question in oxygenic photosynthesis, namely the molecular mechanism of water oxidation.

  1. Microfabrication and Test of a Three-Dimensional Polymer Hydro-focusing Unit for Flow Cytometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ren; Feeback, Daniel L.; Wang, Wan-Jun

    2005-01-01

    This paper details a novel three-dimensional (3D) hydro-focusing micro cell sorter for micro flow cytometry applications. The unit was microfabricated by means of SU-8 3D lithography. The 3D microstructure for coaxial sheathing was designed, microfabricated, and tested. Three-dimensional hydrofocusing capability was demonstrated with an experiment to sort labeled tanned sheep erythrocytes (red blood cells). This polymer hydro-focusing microstructure is easily microfabricated and integrated with other polymer microfluidic structures. Keywords: SU-8, three-dimensional hydro-focusing, microfluidic, microchannel, cytometer

  2. Simulations of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows past a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository

    RICHTER, DAVID

    2010-03-29

    The results from a numerical investigation of inertial viscoelastic flow past a circular cylinder are presented which illustrate the significant effect that dilute concentrations of polymer additives have on complex flows. In particular, effects of polymer extensibility are studied as well as the role of viscoelasticity during three-dimensional cylinder wake transition. Simulations at two distinct Reynolds numbers (Re = 100 and Re = 300) revealed dramatic differences based on the choice of the polymer extensibility (L2 in the FENE-P model), as well as a stabilizing tendency of viscoelasticity. For the Re = 100 case, attention was focused on the effects of increasing polymer extensibility, which included a lengthening of the recirculation region immediately behind the cylinder and a sharp increase in average drag when compared to both the low extensibility and Newtonian cases. For Re = 300, a suppression of the three-dimensional Newtonian mode B instability was observed. This effect is more pronounced for higher polymer extensibilities where all three-dimensional structure is eliminated, and mechanisms for this stabilization are described in the context of roll-up instability inhibition in a viscoelastic shear layer. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were studied using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a three-dimensional computational model. The PTV technique is described in this paper and appears to be well suited for the current flow situation. The flow was helical in nature and a secondary recirculating flow was observed and well predicted by computations using the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The secondary flow was characterized by a single vortex which circulated around the axis and occupied a large fraction of the cylinder diameter. The locus of the vortex center meandered around the cylinder axis, making one complete revolution for a cylinder aspect ratio of 2. Tangential velocities from both experiments and computations were compared and found to be in good agreement. The general structure of the flow does not vary significantly as the Reynolds number is increased. However, slight changes in all components of velocity and pressure were seen as the inlet velocity is increased. By increasing the inlet aspect ratio it was observed that the vortex meandering changed significantly

  4. Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Kumar, Ranganathan [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)]. E-mail: rnkumar@mail.ucf.edu

    2007-04-15

    Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were studied using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a three-dimensional computational model. The PTV technique is described in this paper and appears to be well suited for the current flow situation. The flow was helical in nature and a secondary recirculating flow was observed and well predicted by computations using the RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The secondary flow was characterized by a single vortex which circulated around the axis and occupied a large fraction of the cylinder diameter. The locus of the vortex center meandered around the cylinder axis, making one complete revolution for a cylinder aspect ratio of 2. Tangential velocities from both experiments and computations were compared and found to be in good agreement. The general structure of the flow does not vary significantly as the Reynolds number is increased. However, slight changes in all components of velocity and pressure were seen as the inlet velocity is increased. By increasing the inlet aspect ratio it was observed that the vortex meandering changed significantly.

  5. Three-dimensional structure of interleukin 8 in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clore, G.M.; Appella, E.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Yamada, Masaki; Matsushima, Kouji

    1990-01-01

    The solution structure of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) dimer has been solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing calculations. The structure determination is based on a total of 1,880 experimental distance restraints (of which 82 are intersubunit) and 362 torsion angle restraints (comprising φ, ψ, and χ 1 torsion angles). A total of 30 simulated annealing structures were calculated, and the atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinate positions (excluding residues 1-5 of each subunit) is 0.41 ± 0.08 angstrom for the backbone atoms and 0.90 ± 0.08 angstrom for all atoms. The three-dimensional solution structure of the IL-8 dimer reveals a structural motif in which two symmetry-related antiparallel α-helices, approximately 24 angstrom long and separated by about 14 angstrom, lie on top of six-stranded antiparallel β-sheet platform derived from two three-stranded Greek keys, one from each monomer unit. The general architecture is similar to that of the α1/α2 domains of the human class I histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2. It is suggested that the two α-helices form the binding site for the cellular receptor and that the specificity of IL-8, as well as that of a number of related proteins involved in cell-specific chemotaxis, mediation of cell growth, and the inflammatory response, is achieved by the distinct distribution of charged and polar residues at the surface of the helices

  6. Three-dimensional structure of interleukin 8 in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, G M; Appella, E; Yamada, M; Matsushima, K; Gronenborn, A M

    1990-02-20

    The solution structure of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) dimer has been solved by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hybrid distance geometry-dynamical simulated annealing calculations. The structure determination is based on a total of 1880 experimental distance restraints (of which 82 are intersubunit) and 362 torsion angle restraints (comprising phi, psi, and chi 1 torsion angles). A total of 30 simulated annealing structures were calculated, and the atomic rms distribution about the mean coordinate positions (excluding residues 1-5 of each subunit) is 0.41 +/- 0.08 A for the backbone atoms and 0.90 +/- 0.08 A for all atoms. The three-dimensional solution structure of the IL-8 dimer reveals a structural motif in which two symmetry-related antiparallel alpha-helices, approximately 24 A long and separated by about 14 A, lie on top of a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet platform derived from two three-stranded Greek keys, one from each monomer unit. The general architecture is similar to that of the alpha 1/alpha 2 domains of the human class I histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2. It is suggested that the two alpha-helices form the binding site for the cellular receptor and that the specificity of IL-8, as well as that of a number of related proteins involved in cell-specific chemotaxis, mediation of cell growth, and the inflammatory response, is achieved by the distinct distribution of charged and polar residues at the surface of the helices.

  7. Three-dimensional shape perception from chromatic orientation flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Qasim; Li, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The role of chromatic information in 3-D shape perception is controversial. We resolve this controversy by showing that chromatic orientation flows are sufficient for accurate perception of 3-D shape. Chromatic flows required less cone contrast to convey shape than did achromatic flows, thus ruling out luminance artifacts as a problem. Luminance artifacts were also ruled out by a protanope’s inability to see 3-D shape from chromatic flows. Since chromatic orientation flows can only be extracted from retinal images by neurons that are responsive to color modulations and selective for orientation, the psychophysical results also resolve the controversy over the existence of such neurons. In addition, we show that identification of 3-D shapes from chromatic flows can be masked by luminance modulations, indicating that it is subserved by orientation-tuned neurons sensitive to both chromatic and luminance modulations. PMID:16961963

  8. Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-11-01

    The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. A recent in-vitro investigation of a model polyp in a driven vocal fold apparatus demonstrated that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior and that this flow field adjustment was a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients. Understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, and their subsequent impact on the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold dynamic, is a critical component in advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp. Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  9. Three-Dimensional parton structure of light nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopetta, Sergio; Del Dotto, Alessio; Kaptari, Leonid; Pace, Emanuele; Rinaldi, Matteo; Salmè, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Two promising directions beyond inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiments, aimed at unveiling the three dimensional structure of the bound nucleon, are reviewed, considering in particular the 3He nuclear target. The 3D structure in coordinate space can be accessed through deep exclusive processes, whose non-perturbative part is encoded in generalized parton distributions. In this way, the distribution of partons in the transverse plane can be obtained. As an example of a deep exclusive process, coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering off 3He nuclei, important to access the neutron generalized parton distributions (GPDs), will be discussed. In Impulse Approximation (IA), the sum of the two leading twist, quark helicity conserving GPDs of 3He, H and E, at low momentum transfer, turns out to be dominated by the neutron contribution. Besides, a technique, able to take into account the nuclear effects included in the Impulse Approximation analysis, has been developed. The spin dependent GPD \\tilde H of 3He is also found to be largely dominated, at low momentum transfer, by the neutron contribution. The knowledge of the GPDs H,E and \\tilde H of 3He is relevant for the planning of coherent DVCS off 3He measurements. Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes access the momentum space 3D structure parameterized through transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. A distorted spin-dependent spectral function has been recently introduced for 3He, in a non-relativistic framework, to take care of the final state interaction between the observed pion and the remnant in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off transversely polarized 3He. The calculation of the Sivers and Collins single spin asymmetries for 3He, and a straightforward procedure to effectively take into account nuclear dynamics and final state interactions, will be reviewed. The Light-front dynamics generalization of the analysis is also addressed.

  10. Three-dimensional study of flow past a square cylinder at low Reynolds numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.K.; Biswas, G.; Muralidhar, K.

    2003-01-01

    The spatial evolution of vortices and transition to three-dimensionality in the wake of a square cylinder have been numerically studied. A Reynolds number range between 150 and 500 has been considered. Starting from the two-dimensional Karman vortex street, the transition to three-dimensionality is found to take place at a Reynolds number between 150 and 175. The three-dimensional wake of the square cylinder has been characterized using indicators appropriate for the wake of a bluff body as described by the earlier workers. In these terms, the secondary vortices of Mode-A are seen to persist over the Reynolds number range of 175-240. At about a Reynolds number of 250, Mode-B secondary vortices are present, these having predominantly small-scale structures. The transitional flow around a square cylinder exhibits an intermittent low frequency modulation due to the formation of a large-scale irregularity in the near-wake, called vortex dislocation. The superposition of vortex dislocation and the Mode-A vortices leads to a new pattern, labelled as Mode-A with dislocations. The results for the square cylinder are in good accordance with the three-dimensional modes of transition that are well-known in the circular cylinder wake. In the case of a circular cylinder, the transition from periodic vortex shedding to Mode-A is characterized by a discontinuity in the Strouhal number-Reynolds number relationship at about a Reynolds of 190. The transition from Mode-A to Mode-B is characterized by a second discontinuity in the frequency law at a Reynolds number of ∼250. The numerical computations of the present study with a square cylinder show that the values of the Strouhal number and the time-averaged drag-coefficient are closely associated with each other over the range of Reynolds numbers of interest and reflect the spatial structure of the wake

  11. Sub critical transition to turbulence in three-dimensional Kolmogorov flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veen, Lennaert van [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, L1H 7K4 Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Goto, Susumu, E-mail: lennaert.vanveen@uoit.ca [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University 1–3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 Japan (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    We study Kolmogorov flow on a three dimensional, periodic domain with aspect ratios fixed to unity. Using an energy method, we give a concise proof of the linear stability of the laminar flow profile. Since turbulent motion is observed for high enough Reynolds numbers, we expect the domain of attraction of the laminar flow to be bounded by the stable manifolds of simple invariant solutions. We show one such edge state to be an equilibrium with a spatial structure reminiscent of that found in plane Couette flow, with streamwise rolls on the largest spatial scales. When tracking the edge state, we find two branches of solutions that join in a saddle node bifurcation at a finite Reynolds number. (paper)

  12. Catalytic Mechanism and Three-Dimensional Structure of Adenine Deaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Kamat; A Bagaria; D Kumaran; G Holmes-Hampton; H Fan; A Sali; J Sauder; S Burley; P Lindahl; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (k{sub cat} = 2.0 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 2.5 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} values of 200 s{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The apoenzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, or Mn{sup 2+}. In each case, two enzyme equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member of the deaminase subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE was oxidized to [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity, and thus, the diferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence of spin coupling between metal ions was evident by electron paramagnetic resonance or Moessbauer spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, and adenine was modeled into the active site on the basis of homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. On the basis of the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH-rate profiles, and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction

  13. Catalytic Mechanism and Three-Dimensional Structure of Adenine Deaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, S.S.; Swaminathan, S.; Bagaria, A.; Kumaran, D.; Holmes-Hampton, G. P.; Fan, H.; Sali, A.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Lindahl, P. A.; Raushel, F. M.

    2011-03-22

    Adenine deaminase (ADE) catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. The enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli using standard expression conditions was low for the deamination of adenine (k{sub cat} = 2.0 s{sup -1}; k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 2.5 x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). However, when iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium was supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} prior to induction, the purified enzyme was substantially more active for the deamination of adenine with kcat and kcat/Km values of 200 s{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The apoenzyme was prepared and reconstituted with Fe{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, or Mn{sup 2+}. In each case, two enzyme equivalents of metal were necessary for reconstitution of the deaminase activity. This work provides the first example of any member of the deaminase subfamily of the amidohydrolase superfamily to utilize a binuclear metal center for the catalysis of a deamination reaction. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE was oxidized to [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with ferricyanide with inactivation of the deaminase activity. Reducing [Fe{sup III}/Fe{sup III}]-ADE with dithionite restored the deaminase activity, and thus, the diferrous form of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. No evidence of spin coupling between metal ions was evident by electron paramagnetic resonance or Moessbauer spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure of adenine deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Atu4426) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, and adenine was modeled into the active site on the basis of homology to other members of the amidohydrolase superfamily. On the basis of the model of the adenine-ADE complex and subsequent mutagenesis experiments, the roles for each of the highly conserved residues were proposed. Solvent isotope effects, pH-rate profiles, and solvent viscosity were utilized to propose a chemical reaction mechanism and the

  14. The Three Dimensional Flow Field at the Exit of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Ristic, D.; Chu, S.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive investigation was performed to provide detailed data on the three dimensional viscous flow phenomena downstream of a modem turbine rotor and to understand the flow physics such as origin, nature, development of wakes, secondary flow, and leakage flow. The experiment was carried out in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) at Penn State, with velocity measurements taken with a 3-D LDV System. Two radial traverses at 1% and 10% of chord downstream of the rotor have been performed to identify the three-dimensional flow features at the exit of the rotor blade row. Sufficient spatial resolution was maintained to resolve blade wake, secondary flow, and tip leakage flow. The wake deficit is found to be substantial, especially at 1% of chord downstream of the rotor. At this location, negative axial velocity occurs near the tip, suggesting flow separation in the tip clearance region. Turbulence intensities peak in the wake region, and cross- correlations are mainly associated with the velocity gradient of the wake deficit. The radial velocities, both in the wake and in the endwall region, are found to be substantial. Two counter-rotating secondary flows are identified in the blade passage, with one occupying the half span close to the casino and the other occupying the half span close to the hub. The tip leakage flow is well restricted to 10% immersion from the blade tip. There are strong vorticity distributions associated with these secondary flows and tip leakage flow. The passage averaged data are in good agreement with design values.

  15. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the inner Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated using the red clump (RC) stars and the RR Lyrae stars (RRLS), which represent the intermediate-age and the old stellar populations of a galaxy. The V- and I-band photometric data from the OGLE III catalog are used for our study. The mean dereddened I 0 magnitude of the RC stars and the RRLS are used to study the relative positions of the different regions in the SMC with respect to the mean SMC distance. This shows that the northeastern part of the SMC is closer to us. The line-of-sight depth (front to back distance) across the SMC is estimated using the dispersion in the I 0 magnitudes of both the RC stars and the RRLS and found to be large (∼14 kpc) for both populations. The similarity in their depth distribution suggests that both of these populations occupy a similar volume of the SMC. The surface density distribution and the radial density profile of the RC stars suggest that they are more likely to be distributed in a nearly spheroidal system. The tidal radius estimated for the SMC system is ∼7-12 kpc. An elongation along the NE-SW direction is seen in the surface density map of the RC stars. The surface density distribution of the RRLS in the SMC is nearly circular. Based on all of the above results the observed structure of the SMC, in which both the RC stars and RRLS are distributed, is approximated as a triaxial ellipsoid. The parameters of the ellipsoid are obtained using the inertia tensor analysis. We estimated the axes ratio, inclination of the longest axis with the line of sight (i), and the position angle (φ) of the longest axis of the ellipsoid on the sky from the analysis of the RRLS. The analysis of the RC stars with the assumption that they are extended up to a depth of 3.5 times the sigma (width of dereddened I 0 magnitude distribution, corrected for intrinsic spread and observational errors) was also found to give similar axes ratio and orientation

  16. The Three-dimensional Structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the inner Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated using the red clump (RC) stars and the RR Lyrae stars (RRLS), which represent the intermediate-age and the old stellar populations of a galaxy. The V- and I-band photometric data from the OGLE III catalog are used for our study. The mean dereddened I 0 magnitude of the RC stars and the RRLS are used to study the relative positions of the different regions in the SMC with respect to the mean SMC distance. This shows that the northeastern part of the SMC is closer to us. The line-of-sight depth (front to back distance) across the SMC is estimated using the dispersion in the I 0 magnitudes of both the RC stars and the RRLS and found to be large (~14 kpc) for both populations. The similarity in their depth distribution suggests that both of these populations occupy a similar volume of the SMC. The surface density distribution and the radial density profile of the RC stars suggest that they are more likely to be distributed in a nearly spheroidal system. The tidal radius estimated for the SMC system is ~7-12 kpc. An elongation along the NE-SW direction is seen in the surface density map of the RC stars. The surface density distribution of the RRLS in the SMC is nearly circular. Based on all of the above results the observed structure of the SMC, in which both the RC stars and RRLS are distributed, is approximated as a triaxial ellipsoid. The parameters of the ellipsoid are obtained using the inertia tensor analysis. We estimated the axes ratio, inclination of the longest axis with the line of sight (i), and the position angle (phi) of the longest axis of the ellipsoid on the sky from the analysis of the RRLS. The analysis of the RC stars with the assumption that they are extended up to a depth of 3.5 times the sigma (width of dereddened I 0 magnitude distribution, corrected for intrinsic spread and observational errors) was also found to give similar axes ratio and orientation

  17. Numerical study on the three-dimensional scroll volute flow of centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hwang; Chang, Keun Shik; Yoon, Ju Sig; Park, Ki Cheol

    2005-01-01

    Three dimensional turbulent flow in the scroll volute of centrifugal compressor has been numerically investigated in this paper by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and k -ε equation model. The computational grid for the flow field of the scroll volute has been constructed based on the multi-block grid, which is good to avoid the central grid singularity as well as to make grid stretching toward the volute wall. Numerical result has been obtained for the three-dimensional flow of scroll volute. The straight conical volute flow is also solved and compared with the scroll volute data. This comparison contributed to comprehend the effect of scroll in the three-dimensional volute flow of a centrifugal compressor

  18. Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of flapping wings in hovering flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Roll, Jesse; Liu, Yun; Troolin, Daniel R; Deng, Xinyan

    2014-02-06

    Flapping wings continuously create and send vortices into their wake, while imparting downward momentum into the surrounding fluid. However, experimental studies concerning the details of the three-dimensional vorticity distribution and evolution in the far wake are limited. In this study, the three-dimensional vortex wake structure in both the near and far field of a dynamically scaled flapping wing was investigated experimentally, using volumetric three-component velocimetry. A single wing, with shape and kinematics similar to those of a fruitfly, was examined. The overall result of the wing action is to create an integrated vortex structure consisting of a tip vortex (TV), trailing-edge shear layer (TESL) and leading-edge vortex. The TESL rolls up into a root vortex (RV) as it is shed from the wing, and together with the TV, contracts radially and stretches tangentially in the downstream wake. The downwash is distributed in an arc-shaped region enclosed by the stretched tangential vorticity of the TVs and the RVs. A closed vortex ring structure is not observed in the current study owing to the lack of well-established starting and stopping vortex structures that smoothly connect the TV and RV. An evaluation of the vorticity transport equation shows that both the TV and the RV undergo vortex stretching while convecting downwards: a three-dimensional phenomenon in rotating flows. It also confirms that convection and secondary tilting and stretching effects dominate the evolution of vorticity.

  19. Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases.   This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice.   The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...

  20. Three-dimensional nonlinear ideal MHD equilibria with field-aligned incompressible and compressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.

  1. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu, E-mail: omata@nakl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sirayama@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)

  2. Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)

  3. Manufacturing of Three-dimensional Micro Structure Using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suonggyu; Kwon, Wontae [Seoul University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The diameter of a proton beam emanating from the MC-50 cyclotron is about 2?3 mm with Gaussian distribution. This widely irradiated proton beam is not suitable for semiconductor etching, precise positioning, and micromachining, which require a small spot. In this study, a beam cutting method using a microhole is proposed as an economical alternative. We produced a microhole with aspect ratio, average diameter, and thickness of 428, 21 μm, and 9 mm, respectively, for cutting the proton beam. By using this high-aspect-ratio microhole, we conducted machinability tests on microstructures with sizes of tens of μm. Additionally, the results of simulation using GEANT4 and those of the actual experiment were compared and analyzed. The outcome confirmed the possibility of implementing a micro process technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures of 20 micron units using the MC-50 cyclotron with the microhole.

  4. Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On

  5. Gyrotactic suppression and emergence of chaotic trajectories of swimming particles in three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, S. I. Heath; Baggaley, A. W.; Hill, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of imposed three-dimensional flows on the trajectories and mixing of gyrotactic swimming microorganisms and identify phenomena not seen in flows restricted to two dimensions. Through numerical simulation of Taylor-Green and Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows, we explore the role that the flow and the cell shape play in determining the long-term configuration of the cells' trajectories, which often take the form of multiple sinuous and helical "plumelike" structures, even in the chaotic ABC flow. This gyrotactic suppression of Lagrangian chaos persists even in the presence of random noise. Analytical solutions for a number of cases reveal the how plumes form and the nature of the competition between torques acting on individual cells. Furthermore, studies of Lyapunov exponents reveal that, as the ratio of cell swimming speed relative to the flow speed increases from zero, the initial chaotic trajectories are first suppressed and then give way to a second unexpected window of chaotic trajectories at speeds greater than unity, before suppression of chaos at high relative swimming speeds.

  6. An analytic, approximate method for modeling steady, three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2001-05-01

    An analytic, approximate solution is derived for the modeling of three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells. The solution is written in terms of a correction on the solution for a fully penetrating well and is obtained by dividing the aquifer up, locally, in a number of aquifer layers. The resulting system of differential equations is solved by application of the theory for multiaquifer flow. The presented approach has three major benefits. First, the solution may be applied to any groundwater model that can simulate flow to a fully penetrating well; the solution may be superimposed onto the solution for the fully penetrating well to simulate the local three-dimensional drawdown and flow field. Second, the approach is applicable to isotropic, anisotropic, and stratified aquifers and to both confined and unconfined flow. Third, the solution extends over a small area around the well only; outside this area the three-dimensional effect of the partially penetrating well is negligible, and no correction to the fully penetrating well is needed. A number of comparisons are made to existing three-dimensional, analytic solutions, including radial confined and unconfined flow and a well in a uniform flow field. It is shown that a subdivision in three layers is accurate for many practical cases; very accurate solutions are obtained with more layers.

  7. The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.

  8. Three-dimensional measurement and visualization of internal flow of a moving droplet using confocal micro-PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Haruyuki; Kaneda, Shohei; Fujii, Teruo; Oshima, Marie

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a micro-flow diagnostic technique, 'high-speed confocal micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV)', and its application to the internal flow measurement of a droplet passing through a microchannel. A confocal micro-PIV system has been successfully constructed wherein a high-speed confocal scanner is combined with the conventional micro-PIV technique. The confocal micro-PIV system enables us to obtain a sequence of sharp and high-contrast cross-sectional particle images at 2000 frames s(-1). This study investigates the confocal depth, which is a significant parameter to determine the out-of-plane measurement resolution in confocal micro-PIV. Using the present confocal micro-PIV system, we can measure velocity distributions of micro-flows in a 228 microm x 171 microm region with a confocal depth of 1.88 microm. We also propose a three-dimensional velocity measurement method based on the confocal micro-PIV and the equation of continuity. This method enables us to measure three velocity components in a three-dimensional domain of micro flows. The confocal micro-PIV system is applied to the internal flow measurement of a droplet. We have measured three-dimensional distributions of three-component velocities of a droplet traveling in a 100 microm (width) x 58 microm (depth) channel. A volumetric velocity distribution inside a droplet is obtained by the confocal micro-PIV and the three-dimensional flow structure inside the droplet is investigated. The measurement results suggest that a three-dimensional and complex circulating flow is formed inside the droplet.

  9. Three-dimensional flow field measurements in a radial inflow turbine scroll using LDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, M. F.; Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the three-dimensional flow field in a radial inflow turbine scroll are presented. A two-color LDV system was used in the measurement of three orthogonal velocity components at 758 points located throughout the scroll and the unvaned portion of the nozzle. The cold flow experimental results are presented for through-flow velocity contours and the cross velocity vectors.

  10. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of LOX/Kerosene Engine Exhaust Plume Flow Field Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at calculating and studying the flow field characteristics of engine exhaust plume and comparative analyzing the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on the engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics, a method considering fully the combustion state influence is put forward, which is applied to exhaust plume flow field calculation of multinozzle engine. On this basis, a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on LOX/kerosene engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics was carried out. It is found that multistep chemical reaction can accurately describe the combustion process in the LOX/kerosene engine, the average chamber pressure from the calculation is 4.63% greater than that of the test, and the average chamber temperature from the calculation is 3.34% greater than that from the thermodynamic calculation. The exhaust plumes of single nozzle and double nozzle calculated using the global chemical reaction are longer than those using the multistep chemical reaction; the highest temperature and the highest velocity on the plume axis calculated using the former are greater than that using the latter. The important influence of chemical reaction mechanism must be considered in the study of the fixing structure of double nozzle engine on the rocket body.

  11. The Chimera Method of Simulation for Unsteady Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chimera overset grid method is reviewed and discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is discussed. A variety of recent applications of the method is presented. Current limitations of the approach are defined.

  12. Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow instabilities in a rotating lid-driven cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2006-01-01

    liquid. For the first time the onset of three-dimensionality and transition are analysed by combining the high spatial resolution of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and the temporal accuracy of Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). A detailed mapping of the transition from steady and axisymmetric flow...

  13. Transient simulation of hydropower station with consideration of three-dimensional unsteady flow in turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W D; Fan, H G; Chen, N X

    2012-01-01

    To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.

  14. Transient simulation of hydropower station with consideration of three-dimensional unsteady flow in turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. D.; Fan, H. G.; Chen, N. X.

    2012-11-01

    To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.

  15. On a modified form of navier-stokes equations for three-dimensional flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, J

    2015-01-01

    A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  17. Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Minoru, E-mail: okamoto@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki, E-mail: maruyama.toshiki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yabana, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yabana@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Center of Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka, E-mail: tatsumi@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-07-09

    We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.

  18. Identifying three-dimensional nested groundwater flow systems in a Tóthian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Junzhi; Ji, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Nested groundwater flow systems have been revealed in Tóth's theory as the structural property of basin-scale groundwater circulation but were only well known with two-dimensional (2D) profile models. The method of searching special streamlines across stagnation points for partitioning flow systems, which has been successfully applied in the 2D models, has never been implemented for three-dimensional (3D) Tóthian basins because of the difficulty in solving the dual stream functions. Alternatively, a new method is developed to investigate 3D nested groundwater flow systems without determination of stagnation points. Connective indices are defined to quantify the connection between individual recharge and discharge zones along streamlines. Groundwater circulation cells (GWCCs) are identified according to the distribution of the connective indices and then grouped into local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This method requires existing solution of the flow velocity vector and is implemented via particle tracking technique. It is applied in a hypothetical 3D Tóthian basin with an analytical solution of the flow field and in a real-world basin with a numerical modeling approach. Different spatial patterns of flow systems compared to 2D profile models are found. The outcrops boundaries of GWCCs on water table may significantly deviate from and are not parallel to the nearby water table divides. Topological network is proposed to represent the linked recharge-discharge zones through closed and open GWCCs. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the development of GWCCs depends on the basin geometry, hydraulic parameters and water table shape.

  19. A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method for the solution of three-dimensional vortical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Helene Marie

    1992-01-01

    A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of three-dimensional rotational flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A Lagrangian particle tracking method using particle markers is added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure and provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solutions is used to integrate the Lagrangian state-vector along the particles trajectories. The Lagrangian correction technique does not require any a-priori information on the structure or position of the vortical regions. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers, used as 'accuracy boosters,' take advantage of the accurate convection description of the Lagrangian solution and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of standard Eulerian finite-volume methods. The combined solution procedures is tested in several applications. The convection of a Lamb vortex in a straight channel is used as an unsteady compressible flow preservation test case. The other test cases concern steady incompressible flow calculations and include the preservation of turbulent inlet velocity profile, the swirling flow in a pipe, and the constant stagnation pressure flow and secondary flow calculations in bends. The last application deals with the external flow past a wing with emphasis on the trailing vortex solution. The improvement due to the addition of the Lagrangian correction technique is measured by comparison with analytical solutions when available or with Eulerian solutions on finer grids. The use of the combined Eulerian/Lagrangian scheme results in substantially lower grid resolution requirements than the standard Eulerian scheme for a given solution accuracy.

  20. Investigation of secondary flows in turbulent pipe flows with three-dimensional sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leon; MacDonald, Michael; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The occurrence of secondary flows is systematically investigated via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flow in a rough wall pipe at friction Reynolds numbers of 540. In this study, the peak-to-trough height of the roughness elements, which consist of three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness, is fixed at 120 viscous units while the wavelength of the roughness elements is varied. The solidity or effective slope (ES) of the roughness ranges from the sparse regime (ES = 0.18) to the closely packed roughness/dense regime (ES = 0.72). The time-independent dispersive stresses, which arise due to the stationary features of the flow, are analysed and are found to increase with increasing roughness wavelength. These dispersive stresses are related to the occurrence of secondary flows and are maximum within the roughness canopy. Above the crest of the roughness elements, the dispersive stresses reduce to zero at wall-normal heights greater than half of the roughness wavelength. This study has found that the size and wall-normal extent of the secondary flows scales with the roughness wavelength and can reach wall-normal heights of almost half of the pipe radius.

  1. Three-dimensional flow in electromagnetically driven shallow two-layer fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, R.A.D.; Kamp, L.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments on a freely evolving dipolar vortex in a homogeneous shallow fluid layer have clearly shown the existence and evolution of complex three-dimensional 3D flow structures. The present contribution focuses on the 3D structures of a dipolar vortex evolving in a stable shallow two-layer

  2. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A

    1999-08-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of

  3. Methods and devices for fabricating three-dimensional nanoscale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jangung

    2010-04-27

    The present invention provides methods and devices for fabricating 3D structures and patterns of 3D structures on substrate surfaces, including symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns of 3D structures. Methods of the present invention provide a means of fabricating 3D structures having accurately selected physical dimensions, including lateral and vertical dimensions ranging from 10s of nanometers to 1000s of nanometers. In one aspect, methods are provided using a mask element comprising a conformable, elastomeric phase mask capable of establishing conformal contact with a radiation sensitive material undergoing photoprocessing. In another aspect, the temporal and/or spatial coherence of electromagnetic radiation using for photoprocessing is selected to fabricate complex structures having nanoscale features that do not extend entirely through the thickness of the structure fabricated.

  4. Automated and fast building of three-dimensional RNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunjie; Huang, Yangyu; Gong, Zhou; Wang, Yanjie; Man, Jianfen; Xiao, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Building tertiary structures of non-coding RNA is required to understand their functions and design new molecules. Current algorithms of RNA tertiary structure prediction give satisfactory accuracy only for small size and simple topology and many of them need manual manipulation. Here, we present an automated and fast program, 3dRNA, for RNA tertiary structure prediction with reasonable accuracy for RNAs of larger size and complex topology.

  5. A method for fabricating a three-dimensional carbon structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    by the packing density of the packed natural protein containing fibre structure (3) is obtained. The carbon structure (4) is well suited for use as a scaffold for tissue engineering, or for material for batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sorbents for separation processes, gas storage, supports for many...

  6. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  7. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  8. A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.

  9. Subsonic flow past three-dimensional localised heating elements in boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljohani, A F [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Gajjar, J S B, E-mail: j.gajjar@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    The problem of subsonic flow past three-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical-type (MEMS-type) heating elements placed on a flat surface, where the MEMS devices have hump-shaped surfaces, is investigated using the triple-deck theory. The compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by the energy equation are considered in the limit when the Reynolds number is large. The dimensions of the MEMS devices considered are such that the flow perturbations are governed by the three-dimensional subsonic triple-deck equations formulated with the aid of method of matched expansions. The linear analysis of these equations is presented and our results provide an insight into how the MEMS heating elements may be used to positively control the local flow properties. (paper)

  10. Impact of magnetic field in three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid with convective condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid bounded by a surface stretched bidirectionally. Nanofluid model includes the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Heat transfer through convective condition is discussed. Developed condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the surface is implemented. The governing problems subject to boundary layer approximations are computed for the convergent series solutions. Effects of interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid is modeled. • Uniform applied magnetic field is adopted. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted. • Heat transfer convective condition is utilized. • Recently constructed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is implemented.

  11. Thermally radiative three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with internal heat generation and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-01

    This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.

  12. Evaluation of Three Dimensional Underground Structure at SAFOD Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the SAFOD project, the imaging of the fault zone was implemented using data acquired by a pilot hole array of a vertical depth of 2 km and then a main hole was drilled using these data. The trajectory of the main hole below vertical depth of 1.5 km was angled toward/through the fault zone up to a vertical depth of 3 km. An sensor array was located in the hole. As a result, the hypocenter locations of small earthquakes within the fault zone were determined with high accuracy (location error within 10 meters) and the location of the fault zone was able to be identified with high accuracy. Using this data, high resolution underground structure around the San Andreas fault zone was obtained. It was reported that this underground structure revealed the deep structure of the San Andreas Fault at the Parkfield site as well as the branch fault. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional hierarchical structures for fog harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, H G; Eccles, E A; Schofield, W C E; Badyal, J P S

    2011-04-05

    Conventional fog-harvesting mechanisms are effectively pseudo-2D surface phenomena in terms of water droplet-plant interactions. In the case of the Cotula fallax plant, a unique hierarchical 3D arrangement formed by its leaves and the fine hairs covering them has been found to underpin the collection and retention of water droplets on the foliage for extended periods of time. The mechanisms of water capture and release as a function of the surface 3D structure and chemistry have been identified. Of particular note is that water is retained throughout the entirety of the plant and held within the foliage itself (rather than in localized regions). Individual plant hairs form matlike structures capable of supporting water droplets; these hairs wrap around water droplets in a 3D fashion to secure them via a fine nanoscale groove structure that prevents them from easily falling to the ground.

  14. WHAMSE: a program for three-dimensional nonlinear structural dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belytschko, T.; Tsay, C.S.

    1982-02-01

    WHAMSE is a computer program for the nonlinear, transient analysis of structures. The formulation includes both geometric and material nonlinearities, so problems with large displacements and elastic-plastic behavior can be treated. Explicit time integration is used, so the program is most suitable for implusive loads. Energy balance calculations are provided to check numerical stability. The mass matrix is lumped. A finite element format is used for the description of the problem geometry, so the program is quite versatile in treating complex engineering structures. The following elements are included: a triangular element for thin plates and shells, a beam element, a spring element and a rigid body. Mesh generation features are provided to simplify program input. Other features of the program are: (1) a restart capability; (2) a variety of output options, such as printer plots or CALCOMP plots of selected time histories, picture (snapshot) output, and CALCOMP plots of the undeformed and deformed structure

  15. Guide to Three Dimensional Structure and Motion Factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guanghui

    2011-01-01

    The problem of structure and motion recovery from image sequences is an important theme in computer vision. Considerable progress has been made in this field during the past two decades, resulting in successful applications in robot navigation, augmented reality, industrial inspection, medical image analysis, and digital entertainment, among other areas. However, many of these methods work only for rigid objects and static scenes. The study of non-rigid structure from motion is not only of academic significance, but also has important practical applications in real-world, nonrigid or dynamic s

  16. Structurally Efficient Three-dimensional Metamaterials with Controllable Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Pasini, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of architected materials, as opposed to that of conventional solids, can be tuned to zero by intentionally altering the geometry of their structural layout. Existing material architectures, however, achieve CTE tunability only with a sacrifice in structural efficiency, i.e. a drop in both their stiffness to mass ratio and strength to mass ratio. In this work, we elucidate how to resolve the trade-off between CTE tunability and structural efficiency and present a lightweight bi-material architecture that not only is stiffer and stronger than other 3D architected materials, but also has a highly tunable CTE. Via a combination of physical experiments on 3D fabricated prototypes and numeric simulations, we demonstrate how two distinct mechanisms of thermal expansion appearing in a tetrahedron, can be exploited in an Octet lattice to generate a large range of CTE values, including negative, zero, or positive, with no loss in structural efficiency. The novelty and simplicity of the proposed design as well as the ease in fabrication, make this bi-material architecture well-suited for a wide range of applications, including satellite antennas, space optical systems, precision instruments, thermal actuators, and MEMS. PMID:27721437

  17. User's guide to HEATRAN: a computer program for three-dimensional transient fluid-flow and heat-transfer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Cheng, S.K.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides the HEATRAN user with programming and input information. HEATRAN is a computer program which is written to analyze the transient three dimensional single phase incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer problem. In this report, the programming information is given first. This information includes details concerning the code and structure. The description of the required input variables is presented next. Following the input description, the sample problems are described and HEATRAN's results are presented

  18. Three-dimensional structure of Rubella virus factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Juan; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Tzeng, Wen-Ping; Frey, Teryl K.; Fernandez, Jose J.; Risco, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Viral factories are complex structures in the infected cell where viruses compartmentalize their life cycle. Rubella virus (RUBV) assembles factories by recruitment of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), mitochondria and Golgi around modified lysosomes known as cytopathic vacuoles or CPVs. These organelles contain active replication complexes that transfer replicated RNA to assembly sites in Golgi membranes. We have studied the structure of RUBV factory in three dimensions by electron tomography and freeze-fracture. CPVs contain stacked membranes, rigid sheets, small vesicles and large vacuoles. These membranes are interconnected and in communication with the endocytic pathway since they incorporate endocytosed BSA-gold. RER and CPVs are coupled through protein bridges and closely apposed membranes. Golgi vesicles attach to the CPVs but no tight contacts with mitochondria were detected. Immunogold labelling confirmed that the mitochondrial protein p32 is an abundant component around and inside CPVs where it could play important roles in factory activities.

  19. Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal...... formalism, we apply it to study the local steady-state photon numbers and field temperatures in a light-emitting near-surface InGaN quantum-well structure with a metallic coating supporting surface plasmons....

  20. MMIC Structures Based on A Three-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Makri

    2002-01-01

    current distribution is also being taken into account in terms of incident, reflected and transferred waves. The derived matrix is being inverted and the obtained results are the unknown coefficients of the plane waves inside the ‘cells’ and also the reflection R and transfer T coefficients. The derived numerical results concern linear cases, while the examination of non-linear structures have been taken into account in the analytical formulation.

  1. Three dimensional analysis of coelacanth body structure by computer graphics and X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Naoki; Hamada, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    Three dimensional imaging processes were applied for the structural and functional analyses of the modern coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae). Visualization of the obtained images is performed with computer graphics on the basis of serial images by an X-ray CT scanning method. Reconstruction of three dimensional images of the body structure of coelacanth using the volume rendering and surface rendering methods provides us various information about external and internal shapes of this exquisite fish. (author)

  2. Three-Dimensional Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Cytosine Deaminase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Hall; A Fedorov; C Xu; E Fedorov; S Almo; F Raushel

    2011-12-31

    Cytosine deaminase (CDA) from E. coli is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily. The structure of the zinc-activated enzyme was determined in the presence of phosphonocytosine, a mimic of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. This compound inhibits the deamination of cytosine with a K{sub i} of 52 nM. The zinc- and iron-containing enzymes were characterized to determine the effect of the divalent cations on activation of the hydrolytic water. Fe-CDA loses activity at low pH with a kinetic pKa of 6.0, and Zn-CDA has a kinetic pKa of 7.3. Mutation of Gln-156 decreased the catalytic activity by more than 5 orders of magnitude, supporting its role in substrate binding. Mutation of Glu-217, Asp-313, and His-246 significantly decreased catalytic activity supporting the role of these three residues in activation of the hydrolytic water molecule and facilitation of proton transfer reactions. A library of potential substrates was used to probe the structural determinants responsible for catalytic activity. CDA was able to catalyze the deamination of isocytosine and the hydrolysis of 3-oxauracil. Large inverse solvent isotope effects were obtained on k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, consistent with the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond during the conversion of cytosine to uracil. A chemical mechanism for substrate deamination by CDA was proposed.

  3. Size-sensitive particle trajectories in three-dimensional micro-bubble acoustic streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Kähler, Christian; Marin, Alvaro

    2015-11-01

    Oscillating microbubbles generate steady streaming flows with interesting features and promising applications for microparticle manipulation. The flow around oscillating semi-cylindrical bubbles has been typically assumed to be independent of the axial coordinate. However, it has been recently revealed that particle motion is strongly three-dimensional: Small tracer particles follow vortical trajectories with pronounced axial displacements near the bubble, weaving a toroidal stream-surface. A well-known consequence of bubble streaming flows is size-dependent particle migration, which can be exploited for sorting and trapping of microparticles in microfluidic devices. In this talk, we will show how the three-dimensional toroidal topology found for small tracer particles is modified as the particle size increases up to 1/3 of the bubble radius. Our results show size-sensitive particle positioning along the axis of the semi-cylindrical bubble. In order to analyze the three-dimensional sorting and trapping capabilities of the system, experiments with an imposed flow and polydisperse particle solutions are also shown.

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DATA AND THE RECORDING OF MATERIAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Parenti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The “description” of a material structure requires a high degree of objectivity to serve the scientific interests of certain disciplines (archeological documentation, conservation and restoration, safeguarding of cultural assets and heritage. Geometric data and photographic documentation of surfaces are thus the best instruments for efficacious, clear and objective recording of architectural objects and other anthropic manifestations. In particular, the completeness and diachrony of photographic documentation has always proven essential in recording the material structure of historical buildings.The aim of our contribution is to show the results of several projects carried out with the aid of survey methodologies that utilize digital photographic images to generate RGB (ZScan point clouds of architectural monuments (urban standing buildings, monuments in archaeological areas, etc. and art objects. These technologies allow us to capture data using digital photogrammetric techniques; although not based on laser scanners, they can nonetheless create dense 3D point clouds, simply by using images that have been obtained via digital camera. The results are comparable to those achieved with laser scanner technology, although the procedures are simpler, faster and cheaper. We intend to try to adapt these technologies to the requirements and needs of scientific research and the conservation of cultural heritage. Furthermore, we will present protocols and procedures for data recording, processing and transfer in the cultural heritage field, especially with regard to historical buildings. Cooperation among experts from different disciplines (archaeology, engineering and photogrammetry will allow us to develop technologies and proposals for a widely adoptable workflow in the application of such technologies, in order to build an integrated system that can be used throughout the scientific community. Toward this end, open formats and integration will be

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of flow, salinity, sediment, and radionuclide movements in the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1985-04-01

    The three-dimensional, finite difference model, FLESCOT simulates time-varying movements of flow, turbulent kinetic energy, salinity, water temperature, sediment, and contaminants in estuarine, coastal, and ocean waters. The model was applied to a 106-km (66-mi) reach of the Hudson River estuary in New York between Chelsea and the mouth of the river. It predicted the time-varying, three-dimensional distributions of tidal flow, salinity, three separate groups of sediments (i.e., sand, silt, and clay), and a radionuclide ( 137 Cs) in both dissolved and particulate (those sorbed by sediments) forms for over 40 days. The model also calculated riverbed elevation changes caused by sediment deposition and bed erosion, bed sediment size distribution and armoring, and distributions of the particulate 137 Cs sorbed by sand, silt, and clay in the bed

  6. PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL STOKES FLOW SIMULATION USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Pribytok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel computing technique for modeling three-dimensional viscous flow (Stokes flow using direct boundary element method is presented. The problem is solved in three phases: sampling and construction of system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE, its decision and finding the velocity of liquid at predetermined points. For construction of the system and finding the velocity, the parallel algorithms using graphics CUDA cards programming technology have been developed and implemented. To solve the system of linear algebraic equations the implemented software libraries are used. A comparison of time consumption for three main algorithms on the example of calculation of viscous fluid motion in three-dimensional cavity is performed.

  7. Newtonian heating effects in three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, A.; Hayat, T.; Alhuthali, M. S.; Malaikah, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model is constructed to investigate the three-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid. An incompressible viscoelastic fluid is used in mathematical formulation. The conjugate convective process (in which heat the transfer rate from the bounding surface with a finite capacity is proportional to the local surface temperature) in three-dimensional flow of a differential type of non-Newtonian fluid is analyzed for the first time. Series solutions for the nonlinear differential system are computed. Plots are presented for the description of emerging parameters entering into the problem. It is observed that the conjugate heating phenomenon causes an appreciable increase in the temperature at the stretching wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Air Flow at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.; Baldi, Sandro

    2009-11-01

    In this experimental work both qualitative (flow visualisation) and quantitative (laser Doppler anemometry) methods were applied in a wind tunnel in order to describe the complex three-dimensional flow field in a real environment (a street canyon intersection). The main aim was an examination of the mean flow, turbulence and flow pathlines characterising a complex three-dimensional urban location. The experiments highlighted the complexity of the observed flows, particularly in the upwind region of the intersection. In this complex and realistic situation some details of the upwind flow, such as the presence of two tall towers, play an important role in defining the flow field within the intersection, particularly at roof level. This effect is likely to have a strong influence on the mass exchange mechanism between the canopy flow and the air aloft, and therefore the distribution of pollutants. This strong interaction between the flows inside and outside the urban canopy is currently neglected in most state-of-the-art local scale dispersion models.

  9. Lagrangian Coherent Structure Analysis of Terminal Winds: Three-Dimensionality, Intramodel Variations, and Flight Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Knutson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS near the Hong Kong International Airport and relate to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D LCS analyses. The LCS are contrasted among three independent models and against 2D coherent Doppler light detection and ranging (LIDAR data. Addition of the velocity information perpendicular to the LIDAR scanning cone helps solidify flow structures inferred from previous studies; contrast among models reveals the intramodel variability; and comparison with flight data evaluates the performance among models in terms of Lagrangian analyses. We find that, while the three models and the LIDAR do recover similar features of the windshear experienced by a landing aircraft (along the landing trajectory, their Lagrangian signatures over the entire domain are quite different—a portion of each numerical model captures certain features resembling those LCS extracted from independent 2D LIDAR analyses based on observations.

  10. Filamentary structure of a three-dimensional plasmoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Hesse, M.; Schindler, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the changes of the magnetic field topology and the field line connections of a simple explicit magnetic field model of a plasmoid in different stages from its formation to its complete disconnection from the Earth. Particular emphasis was on the effects of a net cross-tail magnetic field component that breaks the symmetry around the neutral sheet. We find, consistent with the qualititative conclusions of Hughes and Sibeck (1987), that the initial stage of the plasmoid formation is characterized by the formation of helical field lines which cross the neutral sheet typically more than once, but are still connected with the Earth, so that no topology change occurs. In that case a nontopological notion of reconnection is required (Schindler et al., 1988). When reconnection proceeds to lobe field lines, the central plasmoid flux rope becomes enveloped by a sheath of open field lines that pull the plasmoid flux rope back toward the tail. The period of gradual separation of the plasmoid is characterized by a conversion through magnetic reconnection, of helical field lines connected with the Earth to open ones going tailward into interplanetary space. The detailed tracing of magnetic field lines reveals that the structure of the plasmoid region is more complicated than was earlier envisioned. We find that plasmoid field lines no longer form a separate class of field lines as in the symmetric case. During the stage of gradual separation from the Earth the plasmoid is characterized by the central flux rope connected with the Earth which is wrapped by strands of open, partially open, and closed field lines in a filamentary way forming a layer of intermingled flux tubes of different types inside the earlier mentioned sheath of open field lines

  11. Three dimensional PNS solutions of hypersonic internal flows with equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, May-Fun

    1989-01-01

    An implicit procedure for solving parabolized Navier-Stokes equations under the assumption of a general equation of state for a gas in chemical equilibrium is given. A general and consistent approach for the evaluation of Jacobian matrices in the implicit operator avoids the use of unnecessary auxiliary quantities and approximations, and leads to a simple expression. Applications to two- and three-dimensional flow problems show efficiency in computer time and economy in storage.

  12. Large Eddy Simulations of the Flow in a Three-Dimensional Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.

    We have done Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the flow in a three-dimensional ventilated room. A finite volume method is used with a collocated grid arrangement. The momentum equations are solved with an explicit method using central differencing for all terms. The pressure is obtained from a Pois...... a Poisson equation, which is solved with a conjugate gradient method. For the discretization in time we use the Adam-Bashfourth scheme, which is second-order accurate....

  13. Fabrication of three-dimensional micro-nanofiber structures by a novel solution blow spinning device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds has attracted more attention in tissue engineering. The purpose of this study is to explore a new method for the fabrication of three-dimensional micro-nanofiber structures by combining solution blow spinning and rotating collector. In this study, we successfully fabricated fibers with a minimum diameter of 200 nm and a three-dimensional structure with a maximum porosity of 89.9%. At the same time, the influence of various parameters such as the solvent volatility, the shape of the collector, the feed rate of the solution and the applied gas pressure were studied. It is found that solvent volatility has large effect on the formation of the three-dimensional shape of the structure. The shape of the collector affects the porosity and fiber distribution of the three-dimensional structure. The fiber diameter and fiber uniformity can be controlled by adjusting the solution feed rate and the applied gas pressure. It is feasible to fabricate high-quality three-dimensional micro-nanofiber structure by this new method, which has great potential in tissue engineering.

  14. Three-dimensional fluid flow phenomena in the blade end wall corner region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, B. K.; Raj, R.; Boldman, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Flow visualization, static and total pressure measurements, and mean velocity profile measurements with a single-sensor inclined hot wire probe, are used in a study of three-dimensional flow at a turbine blade end wall corner region for six critical axial stations along the blade chord. Three vortices are identified: (1) a horseshoe vortex near the leading edge; (2) a corner eddy between the horseshoe vortex and the corner; and (3) a vortex at the rear portion of the corner due to the corner eddy's secondary flow. Attention is given to the relative size and rate-of-spread of the vortices in the streamwise direction.

  15. Flow predictions for MHD channels with an approximation for three-dimensional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blottner, F.G.

    1978-01-01

    A finite-difference procedure has been formulated for predicting the flow properties across channels. A quasi-two-dimensional approach has been developed which allows the three-dimensional channel effects to be taken into account. Comparison of the numerical solutions with experimental results show that this approach is a reasonable approximation for MHD flow conditions if there is not significant merging of the wall boundary layers. The resulting code provides a technique to obtain the flow details in the symmetry plane of the channel and requires only a small amount of computer time

  16. Direct numerical simulation of steady state, three dimensional, laminar flow around a wall mounted cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Anastasios; Malamataris, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    The topology and evolution of flow around a surface mounted cubical object in three dimensional channel flow is examined for low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Direct numerical simulations were performed via a home made parallel finite element code. The computational domain has been designed according to actual laboratory experimental conditions. Analysis of the results is performed using the three dimensional theory of separation. Our findings indicate that a tornado-like vortex by the side of the cube is present for all Reynolds numbers for which flow was simulated. A horse-shoe vortex upstream from the cube was formed at Reynolds number approximately 1266. Pressure distributions are shown along with three dimensional images of the tornado-like vortex and the horseshoe vortex at selected Reynolds numbers. Finally, and in accordance to previous work, our results indicate that the upper limit for the Reynolds number for which steady state results are physically realizable is roughly 2000. Financial support of author NM from the Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG-VSP, N62909-13-1-V016) is acknowledged.

  17. Instantaneous three-dimensional visualization of concentration distributions in turbulent flows with crossed-plane laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Scharr, H.; Krömker, S.; Schulz, C.

    2005-01-01

    A laser-based technique for measuring instantaneous three-dimensional species concentration distributions in turbulent flows is presented. The laser beam from a single laser is formed into two crossed light sheets that illuminate the area of interest. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signal emitted from excited species within both planes is detected with a single camera via a mirror arrangement. Image processing enables the reconstruction of the three-dimensional data set in close proximity to the cutting line of the two light sheets. Three-dimensional intensity gradients are computed and compared to the two-dimensional projections obtained from the two directly observed planes. Volume visualization by digital image processing gives unique insight into the three-dimensional structures within the turbulent processes. We apply this technique to measurements of toluene-LIF in a turbulent, non-reactive mixing process of toluene and air and to hydroxyl (OH) LIF in a turbulent methane-air flame upon excitation at 248 nm with a tunable KrF excimer laser.

  18. Continuum modeling of three-dimensional truss-like space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical and computational analysis capability has been developed for calculating the effective mechanical properties of three-dimensional periodic truss-like structures. Two models are studied in detail. The first, called the octetruss model, is a three-dimensional extension of a two-dimensional model, and the second is a cubic model. Symmetry considerations are employed as a first step to show that the specific octetruss model has four independent constants and that the cubic model has two. The actual values of these constants are determined by averaging the contributions of each rod element to the overall structure stiffness. The individual rod member contribution to the overall stiffness is obtained by a three-dimensional coordinate transformation. The analysis shows that the effective three-dimensional elastic properties of both models are relatively close to each other.

  19. Energy dissipation statistics along the Lagrangian trajectories in three-dimensional turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-ping; Wang, Yong-bo; Qiu, Xiang; Xia, Yu-xian; Liu, Yu-lu

    2018-02-01

    Energy dissipation rate is relevant in the turbulent phenomenology theory, such as the classical Kolmogorov 1941 and 1962 refined similarity hypothesis. However, it is extremely difficult to retrieve experimentally or numerically. In this paper, the full energy dissipation, its proxy and the pseudo-energy dissipation rate along the Lagrangian trajectories in the three-dimensional turbulent flows are examined by using a state-of-art high resolution direct numerical simulation database with a Reynolds number Re λ = 400. It is found that the energy dissipation proxy ɛ P is more correlated with the full energy dissipation rate ɛ. The corresponding correlation coefficient ρ between the velocity gradient and e shows a Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, the coarse-grained dissipation rate is considered. The cross correlation ρ is found to be increased with the increasing of the scale τ. Finally, the hierarchical structure is extracted for the full energy dissipation rate, its proxy and the pseudo one. The results show a power-law behavior in the inertial range 10 ≤ τ/ τ η ≤ 100. The experimental scaling exponent of the full energy dissipation rate is found to be h L =0.69, agrees very well with the one found for the Eulerian velocity. The experimental values for ɛ P and ɛ S are around h L = 0.78, implying a more intermittent Lagrangian turbulence. Therefore, the intermittency parameter provided by ɛ P and ɛ S will be biased.

  20. Three-Dimensional Flow Field Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, P. W.; Thurman, D. R.; Lopez, I.; Boyle, R. J.; VanFossen, G. J.; Jett, T. A.; Camperchioli, W. P.; La, H.

    1996-01-01

    Three-dimensional flow field measurements are presented for a large scale transonic turbine blade cascade. Flow field total pressures and pitch and yaw flow angles were measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 1.0 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.3 in a low turbulence environment. Flow field data was obtained on five pitchwise/spanwise measurement planes, two upstream and three downstream of the cascade, each covering three blade pitches. Three-hole boundary layer probes and five-hole pitch/yaw probes were used to obtain data at over 1200 locations in each of the measurement planes. Blade and endwall static pressures were also measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 0.5 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.0. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Lewis Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The test article was a turbine rotor with 136 deg of turning and an axial chord of 12.7 cm. The flow field in the cascade is highly three-dimensional as a result of thick boundary layers at the test section inlet and because of the high degree of flow turning. The large scale allowed for very detailed measurements of both flow field and surface phenomena. The intent of the work is to provide benchmark quality data for CFD code and model verification.

  1. Complex three-dimensional structures in Si{1 0 0} using wet bulk micromachining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Prem; Sato, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional structures for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are fabricated in Si{1 0 0} wafers using wet bulk micromachining. The structures are divided into two categories: fixed and freestanding. The fabrication processes for both types utilize single wafers with sequentially deposited nitride and oxide layers, local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and two steps of wet anisotropic etching. The fixed structures contain perfectly sharp edges. Thermally deposited oxide is used as the material for the freestanding structures. Wet etching is performed in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with and without Triton X-100 (C 14 H 22 O(C 2 H 4 O) n , n = 9–10). For the fixed structures, both etching steps are performed either in 25 wt% TMAH + Triton or pure TMAH or both, depending upon the type of the structures. In the case of freestanding systems, TMAH + Triton is utilized first, followed by pure TMAH. The fabrication methods enable densely arrayed structures, allowing the manufacture of corrugated diaphragms, compact size liquid (or gas) flow delivery systems, newly shaped mold for soft MEMS structures (e.g. PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)) and other applications. The present research is an approach to fabricate advanced MEMS structures, extending the range of 3D structures fabricated by silicon anisotropic etching

  2. Three-dimensional inviscid analysis of radial turbine flow and a limited comparison with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Y. K.; Civinskas, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional inviscid DENTON code is used to analyze flow through a radial-inflow turbine rotor. Experimental data from the rotor are compared with analytical results obtained by using the code. The experimental data available for comparison are the radial distributions of circumferentially averaged values of absolute flow angle and total pressure downstream of the rotor exit. The computed rotor-exit flow angles are generally underturned relative to the experimental values, which reflect the boundary-layer separation at the trailing edge and the development of wakes downstream of the rotor. The experimental rotor is designed for a higher-than-optimum work factor of 1.126 resulting in a nonoptimum positive incidence and causing a region of rapid flow adjustment and large velocity gradients. For this experimental rotor, the computed radial distribution of rotor-exit to turbine-inlet total pressure ratios are underpredicted due to the errors in the finite-difference approximations in the regions of rapid flow adjustment, and due to using the relatively coarser grids in the middle of the blade region where the flow passage is highly three-dimensional. Additional results obtained from the three-dimensional inviscid computation are also presented, but without comparison due to the lack of experimental data. These include quasi-secondary velocity vectors on cross-channel surfaces, velocity components on the meridional and blade-to-blade surfaces, and blade surface loading diagrams. Computed results show the evolution of a passage vortex and large streamline deviations from the computational streamwise grid lines. Experience gained from applying the code to a radial turbine geometry is also discussed.

  3. Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Vengadesan, S.

    2017-11-01

    The flow separation appears in a wide range of heat transfer applications and causes poor heat transfer performance. It motivates the study of heat transfer enhancement in laminar as well as turbulent flows over a backward facing step by means of an adiabatic fin mounted on the top wall. Recently, we have studied steady, 2-D numerical simulations in laminar flow and investigated the effect of fin length, location, and orientation. It revealed that the addition of fin causes enhancement of heat transfer and it is very effective to control the flow and thermal behavior. The fin is most effective and sensitive when it is placed exactly above the step. A slight displacement of the fin in upstream of the step causes the complete change of flow and thermal behavior. Based on the obtained 2-D results it is interesting to investigate the side wall effect in three-dimensional simulations. The comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the available experimental results will be presented. Special attention has to be given to capture unsteadiness in the flow and thermal field.

  4. A general theory of two- and three-dimensional rotational flow in subsonic and transonic turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hua

    1993-01-01

    This report represents a general theory applicable to axial, radial, and mixed flow turbomachines operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds with a finite number of blades of finite thickness. References reflect the evolution of computational methods used, from the inception of the theory in the 50's to the high-speed computer era of the 90's. Two kinds of relative stream surfaces, S(sub 1) and S(sub 2), are introduced for the purpose of obtaining a three-dimensional flow solution through the combination of two-dimensional flow solutions. Nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used for the governing equations. Methods of computing transonic flow along S(sub 1) and S(sub 2) stream surfaces are given for special cases as well as for fully three-dimensional transonic flows. Procedures pertaining to the direct solutions and inverse solutions are presented. Information on shock wave locations and shapes needed for computations are discussed. Experimental data from a Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR) rotor and from a Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) transonic compressor rotor are compared with the computed flow properties.

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of myocardial motion and blood flow with cine-MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro; Mikami, Taisei; Kitabatake, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and presentation method to visualize myocardial motion and blood flow in a heart using cine-MR (magnetic resonance) images. Firstly, the region of myocardium and blood were segmented with certain threshold gray values. Secondly, some slices were interpolated linearly to reconstruct a 3D static image. Finally, a 3D dynamic image was presented with displaying the 3D static images sequentially. The experimental results indicate that this method enables to visualize not only normal but also abnormal blood flow in cine-mode. (author)

  6. A finite volume solver for three dimensional debris flow simulations based on a single calibration parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, Albrecht; Turowski, Jens M.; McArdell, Brian; Rickenmann, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows are frequent natural hazards that cause massive damage. A wide range of debris flow models try to cover the complex flow behavior that arises from the inhomogeneous material mixture of water with clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The energy dissipation between moving grains depends on grain collisions and tangential friction, and the viscosity of the interstitial fine material suspension depends on the shear gradient. Thus a rheology description needs to be sensitive to the local pressure and shear rate, making the three-dimensional flow structure a key issue for flows in complex terrain. Furthermore, the momentum exchange between the granular and fluid phases should account for the presence of larger particles. We model the fine material suspension with a Herschel-Bulkley rheology law, and represent the gravel with the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology of Domnik & Pudasaini (Domnik et al. 2013). Both composites are described by two phases that can mix; a third phase accounting for the air is kept separate to account for the free surface. The fluid dynamics are solved in three dimensions using the finite volume open-source code OpenFOAM. Computational costs are kept reasonable by using the Volume of Fluid method to solve only one phase-averaged system of Navier-Stokes equations. The Herschel-Bulkley parameters are modeled as a function of water content, volumetric solid concentration of the mixture, clay content and its mineral composition (Coussot et al. 1989, Yu et al. 2013). The gravel phase properties needed for the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology are defined by the angle of repose of the gravel. In addition to this basic setup, larger grains and the corresponding grain collisions can be introduced by a coupled Lagrangian particle simulation. Based on the local Savage number a diffusive term in the gravel phase can activate phase separation. The resulting model can reproduce the sensitivity of the debris flow to water content and channel bed roughness, as

  7. Three-dimensional structure of a pre-catalytic human spliceosomal complex B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Makarov, Evgeny M; Sander, Bjoern; Makarova, Olga V; Kastner, Berthold; Lührmann, Reinhard; Stark, Holger

    2004-05-01

    Major structural changes occur in the spliceosome during its transition from the fully assembled complex B to the catalytically activated spliceosome. To understand the rearrangement, it is necessary to know the detailed three-dimensional structures of these complexes. Here, we have immunoaffinity-purified human spliceosomes (designated B Delta U1) at a stage after U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP integration but before activation, and have determined the three-dimensional structure of B Delta U1 by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy at a resolution of approximately 40 A. The overall size of the complex is about 370 x 270 x 170 A. The three-dimensional structure features a roughly triangular body linked to a head domain in variable orientations. The body is very similar in size and shape to the isolated U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP. This provides initial insight into the structural organization of complex B.

  8. Three-dimensional Crustal Structure beneath the Tibetan Plateau Revealed by Multi-scale Gravity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Luo, Z.; Sun, R.; Li, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, the largest and highest plateau on Earth, was uplifted, shorten and thicken by the collision and continuous convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates since 50 million years ago, the Eocene epoch. Fine three-dimensional crustal structure of the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the tectonic development. At present, the ordinary method used for revealing crustal structure is seismic method, which is inhibited by poor seismic station coverage, especially in the central and western plateau primarily due to the rugged terrain. Fortunately, with the implementation of satellite gravity missions, gravity field models have demonstrated unprecedented global-scale accuracy and spatial resolution, which can subsequently be employed to study the crustal structure of the entire Tibetan Plateau. This study inverts three-dimensional crustal density and Moho topography of the Tibetan Plateau from gravity data using multi-scale gravity analysis. The inverted results are in agreement with those provided by the previous works. Besides, they can reveal rich tectonic development of the Tibetan Plateau: (1) The low-density channel flow can be observed from the inverted crustal density; (2) The Moho depth in the west is deeper than that in the east, and the deepest Moho, which is approximately 77 km, is located beneath the western Qiangtang Block; (3) The Moho fold, the directions of which are in agreement with the results of surface movement velocities estimated from Global Positioning System, exists clearly on the Moho topography.This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41504015), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2015M572146), and the Surveying and Mapping Basic Research Programme of the National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation (Grant No. 15-01-08).

  9. Three dimensional computations of the flow around a LM19 rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambraeus, T. [FFA, Bromma (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    To achieve insight in the flow phenomenon occurring in wind power engineering modeling of the flow through the basic governing equations, Navier-Stokes and Euler, can be a great complement to experiments and other computational methods such as the BEM (Blade Element Momentum). Navier-Stokes methods is regularly used in prediction of air-foil flows but then mostly under attached flow conditions. One of the main differences between air-foil computations for aircraft industry and computations for wind turbine applications is that the former is not very interested in separated flow while for the latter case this is part of the operating conditions. It has been noted that separated flow poses problems since the most popular turbulence models such as Baldwin-Lomax and the {kappa}-{epsilon} model seems to over estimate the amount of turbulent viscosity produced and thus suppressing the separation. The work with finding better turbulence models is presently an area with large amount of research offering improved models. However, in the present report only the two mentioned turbulence models have been used. The present report shows computational results obtained with the Navier-Stokes solver EU-RANUS. First the results from a two-dimensional verification cases are shown to verify that the solver produces results comparable with other solvers. The flow computed is attached flow and slightly separated flow over the so called Profile-A. Secondly three dimensional computations of the flow over a full three dimensional rotor at attached and stalled conditions is shown. The computed results are compared with measured power data from field experiments. (EG)

  10. Preliminary three-dimensional potential flow simulation of a five-liter flask air injection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The preliminary results of an unsteady three-dimensional potential flow analysis of a five-liter flask air injection experiment (small-scale model simulation of a nuclear reactor steam condensation system) are presented. The location and velocity of the free water surface in the flask as a function of time are determined during pipe venting and bubble expansion processes. The analyses were performed using an extended version of the NASA-Ames Three-Dimensional Potential Flow Analysis System (POTFAN), which uses the vortex lattice singularity method of potential flow analysis. The pressure boundary condition at the free water surface and the boundary condition along the free jet boundary near the pipe exit were ignored for the purposes of the present study. The results of the analysis indicate that large time steps can be taken without significantly reducing the accuracy of the solutions and that the assumption of inviscid flow should not have an appreciable effect on the geometry and velocity of the free water surface. In addition, the computation time required for the solutions was well within acceptable limits

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A.; Alhuthali, M.S. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid in the presence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects is analyzed. Energy equation subject to nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic field is neglected for a small magnetic Reynolds number. Mathematical formulation is performed using boundary layer analysis. Newly proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed. The governing nonlinear mathematical problems are first converted into dimensionless expressions and then solved for the series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is found that the thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of radiative effect. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid is examined. • Nonlinear thermal radiation is analyzed. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are present. • Recently developed condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is implemented. • Construction of convergent solutions of nonlinear flow is possible.

  12. Three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer for moderator integrity assessment in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.-O.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.-J.

    2002-01-01

    A CANDU reactor has the unique features and the intrinsic safety related characteristics that distinguish it from other water-cooled thermal reactors. If there is the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a coincident failure of the emergency coolant injection (ECI) system, the heavy water moderator is continuously cooled, providing a heat sink for decay heat produced in the fuel. Therefore, it is one of major concerns to estimate the local subcooling of moderator inside the calandria vessel under postulated accident in CANDU safety analyses. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), a regulatory body in Canada, categorized the integrity of moderator as a generic safety issue and recommended that a series of experimental works be performed to verify the safety evaluation codes for individual simulated condition of nuclear power plant, comparing with the results of three-dimensional experimental data. In this study, three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer have been performed to assess thermal-hydraulic characteristics for moderator simulation conducted by SPEL (Sheridan Park Experimental Laboratory) experimental facility. The parametric study has also carried out to investigate the effect of major parameters such as flowrate, temperature, and heat load generated from the heaters on the temperature and flow distribution inside the moderator. Three flow patterns have been identified in the moderator with flowrate, heat generation, or both. As the transition of fluid flow is progressed, it is found that the dimensionless numbers (Ar) and the ratio of buoyancy to inertia forces are constant. (author)

  13. Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, M; Morales, V L; Willmann, M; Dentz, M

    2015-07-01

    Intermittency of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on Lagrangian velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential Lagrangian velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed Lagrangian flow and transport behaviors.

  14. POST: a postprocessor computer code for producing three-dimensional movies of two-phase flow in a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, K.A.; Liles, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    The development of the TRAC computer code for analysis of LOCAs in light-water reactors involves the use of a three-dimensional (r-theta-z), two-fluid hydrodynamics model to describe the two-phase flow of steam and water through the reactor vessel. One of the major problems involved in interpreting results from this code is the presentation of three-dimensional flow patterns. The purpose of the report is to present a partial solution to this data display problem. A first version of a code which produces three-dimensional movies of flow in the reactor vessel has been written and debugged. This code (POST) is used as a postprocessor in conjunction with a stand alone three-dimensional two-phase hydrodynamics code (CYLTF) which is a test bed for the three-dimensional algorithms to be used in TRAC

  15. An Integral Method and Its Application to Some Three-Dimensional Boundary-Layer Flows,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-18

    M. Scala Dr. H. Lew Mr. J. W. Faust A . Martellucci W. Daskin J. D. Cresswell J. B. Arnaiz L. A . Marshall J. Cassanto R. Hobbs C. Harris F. George P.O...RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 18 JULY 1979 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited DTICEILECTE1 APR 2 5 1930,, A NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS...TITLE (end Subtlle) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED I INVTEGRAL M.ETHOD AND ITS 4PPLICATION TO SSOME THREE-DIMENSIONAL BOUNDARY-LAYER FLOWS 6

  16. Simulation of three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible flows by a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.T.; Gresho, P.M.; Lee, R.L.; Upson, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element model has been developed for simulating the dynamics of problems encountered in atmospheric pollution and safety assessment studies. The model is based on solving the set of three-dimensional, time-dependent, conservation equations governing incompressible flows. Spatial discretization is performed via a modified Galerkin finite element method, and time integration is carried out via the forward Euler method (pressure is computed implicitly, however). Several cost-effective techniques (including subcycling, mass lumping, and reduced Gauss-Legendre quadrature) which have been implemented are discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model

  17. Calculation of three-dimensional fluid flow with multiple free surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Vorst, M.J.; Chan, R.K.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a method for computing incompressible fluid flows with multiple free surfaces which are not restricted in their orientation. The method is presented in the context of the three-dimensional flow in a Mark I reactor pressure suppression system immediately following a postulated loss of coolant accident. The assumption of potential flow is made. The numerical method is a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation with the interior treated as Eulerian and the free surfaces as Lagrangian. The accuracy of solution hinges on the careful treatment of two important aspects. First, the Laplace equation for the potential is solved at interior points of the Eulerian finite difference mesh using a three-dimensional ''irregular star'' so that boundary conditions can be imposed at the exact position of the free surface. Second, the Lagrangian free surfaces are composed of triangular elements, upon each vertex of which is applied the fully nonlinear Bernoulli equation. One result of these calculations is the transient load on the suppression vessel during the vent clearing and bubble formation events of a loss of coolant accident

  18. Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumi, I.; Gallo, D.; Royer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods. They are based on an extension of Roe's approximate Riemann solver to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. To go forward in time, a linearized conservative implicit integrating step is used, together with a Newton iterative method. We also present here some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. This kind of numerical method, which is widely used for fluid dynamic calculations, is proved to be very efficient for the numerical solution to two-phase flow problems. This numerical method has been implemented for the three dimensional thermal-hydraulic code FLICA-4 which is mainly dedicated to core thermal-hydraulic transient and steady-state analysis. Hereafter, we will also find some results obtained for the EPR reactor running in a steady-state at 60% of nominal power with 3 pumps out of 4, and a thermal-hydraulic core analysis for a 1300 MW PWR at low flow steam-line-break conditions. (author)

  19. Stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Tagata, Kazunori.

    1983-11-01

    The stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in various three-dimensional structures were performed using the finite element computer program EPAS-J1. The results obtained by EPAS-J1 were compared with other finite element solutions or results obtained by the simplified estimation methods. Among the simplified estimation methods, the equations proposed by Newman and Raju give the distributions of the stress intensity factor along a crack front, which were compared with the result obtained by EPAS-J1. It was confirmed by comparing the results that EPAS-J1 gives reasonable stress intensity factors of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures. (author)

  20. Influence of convective conditions on three dimensional mixed convective hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.

  1. Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers

  2. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent cavitating flow in a rectangular channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iben, Uwe; Makhnov, Andrei; Schmidt, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Cavitation is a phenomenon of formation of bubbles (cavities) in liquid as a result of pressure drop. Cavitation plays an important role in a wide range of applications. For example, cavitation is one of the key problems of design and manufacturing of pumps, hydraulic turbines, ship's propellers, etc. Special attention is paid to cavitation erosion and to performance degradation of hydraulic devices (noise, fluctuations of the mass flow rate, etc.) caused by the formation of a two-phase system with an increased compressibility. Therefore, development of a model to predict cavitation inception and collapse of cavities in high-speed turbulent flows is an important fundamental and applied task. To test the algorithm three-dimensional simulations of turbulent flow of a cavitating liquid in a rectangular channel have been conducted. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the formulated model and the algorithm.

  3. Stabilisation of a three-dimensional boundary layer by base-flow manipulation using plasma actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dörr, P C; Kloker, M J

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for controlling the crossflow-vortex-induced laminar breakdown in a three-dimensional swept-wing-type boundary-layer flow is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Similar to the classical application of suction at the wall the aim is to modify the quasi two-dimensional base flow and to weaken primary crossflow (CF) instability, mainly due to a reduction of the basic CF. Not only localised volumetric forcing by plasma actuators but also CF counter-blowing and spots with a moving wall are investigated to identify effective fundamental mechanisms. It is found that counter blowing always results in partial blockage of the flow and eventually increased CF velocity, whereas moving-wall spots can slightly reduce the CF and the amplitude of crossflow vortices. Using discrete volumetric forcing a significant attenuation even of finite-amplitude crossflow vortices and thus a distinct transition delay is achieved. (paper)

  4. Three-dimensional simulation of flow and combustion for pulverised coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, B.Y.; Zulli, P.; Rogers, H.; Mathieson, J.G.; Yu, A.B. [BlueScope Steel Research, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of pulverised coal injection has been developed for simulating coal flow and combustion in the tuyere and raceway of a blast furnace. The model has been used to simulate previously reported combustion tests, which feature an inclined co-axial lance with an annular cooling gas. The predicted coal burnout agrees well with that measured for three coals with volatile contents and particle size ranging between 20.2-36.4% and particle sizes 1-200 {mu}m. Many important phenomena including flow asymmetry, recirculating flow and particle dispersion in the combustion chamber have been predicted. The current model can reproduce the experimental observations including the effects on burnout of coal flowrate and the introduction of methane for lance cooling.

  5. The Effect of Three-Dimensional Simulations on the Understanding of Chemical Structures and Their Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Nick, Sabine; Schanze, Sascha

    2009-08-01

    In a series of three experimental studies, the effectiveness of three-dimensional computer simulations to aid the understanding of chemical structures and their properties was investigated. Arguments for the usefulness of three-dimensional simulations were derived from Mayer’s generative theory of multimedia learning. Simulations might lead to a decrease in cognitive load and thus support active learning. In our studies, the learning effectiveness of three-dimensional simulations was compared to two-dimensional illustrations by use of different versions of a computer programme concerning the modifications of carbon. The first and third study with freshman students of chemistry and biochemistry show that no more knowledge was acquired when participants learnt with three-dimensional simulations than with two-dimensional figures. In the second study with 16-year old secondary school students, use of simulations facilitated the acquisition of conceptual knowledge. It was concluded that three-dimensional simulations are more effective for younger students who lack the experience of learning with different visual representation formats in chemistry. In all three studies, a significant relationship between spatial ability and conceptual knowledge about the modifications of carbon was detected.

  6. Three-dimensional submodel for modelling of joints in precast concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2016-01-01

    The shear capacity of in-situ cast joints is crucial to the overall stability of precast concrete structures. The current design is based on empirical formulas, which account for neither the reinforcement layout of the joint nor the three-dimensional stress states present within the joint...

  7. Selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures using parylene-C as mask

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, Henk-Willem; Zhao, Yiyuan; de Boer, Meint J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2017-01-01

    This abstract describes an application of an easy and straightforward method for selective SiO2 etching in three dimensional structures, which is developed by our group. The application in this abstract is the protection of the buried-oxide (BOX) layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer against

  8. A three-dimensional model of PEM fuel cells with serpentine flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.T.; Berning, T.; Bang, M.; Djilali, N.

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational model of PEM fuel cell with serpentine flow field channels is presented in this paper. This model presents a comprehensive account for all important transport phenomena in fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode kinetics, and potential fields in the membrane and gas diffusion layers. A new approach of solving for the potential losses across the cell was also developed in this model. The dependency of local current density on oxygen concentration and activation overpotential is fully addressed in this model. The computational domain consists of serpentine gas flow channels, porous gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers, and a membrane. Results obtained from this model are in good agreement with experimental results. (author)

  9. A two pressure-velocity approach for immersed boundary methods in three dimensional incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabir, O; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Nukman, Y; Tuan Ya, T M Y S

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for computing fluid solid interaction using Immersed boundary methods with two stage pressure-velocity corrections. The algorithm calculates the interactions between incompressible viscous flows and a solid shape in three-dimensional domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in finite difference schemes. Most of IBMs are concern about exchange of the momentum between the Eulerian variables (fluid) and the Lagrangian nodes (solid). To address that concern, a new algorithm to correct the pressure and the velocity using Simplified Marker and Cell method is added. This scheme is applied on staggered grid to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder and study the effect of the new stage on calculations cost. To evaluate the accuracy of the computations the results are compared with the previous software results. The paper confirms the capacity of new algorithm for accurate and robust simulation of Fluid Solid Interaction with respect to pressure field

  10. Athermal mechanisms of size-dependent crystal flow gleaned from three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Uchic, M.D.; Tang, M.; Woodward, C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that micrometer-scale face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals show strong strengthening effects, even at high initial dislocation densities. We use large-scale three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) to explicitly model the deformation behavior of fcc Ni microcrystals in the size range of 0.5-20 μm. This study shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. One mechanism, source-truncation hardening, is especially potent in micrometer-scale volumes. A second mechanism, termed exhaustion hardening, results from a breakdown of the mean-field conditions for forest hardening in small volumes, thus biasing the statistics of ordinary dislocation processes

  11. A three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiangkun; Zhang Huamin; Xing Feng

    2011-01-01

    A stationary, isothermal, three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery is developed, which is based on the comprehensive conservation laws, such as charge, mass and momentum, together with a kinetic model for reaction involving vanadium species. The model is validated against the results calculated by the available two-dimensional model. With the given geometry of the negative half cell, the distributions of velocity, concentration, overpotential and transfer current density in the sections that are perpendicular and parallel to the applied current are studied. It is shown that the distribution of the electrolyte velocity in the electrode has significant impact on the distribution of concentration, overpotential and transfer current density. The lower velocity in the electrode will cause the higher overpotential, further result in the side reaction and corrosion of key materials locally. The development of the design of the vanadium redox flow battery is discussed, and the further research is proposed.

  12. Semiconductor Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals with Novel Layer-by-Layer Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Iwamoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional photonic crystals (3D PhCs are a fascinating platform for manipulating photons and controlling their interactions with matter. One widely investigated structure is the layer-by-layer woodpile structure, which possesses a complete photonic bandgap. On the other hand, other types of 3D PhC structures also offer various possibilities for controlling light by utilizing the three dimensional nature of structures. In this article, we discuss our recent research into novel types of layer-by-layer structures, including the experimental demonstration of a 3D PhC nanocavity formed in a <110>-layered diamond structure and the realization of artificial optical activity in rotationally stacked woodpile structures.

  13. Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toumi, I. [Laboratoire d`Etudes Thermiques des Reacteurs, Gif sur Yvette (France); Caruge, D. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1997-07-01

    This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for both one and three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods and are based on the use of Approximate Riemann Solvers concepts to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. The first part of the paper presents the numerical method for a one dimensional hyperbolic two-fluid model including differential terms as added mass and interface pressure. This numerical solution scheme makes use of the Riemann problem solution to define backward and forward differencing to approximate spatial derivatives. The construction of this approximate Riemann solver uses an extension of Roe`s method that has been successfully used to solve gas dynamic equations. As far as the two-fluid model is hyperbolic, this numerical method seems very efficient for the numerical solution of two-phase flow problems. The scheme was applied both to shock tube problems and to standard tests for two-fluid computer codes. The second part describes the numerical method in the three dimensional case. The authors discuss also some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. Such a scheme is not implemented in a thermal-hydraulic computer code devoted to 3-D steady-state and transient computations. Some results obtained for Pressurised Water Reactors concerning upper plenum calculations and a steady state flow in the core with rod bow effect evaluation are presented. In practice these new numerical methods have proved to be stable on non staggered grids and capable of generating accurate non oscillating solutions for two-phase flow calculations.

  14. Advanced numerical methods for three dimensional two-phase flow calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumi, I.; Caruge, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is devoted to new numerical methods developed for both one and three dimensional two-phase flow calculations. These methods are finite volume numerical methods and are based on the use of Approximate Riemann Solvers concepts to define convective fluxes versus mean cell quantities. The first part of the paper presents the numerical method for a one dimensional hyperbolic two-fluid model including differential terms as added mass and interface pressure. This numerical solution scheme makes use of the Riemann problem solution to define backward and forward differencing to approximate spatial derivatives. The construction of this approximate Riemann solver uses an extension of Roe's method that has been successfully used to solve gas dynamic equations. As far as the two-fluid model is hyperbolic, this numerical method seems very efficient for the numerical solution of two-phase flow problems. The scheme was applied both to shock tube problems and to standard tests for two-fluid computer codes. The second part describes the numerical method in the three dimensional case. The authors discuss also some improvements performed to obtain a fully implicit solution method that provides fast running steady state calculations. Such a scheme is not implemented in a thermal-hydraulic computer code devoted to 3-D steady-state and transient computations. Some results obtained for Pressurised Water Reactors concerning upper plenum calculations and a steady state flow in the core with rod bow effect evaluation are presented. In practice these new numerical methods have proved to be stable on non staggered grids and capable of generating accurate non oscillating solutions for two-phase flow calculations

  15. Parallel Simulation of Three-Dimensional Free Surface Fluid Flow Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAER, THOMAS A.; SACKINGER, PHILIP A.; SUBIA, SAMUEL R.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of viscous three-dimensional fluid flow typically involves a large number of unknowns. When free surfaces are included, the number of unknowns increases dramatically. Consequently, this class of problem is an obvious application of parallel high performance computing. We describe parallel computation of viscous, incompressible, free surface, Newtonian fluid flow problems that include dynamic contact fines. The Galerkin finite element method was used to discretize the fully-coupled governing conservation equations and a ''pseudo-solid'' mesh mapping approach was used to determine the shape of the free surface. In this approach, the finite element mesh is allowed to deform to satisfy quasi-static solid mechanics equations subject to geometric or kinematic constraints on the boundaries. As a result, nodal displacements must be included in the set of unknowns. Other issues discussed are the proper constraints appearing along the dynamic contact line in three dimensions. Issues affecting efficient parallel simulations include problem decomposition to equally distribute computational work among a SPMD computer and determination of robust, scalable preconditioners for the distributed matrix systems that must be solved. Solution continuation strategies important for serial simulations have an enhanced relevance in a parallel coquting environment due to the difficulty of solving large scale systems. Parallel computations will be demonstrated on an example taken from the coating flow industry: flow in the vicinity of a slot coater edge. This is a three dimensional free surface problem possessing a contact line that advances at the web speed in one region but transitions to static behavior in another region. As such, a significant fraction of the computational time is devoted to processing boundary data. Discussion focuses on parallel speed ups for fixed problem size, a class of problems of immediate practical importance

  16. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of three-dimensional incompressible flows in a four-sided lid driven cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng Gong [National Engineering Laboratory for MTO, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Maa, Jerome P-Y, E-mail: chenggongli@dicp.ac.cn [Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Numerical study on three-dimensional (3D), incompressible, four-sided lid (FSL) driven cavity flows has been conducted to show the effects of the transverse aspect ratio, K , on the flow field by using a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann equation. The top wall is driven from left to right, the left wall is moved downward, whereas the right wall is driven upward, and the bottom wall is moved from right to left, all the four moving walls have the same speed and the others boundaries are fixed. Numerical computations are performed for several Reynolds numbers for laminar flows, up to 1000, with various transverse aspect ratios. The flow can reach a steady state and the flow pattern is symmetric with respect to the two cavity diagonals (i.e., the center of the cavity). At Reynolds number = 300, the flow structures of the 3D FSL cavity flow at steady state with various transverse aspect ratio, i.e., 3, 2, 1, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 only show the unstable symmetrical flow pattern. The stable asymmetrical flow pattern could be reproduced only by increasing the Reynolds number that is above a critical value which is dependent on the aspect ratio. It is found that an aspect ratio of more than 5 is needed to reproduce flow patterns, both symmetric and asymmetric flows, simulated by using 2D numerical models. (paper)

  17. Dacron graft as replacement to dissected aorta: A three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayendiran, R; Nour, B M; Ruimi, A

    2018-02-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a serious medical condition characterized by a tear in the intima, the inner layer of the aortic walls. In such occurrence, blood is being diverted to the media (middle) layer and may result in patient death if not quickly attended. In the case where the diseased portion of the aorta needs to be replaced, one common surgical technique is to use a graft made of Dacron, a synthetic fabric. We investigate the response of a composite human aortic segment-Dacron graft structure subjected to blood flow using the three-dimensional fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) capability in Abaqus. We obtain stress and strain profiles in each of the three layers of the aortic walls as well as in the Dacron graft. Results are compared when elastic and hyperelastic models are used and when isotropy vs. anisotropy is assumed. The more complex case (hyperelastic-anisotropy) is represented by the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model which also accounts for the orientation of the fibers present in the tissues. The fluid flow is taken as Newtonian, incompressible, pulsatile and turbulent. The simulation show that for all the cases, the von Mises stress distribution at aorta-Dacron interface is well below the ultimate strength of the aorta. No significant change in radial displacement at the interface of the two materials due to blood flow is observed. Computation cost is also addressed and results show that the hyperelastic-anisotropic model takes about three times longer to run than the elastic isotropic case. Trade-off between accuracy and computational cost has to be weighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Three-Dimensional Dental Scanning Apparatus Using Structured Illumination

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jae Sung; Park, Anjin; Kim, Ju Wan; Lee, Byeong Ha; Eom, Joo Beom

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated a three-dimensional (3D) dental scanning apparatus based on structured illumination. A liquid lens was used for tuning focus and a piezomotor stage was used for the shift of structured light. A simple algorithm, which detects intensity modulation, was used to perform optical sectioning with structured illumination. We reconstructed a 3D point cloud, which represents the 3D coordinates of the digitized surface of a dental gypsum cast by piling up sectioned images. We performed ...

  19. Direct Linear System Identification Method for Multistory Three-dimensional Building Structure with General Eccentricity

    OpenAIRE

    Shintani, Kenichirou; Yoshitomi, Shinta; Takewaki, Izuru

    2017-01-01

    A method of physical parameter system identification (SI) is proposed here for three-dimensional (3D) building structures with in-plane rigid floors in which the stiffness and damping coefficients of each structural frame in the 3D building structure are identified from the measured floor horizontal accelerations. A batch processing least-squares estimation method for many discrete time domain measured data is proposed for the direct identification of the stiffness and damping coefficients of...

  20. Convective thermal fluxes in unsteady non-homogeneous flows generating complex three dimensional vorticity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary

    2016-04-01

    fresh water in order to form density interfaces. The Reynolds number can be reduced adding Glicerine the set of dimensionless parameters define different conditions of both numeric and small scale laboratory applied often in modeling environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients are computed using advanced visualization [8 9]. Visualizations are performed by PIV, Particle tracking and shadowgraph. When convective heating and cooling takes place the patterns depend on the parameter space region of the initial conditions We also map the different transitions between two and three dimensional convection in an enclosure with several complex driven flows. The size of the water tank is of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.1 m and the heat sources or sinks can be regulated both in power and sign [2-4]. The thermal convective driven flows are generated by Seebeck and Peltier effects in 4 wall extended positions of 0.05 x 0.05 cm each. The parameter range of convective cell array varies strongly with the Topology of the boundary conditions. At present side heat fluxes are considered and estimated as a function of Rayleigh, Peclet and Nusselt numbers, [4-6] The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or non-mixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [12] can be compared with the convective fronts. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied taking into account the dependence on the initial modes at the early stages, Self-similar information [13]. Spectral and Fractal analysis on the images seems very useful in order to

  1. Accretion torques due to three-dimensional channelled flows in magnetic cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Angular momentum transfer due to three-dimensional magnetically channelled accretion flows in cataclysmic binaries is considered. The white dwarf experiences a torque due to the twist in that part of its magnetic field which interacts with the accretion stream. The channelling process can also enhance angular momentum exchange between the stream and the orbit by increasing the gravitational torques. The components of the accretion torque are calculated for an arbitrary static magnetic orientation of the white dwarf, and their variation with orientation is presented. For high inclinations of the accreting pole to the orbital plane the component of the accretion torque parallel to this plane can be comparable to its perpendicular component. It is shown that the parallel component of the torque is still significant relative to the perpendicular component if material links to the white dwarf's magnetic field well away from the L 1 region. (author)

  2. Survey of a numerical procedure for the solution of hyperbolic systems of three dimensional fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, U.

    1986-01-01

    A combination of several numerical methods is used to construct a procedure for effective calculation of complex three-dimensional fluid flow problems. The split coefficient matrix (SCM) method is used so that the differenced equations of the hyperbolic system do not disturb correct signal propagation. The semi-discretisation of the equations of the SCM method is done with the asymmetric, separated region, weighted residual (ASWR) method to give accurate solutions on a relatively coarse mesh. For the resulting system of ordinary differential equations, a general-purpose ordinary differential equation solver is used in conjunction with a method of fractional steps for an economic solution of the large system of linear equations. (orig.) [de

  3. Three-dimensional detonation cellular structures in rectangular ducts using an improved CESE scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Yang

    2016-11-01

    The three-dimensional premixed H2-O2 detonation propagation in rectangular ducts is simulated using an in-house parallel detonation code based on the second-order space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme. The simulation reproduces three typical cellular structures by setting appropriate cross-sectional size and initial perturbation in square tubes. As the cross-sectional size decreases, critical cellular structures transforming the rectangular or diagonal mode into the spinning mode are obtained and discussed in the perspective of phase variation as well as decreasing of triple point lines. Furthermore, multiple cellular structures are observed through examples with typical aspect ratios. Utilizing the visualization of detailed three-dimensional structures, their formation mechanism is further analyzed.

  4. Three-dimensional detonation cellular structures in rectangular ducts using an improved CESE scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yang; Liu Kai-Xin; Chen Pu; Shen Hua; Zhang De-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional premixed H 2 -O 2 detonation propagation in rectangular ducts is simulated using an in-house parallel detonation code based on the second-order space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme. The simulation reproduces three typical cellular structures by setting appropriate cross-sectional size and initial perturbation in square tubes. As the cross-sectional size decreases, critical cellular structures transforming the rectangular or diagonal mode into the spinning mode are obtained and discussed in the perspective of phase variation as well as decreasing of triple point lines. Furthermore, multiple cellular structures are observed through examples with typical aspect ratios. Utilizing the visualization of detailed three-dimensional structures, their formation mechanism is further analyzed. (paper)

  5. Three-dimensional detonation cellular structures in rectangular ducts using an improved CESE scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Yang; Shen, Hua; Liu, Kai Xin; Chen, Pu; Zhang, De Liang

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional premixed H2-O2 detonation propagation in rectangular ducts is simulated using an in-house parallel detonation code based on the second-order space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme. The simulation reproduces three typical cellular structures by setting appropriate cross-sectional size and initial perturbation in square tubes. As the cross-sectional size decreases, critical cellular structures transforming the rectangular or diagonal mode into the spinning mode are obtained and discussed in the perspective of phase variation as well as decreasing of triple point lines. Furthermore, multiple cellular structures are observed through examples with typical aspect ratios. Utilizing the visualization of detailed three-dimensional structures, their formation mechanism is further analyzed.

  6. The crystal structures of three pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamides: three-dimensional supramolecular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilovan S. Cati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The complete molecules of the title compounds, N2,N5-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C18H16N6O2 (I, 3,6-dimethyl-N2,N5-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethylpyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C20H20N6O2 (II, and N2,N5-bis(pyridin-4-ylmethylpyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C18H16N6O2 (III, are generated by inversion symmetry, with the pyrazine rings being located about centres of inversion. Each molecule has an extended conformation with the pyridine rings inclined to the pyrazine ring by 89.17 (7° in (I, 75.83 (8° in (II and by 82.71 (6° in (III. In the crystal of (I, molecules are linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. In the crystal of (II, molecules are also linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the (10-1 plane. As in (I, the layers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. In the crystal of (III, molecules are again linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, but here form corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. Within the sheets, neighbouring pyridine rings are linked by offset π–π interactions [intercentroid distance = 3.739 (1 Å]. The sheets are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. Compound (I crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c. Another monoclinic polymorph, space group C2/c, has been reported on by Cockriel et al. [Inorg. Chem. Commun. (2008, 11, 1–4]. The molecular structures of the two polymorphs are compared.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po Chun; Hsieh, Sheng Jen; Chen, Chien Chon; Zou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We proposed fabricating an aluminum microneedle array with a nanochannel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The microneedle array provides a three-dimensional (3D) structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nanochannel template. Therefore, the microneedle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D microneedle array device can not only be used for painless inj...

  8. Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Weintraub, Benjamin

    2009-11-09

    Wired up: The energy conversion efficiency of three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in a hybrid structure that integrates optical fibers and nanowire arrays is greater than that of a two-dimensional device. Internal axial illumination enhances the energy conversion efficiency of a rectangular fiber-based hybrid structure (see picture) by a factor of up to six compared to light illumination normal to the fiber axis from outside the device.

  9. Manipulation of fluids in three-dimensional porous photonic structures with patterned surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Burgess, Ian; Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Loncar, Marko

    2017-12-26

    A three-dimensional porous photonic structure, whose internal pore surfaces can be provided with desired surface properties in a spatially selective manner with arbitrary patterns, and methods for making the same are described. When exposed to a fluid (e.g., via immersion or wicking), the fluid can selectively penetrate the regions of the structure with compatible surface properties. Broad applications, for example in security, encryption and document authentication, as well as in areas such as simple microfluidics and diagnostics, are anticipated.

  10. Three-Dimensional Flow Generated by a Partially Penetrating Well in a Two-Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, N.

    2007-12-01

    An analytical solution is presented for three-dimensional (3D) flow in a confined aquifer and the overlying storative semiconfining layer and unconfined aquifer. The equation describing flow caused by a partially penetrating production well is solved analytically to provide a method to accurately determine the hydraulic parameters in the confined aquifer, semiconfining layer, and unconfined aquifer from aquifer-test data. Previous solutions for a partially penetrating well did not account for 3D flow or storativity in the semiconfining unit. The 3D and two- dimensional (2D) flow solutions in the semiconfining layer are compared for various hydraulic conductivity ratios between the aquifer and the semiconfining layer. Analysis of the drawdown data from an aquifer test in central Florida showed that the 3D solution in the semiconfining layer provides a more unique identification of the hydraulic parameters than the 2D solution. The analytical solution could be used to analyze, with higher accuracy, the effect that pumping water from the lower aquifer in a two-aquifer system has on wetlands.

  11. Effective Rheology of Two-Phase Flow in Three-Dimensional Porous Media: Experiment and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santanu; Bender, Andrew T; Danczyk, Matthew; Keepseagle, Kayla; Prather, Cody A; Bray, Joshua M; Thrane, Linn W; Seymour, Joseph D; Codd, Sarah L; Hansen, Alex

    2017-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of immiscible two-phase flow of Newtonian fluids in three-dimensional (3D) porous media to find the relationship between the volumetric flow rate ( Q ) and the total pressure difference ([Formula: see text]) in the steady state. We show that in the regime where capillary forces compete with the viscous forces, the distribution of capillary barriers at the interfaces effectively creates a yield threshold ([Formula: see text]), making the fluids reminiscent of a Bingham viscoplastic fluid in the porous medium. In this regime, Q depends quadratically on an excess pressure drop ([Formula: see text]). While increasing the flow rate, there is a transition, beyond which the overall flow is Newtonian and the relationship is linear. In our experiments, we build a model porous medium using a column of glass beads transporting two fluids, deionized water and air. For the numerical study, reconstructed 3D pore networks from real core samples are considered and the transport of wetting and non-wetting fluids through the network is modeled by tracking the fluid interfaces with time. We find agreement between our numerical and experimental results. Our results match with the mean-field results reported earlier.

  12. Large eddy simulation of new subgrid scale model for three-dimensional bundle flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsamian, H.R.; Hassan, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    Having led to increased inefficiencies and power plant shutdowns fluid flow induced vibrations within heat exchangers are of great concern due to tube fretting-wear or fatigue failures. Historically, scaling law and measurement accuracy problems were encountered for experimental analysis at considerable effort and expense. However, supercomputers and accurate numerical methods have provided reliable results and substantial decrease in cost. In this investigation Large Eddy Simulation has been successfully used to simulate turbulent flow by the numeric solution of the incompressible, isothermal, single phase Navier-Stokes equations. The eddy viscosity model and a new subgrid scale model have been utilized to model the smaller eddies in the flow domain. A triangular array flow field was considered and numerical simulations were performed in two- and three-dimensional fields, and were compared to experimental findings. Results show good agreement of the numerical findings to that of the experimental, and solutions obtained with the new subgrid scale model represent better energy dissipation for the smaller eddies. (author)

  13. Inertia-dependent dynamics of three-dimensional vesicles and red blood cells in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Wang, Shu Qi; He, Long; Xu, Feng; Bai, Bo Feng

    2013-10-28

    A three-dimensional (3D) simulation study of the effect of inertia on the dynamics of vesicles and red blood cells (RBCs) has not been reported. Here, we developed a 3D model based on the front tracking method to investigate how inertia affects the dynamics of spherical/non-spherical vesicles and biconcave-shaped RBCs with the Reynolds number ranging from 0.1 to 10. The results showed that inertia induced non-spherical vesicles transitioned from tumbling to swinging, which was not observed in previous 2D models. The critical viscosity ratio of inner/outer fluids for the tumbling–swinging transition remarkably increased with an increasing Reynolds number. The deformation of vesicles was greatly enhanced by inertia, and the frequency of tumbling and tank-treading was significantly decreased by inertia. We also found that RBCs can transit from tumbling to steady tank-treading through the swinging regime when the Reynolds number increased from 0.1 to 10. These results indicate that inertia needs to be considered at moderate Reynolds number (Re ~ 1) in the study of blood flow in the human body and the flow of deformable particle suspension in inertial microfluidic devices. The developed 3D model provided new insights into the dynamics of RBCs under shear flow, thus holding great potential to better understand blood flow behaviors under normal/disease conditions.

  14. Three Dimensional Response Spectrum Soil Structure Modeling Versus Conceptual Understanding To Illustrate Seismic Response Of Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touqan, Abdul Razzaq

    2008-01-01

    Present methods of analysis and mathematical modeling contain so many assumptions that separate them from reality and thus represent a defect in design which makes it difficult to analyze reasons of failure. Three dimensional (3D) modeling is so superior to 1D or 2D modeling, static analysis deviates from the true nature of earthquake load which is ''a dynamic punch'', and conflicting assumptions exist between structural engineers (who assume flexible structures on rigid block foundations) and geotechnical engineers (who assume flexible foundations supporting rigid structures). Thus a 3D dynamic soil-structure interaction is a step that removes many of the assumptions and thus clears reality to a greater extent. However such a model cannot be analytically analyzed. We need to anatomize and analogize it. The paper will represent a conceptual (analogical) 1D model for soil structure interaction and clarifies it by comparing its outcome with 3D dynamic soil-structure finite element analysis of two structures. The aim is to focus on how to calculate the period of the structure and to investigate effect of variation of stiffness on soil-structure interaction

  15. From Two- to Three-Dimensional Structures of a Supertetrahedral Boran Using Density Functional Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getmanskii, Iliya V; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Steglenko, Dmitrii V; Koval, Vitaliy V; Zaitsev, Stanislav A; Minkin, Vladimir I

    2017-08-14

    With help of the DFT calculations and imposing of periodic boundary conditions the geometrical and electronic structures were investigated of two- and three-dimensional boron systems designed on the basis of graphane and diamond lattices in which carbons were replaced with boron tetrahedrons. The consequent studies of two- and three-layer systems resulted in the construction of a three-dimensional supertetrahedral borane crystal structure. The two-dimensional supertetrahedral borane structures with less than seven layers are dynamically unstable. At the same time the three-dimensional superborane systems were found to be dynamically stable. Lack of the forbidden electronic zone for the studied boron systems testifies that these structures can behave as good conductors. The low density of the supertetrahedral borane crystal structures (0.9 g cm -3 ) is close to that of water, which offers the perspective for their application as aerospace and cosmic materials. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Unsteady single-phase natural circulation flow mixing prediction using CATHARE three-dimensional capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Anis Bousbia; Vlassenbroeck, Jacques [Bel V - Subsidiary of the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Contro, Brussels (Belize)

    2017-04-15

    Coolant mixing under natural circulation flow regime constitutes a key parameter that may play a role in the course of an accidental transient in a nuclear pressurized water reactor. This issue has motivated some experimental investigations carried out within the OECD/NEA PKL projects. The aim was to assess the coolant mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel downcomer and the core lower plenum under several asymmetric steady and unsteady flow conditions, and to provide experimental data for code validations. Former studies addressed the mixing phenomenon using, on the one hand, one-dimensional computational approaches with cross flows that are not fully validated under transient conditions and, on the other hand, expensive computational fluid dynamic tools that are not always justified for large-scale macroscopic phenomena. In the current framework, an unsteady coolant mixing experiment carried out in the Rossendorf coolant mixing test facility is simulated using the three-dimensional porous media capabilities of the thermal–hydraulic system CATHARE code. The current study allows highlighting the current capabilities of these codes and their suitability for reproducing the main phenomena occurring during asymmetric transient natural circulation mixing conditions.

  17. Computational strategies for three-dimensional flow simulations on distributed computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Weed, Richard A.

    1995-08-01

    This research effort is directed towards an examination of issues involved in porting large computational fluid dynamics codes in use within the industry to a distributed computing environment. This effort addresses strategies for implementing the distributed computing in a device independent fashion and load balancing. A flow solver called TEAM presently in use at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company was acquired to start this effort. The following tasks were completed: (1) The TEAM code was ported to a number of distributed computing platforms including a cluster of HP workstations located in the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech; a cluster of DEC Alpha Workstations in the Graphics visualization lab located at Georgia Tech; a cluster of SGI workstations located at NASA Ames Research Center; and an IBM SP-2 system located at NASA ARC. (2) A number of communication strategies were implemented. Specifically, the manager-worker strategy and the worker-worker strategy were tested. (3) A variety of load balancing strategies were investigated. Specifically, the static load balancing, task queue balancing and the Crutchfield algorithm were coded and evaluated. (4) The classical explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in the TEAM solver was replaced with an LU implicit scheme. And (5) the implicit TEAM-PVM solver was extensively validated through studies of unsteady transonic flow over an F-5 wing, undergoing combined bending and torsional motion. These investigations are documented in extensive detail in the dissertation, 'Computational Strategies for Three-Dimensional Flow Simulations on Distributed Computing Systems', enclosed as an appendix.

  18. The three-dimensional transient two-phase flow computer programme BACCHUS-3D/TP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni, M.; Dorr, B.; Homann, C.

    1992-04-01

    The three-dimensional single-phase flow version of the BACCHUS code, which describes the thermal behaviour of a coolant in hexagonal bundle geometry, developed earlier, provided the basis for the development of the two-phase flow version documented in this report. A detailed description is given of the two-phase Slip Model (SM), and of the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) as a subcase, which presents several improvements from both viewpoints of physical modelling and numerical treatment, with respect to usual models found in the literature. The most advanced Separated Phases Model (SPM) is then described in all analytical details necessary to fully understand its implementation in the code. Poblems related to the link between the two above models into an integrated code version are then discussed. The code provides an additional option for modelling of active or passive, permeable or impermeable blockages. This option is documented separately. New numerical methods for solving the algebraic systems of equations derived from the linearization of the fundamental equations have completely superseded previous ones and are explained in detail. Eventually a section is dedicated to an overview of the code verification, made over several years, which goes from steady state single-phase unheated bundle experiments up to fast transient two-phase flow experiments in electrically heated 37-pin bundles. (orig.) [de

  19. A Miniature Four-Hole Probe for Measurement of Three-Dimensional Flow with Large Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravirai Jangir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniature four-hole probe with a sensing area of 1.284 mm2 to minimise the measurement errors due to the large pressure and velocity gradients that occur in highly three-dimensional turbomachinery flows is designed, fabricated, calibrated, and validated. The probe has good spatial resolution in two directions, thus minimising spatial and flow gradient errors. The probe is calibrated in an open jet calibration tunnel at a velocity of 50 m/s in yaw and pitch angles range of ±40 degrees with an interval of 5 degrees. The calibration coefficients are defined, determined, and presented. Sensitivity coefficients are also calculated and presented. A lookup table method is used to determine the four unknown quantities, namely, total and static pressures and flow angles. The maximum absolute errors in yaw and pitch angles are 2.4 and 1.3 deg., respectively. The maximum absolute errors in total, static, and dynamic pressures are 3.4, 3.9, and 4.9% of the dynamic pressures, respectively. Measurements made with this probe, a conventional five-hole probe and a miniature Pitot probe across a calibration section, demonstrated that the errors due to gradient and surface proximity for this probe are considerably reduced compared to the five-hole probe.

  20. NUMERICAL RESEARCH ON THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIBER ORIENTATION DISTRIBUTION IN PLANAR SUSPENSION FLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Zhang

    Full Text Available Abstract To describe flow-induced fiber orientation, the Fokker-Planck equation is widely applied in the processing of composites and fiber suspensions. The analytical solution only exists when the Péclet number is infinite. So developing a numerical method covering a full range of Péclet number is of great significance. To accurately solve the Fokker-Planck equation, a numerical scheme based on the finite volume method is developed. Using spherical symmetry, the boundary is discretized and formulated into a cyclic tridiagonal matrix which is further solved by the CTDMA algorithm. To examine its validity, benchmark tests over a wide range of Péclet number are performed in a simple shear flow. For Pe=∞, the results agree well with the analytical solutions. For the other Pe numbers, the results are compared to results available in the literature. The tests show that this algorithm is accurate, stable, and globally conservative. Furthermore, this algorithm can be extended and used to predict the three-dimensional orientation distribution of complex suspension flows.

  1. Three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in non-uniform channel having flexible walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Abbas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this present analysis, three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in a non-uniform channel has been investigated. We have considered that the pressure is uniform over the whole cross section and the interial effects have been neglected. For this purpose we consider laminar flow under the assumptions of long wavelength (λ→∞ and creeping flow (Re→0 approximations. The attained highly nonlinear equations are solved with the help of Homotopy perturbation method. The influence of various physical parameters of interest is demonstrated graphically for wall tension, mass characterization, damping nature of the wall, wall rigidity, wall elastance, aspect ratio and the Weissenberg number. In this present investigation we found that the magnitude of the velocity is maximum in the center of the channel whereas it is minimum near the walls. Stream lines are also drawn to discuss the trapping mechanism for all the physical parameters. Comparison has also been presented between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.

  2. UV reactor flow visualization and mixing quantification using three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Varun; Roberts, Philip J W; Stoesser, Thorsten; Wright, Harold; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2011-07-01

    Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF) was applied to visualize and quantitatively analyze mixing in a lab-scale UV reactor consisting of one lamp sleeve placed perpendicular to flow. The recirculation zone and the von Karman vortex shedding that commonly occur in flows around bluff bodies were successfully visualized. Multiple flow paths were analyzed by injecting the dye at various heights with respect to the lamp sleeve. A major difference in these pathways was the amount of dye that traveled close to the sleeve, i.e., a zone of higher residence time and higher UV exposure. Paths away from the center height had higher velocities and hence minimal influence by the presence of sleeve. Approach length was also characterized in order to increase the probability of microbes entering the region around the UV lamp. The 3DLIF technique developed in this study is expected to provide new insight on UV dose delivery useful for the design and optimization of UV reactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational strategies for three-dimensional flow simulations on distributed computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Weed, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    This research effort is directed towards an examination of issues involved in porting large computational fluid dynamics codes in use within the industry to a distributed computing environment. This effort addresses strategies for implementing the distributed computing in a device independent fashion and load balancing. A flow solver called TEAM presently in use at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company was acquired to start this effort. The following tasks were completed: (1) The TEAM code was ported to a number of distributed computing platforms including a cluster of HP workstations located in the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech; a cluster of DEC Alpha Workstations in the Graphics visualization lab located at Georgia Tech; a cluster of SGI workstations located at NASA Ames Research Center; and an IBM SP-2 system located at NASA ARC. (2) A number of communication strategies were implemented. Specifically, the manager-worker strategy and the worker-worker strategy were tested. (3) A variety of load balancing strategies were investigated. Specifically, the static load balancing, task queue balancing and the Crutchfield algorithm were coded and evaluated. (4) The classical explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in the TEAM solver was replaced with an LU implicit scheme. And (5) the implicit TEAM-PVM solver was extensively validated through studies of unsteady transonic flow over an F-5 wing, undergoing combined bending and torsional motion. These investigations are documented in extensive detail in the dissertation, 'Computational Strategies for Three-Dimensional Flow Simulations on Distributed Computing Systems', enclosed as an appendix.

  4. Steady finite-Reynolds-number flows in three-dimensional collapsible tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Andrew L.; Heil, Matthias

    2003-07-01

    A fully coupled finite-element method is used to investigate the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a thin-walled elastic tube mounted between two rigid tubes. The steady three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are solved simultaneously with the equations of geometrically nonlinear Kirchhoff Love shell theory. If the transmural (internal minus external) pressure acting on the tube is sufficiently negative then the tube buckles non-axisymmetrically and the subsequent large deformations lead to a strong interaction between the fluid and solid mechanics. The main effect of fluid inertia on the macroscopic behaviour of the system is due to the Bernoulli effect, which induces an additional local pressure drop when the tube buckles and its cross-sectional area is reduced. Thus, the tube collapses more strongly than it would in the absence of fluid inertia. Typical tube shapes and flow fields are presented. In strongly collapsed tubes, at finite values of the Reynolds number, two ’jets‘ develop downstream of the region of strongest collapse and persist for considerable axial distances. For sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number, these jets impact upon the sidewalls and spread azimuthally. The consequent azimuthal transport of momentum dramatically changes the axial velocity profiles, which become approximately uTheta-shaped when the flow enters the rigid downstream pipe. Further convection of momentum causes the development of a ring-shaped velocity profile before the ultimate return to a parabolic profile far downstream.

  5. A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis in a vanadium flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qiong; Zhang, Huamin; Xing, Feng; Ma, Xiangkun; Li, Xianfeng; Ning, Guiling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis in a VFB has been developed. • A quasi-static thermal behavior and temperature spatial distribution were showed. • Ohmic heat gets vital in heat generation if applied current density is large enough. • A lower porosity or a faster flow shows a more uniform temperature distribution. • The model shows good prospect in heat and temperature management for a VFB. - Abstract: A three-dimensional model for thermal analysis has been developed to gain a better understanding of thermal behavior in a vanadium flow battery (VFB). The model is based on a comprehensive description of mass, momentum, charge and energy transport and conservation, combining with a global kinetic model for reactions involving all vanadium species. The emphasis in this paper is placed on the heat losses inside a cell. A quasi-static behavior of temperature and the temperature spatial distribution were characterized via the thermal model. The simulations also indicate that the heat generation exhibits a strong dependence on the applied current density. The reaction rate and the over potential rise with an increased applied current density, resulting in the electrochemical reaction heat rises proportionally and the activation heat rises at a parabolic rate. Based on the Ohm’s law, the ohmic heat rises at a parabolic rate when the applied current density increases. As a result, the determining heat source varies when the applied current density changes. While the relative contribution of the three types of heat is dependent on the cell materials and cell geometry, the regularities of heat losses can also be attained via the model. In addition, the electrochemical reaction heat and activation heat have a lack of sensitivity to the porosity and flow rate, whereas an obvious increase of ohmic heat has been observed with the rise of the porosity. A lower porosity or a faster flow shows a better uniformity of temperature distribution in

  6. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of Compound Lining in Complex Underground Surge-Shaft Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of lining structure of deep-embedded cylinder surge shaft with multifork tunnel is analyzed using three-dimensional nonlinear FEM. With the elastic-plastic constitutive relations of rock mass imported and the implicit bolt element and distributed concrete cracking model adopted, a computing method of complex surge shaft is presented for the simulation of underground excavations and concrete lining cracks. In order to reflect the interaction and initial gap between rock mass and concrete lining, a three-dimensional nonlinear interface element is adopted, which can take into account both the normal and tangential characteristics. By an actual engineering computation, the distortion characteristics and stress distribution rules of the dimensional multifork surge-shaft lining structure under different behavior are revealed. The results verify the rationality and feasibility of this computation model and method and provide a new idea and reference for the complex surge-shaft design and construction.

  7. A three-dimensional wide-angle BPM for optical waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbao; van Keuren, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Algorithms for effective modeling of optical propagation in three- dimensional waveguide structures are critical for the design of photonic devices. We present a three-dimensional (3-D) wide-angle beam propagation method (WA-BPM) using Hoekstra’s scheme. A sparse matrix algebraic equation is formed and solved using iterative methods. The applicability, accuracy and effectiveness of our method are demonstrated by applying it to simulations of wide-angle beam propagation, along with a technique for shifting the simulation window to reduce the dimension of the numerical equation and a threshold technique to further ensure its convergence. These techniques can ensure the implementation of iterative methods for waveguide structures by relaxing the convergence problem, which will further enable us to develop higher-order 3-D WA-BPMs based on Padé approximant operators.

  8. Three-Dimensional Steady Supersonic Euler Flow Past a Concave Cornered Wedge with Lower Pressure at the Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Aifang; Xiang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of the three-dimensional jet created by a supersonic flow past a concave cornered wedge with the lower pressure at the downstream. The gas beyond the jet boundary is assumed to be static. It can be formulated as a nonlinear hyperbolic free boundary problem in a cornered domain with two characteristic free boundaries of different types: one is the rarefaction wave, while the other one is the contact discontinuity, which can be either a vortex sheet or an entropy wave. A more delicate argument is developed to establish the existence and stability of the square jet structure under the perturbation of the supersonic incoming flow and the pressure at the downstream. The methods and techniques developed here are also helpful for other problems involving similar difficulties.

  9. Structural study of disordered SiC nanowires by three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Duan; Guo, Peng; Wan, Wei; Zou, Ji; Shen, Zhijian; Guzi de Moraes, Elisângela; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structure of disordered SiC nanowires was studied by using the three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction (RED) technique. The streaks shown in the RED images indicated the stacking faults of the nanowire. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging was employed to support the results from the RED data. It suggested that a 2H polytype is most possible for the nanowires. (paper)

  10. Optimal Layout Design using the Element Connectivity Parameterization Method: Application to Three Dimensional Geometrical Nonlinear Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-01-01

    The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty, the ele......) stiffness matrix of continuum finite elements. Therefore, any finite element code, including commercial codes, can be readily used for the ECP implementation. The key ideas and characteristics of these methods will be presented in this paper....

  11. Three-dimensional structure of Au nanoparticles supported on amorphous silica and carbon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, A; Li, Z Y

    2012-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) has been employed to study the three-dimensional structure of gold (Au) nanoparticles deposited by means of thermal evaporation in high vacuum on amorphous silica (a-SiO 2 ) and amorphous carbon (a-C) supports. By performing quantitative analysis on the evolution of the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images, we studied the influence of the nature and the temperature of support on the growth mode of gold nanoparticles.

  12. HOMOLOGY MODELING AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF DAHP SYNTHASE FROM BRACHYPODIUM DISTACHYON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Dev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Shikimate pathway is an attractive target for herbicides and antimicrobial agents because it is essential in microbes and plants but absent in animals. The 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS is the first enzyme of this pathway, which is involved in the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP and D-erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P to produce 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP. DAHPS enzymes have been divided into two types, class I and class II, based on their primary amino acid sequence and three dimensional structures. The plant DAHPS belongs to class II and is regulated differently than DAHPS from microorganisms. To understand the structural basis of such differences in DAHPS from plants and its catalytic mechanism, we have used sequence analysis, homology modeling and docking approach to generate the three dimensional models of DAHP synthase from Brachypodium distachyon (Bd-DAHPS complexed with substrate PEP for the first time. The three dimensional models of Bd-DAHPS provides a detailed knowledge of the active site and the important secondary structural regions that play significant roles in the regulatory mechanism and further may be helpful for design of specific inhibitors towards herbicide development.

  13. THREE DIMENSIONAL DIGITIZATION OF HUMAN HEAD BY FUSING STRUCTURED LIGHT AND CONTOURS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gang; Li Dehua; Hu Hanping; Hu Bing

    2002-01-01

    Three dimensional digitization of human head is desired in many applications. In this paper, an information fusion based scheme is presented to obtain 3-D information of human head. Structured light technology is employed to measure depth. For the special reflection areas,in which the structured light stripe can not be detected directly, the shape of the structured light stripe can be calculated from the corresponding contour. By fusing the information of structured light and the contours, the problem of reflectance influence is solved, and the whole shape of head,including hair area, can be obtained. Some good results are obtained.

  14. Three-dimensional features of GAM zonal flows in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, L.W.; Cheng, J.; Hong, W.Y.; Zhao, K.J.; Lan, T.; Dong, J.Q.; Liu, A.D.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, D.L.; Qian, J.; Huang, Y.; Yang, Q.W.; Ding, X.T.; Liu, Y.; Pan, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    A novel design of the three-step Langmuir probe (TSLP) array has been developed to investigate the zonal flow (ZF) physics in the HL-2A tokamak. Three TSLP arrays are applied to measure the three-dimensional (3D) features of ZFs. They are separated by 65 mm in the poloidal and 800 mm in the toroidal directions, respectively. The 3D properties of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) ZFs are presented. The poloidal and toroidal modes of the radial electric fields of the GAM perturbations are simultaneously determined in the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The modes have narrow radial wave numbers (k r ρ i = 0.03-0.07) and short radial scale lengths (2.4-4.2 cm). High coherence of both the GAM and the ambient turbulence separated by toroidal 22.5 0 along a magnetic field line is observed, which contrasts with the high coherence of the GAM and the low coherence of the ambient turbulence apart from the field line. The nonlinear three wave coupling between the turbulent fluctuations and the ZFs is a plausible mechanism for flow generation. The skewness and kurtosis spectra of the probability distribution function of the potential perturbations are contrasted with the corresponding bicoherence for the first time, which support the three wave coupling mechanism

  15. Three-dimensional visualization of material flow during friction stir welding by two pairs of X-ray transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisada, Y.; Fujii, H.; Kawahito, Y.; Nakata, K.; Tanaka, M.

    2011-01-01

    Material flow during friction stir welding is crucial to obtaining sound joints. However, this phenomenon is still not fully understood despite many investigations and numerous models. In this study, the material flow is three-dimensionally visualized by X-ray radiography using a tiny spherical tungsten tracer. The movement of the tracer during the friction stir welding is observed by two pairs of X-ray transmission real-time imaging systems. The three-dimensional material flow is obtained by following the locus of the tracer.

  16. Transition of a Three-Dimensional Unsteady Viscous Flow Analysis from a Research Environment to the Design Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Suzanne; Dorney, Daniel J.; Huber, Frank; Sheffler, David A.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The advent of advanced computer architectures and parallel computing have led to a revolutionary change in the design process for turbomachinery components. Two- and three-dimensional steady-state computational flow procedures are now routinely used in the early stages of design. Unsteady flow analyses, however, are just beginning to be incorporated into design systems. This paper outlines the transition of a three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow analysis from the research environment into the design environment. The test case used to demonstrate the analysis is the full turbine system (high-pressure turbine, inter-turbine duct and low-pressure turbine) from an advanced turboprop engine.

  17. Three-dimensional density and compressible magnetic structure in solar wind turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owen W.; Narita, Yasuhito; Escoubet, C.-Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The three-dimensional structure of both compressible and incompressible components of turbulence is investigated at proton characteristic scales in the solar wind. Measurements of the three-dimensional structure are typically difficult, since the majority of measurements are performed by a single spacecraft. However, the Cluster mission consisting of four spacecraft in a tetrahedral formation allows for a fully three-dimensional investigation of turbulence. Incompressible turbulence is investigated by using the three vector components of the magnetic field. Meanwhile compressible turbulence is investigated by considering the magnitude of the magnetic field as a proxy for the compressible fluctuations and electron density data deduced from spacecraft potential. Application of the multi-point signal resonator technique to intervals of fast and slow wind shows that both compressible and incompressible turbulence are anisotropic with respect to the mean magnetic field direction P⟂ ≫ P∥ and are sensitive to the value of the plasma beta (β; ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) and the wind type. Moreover, the incompressible fluctuations of the fast and slow solar wind are revealed to be different with enhancements along the background magnetic field direction present in the fast wind intervals. The differences in the fast and slow wind and the implications for the presence of different wave modes in the plasma are discussed.

  18. Self-assembly of three-dimensional open structures using patchy colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, D Zeb; Mao, Xiaoming

    2014-10-14

    Open structures can display a number of unusual properties, including a negative Poisson's ratio, negative thermal expansion, and holographic elasticity, and have many interesting applications in engineering. However, it is a grand challenge to self-assemble open structures at the colloidal scale, where short-range interactions and low coordination number can leave them mechanically unstable. In this paper we discuss the self-assembly of three-dimensional open structures using triblock Janus particles, which have two large attractive patches that can form multiple bonds, separated by a band with purely hard-sphere repulsion. Such surface patterning leads to open structures that are stabilized by orientational entropy (in an order-by-disorder effect) and selected over close-packed structures by vibrational entropy. For different patch sizes the particles can form into either tetrahedral or octahedral structural motifs which then compose open lattices, including the pyrochlore, the hexagonal tetrastack and the perovskite lattices. Using an analytic theory, we examine the phase diagrams of these possible open and close-packed structures for triblock Janus particles and characterize the mechanical properties of these structures. Our theory leads to rational designs of particles for the self-assembly of three-dimensional colloidal structures that are possible using current experimental techniques.

  19. Three-dimensional Shock Structure of the Orion KL Outflow with IGRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kaplan, Kyle; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Mace, Gregory; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of the three-dimensional (3D) outflow structure of a 15″ × 13″ area around the H2 peak 1 in Orion KL with slit-scan observations (13 slits) using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. The datacubes have a high-velocity resolution (˜7.5 km s-1), provide high-contrast imaging within ultra-narrow bands, and enable the detection of the main stream of the previously reported H2 outflow fingers. We identified 31 distinct fingers in the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm emission. The line profile at each finger shows multiple-velocity peaks with a strong low-velocity component around the systemic velocity at {V}{LSR} = +8 km s-1 and high-velocity emission (| {V}{LSR}| = 45-135 km s-1), indicating a typical bow-shock. The observed radial velocity gradients of ˜4 km s-1 arcsec-1 agree well with the velocities inferred from large-scale proper motions, where the projected motion is proportional to the distance from a common origin. We construct a conceptual 3D map of the fingers with estimated inclination angles of 57°-74°. The extinction difference (ΔA v > 10 mag) between blueshifted and redshifted fingers indicates high internal extinction. The extinction, the overall angular spread, and the scale of the flow argue for an ambient medium with a very high density (105-106 cm-3), consistent with molecular line observations of the Orion Molecular Cloud core. The radial velocity gradients and the 3D distributions of the fingers together support the hypothesis of a simultaneous radial explosion of the Orion KL outflow. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  20. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  1. Aerodynamic Analysis and Three-Dimensional Redesign of a Multi-Stage Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the introduction of three-dimension (3-D blade designs into a 5-stage axial compressor with multi-stage computational fluid dynamic (CFD methods. Prior to a redesign, a validation study is conducted for the overall performance and flow details based on full-scale test data, proving that the multi-stage CFD applied is a relatively reliable tool for the analysis of the follow-up redesign. Furthermore, at the near stall point, the aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that significant separation exists in the last stator, leading to the aerodynamic redesign, which is the focus of the last stator. Multi-stage CFD methods are applied throughout the three-dimensional redesign process for the last stator to explore their aerodynamic improvement potential. An unconventional asymmetric bow configuration incorporated with leading edge re-camber and re-solidity is employed to reduce the high loss region dominated by the mainstream. The final redesigned version produces a 13% increase in the stall margin while maintaining the efficiency at the design point.

  2. Three dimensional cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional local cerebral blood flow values were measured in 28 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease without dementia and 17 control subjects, by means of xenon enhanced CT method using low concentration cold xenon and autoradiographic strategy. The results demonstrated that local cerebral perfusion in the patients with Parkinson's disease decreased with close correlations with aging and severity of the clinical symptoms and signs. Stepwise multiregression analysis revealed that mean CBF values and 1-CBF values through thalamus and white matter decreased primarily depending on aging and degree of brain atrophy, whereas 1-CBF values through basal ganglia decreased depending on severity of disease. The spatial distributions of 1-CBF were maintained normally and symmetrically even in the severely affected cases or in those with hemiparkinsonism, therefore hyperfrontalities were well preserved in all of the patients. Acute intravenous administration of L-DOPA gave rise to a diffuse increase in 1-CBF only in the patients and the increment was more prominent in patients severely affected than in those mildly affected. It was concluded that reduction of 1-CBF in the basal ganglia and cortex may be attributed to hypometabolism in the mesostriatal and mesocortical dopaminergic system. (author)

  3. Three dimensional cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Takashi

    1987-07-01

    Three dimensional local cerebral blood flow values were measured in 28 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease without dementia and 17 control subjects, by means of xenon enhanced CT method using low concentration cold xenon and autoradiographic strategy. The results demonstrated that local cerebral perfusion in the patients with Parkinson's disease decreased with close correlations with aging and severity of the clinical symptoms and signs. Stepwise multiregression analysis revealed that mean CBF values and 1-CBF values through thalamus and white matter decreased primarily depending on aging and degree of brain atrophy, whereas 1-CBF values through basal ganglia decreased depending on severity of disease. The spatial distributions of 1-CBF were maintained normally and symmetrically even in the severely affected cases or in those with hemiparkinsonism, therefore hyperfrontalities were well preserved in all of the patients. Acute intravenous administration of L-DOPA gave rise to a diffuse increase in 1-CBF only in the patients and the increment was more prominent in patients severely affected than in those mildly affected. It was concluded that reduction of 1-CBF in the basal ganglia and cortex may be attributed to hypometabolism in the mesostriatal and mesocortical dopaminergic system.

  4. Development of the three dimensional flow model in the SPACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Myung Taek; Park, Chan Eok; Kim, Shin Whan

    2014-01-01

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE) is a nuclear plant safety analysis code, which has been developed in the Republic of Korea through a joint research between the Korean nuclear industry and research institutes. The SPACE code has been developed with multi-dimensional capabilities as a requirement of the next generation safety code. It allows users to more accurately model the multi-dimensional flow behavior that can be exhibited in components such as the core, lower plenum, upper plenum and downcomer region. Based on generalized models, the code can model any configuration or type of fluid system. All the geometric quantities of mesh are described in terms of cell volume, centroid, face area, and face center, so that it can naturally represent not only the one dimensional (1D) or three dimensional (3D) Cartesian system, but also the cylindrical mesh system. It is possible to simulate large and complex domains by modelling the complex parts with a 3D approach and the rest of the system with a 1D approach. By 1D/3D co-simulation, more realistic conditions and component models can be obtained, providing a deeper understanding of complex systems, and it is expected to overcome the shortcomings of 1D system codes. (author)

  5. Pore-scale simulation of fluid flow and solute dispersion in three-dimensional porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2014-07-31

    In the present work fluid flow and solute transport through porous media are described by solving the governing equations at the pore scale with finite-volume discretization. Instead of solving the simplified Stokes equation (very often employed in this context) the full Navier-Stokes equation is used here. The realistic three-dimensional porous medium is created in this work by packing together, with standard ballistic physics, irregular and polydisperse objects. Emphasis is placed on numerical issues related to mesh generation and spatial discretization, which play an important role in determining the final accuracy of the finite-volume scheme and are often overlooked. The simulations performed are then analyzed in terms of velocity distributions and dispersion rates in a wider range of operating conditions, when compared with other works carried out by solving the Stokes equation. Results show that dispersion within the analyzed porous medium is adequately described by classical power laws obtained by analytic homogenization. Eventually the validity of Fickian diffusion to treat dispersion in porous media is also assessed. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  6. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography can detect reliably ischemic coronary lesions based on fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo-Young; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Lennon, Ryan J; Gulati, Rajiv; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2015-06-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CAG) has limitations in evaluating lesions producing ischemia. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) shows reconstructed images of CAG using computer based algorithm, the Cardio-op B system (Paieon Medical, Rosh Ha'ayin, Israel). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3D-QCA can reliably predict ischemia assessed by myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) < 0.80. 3D-QCA images were reconstructed from CAG which also were evaluated with FFR to assess ischemia. Minimal luminal diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), minimal luminal area (MLA), and percent area stenosis (%AS) were obtained. The results of 3D-QCA and FFR were compared. A total of 266 patients was enrolled for the present study. FFR for all lesions ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 (0.85 ± 0.09). Measurement of MLD, %DS, MLA, and %AS all were significantly correlated with FFR (r = 0.569, 0609, 0.569, 0.670, respectively, all P < 0.001). In lesions with MLA < 4.0 mm(2), %AS of more than 65.5% had a 80% sensitivity and a 83% specificity to predict FFR < 0.80 (area under curve, AUC was 0.878). 3D-QCA can reliably predict coronary lesions producing ischemia and may be used to guide therapeutic approach for coronary artery disease.

  7. Three-dimensional three-component particle velocimetry for microscale flows using volumetric scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S A; Moran, J L; Posner, J D; Frakes, D H

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic platform for measuring three-dimensional three-component (3D3C) velocity fields in microscopic volumes. The imaging system uses high-speed Nipkow spinning disk confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy provides optical sectioning using pinhole spatial filtering which rejects light originating from out-of-focus objects. The system accomplishes volumetric scanning by rapid translation of the high numerical aperture objective using a piezo objective positioner. The motion of fluorescent microspheres is quantified using 3D3C super resolution particle-imaging velocimetry with instantaneous spatial resolutions of the order of 5 µm or less in all three dimensions. We examine 3D3C flow in a PDMS microchannel with an expanding section at 3D acquisition rates of 30 Hz, and find strong agreement with a computational model. Equations from the PIV and PTV literature adapted for a scanning objective provide estimates of maximum measurable velocity. The technique allows for isosurface visualization of 3D particle motion and robust high spatial resolution velocity measurements without requiring a calibration step or reconstruction algorithms. (paper)

  8. Insulin as a model to teach three-dimensional structure of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Teixeira da Rocha

    2018-02-01

    Proteins are the most ubiquitous macromolecules found in the living cells and have innumerous physiological functions. Therefore, it is fundamental to build a solid knowledge about the proteins three dimensional structure to better understand the living state. The hierarchical structure of proteins is usually studied in the undergraduate discipline of Biochemistry. Here we described pedagogical interventions designed to increase the preservice teacher chemistry students’ knowledge about protein structure. The activities were made using alternative and cheap materials to encourage the application of these simple methodologies by the future teachers in the secondary school. From the primary structure of insulin chains, students had to construct a three-dimensional structure of insulin. After the activities, the students highlighted an improvement of their previous knowledge about proteins structure. The construction of a tridimensional model together with other activities seems to be an efficient way to promote the learning about the structure of proteins to undergraduate students. The methodology used was inexpensiveness and simple and it can be used both in the university and in the high-school.

  9. Generation of a Three-Dimensional Kidney Structure from Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is a vital organ that has an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis by fluid volume regulation and waste product excretion. This role cannot be performed without the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the kidney. Therefore, it is important to generate the 3D structure of the kidney when inducing functional kidney tissue or the whole organ from pluripotent stem cells. In this chapter, we describe the detailed methods to induce kidney progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells, which are based on embryological development. We also provide a method to generate 3D kidney tissue with vascularized glomeruli upon transplantation.

  10. Endoscopic mode for three-dimensional CT display of normal and pathologic laryngeal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, Tetsuji; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Yumoto, Eiji; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    The recent development of helical (spiral) computed tomography allows collection of volumetric data to obtain high quality three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed images. The authors applied the 3D CT endoscopic imaging technique to asses normal and pathologic laryngeal structures. The latter included trauma, vocal fold atrophy, cancer of the larynx and recurrent nerve palsy. This technique was able to show normal laryngeal structures and characteristic findings of each pathology. The 3D CT endoscopic images can be rotated around any axis, allowing optimal depiction of pathologic lesion. The use of 3D CT endoscopic technique provides the display of the location and extent of pathology and affords accurate therapeutic planning. (author)

  11. Unique sail-like structure of cor triatriatum dexter in three-dimensional echocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ting Ting; Uy, Celia Catherine C; Wong, Raymond Ching Chiew

    2014-08-01

    Cor triatriatum dexter (CTD) is an extremely rare congenital condition arising from the persistence of the right valve of the sinus venosus. It divides the right atrium (RA) into 2 separate chambers. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who had an incidental finding of CTD on transesophageal echocardiogram. An incomplete membrane of the RA was seen, and three-dimensional echocardiogram delineated the structure clearly as a triangular sail-like structure with multiple orifices and a fenestration. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Complete three-dimensional photonic bandgap in a simple cubic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, J. G.; Lin, Robin; Sigalas, M. M.; Biswas, R.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    The creation of a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal with simple cubic (sc) symmetry is important for applications in the signal routing and 3D waveguiding of light. With a simple stacking scheme and advanced silicon processing, a 3D sc structure was constructed from a 6-in. silicon wafer. The sc structure is experimentally shown to have a complete 3D photonic bandgap in the infrared wavelength. The finite size effect is also observed, accounting for a larger absolute photonic bandgap

  13. An efficient semi-implicit method for three-dimensional non-hydrostatic flows in compliant arterial vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambri, Francesco; Dumbser, Michael; Casulli, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    Blood flow in arterial systems can be described by the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations within a time-dependent spatial domain that accounts for the elasticity of the arterial walls. In this article, blood is treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid that flows through compliant vessels of general cross section. A three-dimensional semi-implicit finite difference and finite volume model is derived so that numerical stability is obtained at a low computational cost on a staggered grid. The key idea of the method consists in a splitting of the pressure into a hydrostatic and a non-hydrostatic part, where first a small quasi-one-dimensional nonlinear system is solved for the hydrostatic pressure and only in a second step the fully three-dimensional non-hydrostatic pressure is computed from a three-dimensional nonlinear system as a correction to the hydrostatic one. The resulting algorithm is robust, efficient, locally and globally mass conservative, and applies to hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flows in one, two and three space dimensions. These features are illustrated on nontrivial test cases for flows in tubes with circular or elliptical cross section where the exact analytical solution is known. Test cases of steady and pulsatile flows in uniformly curved rigid and elastic tubes are presented. Wherever possible, axial velocity development and secondary flows are shown and compared with previously published results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J; Kang, Qinjun

    2012-04-01

    We present an improved three-dimensional 19-velocity lattice Boltzmann model for immisicible binary fluids with variable viscosity and density ratios. This model uses a perturbation step to generate the interfacial tension and a recoloring step to promote phase segregation and maintain surfaces. A generalized perturbation operator is derived using the concept of a continuum surface force together with the constraints of mass and momentum conservation. A theoretical expression for the interfacial tension is determined directly without any additional analysis and assumptions. The recoloring algorithm proposed by Latva-Kokko and Rothman is applied for phase segregation, which minimizes the spurious velocities and removes lattice pinning. This model is first validated against the Laplace law for a stationary bubble. It is found that the interfacial tension is predicted well for density ratios up to 1000. The model is then used to simulate droplet deformation and breakup in simple shear flow. We compute droplet deformation at small capillary numbers in the Stokes regime and find excellent agreement with the theoretical Taylor relation for the segregation parameter β=0.7. In the limit of creeping flow, droplet breakup occurs at a critical capillary number 0.35

  15. Comparison of swirling strengths derived from two- and three-dimensional velocity fields in channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huai; Li, Danxun; Bai, Ruonan; Wang, Xingkui

    2018-05-01

    Swirling strength is an effective vortex indicator in wall turbulence, and it can be determined based on either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) velocity fields, written as λci2D and λci3D, respectively. A comparison between λci2D and λci3D has been made in this paper in sliced XY, YZ, and XZ planes by using 3D DNS data of channel flow. The magnitude of λci2D in three orthogonal planes differs in the inner region, but the difference tends to diminish in the outer flow. The magnitude of λci3D exceeds each λci2D, and the square of λci3D is greater than the summation of squares of three λci2D. Extraction with λci2D in XY, YZ, and XZ planes yields different population densities and vortex sizes, i.e., in XZ plane, the vortices display the largest population density and the smallest size, and in XY and YZ planes the vortices are similar in size but fewer vortices are extracted in the XY plane in the inner layer. Vortex size increases inversely with the threshold used for growing the vortex region from background turbulence. When identical thresholds are used, the λci3D approach leads to a slightly smaller population density and a greater vortex radius than the λci2D approach. A threshold of 0.8 for the λci3D approach is approximately equivalent to a threshold of 1.5 for the λci2D approach.

  16. Model - including thermal creep effects - for the analysis of three-dimensional concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.; Favrod, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    This article presents the most recent developments and results of research carried out by IPEN to establish a mathematical model for the non-linear rheological three-dimensional analysis of massive prestressed concrete structures. The main point of these latest developments is the simulation of the creep of concrete submitted to high temperatures over a long period of time. This research, financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation, has taken an increased importance with the advent of nuclear reactor vessels of the HHT type and new conceptions concerning the cooling of their concrete (replacement of the thermal insulation by a zone of hot concrete). (orig.)

  17. An efficient closed-form solution for acoustic emission source location in three-dimensional structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient closed-form solution (ECS for acoustic emission(AE source location in three-dimensional structures using time difference of arrival (TDOA measurements from N receivers, N ≥ 6. The nonlinear location equations of TDOA are simplified to linear equations. The unique analytical solution of AE sources for unknown velocity system is obtained by solving the linear equations. The proposed ECS method successfully solved the problems of location errors resulting from measured deviations of velocity as well as the existence and multiplicity of solutions induced by calculations of square roots in existed close-form methods.

  18. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, R.G.; Frazão, N.F.; Macedo-Filho, A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  19. Electronic transport on the spatial structure of the protein: Three-dimensional lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, R.G. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Piauí, 64800-000 Floriano, PI (Brazil); Frazão, N.F. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 581750-000 Cuité, PB (Brazil); Macedo-Filho, A., E-mail: amfilho@gmail.com [Campus Prof. Antonio Geovanne Alves de Sousa, Universidade Estadual do Piauí, 64260-000 Piripiri, PI (Brazil)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The electronic transport on the structure of the three-dimensional lattice model of the protein is studied. • The signing of the current–voltage is directly affected by permutations of the weak bonds in the structure. • Semiconductor behave of the proteins suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors. - Abstract: We report a numerical analysis of the electronic transport in protein chain consisting of thirty-six standard amino acids. The protein chains studied have three-dimensional structure, which can present itself in three distinct conformations and the difference consist in the presence or absence of thirteen hydrogen-bondings. Our theoretical method uses an electronic tight-binding Hamiltonian model, appropriate to describe the protein segments modeled by the amino acid chain. We note that the presence and the permutations between weak bonds in the structure of proteins are directly related to the signing of the current–voltage. Furthermore, the electronic transport depends on the effect of temperature. In addition, we have found a semiconductor behave in the models investigated and it suggest a potential application in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of E. Coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 0.99 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Abramchik, Yu. A., E-mail: ugama@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Zhukhlistova, N. E., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB-ID: 4RJ2).

  1. Optical chracterization and lasing in three-dimensional opal-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki eNishijima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The lasing properties of dye-permeated opal pyramidal structures are compared with the lasing properties of opal films. The opal-structures studied were made by sedimentation of micro-spheres and by sol-gel inversion of the direct-opals. Forced-sedimentation by centrifugation inside wet-etched pyramidal pits on silicon surfaces was used to improve the structural quality of the direct-opal structures. Single crystalline pyramids with the base length of ∼ 100 µm were formed by centrifuged sedimentation. The lasing of dyes in the well-ordered crystalline and poly-crystalline structures showed a distinct multi-modal spectrum. Gain via a distributed feedback was responsible for the lasing since the photonic band gap was negligible in a low refractive index contrast medium; the indices of silica and ethylene glycol are 1.46 and 1.42, respectively. A disordered lasing spectrum was observed from opal films with structural defects and multi-domain regions. The three dimensional structural quality of the structures was assessed by in situ optical diffraction and confocal fluorescence. A correlation between the lasing spectrum and the three-dimensional structural quality was established. Lasing threshold of a sulforhodamine dye in a silica opal was controlled via Förster mechanism by addition of a donor rhodamine 6G dye. The lasing spectrum had a well-ordered modal structure which was spectrally stable at different excitation powers. The sharp lasing threshold characterized by a spontaneous emission coupling ratio β ' 10−2 was obtained.

  2. FREESURF: A three-dimensional finite-element model for simulating groundwater flow into and around an excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzman, Morley

    1992-07-15

    A three-dimensional finite-element code was developed and used to simulate the flow of groundwater towards an excavation in a saturated porous medium, allowing for seepage faces. An iterative procedure was used to predict the movement of the water table and the seepage flux. The numerical solution agreed well with experimental results from a sandbox experiment. (auth)

  3. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  4. impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns : three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; De Vries, M.B.; Wang, Z.B.; Govers, G.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was used to study the relative impact of (1) vegetation, (2) micro-topography, and (3) water level fluctuations on the spatial flow and sedimentation patterns in a tidal marsh landscape during single inundation events. The model

  5. Impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns : three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Govers, G.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vries, M.B.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport model was used to study the relative impact of (1) vegetation, (2) micro-topography, and (3) water level fluctuations on the spatial flow and sedimentation patterns in a tidal marsh landscape during single inundation events. The model

  6. Numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow in a scroll expander applied in waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P P; Wei, M S; Shi, L; Ma, C C

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of a scroll expander were performed with dynamic mesh technology. R245fa was selected as the working fluid in the simulations. The PISO algorithm was applied to solve the governing equations with RNG k-ε turbulent model. The distribution and variation of three-dimensional flow field inside the scroll expander were obtained. The research indicates that the flow field is nonuniform and asymmetrical distributions exist inside the expander. Vortex flows also exist in some working chambers. Dynamic clearance leakage flows and inlet orifice throttling have great effects on the flow field distribution. Transient output torque and the mass flux have periodic fluctuations during the working cycles

  7. TIPdb-3D: the three-dimensional structure database of phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Jheng, Jhao-Liang; Li, Jih-Heng

    2014-01-01

    The rich indigenous and endemic plants in Taiwan serve as a resourceful bank for biologically active phytochemicals. Based on our TIPdb database curating bioactive phytochemicals from Taiwan indigenous plants, this study presents a three-dimensional (3D) chemical structure database named TIPdb-3D to support the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds. The Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF94) was used to generate 3D structures of phytochemicals in TIPdb. The 3D structures could facilitate the analysis of 3D quantitative structure-activity relationship, the exploration of chemical space and the identification of potential pharmacologically active compounds using protein-ligand docking. Database URL: http://cwtung.kmu.edu.tw/tipdb. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Interaction Deep Excavation Adjacent Structure Numerical Two and Three Dimensional Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, M.; Chehade, F. H.; Chehade, W.; Fawaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Urban development often requires the construction of deep excavations near to buildings or other structures. We have to study complex material structure interactions where we should take into consideration several particularities. In this paper, we perform a numerical modeling with the finite element method, using PLAXIS software, of the interaction deep excavation-diaphragm wall-soil-structure in the case of non linear soil behavior. We focus our study on a comparison of the results given respectively by two and three dimensional modelings. This allows us to give some recommendations concerning the validity of twodimensional study. We perform a parametric study according to the initial loading on the structure and the struts number. (author)

  9. Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.

  10. Structure of modes of smoothly irregular three-dimensional integrated optical four-layer waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.A.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Sevast'yanov, A.L.; Sevast'yanov, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a method of research of an integrated optical multilayer waveguide, satisfying the condition of smooth modification of the shape of the studied three-dimensional structure, an asymptotic method is used. Three-dimensional fields of smoothly deforming modes of the integrated optical waveguide are circumscribed analytically. An evident dependence of the contributions of the first order of smallness in the amplitudes of the electrical and magnetic fields of the quasi-waveguide modes is obtained. The canonical type of the equations circumscribing propagation of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes in the smoothly irregular part of a four-layer integrated optical waveguide is represented for an asymptotic method. With the help of the method of coupled waves and perturbation theory method, the shifts of complex propagation constants for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes are obtained in an explicit form. The elaborated theory is applicable for the analysis of similar structures of dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials in a sufficiently broad band of electromagnetic wavelengths

  11. Preservation of three-dimensional spatial structure in the gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Preservation of three-dimensional structure in the gut is necessary in order to analyze the spatial organization of the gut microbiota and gut luminal contents. In this study, we evaluated preparation methods for mouse gut with the goal of preserving micron-scale spatial structure while performing fluorescence imaging assays. Our evaluation of embedding methods showed that commonly used media such as Tissue-Tek Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT compound, paraffin, and polyester waxes resulted in redistribution of luminal contents. By contrast, a hydrophilic methacrylate resin, Technovit H8100, preserved three-dimensional organization. Our mouse intestinal preparation protocol optimized using the Technovit H8100 embedding method was compatible with microbial fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and other labeling techniques, including immunostaining and staining with both wheat germ agglutinin (WGA and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Mucus could be visualized whether the sample was fixed with paraformaldehyde (PFA or with Carnoy's fixative. The protocol optimized in this study enabled simultaneous visualization of micron-scale spatial patterns formed by microbial cells in the mouse intestines along with biogeographical landmarks such as host-derived mucus and food particles.

  12. NASA-VOF3D: A three-dimensional computer program for incompressible flows with free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, M. D.; Mjolsness, R. C.; Stein, L. R.

    1987-07-01

    Presented is the NASA-VOF3D three-dimensional, transient, free-surface hydrodynamics program. This three-dimensional extension of NASA-VOF2D will, in principle, permit treatment in full three-dimensional generality of the wide variety of applications that could be treated by NASA-VOF2D only within the two-dimensional idealization. In particular, it, like NASA-VOF2D, is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low g environment. The code is presently restricted to cylindrical geometry. The code is based on the fractional volume-of-fluid method and allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion. It also has a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. This report provides a brief discussion of the numerical method, a code listing, and some sample problems.

  13. Approximation and stability of three-dimensional natural convection flows in a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janotto, Marie-Laurence

    1991-01-01

    The equations of the three-dimensional natural convection in a porous medium within a differentially heated horizontal walls cavity are solved by a pseudo-spectral method. First we will present the evolution of the two main modes according to two models of convection. A few asymptotic properties connected to the small and large eddies are set up and numerically validated. A new approximate inertial manifold is then proposed. The numerical scheme used is an exponential fitting algorithm the convergence of which is proved. We will present the physical mechanism at the origin of the un-stationary three-dimensional convection at high Rayleigh numbers. (author) [fr

  14. Lagrangian transport characteristics of a class of three-dimensional inline-mixing flows with fluid inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speetjens, M. F. M.; Demissie, E. A.; Metcalfe, G.; Clercx, H. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Laminar mixing by the inline-mixing principle is a key to many industrial fluids-engineering systems of size extending from micrometers to meters. However, insight into fundamental transport phenomena particularly under the realistic conditions of three-dimensionality (3D) and fluid inertia remains limited. This study addresses these issues for inline mixers with cylindrical geometries and adopts the Rotated Arc Mixer (RAM) as a representative system. Transport is investigated from a Lagrangian perspective by identifying and examining coherent structures that form in the 3D streamline portrait. 3D effects and fluid inertia introduce three key features that are not found in simplified configurations: transition zones between consecutive mixing cells of the inline-mixing flow; local upstream flow (in certain parameter regimes); transition/inertia-induced breaking of symmetries in the Lagrangian equations of motion (causing topological changes in coherent structures). Topological considerations strongly suggest that there nonetheless always exists a net throughflow region between inlet and outlet of the inline-mixing flow that is strictly separated from possible internal regions. The Lagrangian dynamics in this region admits representation by a 2D time-periodic Hamiltonian system. This establishes one fundamental kinematic structure for the present class of inline-mixing flows and implies universal behavior in that all states follow from the Hamiltonian breakdown of one common integrable state. A so-called period-doubling bifurcation is the only way to eliminate transport barriers originating from this state and thus is a necessary (yet not sufficient) condition for global chaos. Important in a practical context is that a common simplification in literature, i.e., cell-wise fully-developed Stokes flow (“2.5D approach”), retains these fundamental kinematic properties and deviates from the generic 3D inertial case only in a quantitative sense. This substantiates its

  15. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner

  16. Three-dimensional numerical study of flow and heat transfer from a cube placed in a uniform flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    The fluid flow and heat transfer from a stationary cube placed in a uniform flow is studied numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier Stokes and energy equations are solved using higher order temporal and spatial discretizations. Computations are carried out for a Reynolds number range of 50-400. At Re = 218, the symmetry seen at Re = 216 breaks down in one of the orthogonal planes while remains symmetric on the other thus showing a planar symmetry. The flow experiences a Hopf bifurcation at a Reynolds number between 265 and 270 and becomes unsteady. The thermal field also shows all the transitions same as those of flow transitions. The drag coefficient decreases while the heat transfer shows an increasing trend with Reynolds number. The transition from a steady to an unsteady flow does not show any significant increase in the heat transfer. Both the flow and thermal fields show multiple frequencies at high Reynolds number and the number of frequencies increases with the increase in Reynolds number. The instantaneous flow and temperature field are seen to deviate from planar symmetry at Re = 400

  17. Three dimensional flow phenomena in fluid machinery; Proceedings of the winter annual meeting, Miami Beach, FL, November 17-22, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A.; Herring, J.; Povinelli, L.

    1985-01-01

    Papers in this volume provide an overview of the latest developments in experimental measurements and analytical and numerical predictions of three-dimensional flows in fluid machinery. Topics discussed include three-dimensional cascade testing of turbine nozzles at high exit Mach number; the use of a secondary flow computation in the compressor design process; an experimental investigation of static propeller flow field; and calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotating turbine blades. Papers are also presented on a three-dimensional solution method for turbomachinery analysis; analysis of rotational inviscid flows in curved passages; and a mathematical model for the analysis of fluid flow in a scroll

  18. Three-dimensional structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella/cilia by electron cryo-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Khanh Huy; Pigino, Gaia; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Based on the molecular architecture revealed by electron cryo-tomography, the mechanism of the bending motion of eukaryotic flagella/cilia is discussed. Electron cryo-tomography is a potential approach to analyzing the three-dimensional conformation of frozen hydrated biological macromolecules using electron microscopy. Since projections of each individual object illuminated from different orientations are merged, electron tomography is capable of structural analysis of such heterogeneous environments as in vivo or with polymorphism, although radiation damage and the missing wedge are severe problems. Here, recent results on the structure of eukaryotic flagella, which is an ATP-driven bending organelle, from green algae Chlamydomonas are presented. Tomographic analysis reveals asymmetric molecular arrangements, especially that of the dynein motor proteins, in flagella, giving insight into the mechanism of planar asymmetric bending motion. Methodological challenges to obtaining higher-resolution structures from this technique are also discussed

  19. Method to planarize three-dimensional structures to enable conformal electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Rebecca J; Conway, Adam M; Graff, Robert T; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F; Shao, Qinghui

    2012-11-20

    Methods for fabricating three-dimensional PIN structures having conformal electrodes are provided, as well as the structures themselves. The structures include a first layer and an array of pillars with cavity regions between the pillars. A first end of each pillar is in contact with the first layer. A segment is formed on the second end of each pillar. The cavity regions are filled with a fill material, which may be a functional material such as a neutron sensitive material. The fill material covers each segment. A portion of the fill material is etched back to produce an exposed portion of the segment. A first electrode is deposited onto the fill material and each exposed segment, thereby forming a conductive layer that provides a common contact to each the exposed segment. A second electrode is deposited onto the first layer.

  20. Three-dimensional structure of recombinant carboxypeptidase T from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris without calcium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akparov, V. Kh.; Timofeev, V. I.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2011-07-01

    Crystals of recombinant carboxypeptidase T (CPT) from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris were grown in a capillary by the counterdiffusion method in the absence of calcium ions. The three-dimensional structure of CPT was solved at 1.69-Å resolution using the X-ray diffraction data collected from the crystals of the enzyme on the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and was then refined to Rfact = 16.903% and Rfree = 18.165%. The coordinates of the refined model were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB ID: 3QNV). A comparison of this structure with the structure of wild-type CPT containing bound calcium ions, which was determined earlier, revealed a number of conformational changes both in the calcium-binding sites and the enzyme active site. Based on the results of this comparison, the possible factors responsible for the difference in the catalytic activity of the two forms of the enzyme are considered.

  1. Spin-ice behavior of three-dimensional inverse opal-like magnetic structures: Micromagnetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitskiy, I. S.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Mistonov, A. A.; Sapoletova, N. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We perform micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization distribution in inverse opal-like structures (IOLS) made from ferromagnetic materials (nickel and cobalt). It is shown that the unit cell of these complex structures, whose characteristic length is approximately 700 nm, can be divided into a set of structural elements some of which behave like Ising-like objects. A spin-ice behavior of IOLS is observed in a broad range of external magnetic fields. Numerical results describe successfully the experimental hysteresis curves of the magnetization in Ni- and Co-based IOLS. We conclude that ferromagnetic IOLS can be considered as the first realization of three-dimensional artificial spin ice. The problem is discussed of optimal geometrical properties and material characteristics of IOLS for the spin-ice rule fulfillment.

  2. Three dimensional complex plasma structures in a combined radio frequency and direct current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S.; Morfill, G. E.; Klumov, B. A.; Khrapak, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first detailed analysis of large three dimensional (3D) complex plasma structures in experiments performed in pure rf and combined rf+dc discharge modes. Inductively coupled plasma is generated by an rf coil wrapped around the vertically positioned cylindrical glass tube at a pressure of 0.3 mbar. In addition, dc plasma can be generated by applying voltage to the electrodes at the ends of the tube far from the rf coil. The injected monodisperse particles are levitated in the plasma below the coil. A scanning laser sheet and a high resolution camera are used to determine the 3D positions of about 10 5 particles. The observed bowl-shaped particle clouds reveal coexistence of various structures, including well-distinguished solid-like, less ordered liquid-like, and pronounced string-like phases. New criteria to identify string-like structures are proposed.

  3. Sub-15 fs multiphoton lithography of three-dimensional structures for live cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; König, Karsten; Straub, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Development, morphology and intratissue location of cells are influenced by the 3D nano- and microenvironment. In this paper we demonstrate multiphoton photopolymerization to generate three-dimensional structures for cell culture applications with micro- and nanotopographic features using SU-8 photoresist and mr-NIL 6000 nanoimprint resist. Moving the focal spot of high-repetition rate near-infrared sub-15 fs pulsed laser light by a galvanometric beam scanner in combination with a piezoelectric vertical stage, nearly arbitrary trajectories of polymerized photoresist were generated. This technique can be used to generate cage structures with submicron interior features for live cell applications. Preliminary experiments with PC-3 and HT-1080 cells indicate the influence of the structures on cell behavior. (paper)

  4. Advances in high-resolution imaging--techniques for three-dimensional imaging of cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidke, Diane S; Lidke, Keith A

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental goal in biology is to determine how cellular organization is coupled to function. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of organelle composition and structure is needed. Although visualization of cellular organelles using fluorescence or electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool for the cell biologist, recent advances are providing a clearer picture of the cell than ever before. In particular, advanced light-microscopy techniques are achieving resolutions below the diffraction limit and EM tomography provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of cellular structures. The ability to perform both fluorescence and electron microscopy on the same sample (correlative light and electron microscopy, CLEM) makes it possible to identify where a fluorescently labeled protein is located with respect to organelle structures visualized by EM. Here, we review the current state of the art in 3D biological imaging techniques with a focus on recent advances in electron microscopy and fluorescence super-resolution techniques.

  5. Three-dimensional structure of the enzyme dimanganese catalase from thermus thermophilus at 1 A resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonyuk, S.V.; Melik-Adamyan, V.R.; Popov, A.N.; Lamzin, V.S.; Hempstead, P.D.; Harrison, P.M.; Artymyuk, P.J.; Barynin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structures of two forms of the enzyme dimanganese catalase from Thermus Thermophilus (native and inhibited by chloride) were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.05 and 0.98 A resolution, respectively. The atomic models of the molecules were refined to the R factors 9.8 and 10%, respectively. The three-dimensional molecular structures are characterized in detail. The analysis of electron-density distributions in the active centers of the native and inhibited enzyme forms revealed that the most flexible side chains of the amino acid residues Lys162 and Glu36 exist in two interrelated conformations. This allowed us to obtain the structural data necessary for understanding the mechanism of enzymatic activity of the dimanganese catalase

  6. A Three-Dimensional, Immersed Boundary, Finite Volume Method for the Simulation of Incompressible Heat Transfer Flows around Complex Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Badreddine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work focuses on the development and application of a new finite volume immersed boundary method (IBM to simulate three-dimensional fluid flows and heat transfer around complex geometries. First, the discretization of the governing equations based on the second-order finite volume method on Cartesian, structured, staggered grid is outlined, followed by the description of modifications which have to be applied to the discretized system once a body is immersed into the grid. To validate the new approach, the heat conduction equation with a source term is solved inside a cavity with an immersed body. The approach is then tested for a natural convection flow in a square cavity with and without circular cylinder for different Rayleigh numbers. The results computed with the present approach compare very well with the benchmark solutions. As a next step in the validation procedure, the method is tested for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS of a turbulent flow around a surface-mounted matrix of cubes. The results computed with the present method compare very well with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements of the same case, showing that the method can be used for scale-resolving simulations of turbulence as well.

  7. Charge transport in the electrospun nanofiber composite membrane's three-dimensional fibrous structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGostin, Matthew B.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Myles, Timothy D.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a Fiber Network (FN) ion transport model is developed to simulate the three-dimensional fibrous microstructural morphology that results from the electrospinning membrane fabrication process. This model is able to approximate fiber layering within a membrane as well as membrane swelling due to water uptake. The discrete random fiber networks representing membranes are converted to resistor networks and solved for current flow and ionic conductivity. Model predictions are validated by comparison with experimental conductivity data from electrospun anion exchange membranes (AEM) and proton exchange membranes (PEM) for fuel cells as well as existing theories. The model is capable of predicting in-plane and thru-plane conductivity and takes into account detailed membrane characteristics, such as volume fraction, fiber diameter, fiber conductivity, and membrane layering, and as such may be used as a tool for advanced electrode design.

  8. Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hai-Qiong; Zeng Zhong; Zhang Liang-Qi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. (paper)

  9. CHANGE: A numerical model for three-dimensional modelling of channelized flow in rock: Theory and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, D.; Long, J.C.S.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.

    1990-03-01

    A model for channelized flow in three-dimensional, random networks of fractures has been developed. In this model, the fractures are disc-shaped discontinuities in an impermeable matrix. Within each fracture, flow occurs only in a network of random channels. The channels in each fracture can be generated independently with random distributions of length, conductivity, and orientation in the fracture plane. Boundary conditions are specified on the sides of a ''flow region,'' and at the intersections of the channels with interior ''holes'' specified by the user to simulate boreholes or drifts. This code is part of a set of programs used to generate two-dimensional or three-dimensional random fracture networks, plot them, compute flow through them and analyze the results. 8 refs., 13 figs

  10. Regularized lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model for two- and three-dimensional cavity flow simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, A; Falcucci, G; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the accuracy and performance of the regularized version of the single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equation for the case of two- and three-dimensional lid-driven cavities. The regularized version is shown to provide a significant gain in stability over the standard single-relaxation time, at a moderate computational overhead.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PERFORMANCE OF COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamaliev Farit Sakhapovich

    2012-12-01

    steel-concrete slabs limits their use in the construction of residential housing. This article describes the composition, geometry, reinforcement, and anchors to enable the use of concrete slabs and steel beams. The article contains photographs that illustrate the load distribution model. Methods of testing of fiber strains of concrete slabs and steel profiles, deflections of beams, shear stresses in the layers of the "steel-to-concrete" contact area that may involve slab cracking are analyzed. Dynamics of fiber deformations of concrete slabs, steel beams, and layers of the "steel-to-concrete" contact areas, deflection development patterns, initial cracking and crack development to destruction are analyzed. The author also describes the fracture behavior of the floor model. Results of experimental studies of the three-dimensional overlapping of structural elements are compared to the test data of individual composite beams. Peculiarities of the stress-strain state of composite steel and concrete slabs, graphs of strains and stresses developing in sections of middle and external steel-and-concrete beams, deflection graphs depending on the loading intensity are provided. The findings of the experimental studies of the three-dimensional performance of composite steel-and-concrete slabs are provided, as well.

  12. The application of finite volume methods for modelling three-dimensional incompressible flow on an unstructured mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, R. D.; Webster, R.

    This paper demonstrates the application of a simple finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, combining the economy of the former with the geometrical flexibility of the latter. The procedure is used to model a three-dimensional flow on a mesh of linear eight-node brick (hexahedra). Simulations are performed for a wide range of flow problems, some in excess of 94,000 nodes. The resulting computer code ASTEC that incorporates these procedures is described.

  13. Flow Visualization of Three-Dimensionality Inside the 12 cc Penn State Pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    OpenAIRE

    Roszelle, Breigh N.; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B.

    2010-01-01

    In order to aid the ongoing concern of limited organ availability for pediatric heart transplants, Penn State has continued development of a pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device (PVAD). Initial studies of the PVAD observed an increase in thrombus formation due to differences in flow field physics when compared to adult sized devices, which included a higher degree of three-dimensionality. This unique flow field brings into question the use of 2D planar particle image velocimetry (PIV...

  14. Validation of Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Prediction of Three-Dimensional Structures of Small Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Koichi; Nakayoshi, Tomoki; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Kurimoto, Eiji; Oda, Akifumi

    2017-10-12

    Although various higher-order protein structure prediction methods have been developed, almost all of them were developed based on the three-dimensional (3D) structure information of known proteins. Here we predicted the short protein structures by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in which only Newton's equations of motion were used and 3D structural information of known proteins was not required. To evaluate the ability of MD simulationto predict protein structures, we calculated seven short test protein (10-46 residues) in the denatured state and compared their predicted and experimental structures. The predicted structure for Trp-cage (20 residues) was close to the experimental structure by 200-ns MD simulation. For proteins shorter or longer than Trp-cage, root-mean square deviation values were larger than those for Trp-cage. However, secondary structures could be reproduced by MD simulations for proteins with 10-34 residues. Simulations by replica exchange MD were performed, but the results were similar to those from normal MD simulations. These results suggest that normal MD simulations can roughly predict short protein structures and 200-ns simulations are frequently sufficient for estimating the secondary structures of protein (approximately 20 residues). Structural prediction method using only fundamental physical laws are useful for investigating non-natural proteins, such as primitive proteins and artificial proteins for peptide-based drug delivery systems.

  15. Influence of flow conditions and matrix coatings on growth and differentiation of three-dimensionally cultured rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Henning C; Havers, Joerg; Kneser, Ulrich; Smith, Molly K; Moeller, Tim; Kluth, Dietrich; Mooney, David J; Rogiers, Xavier; Kaufmann, Peter M

    2004-01-01

    Maintenance of liver-specific function of hepatocytes in culture is still difficult. Improved culture conditions may enhance the cell growth and function of cultured cells. We investigated the effect of three-dimensional culture under flow conditions, and the influence of surface modifications in hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were harvested from Lewis rats. Cells were cultured on three-dimensional polymeric poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) matrices in static culture, or in a pulsatile flow-bioreactor system. Different surface modifications of matrices were investigated: coating with collagen I, collagen IV, laminin, or fibronectin; or uncoated matrix. Hepatocyte numbers, DNA content, and albumin secretion rate were assessed over the observation period. Culture under flow condition significantly enhanced cell numbers. An additional improvement of this effect was observed, when matrix coating was used. Cellular function also showed a significant increase (4- to 5-fold) under flow conditions when compared with static culture. Our data showed that culture under flow conditions improves cell number, and strongly enhances cellular function. Matrix modification by coating with extracellular matrix showed overall an additive stimulatory effect. Our conclusion is that combining three-dimensional culture under flow conditions and using matrix modification significantly improves culture conditions and is therefore attractive for the development of successful culture systems for hepatocytes.

  16. The experimental study of hydrodynamic characteristics of the overland flow on a slope with three-dimensional Geomat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-yue; Sun, Guo-rui; Li, Jian-kang; Li, Jiong

    2018-02-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of the overland flow on a slope with a three-dimensional Geomat are studied for different rainfall intensities and slope gradients. The rainfall intensity is adjusted in the rainfall simulation system. It is shown that the velocity of the overland flow has a strong positive correlation with the slope length and the rainfall intensity, the scour depth decreases with the increase of the slope gradient for a given rainfall intensity, and the scour depth increases with the increase of the rainfall intensity for a given slope gradient, the overland flow starts with a transitional flow on the top and finishes with a turbulent flow on the bottom on the slope with the three-dimensional Geomat for different rainfall intensities and slope gradients, the resistance coefficient and the turbulent flow Reynolds number are in positively related logarithmic functions, the resistance coefficient and the slope gradient are in positively related power functions, and the trend becomes leveled with the increase of the rainfall intensity. This study provides some important theoretical insight for further studies of the hydrodynamic process of the erosion on the slope surface with a three-dimensional Geomat.

  17. Three-dimensional coating and rimming flow: a ring of fluid on a rotating horizontal cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Leslie, G. A.

    2013-01-29

    The steady three-dimensional flow of a thin, slowly varying ring of Newtonian fluid on either the outside or the inside of a uniformly rotating large horizontal cylinder is investigated. Specifically, we study \\'full-ring\\' solutions, corresponding to a ring of continuous, finite and non-zero thickness that extends all of the way around the cylinder. In particular, it is found that there is a critical solution corresponding to either a critical load above which no full-ring solution exists (if the rotation speed is prescribed) or a critical rotation speed below which no full-ring solution exists (if the load is prescribed). We describe the behaviour of the critical solution and, in particular, show that the critical flux, the critical load, the critical semi-width and the critical ring profile are all increasing functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of small rotation speed, the critical flux is small and the critical ring is narrow and thin, leading to a small critical load. In the limit of large rotation speed, the critical flux is large and the critical ring is wide on the upper half of the cylinder and thick on the lower half of the cylinder, leading to a large critical load. We also describe the behaviour of the non-critical full-ring solution and, in particular, show that the semi-width and the ring profile are increasing functions of the load but, in general, non-monotonic functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of large rotation speed, the ring approaches a limiting non-uniform shape, whereas in the limit of small load, the ring is narrow and thin with a uniform parabolic profile. Finally, we show that, while for most values of the rotation speed and the load the azimuthal velocity is in the same direction as the rotation of the cylinder, there is a region of parameter space close to the critical solution for sufficiently small rotation speed in which backflow occurs in a small region on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. © 2013

  18. Three-dimensional coating and rimming flow: a ring of fluid on a rotating horizontal cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Leslie, G. A.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    The steady three-dimensional flow of a thin, slowly varying ring of Newtonian fluid on either the outside or the inside of a uniformly rotating large horizontal cylinder is investigated. Specifically, we study 'full-ring' solutions, corresponding to a ring of continuous, finite and non-zero thickness that extends all of the way around the cylinder. In particular, it is found that there is a critical solution corresponding to either a critical load above which no full-ring solution exists (if the rotation speed is prescribed) or a critical rotation speed below which no full-ring solution exists (if the load is prescribed). We describe the behaviour of the critical solution and, in particular, show that the critical flux, the critical load, the critical semi-width and the critical ring profile are all increasing functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of small rotation speed, the critical flux is small and the critical ring is narrow and thin, leading to a small critical load. In the limit of large rotation speed, the critical flux is large and the critical ring is wide on the upper half of the cylinder and thick on the lower half of the cylinder, leading to a large critical load. We also describe the behaviour of the non-critical full-ring solution and, in particular, show that the semi-width and the ring profile are increasing functions of the load but, in general, non-monotonic functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of large rotation speed, the ring approaches a limiting non-uniform shape, whereas in the limit of small load, the ring is narrow and thin with a uniform parabolic profile. Finally, we show that, while for most values of the rotation speed and the load the azimuthal velocity is in the same direction as the rotation of the cylinder, there is a region of parameter space close to the critical solution for sufficiently small rotation speed in which backflow occurs in a small region on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. © 2013 Cambridge

  19. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures: W3D-VBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Hatfield, Paul; Onal, Erhan; Tong, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Major efforts are being made to improve the teaching of human anatomy to foster cognition of visuospatial relationships. The Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine makes it possible to create virtual reality-based applications for teaching anatomy. Integration of traditional cadaver and illustration-based methods with Internet-based simulations brings us closer to this goal. Web-based three-dimensional Virtual Body Structures (W3D-VBS) is a next-generation immersive anatomical training system for teaching human anatomy over the Internet. It uses Visible Human data to dynamically explore, select, extract, visualize, manipulate, and stereoscopically palpate realistic virtual body structures with a haptic device. Tracking user's progress through evaluation tools helps customize lesson plans. A self-guided "virtual tour" of the whole body allows investigation of labeled virtual dissections repetitively, at any time and place a user requires it.

  20. Graphene/polyaniline composite sponge of three-dimensional porous network structure as supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiu-Xing; Zhang Xu-Zhi; Wang Zhen-Hua; Xu Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    As a supercapacitor electrode, the graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite sponge with a three-dimensional (3D) porous network structure is synthesized by a simple three-step method. The three steps include an in situ polymerization, freeze-drying and reduction by hydrazine vapor. The prepared sponge has a large specific surface area and porous network structure, so it is in favor of spreading the electrolyte ion and increasing the charge transfer efficiency of the system. The process of preparation is simple, easy to operate and low cost. The composite sponge shows better electrochemical performance than the pure individual graphene sponge while PANI cannot keep the shape of a sponge. Such a composite sponge exhibits specific capacitances of 487 F·g −1 at 2 mV/s compared to pristine PANI of 397 F·g −1 . (paper)

  1. Three-Dimensional Architecture and Biogenesis of Membrane Structures Associated with Plant Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejiao Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive-sense (+ RNA viruses represent the most abundant group of viruses and are dependent on the host cell machinery to replicate. One remarkable feature that occurs after (+ RNA virus entry into cells is the remodeling of host endomembranes, leading to the formation of viral replication factories. Recently, rapid progress in three-dimensional (3D imaging technologies, such as electron tomography (ET and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, has enabled researchers to visualize the novel membrane structures induced by viruses at high resolution. These 3D imaging technologies provide new mechanistic insights into the viral infection cycle. In this review, we summarize the latest reports on the cellular remodeling that occurs during plant virus infection; in particular, we focus on studies that provide 3D architectural information on viral replication factories. We also outline the mechanisms underlying the formation of these membranous structures and discuss possible future research directions.

  2. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Chun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed fabricating an aluminum microneedle array with a nanochannel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The microneedle array provides a three-dimensional (3D structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nanochannel template. Therefore, the microneedle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D microneedle array device can not only be used for painless injection or extraction, but also for storage, highly sensitive detection, drug delivery, and microelectrodes. From the calculation we made, the microneedle array not only increases surface area, but also enlarges the capacity of the device. Therefore, the microneedle array can further be used on many detecting, storing, or drug delivering applications.

  3. A Three-Dimensional Enormous Surface Area Aluminum Microneedle Array with Nanoporous Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.Ch.; Zou, J.; Hsieh, Sh.J.; Chen, Ch.Ch.

    2013-01-01

    We proposed fabricating an aluminum micro needle array with a nano channel structure on the surface by combining micromachining, electrolyte polishing, and anodization methods. The micro needle array provides a three-dimensional (3D) structure that possesses several hundred times more surface area than a traditional nano channel template. Therefore, the micro needle array can potentially be used in many technology applications. This 3D micro needle array device can not only be used for painless injection or extraction, but also for storage, highly sensitive detection, drug delivery, and microelectrodes. From the calculation we made, the micro needle array not only increases surface area, but also enlarges the capacity of the device. Therefore, the micro needle array can further be used on many detecting, storing, or drug delivering applications.

  4. A three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer for moderator integrity assessment in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, K. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Yoo, S. O.; Kim, M. W.; Kim, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer has been performed in this study. The simulation of SPEL experimental work and comparison with experimental data has been carried out to verify the analyses models. Moreover, to verify the CANDU-6 reactor type, analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer in the calandria under the condition of steady state has been performed using FLUENT code, which is the conventional code for a three-dimensional analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer for moderator integrity assessment in PHWR thermal-hydraulics. It is found that the maximum temperature in the moderator is 347K (74 ), so that the moderator has the enough subcoolability to ensure the integrity of pressure tube during LOCA conditions

  5. Three-dimensional investigations of the threading regime in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Krishne; Brouzet, Christophe; Lefranc, Thibault; Soderberg, L. Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik

    2017-11-01

    We study the flow dynamics of the threading regime in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel through 3D numerical simulations and experiments. Making strong filaments from cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF) could potentially steer to new high-performance bio-based composites competing with conventional glass fibre composites. CNF filaments can be obtained through hydrodynamic alignment of dispersed CNF by using the concept of flow-focusing. The aligned structure is locked by diffusion of ions resulting in a dispersion-gel transition. Flow-focusing typically refers to a microfluidic channel system where the core fluid is focused by the two sheath fluids, thereby creating an extensional flow at the intersection. In this study, threading regime corresponds to an extensional flow field generated by the water sheath fluid stretching the dispersed CNF core fluid and leading to formation of long threads. The experimental measurements are performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and 3D numerical simulations with OpenFOAM. The prime focus is laid on the 3D characteristics of thread formation such as wetting length of core fluid, shape, aspect ratio of the thread and velocity flow-field in the microfluidic channel.

  6. Refined Three-Dimensional Modelling of Thermally-Driven Flow in the Bormio System (Central Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Giorgio; Riva, Federico; Frattini, Paolo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Magri, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Thermal springs are widespread in the European Alps, where more than 80 geothermal sites are known and exploited. The quantitative assessment of those thermal flow systems is a challenging issue and requires accurate conceptual model and a thorough understanding of thermo-hydraulic properties of the aquifers. Accordingly in the last years, several qualitative studies were carried out to understand the heat and fluid transport processes driving deep fluids from the reservoir to the springs. Our work focused on thermal circulation and fluid outflows of the area around Bormio (Central Italian Alps), where nine geothermal springs discharge from dolomite bodies located close to a regional alpine thrust, called the Zebrù Line. At this site, water is heated in deep circulation systems and vigorously upwells at temperature of about 40°C. The aim of this paper is to explore the mechanisms of heat and fluid transport in the Bormio area by carrying out refined steady and transient three-dimensional finite element simulations of thermally-driven flow and to quantitatively assess the source area of the thermal waters. The full regional model (ca. 700 km2) is discretized with a highly refined triangular finite element planar grid obtained with Midas GTS NX software. The structural 3D features of the regional Zebrù thrust are built by interpolating series of geological cross sections using Fracman. A script was developed to convert and implement the thrust grid into FEFLOW mesh that comprises ca. 4 million elements. The numerical results support the observed discharge rates and temperature field within the simulated domain. Flow and temperature patterns suggest that thermal groundwater flows through a deep system crossing both sedimentary and metamorphic lithotypes, and a fracture network associated to the thrust system. Besides providing a numerical framework to simulate complex fractured systems, this example gives insights into the influence of deep alpine structures on

  7. Three Dimensional Flow Field Study of the Improve Scheme for a Brushless Exciter with Rotating Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yi-ping

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To study deeply the influence of the frame ring plate increased between rectifier wheel and rotor on the size of eddy current of fluid field of brushless exciter,the fluid field of complete brushless exciter model is established. Based on the computational fluid dynamics ( CFD principles ,the finite volume method is adopted to simulate and analyze the three dimensional turbulent flow field in the computational domain. The distribution character of the fluid field for the brushless exciter is obtained under rated speed,after increasing the frame ring plate between rectifier wheel and rotor. The results show increased the frame ring plate between rectifier wheel and rotor can decrease effectively the size of eddy current in the air region between rectifier wheel and rotor. Compared with the result of running scheme,the air volume flow rate of the scheme has increased 13. 89% and the result is accuracy. It provides theoretical basis for further optimizing the air ducts structure of the brushless exciter .

  8. Three dimensional imaging of damage in structural materials using high resolution micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffiere, J.-Y. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-yves.buffiere@insa-lyon.fr; Proudhon, H. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ferrie, E. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ludwig, W. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Maire, E. [GEMPPM UMR CNRS 5510, INSA Lyon, 20 Av. A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cloetens, P. [ESRF Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-15

    This paper presents recent results showing the ability of high resolution synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography to image damage initiation and development during mechanical loading of structural metallic materials. First, the initiation, growth and coalescence of porosities in the bulk of two metal matrix composites have been imaged at different stages of a tensile test. Quantitative data on damage development has been obtained and related to the nature of the composite matrix. Second, three dimensional images of fatigue crack have been obtained in situ for two different Al alloys submitted to fretting and/or uniaxial in situ fatigue. The analysis of those images shows the strong interaction of the cracks with the local microstructure and provides unique experimental data for modelling the behaviour of such short cracks.

  9. Three dimensional imaging of damage in structural materials using high resolution micro-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffiere, J.-Y.; Proudhon, H.; Ferrie, E.; Ludwig, W.; Maire, E.; Cloetens, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results showing the ability of high resolution synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography to image damage initiation and development during mechanical loading of structural metallic materials. First, the initiation, growth and coalescence of porosities in the bulk of two metal matrix composites have been imaged at different stages of a tensile test. Quantitative data on damage development has been obtained and related to the nature of the composite matrix. Second, three dimensional images of fatigue crack have been obtained in situ for two different Al alloys submitted to fretting and/or uniaxial in situ fatigue. The analysis of those images shows the strong interaction of the cracks with the local microstructure and provides unique experimental data for modelling the behaviour of such short cracks

  10. Implicit three-dimensional finite-element formulation for the nonlinear structural response of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1975-09-01

    The formulation of a finite-element procedure for the implicit transient and static analysis of plate/shell type structures in three-dimensional space is described. The triangular plate/shell element can sustain both membrane and bending stresses. Both geometric and material nonlinearities can be treated, and an elastic-plastic material law has been incorporated. The formulation permits the element to undergo arbitrarily large rotations and translations; but, in its present form it is restricted to small strains. The discretized equations of motion are obtained by a stiffness method. An implicit integration algorithm based on trapezoidal integration formulas is used to integrate the discretized equations of motion in time. To ensure numerical stability, an iterative solution procedure with equilibrium checks is used

  11. Gauge structure, anomalies and mass generation in a three dimensional thirring model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M.; Mendes, R.S.; Ribeiro, R.F.; Silva, A.J. da.

    1990-05-01

    We consider a three dimensional model of spinor fields with a Thirring like, quadrilinear self interaction. Using either two or four component Dirac spinors, we prove that the 1/N expansion for the model is renormalizable if a gauge structure to select physical quantities is introduced. For certain values of the coupling the leading 1/N approximation exihibits bound state poles. Dynamical breaking of parity or chiral symmetry is shown to occur as a cooperative effect of different orders of 1/N, if N is smaller than the critical value N c = 128 / x 2 D' , where D is two or four depending on wether the fermion field has two or four components. (author) [pt

  12. Production of three-dimensional structures of PHB using selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Tatiana F.; Costa, Marysilvia F.; Thire, Rossana M.S.M.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.; Maia, Izaque A.; Silva, Jorge V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a technology of layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models directly from their computational design. The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a microbial, biodegradable and semicrystalline polyester. The objective of this work was to produce PHB parts, evaluating the reuse of material in the production of the new parts. Images of SEM of part surface showed the formation of neck that indicates sintering between PHB particles during processing. Analysis of NMR and DSC of the reused polymer showed no changes in the chemical structure and thermal properties of PHB. The parts produced from virgin and reused PHB showed no significant difference in their thermal properties. This could suggest that the reuse of raw material did not influence the process reproducibility. (author)

  13. Current Challenges in Development of a Database of Three-Dimensional Chemical Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Miki H.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a database named 3DMET, a three-dimensional structure database of natural metabolites. There are two major impediments to the creation of 3D chemical structures from a set of planar structure drawings: the limited accuracy of computer programs and insufficient human resources for manual curation. We have tested some 2D–3D converters to convert 2D structure files from external databases. These automatic conversion processes yielded an excessive number of improper conversions. To ascertain the quality of the conversions, we compared IUPAC Chemical Identifier and canonical SMILES notations before and after conversion. Structures whose notations correspond to each other were regarded as a correct conversion in our present work. We found that chiral inversion is the most serious factor during the improper conversion. In the current stage of our database construction, published books or articles have been resources for additions to our database. Chemicals are usually drawn as pictures on the paper. To save human resources, an optical structure reader was introduced. The program was quite useful but some particular errors were observed during our operation. We hope our trials for producing correct 3D structures will help other developers of chemical programs and curators of chemical databases. PMID:26075200

  14. Structured light optical microscopy for three-dimensional reconstruction of technical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettel, Johannes; Reinecke, Holger; Müller, Claas

    2016-04-01

    In microsystems technology quality control of micro structured surfaces with different surface properties is playing an ever more important role. The process of quality control incorporates three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of specularand diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. Due to the demand on high measurement accuracy and data acquisition rates, structured light optical microscopy has become a valuable solution to solve this problem providing high vertical and lateral resolution. However, 3D reconstruction of specular reflecting technical surfaces still remains a challenge to optical measurement principles. In this paper we present a measurement principle based on structured light optical microscopy which enables 3D reconstruction of specular- and diffusive reflecting technical surfaces. It is realized using two light paths of a stereo microscope equipped with different magnification levels. The right optical path of the stereo microscope is used to project structured light onto the object surface. The left optical path is used to capture the structured illuminated object surface with a camera. Structured light patterns are generated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) device in combination with a high power Light Emitting Diode (LED). Structured light patterns are realized as a matrix of discrete light spots to illuminate defined areas on the object surface. The introduced measurement principle is based on multiple and parallel processed point measurements. Analysis of the measured Point Spread Function (PSF) by pattern recognition and model fitting algorithms enables the precise calculation of 3D coordinates. Using exemplary technical surfaces we demonstrate the successful application of our measurement principle.

  15. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent single-phase and two-phase flow in curved pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, R.C.; Dong, Z.F.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flows in curved pipes have been investigated numerically. Two different pipe configurations were computed. When the results of the single-phase flow simulation were compared with the experimental data, a fairly good agreement was achieved. A flow-developing process has been suggested in single-phase flow, in which the turbulence is stronger near the outer tube wall than near the inner tube wall. For two-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model was used to simulate the phase distribution of a three-dimensional gas-liquid bubble flow in curved pipe. The RNG/κ-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulence field. An inlet gas void fraction of 5 percent was simulated. The gas phase effects on the liquid phase flow velocity have been examined by comparing the results of single-phase flow and two-phase flow. The findings show that for the downward flow in the U bend, the gas concentrates at the inner portion of the cross section at φ = π/18 - π/6 in most cases. The results of the phase distribution simulation are compared to experimental observations qualitatively and topologically

  16. Three-dimensional rotating flow of MHD single wall carbon nanotubes over a stretching sheet in presence of thermal radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Saleem; Islam, Saeed; Gul, Taza; Shah, Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Khan, Waris; Khan, Aurang Zeb; Khan, Saima

    2018-05-01

    In this article the modeling and computations are exposed to introduce the new idea of MHD three-dimensional rotating flow of nanofluid through a stretching sheet. Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are utilized as a nano-sized materials while water is used as a base liquid. Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) parade sole assets due to their rare structure. Such structure has significant optical and electronics features, wonderful strength and elasticity, and high thermal and chemical permanence. The heat exchange phenomena are deliberated subject to thermal radiation and moreover the impact of nanoparticles Brownian motion and thermophoresis are involved in the present investigation. For the nanofluid transport mechanism, we implemented the Xue model (Xue, Phys B Condens Matter 368:302-307, 2005). The governing nonlinear formulation based upon the law of conservation of mass, quantity of motion, thermal field and nanoparticles concentrations is first modeled and then solved by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Moreover, the graphical result has been exposed to investigate that in what manner the velocities, heat and nanomaterial concentration distributions effected through influential parameters. The mathematical facts of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented through numerical data for SWCNTs.

  17. An autonomous dynamical system captures all LCSs in three-dimensional unsteady flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettinger, David; Haller, George

    2016-10-01

    Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) are material surfaces that shape the finite-time tracer patterns in flows with arbitrary time dependence. Depending on their deformation properties, elliptic and hyperbolic LCSs have been identified from different variational principles, solving different equations. Here we observe that, in three dimensions, initial positions of all variational LCSs are invariant manifolds of the same autonomous dynamical system, generated by the intermediate eigenvector field, ξ 2 (x 0 ), of the Cauchy-Green strain tensor. This ξ 2 -system allows for the detection of LCSs in any unsteady flow by classical methods, such as Poincaré maps, developed for autonomous dynamical systems. As examples, we consider both steady and time-aperiodic flows, and use their dual ξ 2 -system to uncover both hyperbolic and elliptic LCSs from a single computation.

  18. Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux Model for MHD Three-Dimensional Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Stretching Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.

  19. Experiment of flow regime map and local condensing heat transfer coefficients inside three dimensional inner microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Xin, Ming Dao

    1999-03-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube. The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper. The flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow, stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically carried out. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out. As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes, those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region, 38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75% for the intermittent flow, respectively. The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1.8-6.9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  20. Three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    The three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is derived by combining teleseismic P wave travel time residuals with Pn source time terms. The NTS time terms and relative teleseismic residuals are calculated by treating the explosions as a network of 'receivers' which record 'shots' located at the surrounding stations. Utilization of the Pn time terms allows for better crustal resolution than is possible from teleseismic information alone. Average relative teleseismic P wave residuals show a consistent progression of positive (late arrivals) to negative residuals from east to west across the NTS. However, Pn time terms beneath Rainier Mesa are at least 0.3 and 0.5 s less than those beneath Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat, respectively, indicating the presence of high-velocity crustal material or crustal thinning beneath Rainier Mesa. The time terms at Pahute Mesa are surprisingly uniform, and the largest time terms and residuals are observed in the northwest and southern parts of Yucca Flat. The Pn time terms show a slight correlation with the working-point velocity at the shot point for Pahute Mesa and Yucca Flat, indicating that part of the observed lateral variations are caused by shallow effects of the upper crust. Three-dimensional inversion of the travel time residuals suggests that Yucca Flat is characterized by low-velocity anomalies confined to the upper crust, Rainer Mesa by very high velocities in the upper and middle crust, and Pahute Mesa by a high-velocity anomaly extending through the crust and into the upper mantle. Relatively low velocities are observed in the lower crust beneath the Timber Mountain caldera south of Pahute Mesa with no expression in the upper mantle. These observed differences in velocity beneath the Tertiary Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain calderas may be related to their magma volume and mode of enrichment from a mantle-derived magma source

  1. Properties of three-dimensional structures prepared by Ge dewetting from Si(111) at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyaev, Alexander, E-mail: shklyaev@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bolotov, Leonid; Poborchii, Vladimir; Tada, Tetsuya [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-05-28

    The formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures during Ge deposition on Si(111) at about 800 °C is studied with scanning tunneling, Kelvin probe and electron microscopies, and scanning tunneling and Raman spectroscopies. The observed surface morphology is formed by dewetting of Ge from Si(111), since it occurs mainly by means of minimization of surface and interfacial energies. The dewetting proceeds through massive Si eroding around growing 3D structures, providing them to be composed of SiGe with about a 30% Ge content, and leads to the significant reduction of the SiGe/Si interface area. It is found that the SiGe top component of 3D structures forms sharp interfaces with the underlying Si. The minimization of interfacial and strain energies occurs on the way that the 3D structures appear to get the dendrite-like shape. The Ge distribution in the 3D SiGe structures is inhomogeneous in the lateral dimension with a higher Ge concentration in their central areas and Ge segregation on their surface.

  2. Three-dimensional cell manipulation and patterning using dielectrophoresis via a multi-layer scaffold structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H K; Huan, Z; Mills, J K; Yang, J; Sun, D

    2015-02-07

    Cell manipulation is imperative to the areas of cellular biology and tissue engineering, providing them a useful tool for patterning cells into cellular patterns for different analyses and applications. This paper presents a novel approach to perform three-dimensional (3D) cell manipulation and patterning with a multi-layer engineered scaffold. This scaffold structure employed dielectrophoresis as the non-contact mechanism to manipulate cells in the 3D domain. Through establishing electric fields via this multi-layer structure, the cells in the medium became polarized and were attracted towards the interior part of the structure, forming 3D cellular patterns. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the manipulation and the patterning processes with the proposed structure. Results show that with the presence of a voltage input, this multi-layer structure was capable of manipulating different types of biological cells examined through dielectrophoresis, enabling automatic cell patterning in the time-scale of minutes. The effects of the voltage input on the resultant cellular pattern were examined and discussed. Viability test was performed after the patterning operation and the results confirmed that majority of the cells remained viable. After 7 days of culture, 3D cellular patterns were observed through SEM. The results suggest that this scaffold and its automated dielectrophoresis-based patterning mechanism can be used to construct artificial tissues for various tissue engineering applications.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO 3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 nanoparticle.

  4. Properties of three-dimensional structures prepared by Ge dewetting from Si(111) at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklyaev, Alexander; Bolotov, Leonid; Poborchii, Vladimir; Tada, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures during Ge deposition on Si(111) at about 800 °C is studied with scanning tunneling, Kelvin probe and electron microscopies, and scanning tunneling and Raman spectroscopies. The observed surface morphology is formed by dewetting of Ge from Si(111), since it occurs mainly by means of minimization of surface and interfacial energies. The dewetting proceeds through massive Si eroding around growing 3D structures, providing them to be composed of SiGe with about a 30% Ge content, and leads to the significant reduction of the SiGe/Si interface area. It is found that the SiGe top component of 3D structures forms sharp interfaces with the underlying Si. The minimization of interfacial and strain energies occurs on the way that the 3D structures appear to get the dendrite-like shape. The Ge distribution in the 3D SiGe structures is inhomogeneous in the lateral dimension with a higher Ge concentration in their central areas and Ge segregation on their surface

  5. An efficicient data structure for three-dimensional vertex based finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Semih; Sahin, Mehmet

    2017-11-01

    A vertex based three-dimensional finite volume algorithm has been developed using an edge based data structure.The mesh data structure of the given algorithm is similar to ones that exist in the literature. However, the data structures are redesigned and simplied in order to fit requirements of the vertex based finite volume method. In order to increase the cache efficiency, the data access patterns for the vertex based finite volume method are investigated and these datas are packed/allocated in a way that they are close to each other in the memory. The present data structure is not limited with tetrahedrons, arbitrary polyhedrons are also supported in the mesh without putting any additional effort. Furthermore, the present data structure also supports adaptive refinement and coarsening. For the implicit and parallel implementation of the FVM algorithm, PETSc and MPI libraries are employed. The performance and accuracy of the present algorithm are tested for the classical benchmark problems by comparing the CPU time for the open source algorithms.

  6. Series Solution for Steady Three-Dimensional Flow due to Spraying on Inclined Spinning Disk by Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Dinarvand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady three-dimensional flow of condensation or spraying on inclined spinning disk is studied analytically. The governing nonlinear equations and their associated boundary conditions are transformed into the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The series solution of the problem is obtained by utilizing the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. The velocity and temperature profiles are shown and the influence of Prandtl number on the heat transfer and Nusselt number is discussed in detail. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results. Unlike free surface flows on an incline, this through flow is highly affected by the spray rate and the rotation of the disk.

  7. Quasiconservation laws for compressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, J D; Holm, D D

    2012-10-01

    We formulate the quasi-Lagrangian fluid transport dynamics of mass density ρ and the projection q=ω·∇ρ of the vorticity ω onto the density gradient, as determined by the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for an ideal gas, although the results apply for an arbitrary equation of state. It turns out that the quasi-Lagrangian transport of q cannot cross a level set of ρ. That is, in this formulation, level sets of ρ (isopycnals) are impermeable to the transport of the projection q.

  8. Potentially of using vertical and three dimensional isolation systems in nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhiuang; Wong, Jenna; Mahin, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Although the horizontal component of an earthquake response can be significantly reduced through the use of conventional seismic isolators, the vertical component of excitation is still transmitted directly into the structure. Records from instrumented structures, and some recent tests and analyses have actually seen increases in vertical responses in base isolated structures under the combined effects of horizontal and vertical ground motions. This issue becomes a great concern to facilities such as a Nuclear Power Plants (NPP), with specialized equipment and machinery that is not only expensive, but critical to safe operation. As such, there is considerable interest worldwide in vertical and three-dimensional (3D) isolation systems. This paper examines several vertical and 3D isolation systems that have been proposed and their potential application to modern nuclear facilities. In particular, a series of case study analyses of a modern NPP model are performed to examine the benefits and challenges associated with 3D isolation compared with horizontal isolation. It was found that compared with the general horizontal isolators, isolators that have vertical frequencies of no more than 3 Hz can effectively reduce the vertical in-structure responses for the studied NPP model. Among the studied cases, the case that has a vertical isolation frequency of 3 Hz is the one that can keep the horizontal period of the isolators as the first period while having the most flexible vertical isolator properties. When the vertical frequency of isolators reduces to 1 Hz, the rocking effect is obvious and rocking restraining devices are necessary

  9. Three dimensional simulation of giant magneto-impedance effect in thin film structures

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional model for the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect in thin film structures is developed using the finite element method(FEM) with a GMI permeability model embedded. One-layer, three-layer, and five-layer thin film structures are simulated. The GMI effect and the sensitivity are calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, driving frequency, and the thickness of the magnetic layers. The results show that the five-layer structure has the best performance, which is in accordance with experimental results. The GMI ratio and the sensitivity first improve with the increasing thickness of the magnetic layer but reach saturation at a certain value of the thickness. In a five-layer structure,saturation of the GMI effect becomes effective at about 3 μm thickness of the magnetic layers, where a GMI ratio of 1125% was obtained, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.37%/A/m (29.6%/Oe).

  10. Potentially of using vertical and three dimensional isolation systems in nuclear structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhiuang [Research Institute of Structural Engineering and Disaster Reduction, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wong, Jenna [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley (United States); Mahin, Stephen [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Although the horizontal component of an earthquake response can be significantly reduced through the use of conventional seismic isolators, the vertical component of excitation is still transmitted directly into the structure. Records from instrumented structures, and some recent tests and analyses have actually seen increases in vertical responses in base isolated structures under the combined effects of horizontal and vertical ground motions. This issue becomes a great concern to facilities such as a Nuclear Power Plants (NPP), with specialized equipment and machinery that is not only expensive, but critical to safe operation. As such, there is considerable interest worldwide in vertical and three-dimensional (3D) isolation systems. This paper examines several vertical and 3D isolation systems that have been proposed and their potential application to modern nuclear facilities. In particular, a series of case study analyses of a modern NPP model are performed to examine the benefits and challenges associated with 3D isolation compared with horizontal isolation. It was found that compared with the general horizontal isolators, isolators that have vertical frequencies of no more than 3 Hz can effectively reduce the vertical in-structure responses for the studied NPP model. Among the studied cases, the case that has a vertical isolation frequency of 3 Hz is the one that can keep the horizontal period of the isolators as the first period while having the most flexible vertical isolator properties. When the vertical frequency of isolators reduces to 1 Hz, the rocking effect is obvious and rocking restraining devices are necessary.

  11. Zebrafish cardiac muscle thick filaments: isolation technique and three-dimensional structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solá, Maryví; Al-Khayat, Hind A; Behra, Martine; Kensler, Robert W

    2014-04-15

    To understand how mutations in thick filament proteins such as cardiac myosin binding protein-C or titin, cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, it is important to determine the structure of the cardiac thick filament. Techniques for the genetic manipulation of the zebrafish are well established and it has become a major model for the study of the cardiovascular system. Our goal is to develop zebrafish as an alternative system to the mammalian heart model for the study of the structure of the cardiac thick filaments and the proteins that form it. We have successfully isolated thick filaments from zebrafish cardiac muscle, using a procedure similar to those for mammalian heart, and analyzed their structure by negative-staining and electron microscopy. The isolated filaments appear well ordered with the characteristic 42.9 nm quasi-helical repeat of the myosin heads expected from x-ray diffraction. We have performed single particle image analysis on the collected electron microscopy images for the C-zone region of these filaments and obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction at 3.5 nm resolution. This reconstruction reveals structure similar to the mammalian thick filament, and demonstrates that zebrafish may provide a useful model for the study of the changes in the cardiac thick filament associated with disease processes. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three dimensional simulation of giant magneto-impedance effect in thin film structures

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2011-04-04

    In this paper, a three dimensional model for the giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect in thin film structures is developed using the finite element method(FEM) with a GMI permeability model embedded. One-layer, three-layer, and five-layer thin film structures are simulated. The GMI effect and the sensitivity are calculated as a function of the external magnetic field, driving frequency, and the thickness of the magnetic layers. The results show that the five-layer structure has the best performance, which is in accordance with experimental results. The GMI ratio and the sensitivity first improve with the increasing thickness of the magnetic layer but reach saturation at a certain value of the thickness. In a five-layer structure,saturation of the GMI effect becomes effective at about 3 μm thickness of the magnetic layers, where a GMI ratio of 1125% was obtained, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.37%/A/m (29.6%/Oe).

  13. Growth mechanism of InGaN nanodots on three-dimensional GaN structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghwy; Min, Daehong; Nam, Okhyun [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Convergence Center for Advanced Nano-Semiconductor (CANS), Korea Polytechnic University (KPU), Siheung-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we investigated the growth mechanism of indium gallium nitride (InGaN) nanodots (NDs) and an InGaN layer, which were simultaneously formed on a three-dimensional (3D) gallium nitride (GaN) structure, having (0001) polar, (11-22) semi-polar, and (11-20) nonpolar facets. We observed the difference in the morphological and compositional properties of the InGaN structures. From the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images, it can be seen that the InGaN NDs were formed only on the polar and nonpolar facets, whereas an InGaN layer was formed on the semi-polar facet. The indium composition variation in all the InGaN structures was observed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The different growth mechanism can be explained by two reasons: (i) The difference in the diffusivities of indium and gallium adatoms at each facet of 3D GaN structure; and (ii) the difference in the kinetic Wulff plots of polar, semi-polar, and nonpolar GaN planes. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Granular gel support-enabled extrusion of three-dimensional alginate and cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yifei; Compaan, Ashley; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Huang, Yong

    2016-06-03

    Freeform fabrication of soft structures has been of great interest in recent years. In particular, it is viewed as a critical step toward the grand vision of organ printing--the on-demand design and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) human organ constructs for implantation and regenerative medicine. The objective of this study is to develop a novel granular gel support material-enabled, two-step gelation-based 'printing-then-gelation' approach to fabricate 3D alginate structures using filament extrusion. Specifically, a granular Carbopol microgel bath holds the ungelled alginate structure being extruded, avoiding the instantaneous gelation of each printed layer as well as resultant surface tension-induced nozzle clogging. Since Carbopol microgels react with multivalent cations, which are needed for alginate crosslinking, gelatin is introduced as a sacrificial material to make an alginate and gelatin bioink for extrusion, which gels thermally (step-one gelation) to initially stabilize the printed structure for removal from Carbopol. Then gelatin is melted and diffused away while alginate is ionically crosslinked in a 37 °C calcium chloride bath (step-two gelation), resulting in an alginate structure. The proposed 'printing-then-gelation' approach works for alginate structure fabrication, and it is also applicable for the printing of cellular constructs and other similar homogeneous soft structures using a two-step or even multi-step approach. The main conclusions are: (1) 0.8% (w/v) Carbopol bath with a neutral pH value may be most suitable for soft structure printing; (2) it is most effective to use a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution to facilitate the removal of residual Carbopol; and (3) alginate structures fabricated using the proposed approach demonstrate better mechanical properties than those fabricated using the conventional 'gelation-while-printing' approach.

  15. Three-dimensional glue detection and evaluation based on linear structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhitao; Yang, Ruipeng; Geng, Lei; Liu, Yanbei

    2018-01-01

    During the online glue detection of body in white (BIW), the purpose of traditional glue detection based on machine vision is the localization and segmentation of glue, which is dissatisfactory for estimating the uniformity of glue with complex shape. A three-dimensional glue detection method based on the linear structured light and the movement parameters of robot is proposed. Firstly, the linear structured light and epipolar constraint algorithm are used for sign matching of binocular vision. Then, hand-eye relationship between robot and binocular camera is utilized to unified coordinate system. Finally, a structured light stripe extraction method is proposed to extract the sub-pixel coordinates of the light strip center. Experiments results demonstrate that the propose method can estimate the shape of glue accurately. For three kinds of glue with complex shape and uneven illumination, our method can detect the positions of blemishes. The absolute error of measurement is less than 1.04mm and the relative error is less than 10% respectively, which is suitable for online glue detection in BIW.

  16. Three-dimensional habitat structure and landscape genetics: a step forward in estimating functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, P; Holderegger, R; Bollmann, K; Gugerli, F; Zellweger, F

    2017-02-01

    Estimating connectivity among fragmented habitat patches is crucial for evaluating the functionality of ecological networks. However, current estimates of landscape resistance to animal movement and dispersal lack landscape-level data on local habitat structure. Here, we used a landscape genetics approach to show that high-fidelity habitat structure maps derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data critically improve functional connectivity estimates compared to conventional land cover data. We related pairwise genetic distances of 128 Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) genotypes to least-cost path distances at multiple scales derived from land cover data. Resulting β values of linear mixed effects models ranged from 0.372 to 0.495, while those derived from LiDAR ranged from 0.558 to 0.758. The identification and conservation of functional ecological networks suffering from habitat fragmentation and homogenization will thus benefit from the growing availability of detailed and contiguous data on three-dimensional habitat structure and associated habitat quality. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Structural and congenital heart disease interventions: the role of three-dimensional printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, L M; Meineri, M; Qua Hiansen, J; Horlick, E M

    2017-02-01

    Advances in catheter-based interventions in structural and congenital heart disease have mandated an increased demand for three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of complex cardiac anatomy. Despite progress in 3D imaging modalities, the pre- and periprocedural visualisation of spatial anatomy is relegated to two-dimensional flat screen representations. 3D printing is an evolving technology based on the concept of additive manufacturing, where computerised digital surface renders are converted into physical models. Printed models replicate complex structures in tangible forms that cardiovascular physicians and surgeons can use for education, preprocedural planning and device testing. In this review we discuss the different steps of the 3D printing process, which include image acquisition, segmentation, printing methods and materials. We also examine the expanded applications of 3D printing in the catheter-based treatment of adult patients with structural and congenital heart disease while highlighting the current limitations of this technology in terms of segmentation, model accuracy and dynamic capabilities. Furthermore, we provide information on the resources needed to establish a hospital-based 3D printing laboratory.

  18. Morphology and Three-Dimensional Inhalation Flow in Human Airways in Healthy and Diseased Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Moortele, Tristan

    We investigate experimentally the relation between anatomical structure and respiratory function in healthy and diseased airways. Computed Tomography (CT) scans of human lungs are analyzed from the data base of a large multi-institution clinical study on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Through segmentation, the 3D volumes of the airways are determined at total lung capacity. A geometric analysis provides data on the morphometry of the airways, including the length and diameter of branches, the child-to-parent diameter ratio, and branching angles. While several geometric parameters are confirmed to match past studies for healthy subjects, previously unreported trends are reported on the length of branches. Specifically, in most dichotomous airway bifurcation, the branch of smaller diameter tends to be significantly longer than the one of larger diameter. Additionally, the branch diameter tends to be smaller in diseased airways than in healthy airways up to the 7th generation of bronchial branching. 3D fractal analysis is also performed on the airway volume. Fractal dimensions of 1.89 and 1.83 are found for healthy non-smokers and declining COPD subjects, respectively, furthering the belief that COPD (and lung disease in general) significantly affects the morphometry of the airways already in early stages of the disease. To investigate the inspiratory flow, 3D flow models of the airways are generated using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and 3D printed. Using Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV), 3-component 3D flow fields are acquired for steady inhalation at Reynolds number Re 2000 defined at the trachea. Analysis of the flow data reveals that diseased subjects may experience greater secondary flow strength in their conducting airways, especially in deeper generations.

  19. Experimental study of soil-structure interaction for proving the three dimensional thin layered element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Y.; Ogiwara, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Nakayama, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the earthquake response of a structure can be significantly affected by the dynamic interaction between the structure and the surrounding soil. Dynamic soil-structure interaction effects are usually analyzed by using a lumped mass model or a finite element model. In the lumped mass model, the soil is represented by springs and dashpots based on the half-space elastic theory. Each model has its advantages and limitations. The Three Dimensional Thin Layered Element Theory has been developed by Dr. Hiroshi Tajimi based on the combined results of the abovementioned lumped mass model and finite element model. The main characteristic of this theory is that, in consideration and can be applied in the analysis of many problems in soil-structure interaction, such as those involving radiation damping, embedded structures, and multi-layered soil deposits. This paper describes test results on a small scale model used to prove the validity of the computer program based on the Thin Layered Element Theory. As a numerical example, the response analysis of a PWR nuclear power plant is carried out using this program. The vibration test model is simplified and the scale is 1/750 for line. The soil layer of the model is made of congealed gelatine. The test soil layer is 80 cm long, 35 cm wide and 10 cm thick. The super structure is a one mass model made of metal sheet spring and solid mass metal. As fixed inputs, sinusoidal waves (10, 20 gal level) are used. The displacements of the top and base of the super structure, and the accelerations and the displacements of the shaking table are measured. The main parameter of the test is the shear wave velocity of the soil layer. (orig./RW)

  20. An interactive three-dimensional virtual body structures system for anatomical training over the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Malvankar, Ameya; Vaidyanath, Sreeram

    2006-04-01

    The Visible Human digital datasets make it possible to develop computer-based anatomical training systems that use virtual anatomical models (virtual body structures-VBS). Medical schools are combining these virtual training systems and classical anatomy teaching methods that use labeled images and cadaver dissection. In this paper we present a customizable web-based three-dimensional anatomy training system, W3D-VBS. W3D-VBS uses National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Visible Human Male datasets to interactively locate, explore, select, extract, highlight, label, and visualize, realistic 2D (using axial, coronal, and sagittal views) and 3D virtual structures. A real-time self-guided virtual tour of the entire body is designed to provide detailed anatomical information about structures, substructures, and proximal structures. The system thus facilitates learning of visuospatial relationships at a level of detail that may not be possible by any other means. The use of volumetric structures allows for repeated real-time virtual dissections, from any angle, at the convenience of the user. Volumetric (3D) virtual dissections are performed by adding, removing, highlighting, and labeling individual structures (and/or entire anatomical systems). The resultant virtual explorations (consisting of anatomical 2D/3D illustrations and animations), with user selected highlighting colors and label positions, can be saved and used for generating lesson plans and evaluation systems. Tracking users' progress using the evaluation system helps customize the curriculum, making W3D-VBS a powerful learning tool. Our plan is to incorporate other Visible Human segmented datasets, especially datasets with higher resolutions, that make it possible to include finer anatomical structures such as nerves and small vessels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Three-dimensional inviscid analysis of radial-turbine flow and a limited comparison with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Y. K.; Civinskas, K. C.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional inviscid DENTON code is used to analyze flow through a radial-inflow turbine rotor. Experimental data from the rotor are compared with analytical results obtained by using the code. The experimental data available for comparison are the radial distributions of circumferentially averaged values of absolute flow angle and total pressure downstream of the rotor exit. The computed rotor-exit flow angles are generally underturned relative to the experimental values, which reflect the boundary-layer separation at the trailing edge and the development of wakes downstream of the rotor. The experimental rotor is designed for a higher-than-optimum work factor of 1.126 resulting in a nonoptimum positive incidence and causing a region of rapid flow adjustment and large velocity gradients. For this experimental rotor, the computed radial distribution of rotor-exit to turbine-inlet total pressure ratios are underpredicted due to the errors in the finite-difference approximations in the regions of rapid flow adjustment, and due to using the relatively coarser grids in the middle of the blade region where the flow passage is highly three-dimensional. Additional results obtained from the three-dimensional inviscid computation are also presented, but without comparison due to the lack of experimental data. These include quasi-secondary velocity vectors on cross-channel surfaces, velocity components on the meridional and blade-to-blade surfaces, and blade surface loading diagrams. Computed results show the evolution of a passage vortex and large streamline deviations from the computational streamwise grid lines. Experience gained from applying the code to a radial turbine geometry is also discussed.

  2. Three-dimensional crustal structure for the Mendocino Triple Junction region from local earthquake travel times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, D.; Zandt, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-10

    The large-scale, three-dimensional geometry of the Mendocino Triple Junction at Cape Mendocino, California, was investigated by inverting nearly 19,000 P wave arrival times from over 1400 local earthquakes to estimate the three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocentral parameters. A velocity grid 175 km (N-S) by 125 km (E-W) centered near Garberville, California, was constructed with 25 km horizontal and 5 km vertical node spacing. The model was well resolved near Cape Mendocino, where the earthquakes and stations are concentrated. At about 40.6{degrees}N latitude a high-velocity gradient between 6.5 and 7.5 km/s dips gently to the south and east from about 15 km depth near the coast. Relocated hypocenters concentrate below this high gradient which the authors interpret as the oceanic crust of the subducted Gorda Plate. Therefore the depth to the top of the Gorda Plate near Cape Mendocino is interpreted to be {approximately} 15 km. The Gorda Plate appears intact and dipping {approximately}8{degrees} eastward due to subduction and flexing downward 6{degrees}-12{degrees} to the south. Both hypocenters and velocity structure suggest that the southern edge of the plate intersects the coastline at 40.3{degrees}N latitude and maintains a linear trend 15{degrees} south of east to at least 123{degrees}W longitude. The top of a large low-velocity region at 20-30 km depth extends about 50 km N-S and 75 km E-W (roughly between Garberville and Covelo) and is located above and south of the southern edge of the Gorda Plate. The authors interpret this low velocity area to be locally thickened crust (8-10 km) due to either local compressional forces associated with north-south compression caused by the northward impingement of the rigid Pacific Plate or by underthrusting of the base of the accretionary subduction complex at the southern terminous of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. 66 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Three-dimensional cluster formation and structure in heterogeneous dose distribution of intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Wei, Jie; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Yuan, Yading; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Peñagarícano, José A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate three-dimensional cluster structure and its correlation to clinical endpoint in heterogeneous dose distributions from intensity modulated radiation therapy. Twenty-five clinical plans from twenty-one head and neck (HN) patients were used for a phenomenological study of the cluster structure formed from the dose distributions of organs at risks (OARs) close to the planning target volumes (PTVs). Initially, OAR clusters were searched to examine the pattern consistence among ten HN patients and five clinically similar plans from another HN patient. Second, clusters of the esophagus from another ten HN patients were scrutinized to correlate their sizes to radiobiological parameters. Finally, an extensive Monte Carlo (MC) procedure was implemented to gain deeper insights into the behavioral properties of the cluster formation. Clinical studies showed that OAR clusters had drastic differences despite similar PTV coverage among different patients, and the radiobiological parameters failed to positively correlate with the cluster sizes. MC study demonstrated the inverse relationship between the cluster size and the cluster connectivity, and the nonlinear changes in cluster size with dose thresholds. In addition, the clusters were insensitive to the shape of OARs. The results demonstrated that the cluster size could serve as an insightful index of normal tissue damage. The clinical outcome of the same dose-volume might be potentially different. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MgB2 thick films on three-dimensional structures fabricated by HPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengshan; Cai, Xingwei; Liao, Xuebin; Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Niu, Ruirui; Luo, Wenhao; Huang, Zigeng; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic shielding has been a key factor in the measurement of ultra-weak magnetic fields, especially for shielding from low frequency electromagnetic noise. With the recent development of superconducting quantum interference devices, superconducting magnetic shielding has become an important area of research. MgB2 has shown great potential in magnetic shielding for its remarkable superconducting properties, the feasibility of its use in this capacity having been demonstrated by MgB2 bulk samples. However, the potential for application of such bulk samples is limited. In this work, we have investigated the possibility of the fabrication of MgB2 films on three-dimensional (3D) structures using a hybrid physical‑chemical vapor deposition system. MgB2 films 10 μm thick have been fabricated on the outer surface of a polycrystalline Al2O3 cylinder. The deposited film showed a transition temperature (TC) of 39 K and J C of 5.1 × 105 A · cm‑2, which are comparable to those of planar MgB2 films. This work shows the feasibility of depositing MgB2 films onto a 3D structure, and sheds light on the potential use of MgB2 films in superconducting magnetic shielding.

  5. Effects of lens extirpation with anterior vitrectomy on vitreous three-dimensional mesh structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Eyes were harvested on the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, respectively. Changes in vitreous gel stretch length due to gravity and the rate of vitreous liquefaction were observed. The collagen content in the vitreous body was examined using the L-hydroxyproline test. Electronic microscopic images were obtained from each eyeball. RESULTS: On both the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, the vitreous gel length of group III was significantly shorter than group I and group II (P<0.05, while the rate of liquefaction of the vitreous body in group III was significantly higher than group I and group II (P<0.05. The collagen content in group III was also higher than that in group I and group II (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Loss of vitreous gel mass is more likely to occur in the eyes of rabbits receiving anterior vitrectomy. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy may damage the stable three-dimensional mesh structure of collagen, which could aggravate vitreous gel liquefaction.

  6. Investigation of three-dimensional turbulent structures in the torsatron TJ-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdizadeh, N.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, the three-dimensional nature of drift waves has been verified experimentally inside the confinement region of the toroidal plasma in TJ-K. The perpendicular dynamics of turbulence has been studied with the focus on the poloidal wavenumber spectra and the scaling of the turbulent structure with the drift scale. To this end, a 64 tip Langmuir probe array has been used, which is poloidally positioned on a flux surface. For the first time, the parallel dynamics of turbulence has been investigated in the core of a toroidally confined plasma. In contrast to previous experiments, multi-probe measurements were carried out to get simultaneous information on the shape and the propagation direction of the turbulent structures. The results for the parallel wave number and the parallel propagation velocity have been compared with results from the simulation code GEM3. It is demonstrated that the propagation in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is affected by Alfven dynamics. Together, these results strongly confirm previous investigations, which have demonstrated the importance of drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K and therefore also in fusion edge plasma. (orig.)

  7. Three-dimensional quantification of structures in trabecular bone using measures of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2009-01-01

    The study of pathological changes of bone is an important task in diagnostic procedures of patients with metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis as well as in monitoring the health state of astronauts during long-term space flights. The recent availability of high-resolution three-dimensiona......The study of pathological changes of bone is an important task in diagnostic procedures of patients with metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis as well as in monitoring the health state of astronauts during long-term space flights. The recent availability of high-resolution three......-dimensional (3D) imaging of bone challenges the development of data analysis techniques able to assess changes of the 3D microarchitecture of trabecular bone. We introduce an approach based on spatial geometrical properties and define structural measures of complexity for 3D image analysis. These measures...... evaluate different aspects of organization and complexity of 3D structures, such as complexity of its surface or shape variability. We apply these measures to 3D data acquired by high-resolution microcomputed tomography (µCT) from human proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae at different stages...

  8. Three-dimensional bioprinting is not only about cell-laden structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Xing, Tian-Long; Yin, Rui-Xue; Shi, Yong; Yang, Shi-Mo; Zhang, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we focused on a few obstacles that hinder three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting process in tissue engineering. One of the obstacles is the bioinks used to deliver cells. Hydrogels are the most widely used bioink materials; however, they aremechanically weak in nature and cannot meet the requirements for supporting structures, especially when the tissues, such as cartilage, require extracellular matrix to be mechanically strong. Secondly and more importantly, tissue regeneration is not only about building all the components in a way that mimics the structures of living tissues, but also about how to make the constructs function normally in the long term. One of the key issues is sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply to the engineered living constructs. The other is to coordinate the interplays between cells, bioactive agents and extracellular matrix in a natural way. This article reviews the approaches to improve the mechanical strength of hydrogels and their suitability for 3D bioprinting; moreover, the key issues of multiple cell lines coprinting with multiple growth factors, vascularization within engineered living constructs etc. were also reviewed.

  9. Three-dimensional bioprinting is not only about cell-laden structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focused on a few obstacles that hinder three-dimensional (3D bioprinting process in tissue engineering. One of the obstacles is the bioinks used to deliver cells. Hydrogels are the most widely used bioink materials; however, they are mechanically weak in nature and cannot meet the requirements for supporting structures, especially when the tissues, such as cartilage, require extracellular matrix to be mechanically strong. Secondly and more importantly, tissue regeneration is not only about building all the components in a way that mimics the structures of living tissues, but also about how to make the constructs function normally in the long term. One of the key issues is sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply to the engineered living constructs. The other is to coordinate the interplays between cells, bioactive agents and extracellular matrix in a natural way. This article reviews the approaches to improve the mechanical strength of hydrogels and their suitability for 3D bioprinting; moreover, the key issues of multiple cell lines coprinting with multiple growth factors, vascularization within engineered living constructs etc. were also reviewed.

  10. Synthesis of three-dimensional calcium carbonate nanofibrous structure from eggshell using femtosecond laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishnan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural biomaterials from bone-like minerals derived from avian eggshells have been considered as promising bone substitutes owing to their biodegradability, abundance, and lower price in comparison with synthetic biomaterials. However, cell adhesion to bulk biomaterials is poor and surface modifications are required to improve biomaterial-cell interaction. Three-dimensional (3D nanostructures are preferred to act as growth support platforms for bone and stem cells. Although there have been several studies on generating nanoparticles from eggshells, no research has been reported on synthesizing 3D nanofibrous structures. Results In this study, we propose a novel technique to synthesize 3D calcium carbonate interwoven nanofibrous platforms from eggshells using high repetition femtosecond laser irradiation. The eggshell waste is value engineered to calcium carbonate nanofibrous layer in a single step under ambient conditions. Our striking results demonstrate that by controlling the laser pulse repetition, nanostructures with different nanofiber density can be achieved. This approach presents an important step towards synthesizing 3D interwoven nanofibrous platforms from natural biomaterials. Conclusion The synthesized 3D nanofibrous structures can promote biomaterial interfacial properties to improve cell-platform surface interaction and develop new functional biomaterials for a variety of biomedical applications.

  11. Electronic structures and three-dimensional effects of boron-doped carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretsune, Takashi; Saito, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    We study boron-doped carbon nanotubes by first-principles methods based on the density functional theory. To discuss the possibility of superconductivity, we calculate the electronic band structure and the density of states (DOS) of boron-doped (10,0) nanotubes by changing the boron density. It is found that the Fermi level density of states D(ε F ) increases upon lowering the boron density. This can be understood in terms of the rigid band picture where the one-dimensional van Hove singularity lies at the edge of the valence band in the DOS of the pristine nanotube. The effect of three-dimensionality is also considered by performing the calculations for bundled (10,0) nanotubes and boron-doped double-walled carbon nanotubes (10,0)/(19,0). From the calculation of the bundled nanotubes, it is found that interwall dispersion is sufficiently large to broaden the peaks of the van Hove singularity in the DOS. Thus, to achieve the high D(ε F ) using the bundle of nanotubes with single chirality, we should take into account the distance from each nanotube. In the case of double-walled carbon nanotubes, we find that the holes introduced to the inner tube by boron doping spread also on the outer tube, while the band structure of each tube remains almost unchanged.

  12. Investigation of three-dimensional turbulent structures in the torsatron TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdizadeh, N.

    2007-02-14

    In this work, for the first time, the three-dimensional nature of drift waves has been verified experimentally inside the confinement region of the toroidal plasma in TJ-K. The perpendicular dynamics of turbulence has been studied with the focus on the poloidal wavenumber spectra and the scaling of the turbulent structure with the drift scale. To this end, a 64 tip Langmuir probe array has been used, which is poloidally positioned on a flux surface. For the first time, the parallel dynamics of turbulence has been investigated in the core of a toroidally confined plasma. In contrast to previous experiments, multi-probe measurements were carried out to get simultaneous information on the shape and the propagation direction of the turbulent structures. The results for the parallel wave number and the parallel propagation velocity have been compared with results from the simulation code GEM3. It is demonstrated that the propagation in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is affected by Alfven dynamics. Together, these results strongly confirm previous investigations, which have demonstrated the importance of drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K and therefore also in fusion edge plasma. (orig.)

  13. Three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of avian influenza H5N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhe; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Ronghui; Wang, Maohua; Lin, Jianhan

    2017-04-01

    As a result of the low concentration of avian influenza viruses in samples for routine screening, the separation and concentration of these viruses are vital for their sensitive detection. We present a novel three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using aptamer-modified magnetic nanoparticles, a magnetophoretic chip, a magnetic field, and a fluidic controller. The magnetic field was designed based on finite element magnetic simulation and developed using neodymium magnets with a maximum intensity of 0.65 T and a gradient of 32 T/m for dragging the nanoparticle-virus complexes. The magnetophoretic chip was designed by SOLIDWORKS and fabricated by a three-dimensional printer with a magnetophoretic channel for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using phosphate-buffered saline as carrier flow. The fluidic controller was developed using a microcontroller and peristaltic pumps to inject the carrier flow and the viruses. The trajectory of the virus-nanoparticle complexes was simulated using COMSOL for optimization of the carrier flow and the magnetic field, respectively. The results showed that the H5N1 viruses could be captured, separated, and concentrated using the proposed magnetophoretic system with the separation efficiency up to 88% in a continuous flow separation time of 2 min for a sample volume of 200 μL. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Three-dimensional structure of lectin from Dioclea violacea and comparative vasorelaxant effects with Dioclea rostrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, B.A.M.; Bezerra, M.J.B.; Bezerra, G.A.; Alencar, K.L.L.; Nascimento, K.S.; Naganao, C.S.; Sampaio, A.H.; Cavada, B.S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Delatorre, P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Rodrigues, N.V.; Pires, A.F.; Assreuy, A.M.S. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Marins, J.L. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Lectins are a structural heterogeneous group of proteins possessing at least one non-catalytic domain that binds reversibly to a specific mono or oligosaccharide. Diocleinae lectins exhibit glucose/mannose monosaccharide binding specificity and studies of their chemical and physicochemical properties revealed a high degree of identity in their amino acid sequences and three dimensional structures. This study investigated structural/functional relationships between lectins obtained from Dioclea violacea (DVL) and Dioclea rostrata (DRL). The purified lectin (DVL) was solubilized in 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.6 with 5 mM CaCl{sub 2} and MnCl{sub 2} buffer and incubated during one hour before the crystallization experiments with the ligand X-Man (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-{alpha}-D-mannose) at 3 mM. Crystals of DVL grew in condition 33 of Crystal Screen I (4M Sodium formate) and belong to the orthorhombic space group I222. The structure of DVL at 2.6 resolution was obtained by molecular replacement using the coordinates of DRL (PDB code 2ZBJ), after the last refinement the structure presented R factor of 0.23 and R free of 0.27. The crystal structures reveal differences between them and could be related to relaxant activity. The conformation of residues HIS51, HIS131 and GLU205 and others positioned at CRD lead to different lectin binding activities. In fact, the pocket in DVL is small and deep and promotes weak interaction with carbohydrates, while DRL pocket is large and shallow, allowing strong interaction between CRD and sugars. This can explain why DVL and DRL elicited different degrees of aorta relaxation showing maximal effects of 43 % and 96 %, respectively. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional intracellular structure of a whole rice mesophyll cell observed with FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Takao; Enomoto, Sakiko; Nakao, Tomoyo; Arai, Shigeo; Yamane, Koji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized. In this study, a whole rice mesophyll cell was observed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), which provides many serial sections automatically, rapidly and correctly, thereby enabling 3-D cell structure reconstruction. Rice leaf blades were fixed chemically using the method for conventional TEM observation, embedded in resin and subsequently set in the FIB-SEM chamber. Specimen blocks were sectioned transversely using the FIB, and block-face images were captured using the SEM. The sectioning and imaging were repeated overnight for 200-500 slices (each 50 nm thick). The resultant large-volume image stacks ( x = 25 μm, y = 25 μm, z = 10-25 μm) contained one or two whole mesophyll cells. The 3-D models of whole mesophyll cells were reconstructed using image processing software. The reconstructed cell models were discoid shaped with several lobes around the cell periphery. The cell shape increased the surface area, and the ratio of surface area to volume was twice that of a cylinder having the same volume. The chloroplasts occupied half the cell volume and spread as sheets along the cell lobes, covering most of the inner cell surface, with adjacent chloroplasts in close contact with each other. Cellular and sub-cellular ultrastructures of a whole mesophyll cell in a rice leaf blade are demonstrated three-dimensionally using a FIB-SEM. The 3-D models and numerical information support the hypothesis that rice mesophyll

  16. Development of a Reduced-Order Three-Dimensional Flow Model for Thermal Mixing and Stratification Simulation during Reactor Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Rui

    2017-09-03

    Mixing, thermal-stratification, and mass transport phenomena in large pools or enclosures play major roles for the safety of reactor systems. Depending on the fidelity requirement and computational resources, various modeling methods, from the 0-D perfect mixing model to 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, are available. Each is associated with its own advantages and shortcomings. It is very desirable to develop an advanced and efficient thermal mixing and stratification modeling capability embedded in a modern system analysis code to improve the accuracy of reactor safety analyses and to reduce modeling uncertainties. An advanced system analysis tool, SAM, is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory for advanced non-LWR reactor safety analysis. While SAM is being developed as a system-level modeling and simulation tool, a reduced-order three-dimensional module is under development to model the multi-dimensional flow and thermal mixing and stratification in large enclosures of reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of the three-dimensional finite element flow model in SAM, including the governing equations, stabilization scheme, and solution methods. Additionally, several verification and validation tests are presented, including lid-driven cavity flow, natural convection inside a cavity, laminar flow in a channel of parallel plates. Based on the comparisons with the analytical solutions and experimental results, it is demonstrated that the developed 3-D fluid model can perform very well for a wide range of flow problems.

  17. Novel highly sensitive and wearable pressure sensors from conductive three-dimensional fabric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Xu, Bingang

    2015-01-01

    Pressure sensors based on three-dimensional fabrics have all the excellent properties of the textile substrate: excellent compressibility, good air permeability and moisture transmission ability, which will find applications ranging from the healthcare industry to daily usage. In this paper, novel pressure sensors based on 3D spacer fabrics have been developed by a proposed multi-coating method. By this coating method, carbon black can be coated uniformly on the silicon elastomer which is attached and slightly cured on the 3D fabric surface beforehand. The as-made pressure sensors have good conductivity and can measure external pressure up to 283 kPa with an electrical conductivity range of 9.8 kΩ. The sensitivity of 3D fabric pressure sensors can be as high as 50.31×10 −3 kPa −1 , which is better than other textile based pressure sensors. When the as-made sensors are pressed, their electrical resistance will decrease because of more conductive connections and bending of fibers in the spacer layer. The sensing mechanism related to fiber bending has been explored by using an equivalent resistance model. The newly developed 3D sensor devices can be designed to exhibit different sensing performances by simply changing the structures of fabric substrate, which endows this kind of device more flexibility in related applications. (paper)

  18. Beacon: A three-dimensional structural analysis code for bowing history of fast breeder reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, K.

    1979-01-01

    The core elements of an LMFBR are bowed due to radial gradients of both temperature and neutron flux in the core. Since all hexagonal elements are multiply supported by adjacent elements or the restraint system, restraint forces and bending stresses are induced. In turn, these forces and stresses are relaxed by irradiation enhanced creep of the material. The analysis of the core bowing behavior requires a three-dimensional consideration of the mechanical interactions among the core elements, because the core consists of different kinds of elements and of fuel assemblies with various burnup histories. A new computational code BEACON has been developed for analyzing the bowing behavior of an LMFBR's core in three dimensions. To evaluate mechanical interactions among core elements, the code uses the analytical method of the earlier SHADOW code. BEACON analyzes the mechanical interactions in three directions, which form angles of 60 0 with one another. BEACON is applied to the 60 0 sector of a typical LMFBR's core for analyzing the bowing history during one equilibrium cycle. 120 core elements are treated, assuming the boundary condition of rotational symmetry. The application confirms that the code can be an effective tool for parametric studies as well as for detailed structural analysis of LMFBR's core. (orig.)

  19. Novel sst2-selective somatostatin agonists. Three-dimensional consensus structure by NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R.; Erchegyi, Judit; Koerber, Steven C.; Reubi, Jean Claude; Rivier, Jean; Riek, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional NMR structures of six octapeptide agonist analogues of somatostatin (SRIF) in the free form are described. These analogues, with the basic sequence H-DPhe/Phe2-c[Cys3-Xxx7-DTrp8-Lys9-Thr10-Cys14]-Thr-NH2 (the numbering refers to the position in native SRIF), with Xxx7 being Ala/Aph, exhibit potent and highly selective binding to human SRIF type 2 (sst2) receptors. The backbone of these sst2-selective analogues have the usual type-II’ β-turn reported in the literature for sst2/3/5-subtype-selective analogues. Correlating biological results and NMR studies led to the identification of the side chains of DPhe2, DTrp8 and Lys9 as the necessary components of the sst2 pharmacophore. This is the first study to show that the aromatic ring at position 7 (Phe7) is not critical for sst2 binding and that it plays an important role in sst3 and sst5 binding. This pharmacophore is therefore different from that proposed by others for sst2/3/5 analogues. PMID:16854054

  20. Evaluating mental workload of two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization for anatomical structure localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jung-Leng; Martinez-Escobar, Marisol; Juhnke, Bethany; Cassidy, Keely; Hisley, Kenneth; Lobe, Thom; Winer, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of medical data in three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) views is a complex area of research. In many fields 3D views are used to understand the shape of an object, and 2D views are used to understand spatial relationships. It is unclear how 2D/3D views play a role in the medical field. Using 3D views can potentially decrease the learning curve experienced with traditional 2D views by providing a whole representation of the patient's anatomy. However, there are challenges with 3D views compared with 2D. This current study expands on a previous study to evaluate the mental workload associated with both 2D and 3D views. Twenty-five first-year medical students were asked to localize three anatomical structures--gallbladder, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery--in either 2D or 3D environments. Accuracy and time were taken as the objective measures for mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was used as a subjective measure for mental workload. Results showed that participants viewing in 3D had higher localization accuracy and a lower subjective measure of mental workload, specifically, the mental demand component of the NASA-TLX. Results from this study may prove useful for designing curricula in anatomy education and improving training procedures for surgeons.

  1. Important factors for the three-dimensional reconstruction of neuronal structures from serial ultrathin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kubota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of anatomical synaptic connectivity in microcircuits depends upon accurate 3-dimentional reconstructions of synaptic ultrastructure using electron microscopy of serial ultrathin sections. Here we address two pitfalls in current methodology that lead to inaccurate reconstructions and compromise conclusions drawn from the data. The first pitfall is inaccurate determination of ultrathin section thickness, which negatively affects the three-dimensional shape of reconstructions and therefore impairs quantitative measurement of synaptic structures. Secondly, current methodology significantly underestimates the number of synaptic junctions, with only two-thirds or less of genuine synaptic contacts being identified in dendrites that radiate within the plane of section. Here we propose a new methodology utilizing precise optical measurements of section thickness and successive observations of synaptic elements across serial ultrathin sections that corrects for these limitations to allow accurate 3-dimentional reconstruction of synaptic ultrastructure. We use this methodology to reveal that parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons have a much higher synaptic density than previously shown. This result suggests that this technique will be useful for re-examining synaptic connectivity of other cell types.

  2. Altimetric signal and three-dimensional structure of the sea in the Channel of Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Bruno Buongiorno; Santoleri, Rosalia; Iudicone, Daniele; Zoffoli, Simona; Marullo, Salvatore

    1999-09-01

    The 1996 Altimeter/Synoptic Mesoscale Plancton Experiment (ALT/SYMPLEX) was specifically designed to perform in situ measurements simultaneous with the passage of TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) and ERS 2 over selected tracks in the central and eastern Sicily Channel. This experiment made it possible to have, for the first time, a validation of altimetry with in situ data over the Mediterranean, where weak dynamics results in a modest sea elevation, rarely exceeding 10 cm. Historical infrared and altimetric satellite data were first analyzed in order to study the variability of the circulation in the area. The comparative and integrative analysis of simultaneous satellite data and in situ measurements permitted investigation of the relation between the altimeter-derived surface topography and the three-dimensional structure of the sea. The Pearson correlation coefficients between altimeter data and dynamic heights along track resulted to be 0.72-0.89 (T/P) and 0.88 (ERS 2) when using conventional repeat track analysis. For T/P, a correlation value of 0.87 was found for time differences computed basing on a collinear analysis technique. This analysis also led to the identification of a strong barotropic component of the velocity field located near the Sicilian continental shelf, where it is responsible for approximately 60% of the signal.

  3. Non-Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elements for Composite Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kohnehpooshi

    Full Text Available Abstract The current investigation focused on the development of effective and suitable modelling of reinforced concrete component with and without strengthening. The modelling includes physical and constitutive models. New interface elements have been developed, while modified constitutive law have been applied and new computational algorithm is utilised. The new elements are the Truss-link element to model the interaction between concrete and reinforcement bars, the interface element between two plate bending elements and the interface element to represent the interfacial behaviour between FRP, steel plates and concrete. Nonlinear finite-element (FE codes were developed with pre-processing. The programme was written using FORTRAN language. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element programme were achieved by analyzing several examples from the literature. The application of the 3D FE code was further enhanced by carrying out the numerical analysis of the three dimensional finite element analysis of FRP strengthened RC beams, as well as the 3D non-linear finite element analysis of girder bridge. Acceptable distributions of slip, deflection, stresses in the concrete and FRP plate have also been found. These results show that the new elements are effective and appropriate to be used for structural component modelling.

  4. Structure and trapping of three-dimensional dust clouds in a capacitively coupled rf-discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, O.; Block, D.; Piel, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this survey the recently found 'Coulomb balls' are discussed, which show an unusual kind of crystalline order. These three-dimensional dust clouds consisting of hundreds or thousands of micrometer-sized dust particles have a spherical shape and exist in a wide range of plasma conditions. Coulomb balls are optically highly transparent and have macroscopic dimensions of several millimeters in diameter. The clouds allow for the observation of each single particle and thus the complete reconstruction of the crystal structure by means of video microscopy techniques. The particles are arranged in distinct nested shells in which they form patterns with mostly five and six neighbors. The confinement of Coulomb balls by dielectric walls involves electric forces, surface charges, ion drag forces, and thermophoretic levitation. The thermophoretic force field is measured with tracer particles and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The electric forces are derived from simulations with the two-dimensional SIGLO-2D code. It is shown the the sum of all confining forces results in a stable potential well that describes levitation and spherical confinement of the Coulomb ball

  5. Three-dimensional structural representation of the sleep-wake adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, Arcady A

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics of the sleep-wake cycle can determine the success or failure of individual adjustment to certain temporal conditions of the today's society. However, it remains to be explored how many such characteristics can be self-assessed and how they are inter-related one to another. The aim of the present report was to apply a three-dimensional structural representation of the sleep-wake adaptability in the form of "rugby cake" (scalene or triaxial ellipsoid) to explain the results of analysis of the pattern of correlations of the responses to the initial 320-item list of a new inventory with scores on the six scales designed for multidimensional self-assessment of the sleep-wake adaptability (Morning and Evening Lateness, Anytime and Nighttime Sleepability, and Anytime and Daytime Wakeability). The results obtained for sample consisting of 149 respondents were confirmed by the results of similar analysis of earlier collected responses of 139 respondents to the same list of 320 items and responses of 1213 respondents to the 72 items of one of the earlier established questionnaire tools. Empirical evidence was provided in support of the model-driven prediction of the possibility to identify items linked to as many as 36 narrow (6 core and 30 mixed) adaptabilities of the sleep-wake cycle. The results enabled the selection of 168 items for self-assessment of all these adaptabilities predicted by the rugby cake model.

  6. Magnetic field generation by pointwise zero-helicity three-dimensional steady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasskazov, Andrey; Chertovskih, Roman; Zheligovsky, Vladislav

    2018-04-01

    We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α -effect and negative eddy diffusivity. Our computations also attest that such flows often generate small-scale field for sufficiently small magnetic molecular diffusivity. These findings indicate that kinetic helicity and helicity spectrum are not the quantities controlling the dynamo properties of a flow regardless of whether scale separation is present or not.

  7. Potentiality of Using Vertical and Three-Dimensional Isolation Systems in Nuclear Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguang Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the horizontal component of an earthquake response can be significantly reduced through the use of conventional seismic isolators, the vertical component of excitation is still transmitted directly into the structure. Records from instrumented structures, and some recent tests and analyses have actually seen increases in vertical responses in base isolated structures under the combined effects of horizontal and vertical ground motions. This issue becomes a great concern to facilities such as a Nuclear Power Plants (NPP, with specialized equipment and machinery that is not only expensive, but critical to safe operation. As such, there is considerable interest worldwide in vertical and three-dimensional (3D isolation systems. This paper examines several vertical and 3D isolation systems that have been proposed and their potential application to modern nuclear facilities. In particular, a series of case study analyses of a modern NPP model are performed to examine the benefits and challenges associated with 3D isolation compared with horizontal isolation. It was found that compared with the general horizontal isolators, isolators that have vertical frequencies of no more than 3 Hz can effectively reduce the vertical in-structure responses for the studied NPP model. Among the studied cases, the case that has a vertical isolation frequency of 3 Hz is the one that can keep the horizontal period of the isolators as the first period while having the most flexible vertical isolator properties. When the vertical frequency of isolators reduces to 1 Hz, the rocking effect is obvious and rocking restraining devices are necessary.

  8. Three-Dimensional Structures of Thermal Tides Simulated by a Venus GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Ando, Hiroki; Matsuda, Yoshihisa

    2018-02-01

    Thermal tides in the Venus atmosphere are investigated by using a GCM named as AFES-Venus. The three-dimensional structures of wind and temperature associated with the thermal tides obtained in our model are fully examined and compared with observations. The result shows that the wind and temperature distributions of the thermal tides depend complexly on latitude and altitude in the cloud layer, mainly because they consist of vertically propagating and trapped modes with zonal wave numbers of 1-4, each of which predominates in different latitudes and altitudes under the influence of mid- and high-latitude jets. A strong circulation between the subsolar and antisolar (SS-AS) points, which is equivalent to a diurnal component of the thermal tides, is superposed on the superrotation. The vertical velocity of SS-AS circulation is about 10 times larger than that of the zonal-mean meridional circulation (ZMMC) in 60-70 km altitudes. It is suggested that the SS-AS circulation could contribute to the material transport, and its upward motion might be related to the UV dark region observed in the subsolar and early afternoon regions in low latitudes. The terdiurnal and quaterdiurnal tides, which may be excited by the nonlinear interactions among the diurnal and semidiurnal tides in middle and high latitudes, are detected in the solar-fixed Y-shape structure formed in the vertical wind field in the upper cloud layer. The ZMMC is weak and has a complex structure in the cloud layer; the Hadley circulation is confined to latitudes equatorward of 30°, and the Ferrel-like one appears in middle and high latitudes.

  9. Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-08-01

    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  10. Mapping genetic variations to three-dimensional protein structures to enhance variant interpretation: a proposed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusman, Gustavo; Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Dougherty, Jennifer; Duarte, José M; Hoffman, Andrew S; Barton, Geoffrey J; Bendixen, Emøke; Bergquist, Timothy; Bock, Christian; Brunk, Elizabeth; Buljan, Marija; Burley, Stephen K; Cai, Binghuang; Carter, Hannah; Gao, JianJiong; Godzik, Adam; Heuer, Michael; Hicks, Michael; Hrabe, Thomas; Karchin, Rachel; Leman, Julia Koehler; Lane, Lydie; Masica, David L; Mooney, Sean D; Moult, John; Omenn, Gilbert S; Pearl, Frances; Pejaver, Vikas; Reynolds, Sheila M; Rokem, Ariel; Schwede, Torsten; Song, Sicheng; Tilgner, Hagen; Valasatava, Yana; Zhang, Yang; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-12-18

    The translation of personal genomics to precision medicine depends on the accurate interpretation of the multitude of genetic variants observed for each individual. However, even when genetic variants are predicted to modify a protein, their functional implications may be unclear. Many diseases are caused by genetic variants affecting important protein features, such as enzyme active sites or interaction interfaces. The scientific community has catalogued millions of genetic variants in genomic databases and thousands of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. Mapping mutations onto three-dimensional (3D) structures enables atomic-level analyses of protein positions that may be important for the stability or formation of interactions; these may explain the effect of mutations and in some cases even open a path for targeted drug development. To accelerate progress in the integration of these data types, we held a two-day Gene Variation to 3D (GVto3D) workshop to report on the latest advances and to discuss unmet needs. The overarching goal of the workshop was to address the question: what can be done together as a community to advance the integration of genetic variants and 3D protein structures that could not be done by a single investigator or laboratory? Here we describe the workshop outcomes, review the state of the field, and propose the development of a framework with which to promote progress in this arena. The framework will include a set of standard formats, common ontologies, a common application programming interface to enable interoperation of the resources, and a Tool Registry to make it easy to find and apply the tools to specific analysis problems. Interoperability will enable integration of diverse data sources and tools and collaborative development of variant effect prediction methods.

  11. Flow Interactions of Two- and Three-Dimensional Networked Bio-Inspired Control Elements in an In-Line Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2018-04-19

    We present experiments that examine the modes of interaction, the collective performance and the role of three-dimensionality in two pitching propulsors in an in-line arrangement. Both two-dimensional foils and three-dimensional rectangular wings of $AR = 2$ are examined. \\kwm{In contrast to previous work, two interaction modes distinguished as the coherent and branched wake modes are not observed to be directly linked to the propulsive efficiency, although they are linked to peak thrust performance and minimum power consumption as previously described \\cite[]{boschitsch2014propulsive}.} \\kwm{In fact, in closely-spaced propulsors peak propulsive efficiency of the follower occurs near its minimum power and this condition \\kwm{ reveals a} branched wake mode. Alternatively, for propulsors spaced far apart peak propulsive efficiency of the follower occurs near its peak thrust and this condition \\kwm{reveals a} coherent wake mode.} By examining the collective performance, it is discovered that there is an optimal spacing between the propulsors to maximize the collective efficiency. For two-dimensional foils the optimal spacing of $X^* = 0.75$ and the synchrony of $\\phi = 2\\pi /3$ leads to a collective efficiency and thrust enhancement of 50\\% and 32\\%, respectively, as compared to two isolated foils. In comparison, for $AR = 2$ wings the optimal spacing of $X^* = 0.25$ and the synchrony of $\\phi = 7\\pi /6$ leads to a collective efficiency and thrust enhancement of 30\\% and 22\\%, respectively. In addition, at the optimal conditions the collective lateral force coefficients in both the two- and three-dimensional cases are negligible, while operating off these conditions can lead to non-negligible lateral forces. Finally, the peak efficiency of the collective and the follower are shown to have opposite trends with increasing spacing in two- and three-dimensional flows. This is correlated to the breakdown of the impinging vortex on the follower wing in three

  12. Three-dimensional structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiah, M A; Starich, M R; Paschall, C; Summers, M F; Christensen, A M; Sundquist, W I

    1994-11-25

    The HIV-1 matrix protein forms an icosahedral shell associated with the inner membrane of the mature virus. Genetic analyses have indicated that the protein performs important functions throughout the viral life-cycle, including anchoring the transmembrane envelope protein on the surface of the virus, assisting in viral penetration, transporting the proviral integration complex across the nuclear envelope, and localizing the assembling virion to the cell membrane. We now report the three-dimensional structure of recombinant HIV-1 matrix protein, determined at high resolution by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The HIV-1 matrix protein is the first retroviral matrix protein to be characterized structurally and only the fourth HIV-1 protein of known structure. NMR signal assignments required recently developed triple-resonance (1H, 13C, 15N) NMR methodologies because signals for 91% of 132 assigned H alpha protons and 74% of the 129 assignable backbone amide protons resonate within chemical shift ranges of 0.8 p.p.m. and 1 p.p.m., respectively. A total of 636 nuclear Overhauser effect-derived distance restraints were employed for distance geometry-based structure calculations, affording an average of 13.0 NMR-derived distance restraints per residue for the experimentally constrained amino acids. An ensemble of 25 refined distance geometry structures with penalties (sum of the squares of the distance violations) of 0.32 A2 or less and individual distance violations under 0.06 A was generated; best-fit superposition of ordered backbone heavy atoms relative to mean atom positions afforded root-mean-square deviations of 0.50 (+/- 0.08) A. The folded HIV-1 matrix protein structure is composed of five alpha-helices, a short 3(10) helical stretch, and a three-strand mixed beta-sheet. Helices I to III and the 3(10) helix pack about a central helix (IV) to form a compact globular domain that is capped by the beta-sheet. The C-terminal helix (helix V) projects away

  13. Characteristics of sandwich-type structural elements built of advanced composite materials from three dimensional fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón, L.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-type structures have proved to be alternatives of great success for several fields of application, and specially in the building sector. This is due to their outstanding properties of .specific rigidity and strength against bending loads and other range of advantages like fatigue and impact resistance, attainment of flat and smooth surfaces, high electric and thermal insulation, design versatility and some others. However, traditional sandwich structures present problems like their tendency towards delamination, stress concentrations in bores or screwed Joints, and pre resistance. These problems are alleviated thanks to the use of new sandwich structures built using three dimensional structures of advanced composite materials, maintaining the present advantages for more traditional sandwich structures. At this rate, these new structures can be applied in several areas where conventional sandwich structures used to be like walls, partitions, floor and ceiling structures, domes, vaults and dwellings, but with greater success.

    Las estructuras tipo sándwich han demostrado ser alternativas de gran éxito para diversos campos de aplicación y, en concreto, en el sector de la construcción, listo es gracias a sus excelentes propiedades de rigidez y resistencia específica frente a cargas de flexión y otra larga lista de ventajas, a la que pertenecen, por ejemplo, su buena resistencia a fatiga, resistencia al impacto, obtención de superficies lisas y suaves, elevado aislamiento térmico y eléctrico, versatilidad de diseño y otras. Sin embargo, las estructuras sándwich, tradicionales presentan una problemática consistente en su tendencia a la delaminación, concentraciones de tensiones ¿aparecidas ante la existencia de agujeros o uniones atornilladas y resistencia al fuego. Estos problemas son pifiados gracias a la aplicación de estructuras novedosas tipo sándwich, construidas a partir de tejidos tridimensionales de materiales

  14. Variability of three-dimensional sea breeze structure in southern France: observations and evaluation of empirical scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; Bastin, S.; Dabas, A.; Delville, P.; Reitebuch, O.

    2006-08-01

    Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb), and to the sea breeze depth (zsb) and intensity (usb). They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i) the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii) the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys) affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area. Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i) latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii) in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted); and (iii) the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.

  15. Application of fast neutron radiography to three-dimensional visualization of steady two-phase flow in a rod bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Takenaka, N; Fujii, T; Mizubata, M; Yoshii, K

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional void fraction distribution of air-water two-phase flow in a 4x4 rod-bundle near a spacer was visualized by fast neutron radiography using a CT method. One-dimensional cross sectional averaged void fraction distribution was also calculated. The behaviors of low void fraction (thick water) two-phase flow in the rod bundle around the spacer were clearly visualized. It was shown that the void fraction distributions were visualized with a quality similar to those by thermal neutron radiography for low void fraction two-phase flow which is difficult to visualize by thermal neutron radiography. It is concluded that the fast neutron radiography is efficiently applicable to two-phase flow studies.

  16. Simulations of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows past a circular cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers

    KAUST Repository

    RICHTER, DAVID; IACCARINO, GIANLUCA; SHAQFEH, ERIC S. G.

    2010-01-01

    The results from a numerical investigation of inertial viscoelastic flow past a circular cylinder are presented which illustrate the significant effect that dilute concentrations of polymer additives have on complex flows. In particular, effects

  17. Linkage mechanisms in the vertebrate skull: Structure and function of three-dimensional, parallel transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Aaron M; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-12-01

    Many musculoskeletal systems, including the skulls of birds, fishes, and some lizards consist of interconnected chains of mobile skeletal elements, analogous to linkage mechanisms used in engineering. Biomechanical studies have applied linkage models to a diversity of musculoskeletal systems, with previous applications primarily focusing on two-dimensional linkage geometries, bilaterally symmetrical pairs of planar linkages, or single four-bar linkages. Here, we present new, three-dimensional (3D), parallel linkage models of the skulls of birds and fishes and use these models (available as free kinematic simulation software), to investigate structure-function relationships in these systems. This new computational framework provides an accessible and integrated workflow for exploring the evolution of structure and function in complex musculoskeletal systems. Linkage simulations show that kinematic transmission, although a suitable functional metric for linkages with single rotating input and output links, can give misleading results when applied to linkages with substantial translational components or multiple output links. To take into account both linear and rotational displacement we define force mechanical advantage for a linkage (analogous to lever mechanical advantage) and apply this metric to measure transmission efficiency in the bird cranial mechanism. For linkages with multiple, expanding output points we propose a new functional metric, expansion advantage, to measure expansion amplification and apply this metric to the buccal expansion mechanism in fishes. Using the bird cranial linkage model, we quantify the inaccuracies that result from simplifying a 3D geometry into two dimensions. We also show that by combining single-chain linkages into parallel linkages, more links can be simulated while decreasing or maintaining the same number of input parameters. This generalized framework for linkage simulation and analysis can accommodate linkages of differing

  18. Three-dimensional structure and stoichiometry of Helmintosporium victoriae190S totivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caston, Jose R.; Luque, Daniel; Trus, Benes L.; Rivas, German; Alfonso, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Carrascosa, Jose L.; Annamalai, Padmanaban; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2006-01-01

    Most double-stranded RNA viruses have a characteristic capsid consisting of 60 asymmetric coat protein dimers in a so-called T = 2 organization, a feature probably related to their unique life cycle. These capsids organize the replicative complex(es) that is actively involved in genome transcription and replication. Available structural data indicate that their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is packaged as an integral capsid component, either as a replicative complex at the pentameric vertex (as in reovirus capsids) or as a fusion protein with the coat protein (as in some totivirus). In contrast with members of the family Reoviridae, there are two well-established capsid arrangements for dsRNA fungal viruses, exemplified by the totiviruses L-A and UmV and the chrysovirus PcV. Whereas L-A and UmV have a canonical T = 2 capsid, the PcV capsid is based on a T = 1 lattice composed of 60 capsid proteins. We used cryo-electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and hydrodynamic analysis to determine the structure at 13.8 A resolution of Helminthosporium victoriae 190S virus (Hv190SV), a totivirus isolated from a filamentous fungus. The Hv190SV capsid has a smooth surface and is based on a T = 2 lattice with 60 equivalent dimers. Unlike the RDRP of some other totiviruses, which are expressed as a capsid protein-RDRP fusion protein, the Hv190SV RDRP is incorporated into the capsid as a separate, nonfused protein, free or non-covalently associated to the capsid interior

  19. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and earthquake relocations at Katmai, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Bennington, Ninfa

    2014-01-01

    We invert arrival time data from local earthquakes occurring between September 2004 and May 2009 to determine the three-dimensional (3D) upper crustal seismic structure in the Katmai volcanic region. Waveforms for the study come from the Alaska Volcano Observatory's permanent network of 20 seismic stations in the area (predominantly single-component, short period instruments) plus a densely spaced temporary array of 11 broadband, 3-component stations. The absolute and relative arrival times are used in a double-difference seismic tomography inversion to solve for 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for an area encompassing the main volcanic centers. The relocated hypocenters provide insight into the geometry of seismogenic structures in the area, revealing clustering of events into four distinct zones associated with Martin, Mageik, Trident-Novarupta, and Mount Katmai. The seismic activity extends from about sea level to 2 km depth (all depths referenced to mean sea level) beneath Martin, is concentrated near 2 km depth beneath Mageik, and lies mainly between 2 and 4 km depth below Katmai and Trident-Novarupta. Many new features are apparent within these earthquake clusters. In particular, linear features are visible within all clusters, some associated with swarm activity, including an observation of earthquake migration near Trident in 2008. The final velocity model reveals a possible zone of magma storage beneath Mageik, but there is no clear evidence for magma beneath the Katmai-Novarupta area where the 1912 eruptive activity occurred, suggesting that the storage zone for that eruption may have largely been evacuated, or remnant magma has solidified.

  20. Diversity of dermal denticle structure in sharks: Skin surface roughness and three-dimensional morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankhelyi, Madeleine V; Wainwright, Dylan K; Lauder, George V

    2018-05-29

    Shark skin is covered with numerous placoid scales or dermal denticles. While previous research has used scanning electron microscopy and histology to demonstrate that denticles vary both around the body of a shark and among species, no previous study has quantified three-dimensional (3D) denticle structure and surface roughness to provide a quantitative analysis of skin surface texture. We quantified differences in denticle shape and size on the skin of three individual smooth dogfish sharks (Mustelus canis) using micro-CT scanning, gel-based surface profilometry, and histology. On each smooth dogfish, we imaged between 8 and 20 distinct areas on the body and fins, and obtained further comparative skin surface data from leopard, Atlantic sharpnose, shortfin mako, spiny dogfish, gulper, angel, and white sharks. We generated 3D images of individual denticles and measured denticle volume, surface area, and crown angle from the micro-CT scans. Surface profilometry was used to quantify metrology variables such as roughness, skew, kurtosis, and the height and spacing of surface features. These measurements confirmed that denticles on different body areas of smooth dogfish varied widely in size, shape, and spacing. Denticles near the snout are smooth, paver-like, and large relative to denticles on the body. Body denticles on smooth dogfish generally have between one and three distinct ridges, a diamond-like surface shape, and a dorsoventral gradient in spacing and roughness. Ridges were spaced on average 56 µm apart, and had a mean height of 6.5 µm, comparable to denticles from shortfin mako sharks, and with narrower spacing and lower heights than other species measured. We observed considerable variation in denticle structure among regions on the pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins, including a leading-to-trailing edge gradient in roughness for each region. Surface roughness in smooth dogfish varied around the body from 3 to 42 microns. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Structural, functional and evolutionary study of in silico three dimensional model of pneumolysin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutfullah, G.; Taj, S.; Bashir, K.; Khattak, S.U.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive cocci shaped bacteria, is the major human pathogen, causing diseases like septic meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia and septicemia. The objective of present study is to gain more knowledge about the function of important domain of the toxin pneumolysin. This study aims to analyze the structural and functional features of pneumolysin and to investigate the residues involved in its pathogenicity.The major virulence factor of this bacterium is a protein, pneumolysin, which is the member of thiol-activated cytolysins. From the three dimensional homology model of the present study, it was found that pneumolysin has four domains, out of which domain 4 is of great importance. It was observed that Cys 428 and Trp 433 of pneumolysin are of great importance and any mutation in this region highly reduces its cytotoxicity. Cys 428 forms hydrophobic contact with Ala 373 and Trp 436 of the conserved region, while Trp 433 is bonded with Trp 436 and Arg 426 through hydrogen interactions .The particular cysteine residue is present at position 428 and is also sandwiched between beta-sheet and Trp 436. In pneumolysin, the undecapeptide or the Trp-rich loop spans the region (amino acid 427 to 437) and several single amino acid substitutions within this region reduce the cytolytic activity of pneumolysin by up to 99.9% as reported previously. The primary structure of pneumolysin has a total eight tryptophan residues and one cysteine. The undecapeptide region has three tryptophan and one cysteine residue containing 11 amino acid sequence i.e ECTGLAWEWWR. Cysteine 428 of pneumolysin present in trp-rich motif is responsible to act on cholestrol. Pairwise alignment reveals that pneumolysin do not have the N-terminus signal peptide sequence which is present in the template i.e. perfringolysin. This shows that pneumolysin is an intracellular protein and released only upon cell lysis. (author)

  2. Quantitative analysis of normal fetal brain volume and flow by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: 3D ultrasound can be used to assess the fetal brain volume and blood flow development quantitatively. Our study indicates that the fetal brain vascularization and blood flow correlates significantly with the advancement of GA. This information may serve as a reference point for further studies of the fetal brain volume and blood flow in abnormal conditions.

  3. Three-dimensional calculation of the flow in the cold plenum of the Fast Breeder Reactor 1500 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabard, J.P.; Daubert, O.; Gregoire, J.P.; Hemmerich, P.

    1987-01-01

    To solve thermalhydraulics problems which are rising for example on the various parts of nuclear reactors, several departments of the Direction des Etudes et Recherches are developing the N3S code, three-dimensional code using the finite element method. First, this paper presents the basic equations (Navies-Stokes with turbulence modelling and coupled with the thermal equation) and well suited algorithms to solve them. The industrial adequacy of the code is clearly demonstrated through the application to the computation of the flow in the cold plenum of the Fast Breeder Reactor 1500 MW on a mesh of about 20000 velocity nodes [fr

  4. Bifurcations and degenerate periodic points in a three dimensional chaotic fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the periodic points of a conservative periodic dynamical system uncovers the basic kinematic structure of the transport dynamics and identifies regions of local stability or chaos. While elliptic and hyperbolic points typically govern such behaviour in 3D systems, degenerate (parabolic) points also play an important role. These points represent a bifurcation in local stability and Lagrangian topology. In this study, we consider the ramifications of the two types of degenerate periodic points that occur in a model 3D fluid flow. (1) Period-tripling bifurcations occur when the local rotation angle associated with elliptic points is reversed, creating a reversal in the orientation of associated Lagrangian structures. Even though a single unstable point is created, the bifurcation in local stability has a large influence on local transport and the global arrangement of manifolds as the unstable degenerate point has three stable and three unstable directions, similar to hyperbolic points, and occurs at the intersection of three hyperbolic periodic lines. The presence of period-tripling bifurcation points indicates regions of both chaos and confinement, with the extent of each depending on the nature of the associated manifold intersections. (2) The second type of bifurcation occurs when periodic lines become tangent to local or global invariant surfaces. This bifurcation creates both saddle–centre bifurcations which can create both chaotic and stable regions, and period-doubling bifurcations which are a common route to chaos in 2D systems. We provide conditions for the occurrence of these tangent bifurcations in 3D conservative systems, as well as constraints on the possible types of tangent bifurcation that can occur based on topological considerations.

  5. Thermal and solutal stratification in mixed convection three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the double stratified effects in mixed convection three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B nanofluid. The flow is due to a bidirectional stretching surface. Mathematical analysis is carried out using the temperature and concentration stratification effects. Brownian motion, thermophoresis and chemical reaction effects are also considered. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations are first converted into the dimensionless ordinary differential equations and then solved for the convergent series solutions of velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence analysis of the obtained series solutions is also checked and verified. Effects of various emerging parameters are studied in details. Numerical values of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are tabulated and analyzed. It is noticed that the impact of mixed convection parameter on temperature and nanoparticles concentration is quite similar. Both temperature and nanoparticles concentration are reduced for larger mixed convection parameter. Keywords: Three-dimensional flow, Oldroyd-B fluid, Nanoparticles, Mixed convection, Thermal and solutal stratification, Chemically reactive species

  6. Three-dimensional P velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle under Beijing region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, A.; Liu, F.; Sun, Y.

    1980-04-01

    By use of the teleseismic P arrival times at 15 stations of the Beijing network for 120 events distributed over various azimuths, we studied the three-dimensional P velocity structure under the Beijing region. In calculating the theoretic travel time, we adopted the source parameters given in BISC, and used the J-B model as the standard model of earth. On inversion, we adopted singular value decomposition as a generalized inversion package, which can be used for solving very large over-determined systems of equations Gm = t without resorting to normal equations G/sup T/Gm = G/sup T/t. The results are that within the crust and upper mantle under the Beijing region there are clear lateral differences. In the results obtained by use of data from 1972 to 1975, it can be seen that there are three different zones of P-velocity. In the southeast Beijing region, P velocity is lower than that of the normal model by 10 to 14% within the crust, and by 8 to 9% within the upper mantle. The northwest Beijing region is a higher-velocity zone, within which the average P-velocity is faster than that of the normal model by about 9%. It disappears after entering into the upper mantle. The central part of this region is a normal zone. On the surface, the distribution of these P velocity variations corresponds approximately to the distribution of the over-burden. But in the deeper region, the distribution of velocity variation agrees with the distribution of seismicity. It is interesting to note that the hypocenters of several major earthquakes in this region, e.g., the Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake (1679, M = 8), the Shacheng earthquake (1730, M = 6-3/4) and the Tangshan earthquake (1976, M = 7.8), are all located very close to this boundary of these P-velocity variation zones.

  7. A proposal of a three-dimensional CT measurement method of maxillofacial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional CT measurement is put in practice in order to grasp the pathological condition on diseases such as the temporomandibular joint disorder, maxillofacial anomaly, jaw deformity, or fracture which cause the morphologic changes of the maxillofacial bones. On the 3D measurement, the unique system that is obtained by volume rendering 3D images with a simultaneous reference of axial images combined with coronal and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images (we call this MPR referential method), is employed in order to define the measurement points. Our purpose in this report is to indicate the usefulness of this unique method by comparing with the common way to define the measurement points on only 3D reconstruction images without consulting of MPR images. Clinical CT data obtained from a male patient with skeletal malocclusion was used. Contiguous axial images were reconstructed at 4 times magnification, with a reconstruction interval of 0.5 mm, focused on the temporomandibular joint region in his left side. After these images were converted to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format and sent to personal computer (PC), 3D reconstruction image was created using free 3D DICOM medical image viewer. The coordinates of 3 measurement points (the lateral and medial pole of the mandibular condyle, and the left foramen ovale) were defined with MPR images (MPR coordinates) as reference coordinates, and then the coordinates that were defined on only 3D reconstruction image without consulting to MPR images (3D coordinates) were compared to those of MPR coordinates. Three examiners were engaged independently 10 times for every measurement point. In our result, there was no correspondence between 3D coordinates and MPR coordinates, and contribution of 3D coordinates showed a variety in every measurement point and in every observer. We deemed that ''MPR referential method'' is useful to assess the location of the target point of anatomical

  8. Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Scaffolds Designed with Cardiac-Mimetic Structural and Mechanical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B.; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23190320

  9. Processing of three-dimensional structures of Nuclear Medicine in PET modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Edward Florez; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear medicine, as a specialty to obtain medical images is very important, and it has became one of the main procedures utilized in health care centers to analyze the metabolic behavior of the patient. This project was based on medical images obtained by the PET modality (Positron Emission Tomography). Thus, we developed a framework for processing Nuclear Medicine three-dimensional images of the PET modality, which is composed of consecutive steps that start with the generation of standard images (gold standard) by using simulated images of the Left Ventricular Heart, such as phantoms obtained from the NCAT-4D software. Then, Poisson quantum noise was introduced into the whole volume to simulate the characteristic noises in PET images. Subsequently, the pre-processing step was executed by using specific 3D filters, such as the median filter, the weighted Gaussian filter, and the Anscombe/Wiener filter. Then the segmentation process, which is based on the fuzzy connectedness theory, was implemented. For that purpose four different 3D approaches were implemented: Generic, LIFO, kTetaFOEMS, and dynamic weight algorithm. Finally, an assessment procedure was used as a measurement tool to quantify three parameters (true positive, false positive and maximum distance) that determined the level of efficiency and precision of our process. It was found that the pair filter - segmenter formed by the Anscombe/Wiener filter together with the Fuzzy segmenter based on dynamic weights provided the best results, with VP and FP rates of 98.49 ±0.27% and 2.19 ±0.19%, respectively, for the simulation of the left ventricular volume. Along with the set of choices made during the processing structure, the project was finished with the analysis of a small number of volumes that belonged to a real PET test, thus the quantification of the volumes was obtained. (author)

  10. Finite elements for the calculation of turbulent flows in three-dimensional complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, A.

    A finite element program for the calculation of incompressible turbulent flows is presented. In order to reduce the required storage an iterative algorithm is used which solves the necessary equations sequentially. The state of turbulence is defined by the k-epsilon model. In addition to the standard k-epsilon model, the modification of Bardina et al., taking into account the rotation of the mean flow, is investigated. With this program, the flow in the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine is examined. Calculations are carried out for swirling and nonswirling entrance flow. The results are compared with measurements.

  11. Coupled, parabolic-marching method for the prediction of three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbomachinery flows. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtley, K.R.

    1988-10-01

    A new coupled parabolic-marching method was developed to solve the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for turbulent turbomachinery flows. Earlier space-marching methods were analyzed to determine their global stability during multiple passes of the computational domain. The methods were found to be unconditionally unstable even when an extra equation for the pressure, namely the Poisson equation for the pressure, was used between passes of the domain. Relaxation of one constraint during the solution process was found to be necessary for the successful calculation of a complex flow.Thus, the method of pseudocompressibility was introduced into the partially parabolized Navier-Stokes equation to relax the mass flow constraint during a forward-marching integration as well as globally stable during successive passes of the domain. With consistent discretization, the new method was found to be convergent.

  12. Numerical calculation of three-dimensional flow field of servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingrui; Han Weishi; Wang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism is a new type built-in driving mechanism which is suitable for integrated reactor and it can be moved continuously. The numerical calculation and analysis of the internal three-dimensional flow field inside the driving mechanism were carried out by the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The result shows that the unique pressure mutation area of flow field inside the driving mechanism is at the place of the servo variable throttle orifice. The differential pressure of the piston can be effectively controlled by changing the gap of variable throttle orifice. When the gap changes within 0.5 mm, the differential pressure can be greatly changed, and then the driving mechanism motion state would be changed too. When the working pressure is 0.1 MPa, the hoisting capacity of the driving mechanism can meet the design requirements, and the flow rate is small. (authors)

  13. Turbine endwall two-cylinder program. [wind tunnel and water tunnel investigation of three dimensional separation of fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in an effort to study the three dimensional separation of fluid flow around two isolated cylinders mounted on an endwall. The design and performance of a hydrogen bubble generator for water tunnel tests to determine bulk flow properties and to measure main stream velocity and boundary layer thickness are described. Although the water tunnel tests are behind schedule because of inlet distortion problems, tests are far enough along to indicate cylinder spacing, wall effects and low Reynolds number behavior, all of which impacted wind tunnel model design. The construction, assembly, and operation of the wind tunnel and the check out of its characteristics are described. An off-body potential flow program was adapted to calculate normal streams streamwise pressure gradients at the saddle point locations.

  14. Three-dimensional laryngeal flow fields induced by a model vocal fold polyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, Byron D., E-mail: erath@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, 739 Phillips Hall, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, 739 Phillips Hall, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pathological speech with a unilateral polyp is modeled in a scaled-up flow facility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vortex shedding from the polyp disrupts normal flow behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hairpin vortices create spatial velocity asymmetries in the glottal flow. - Abstract: Pathological laryngeal flow fields are investigated in a dynamically-driven, scaled-up model of the vocal folds. Disruption of the flow field due to the presence of a geometric protuberance, representative of a sessile unilateral polyp, is investigated in both the streamwise and transverse flow directions using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry. It is shown that the protuberance disrupts the normal flow behavior of the glottal jet throughout the phonatory cycle. During the divergent portions of the glottal cycle, the flow is characterized by the formation of hairpin vortices downstream of the protuberance. The protuberance also introduces significant velocity gradients in the anterior-posterior direction, which cover {approx}30 - 40% of the vocal fold length. It is proposed that the disruption of the normal velocity behavior owing to the presence of a polyp will adversely impact the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold motion, contributing to the temporal and spatial vocal fold asymmetries that are clinically-observed in patients with unilateral polyps.

  15. Three dimensional experimental investigation of a hypersonic double-ramp flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijer, F.F.J.; Caljouw, R.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    The flow over a 15?-45? double compression ramp was studied at Mach 7.5. CFD computations are compared to 2 component PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements. Furthermore stereoscopic PIV was used to measure the three component velocity vector, enabling to perform a 3D flow survey. The overall

  16. Three-dimensional laryngeal flow fields induced by a model vocal fold polyp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pathological speech with a unilateral polyp is modeled in a scaled-up flow facility. ► Vortex shedding from the polyp disrupts normal flow behavior. ► Hairpin vortices create spatial velocity asymmetries in the glottal flow. - Abstract: Pathological laryngeal flow fields are investigated in a dynamically-driven, scaled-up model of the vocal folds. Disruption of the flow field due to the presence of a geometric protuberance, representative of a sessile unilateral polyp, is investigated in both the streamwise and transverse flow directions using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry. It is shown that the protuberance disrupts the normal flow behavior of the glottal jet throughout the phonatory cycle. During the divergent portions of the glottal cycle, the flow is characterized by the formation of hairpin vortices downstream of the protuberance. The protuberance also introduces significant velocity gradients in the anterior-posterior direction, which cover ∼30 − 40% of the vocal fold length. It is proposed that the disruption of the normal velocity behavior owing to the presence of a polyp will adversely impact the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold motion, contributing to the temporal and spatial vocal fold asymmetries that are clinically-observed in patients with unilateral polyps.

  17. Three dimensional simulation of compressible and incompressible flows through the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gustavo Koury

    2004-11-01

    Although incompressible fluid flows can be regarded as a particular case of a general problem, numerical methods and the mathematical formulation aimed to solve compressible and incompressible flows have their own peculiarities, in such a way, that it is generally not possible to attain both regimes with a single approach. In this work, we start from a typically compressible formulation, slightly modified to make use of pressure variables and, through augmenting the stabilising parameters, we end up with a simplified model which is able to deal with a wide range of flow regimes, from supersonic to low speed gas flows. The resulting methodology is flexible enough to allow for the simulation of liquid flows as well. Examples using conservative and pressure variables are shown and the results are compared to those published in the literature, in order to validate the method. (author)

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF WIND LOAD APPLIED TO THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES BY VIRTUE OF ITS SIMULATION IN THE WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss wind loads applied to a set of two buildings. The wind load is simulated with the help of the wind tunnel. In the Russian Federation, special attention is driven to the aerodynamics of high-rise buildings and structures. According to the Russian norms, identification of aerodynamic coefficients for high-rise buildings, as well as the influence of adjacent buildings and structures, is performed on the basis of models of structures exposed to wind impacts simulated in the wind tunnel. This article deals with the results of the wind tunnel test of buildings. The simulation was carried out with the involvement of a model of two twenty-three storied buildings. The experiment was held in a wind tunnel of the closed type at in the Institute of Mechanics of Moscow State University. Data were compared at the zero speed before and after the experiment. LabView software was used to process the output data. Graphs and tables were developed in the Microsoft Excel package. GoogleSketchUp software was used as a visualization tool. The three-dimensional flow formed in the wind tunnel can't be adequately described by solving the two-dimensional problem. The aerodynamic experiment technique is used to analyze the results for eighteen angles of the wind attack.

  19. Pulse-Like Rupture Induced by Three-Dimensional Fault Zone Flower Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian

    2014-07-04

    © 2014, Springer Basel. Faults are often embedded in low-velocity fault zones (LVFZ) caused by material damage. Previous 2D dynamic rupture simulations (Huang and Ampuero, 2011; Huang et al., 2014) showed that if the wave velocity contrast between the LVFZ and the country rock is strong enough, ruptures can behave as pulses, i.e. with local slip duration (rise time) much shorter than whole rupture duration. Local slip arrest (healing) is generated by waves reflected from the LVFZ–country rock interface. This effect is robust against a wide range of fault zone widths, absence of frictional healing, variation of initial stress conditions, attenuation, and off-fault plasticity. These numerical studies covered two-dimensional problems with fault-parallel fault zone structures. Here, we extend previous work to 3D and geometries that are more typical of natural fault zones, including complexities such as flower structures with depth-dependent velocity and thickness, and limited fault zone depth extent. This investigation requires high resolution and flexible mesh generation, which are enabled here by the high-order accurate arbitrary high-order derivatives discontinuous Galerkin method with an unstructured tetrahedral element discretization (Peltieset al., 2012). We show that the healing mechanism induced by waves reflected in the LVFZ also operates efficiently in such three-dimensional fault zone structures and that, in addition, a new healing mechanism is induced by unloading waves generated when the rupture reaches the surface. The first mechanism leads to very short rise time controlled by the LVFZ width to wave speed ratio. The second mechanism leads to generally longer, depth-increasing rise times, is also conditioned by the existence of an LVFZ, and persists at some depth below the bottom of the LVFZ. Our simulations show that the generation of slip pulses by these two mechanisms is robust to the depth extent of the LVFZ and to the position of the hypocenter

  20. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  1. Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshunov, N. M., E-mail: gorshunov-nm@nrcki.ru; Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin45@yandex.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.

  2. Three-dimensional Effects of Turburlent Flow in an In-Line Tube Bundle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    Velocities have been measured with laser Doppler anemometry between tubes in cross-flow in a small in-line tube bundle with longitudinal to transverse pitches of 1.5Dx1.8D and a Reynolds number based on mean velocity in minimum flow section of Re=30000. At most locations a single recirculation zone...... is found behind each tube. However, the direction of circulation changes sign along the tube with a period of about 2~tube diameters. Three different patterns of such recirculation zones have been observed. Each pattern is very stable and does not change under undisturbed flow conditions....

  3. Three-dimensional local ALE-FEM method for fluid flow in domains containing moving boundaries/objects interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrington, David Bradley [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Monayem, A. K. M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mazumder, H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heinrich, Juan C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-05

    A three-dimensional finite element method for the numerical simulations of fluid flow in domains containing moving rigid objects or boundaries is developed. The method falls into the general category of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods; it is based on a fixed mesh that is locally adapted in the immediate vicinity of the moving interfaces and reverts to its original shape once the moving interfaces go past the elements. The moving interfaces are defined by separate sets of marker points so that the global mesh is independent of interface movement and the possibility of mesh entanglement is eliminated. The results is a fully robust formulation capable of calculating on domains of complex geometry with moving boundaries or devises that can also have a complex geometry without danger of the mesh becoming unsuitable due to its continuous deformation thus eliminating the need for repeated re-meshing and interpolation. Moreover, the boundary conditions on the interfaces are imposed exactly. This work is intended to support the internal combustion engines simulator KIVA developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. The model's capabilities are illustrated through application to incompressible flows in different geometrical settings that show the robustness and flexibility of the technique to perform simulations involving moving boundaries in a three-dimensional domain.

  4. Three-dimensional modeling of air flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon with thermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mong-Yu; Chen, Kang-Shin; Wu, Chung-Hsing

    2005-08-01

    Effects of excess ground and building temperatures on airflow and dispersion of pollutants in an urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 0.8 and a length-to-width ratio of 3 were investigated numerically. Three-dimensional governing equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species were modeled using the RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and Boussinesq approximation, which were solved using the finite volume method. Vehicle emissions were estimated from the measured traffic flow rates and modeled as banded line sources, with a street length and bandwidths equal to typical vehicle widths. Both measurements and simulations reveal that pollutant concentrations typically follow the traffic flow rate; they decline as the height increases and are higher on the leeward side than on the windward side. Three-dimensional simulations reveal that the vortex line, joining the centers of cross-sectional vortexes of the street canyon, meanders between street buildings and shifts toward the windward side when heating strength is increased. Thermal boundary layers are very thin. Entrainment of outside air increases, and pollutant concentration decreases with increasing heating condition. Also, traffic-produced turbulence enhances the turbulent kinetic energy and the mixing of temperature and admixtures in the canyon. Factors affecting the inaccuracy of the simulations are addressed.

  5. Three-dimensional stability, receptivity and sensitivity of non-Newtonian flows inside open cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citro, Vincenzo; Giannetti, Flavio; Pralits, Jan O

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the stability properties of flows over an open square cavity for fluids with shear-dependent viscosity. Analysis is carried out in context of the linear theory using a normal-mode decomposition. The incompressible Cauchy equations, with a Carreau viscosity model, are discretized with a finite-element method. The characteristics of direct and adjoint eigenmodes are analyzed and discussed in order to understand the receptivity features of the flow. Furthermore, we identify the regions of the flow that are more sensitive to spatially localized feedback by building a spatial map obtained from the product between the direct and adjoint eigenfunctions. Analysis shows that the first global linear instability of the steady flow is a steady or unsteady three-dimensionl bifurcation depending on the value of the power-law index n. The instability mechanism is always located inside the cavity and the linear stability results suggest a strong connection with the classical lid-driven cavity problem. (paper)

  6. Pore-scale simulation of fluid flow and solute dispersion in three-dimensional porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo; Boccardo, Gianluca; Marchisio, Daniele L.; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-01-01

    In the present work fluid flow and solute transport through porous media are described by solving the governing equations at the pore scale with finite-volume discretization. Instead of solving the simplified Stokes equation (very often employed

  7. Three-dimensional MHD [magnetohydrodynamic] flows in rectangular ducts of liquid-metal-cooled blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, T.Q.; Walker, J.S.; Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.

    1988-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows of liquid metals in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls in the presence of strong nonuniform transverse magnetic fields are examined. The interaction parameter and Hartmann number are assumed to be large, whereas the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. Under these assumptions, viscous and inertial effects are confined in very thin boundary layers adjacent to the walls. A significant fraction of the fluid flow is concentrated in the boundary layers adjacent to the side walls which are parallel to the magnetic field. This paper describes the analysis and numerical methods for obtaining 3-D solutions for flow parameters outside these layers, without solving explicitly for the layers themselves. Numerical solutions are presented for cases which are relevant to the flows of liquid metals in fusion reactor blankets. Experimental results obtained from the ALEX experiments at Argonne National Laboratory are used to validate the numerical code. In general, the agreement is excellent. 5 refs., 14 figs

  8. Three dimensional LDV flow measurements and theoretical investigation in a radial inflow turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Malak Fouad; Hamed, Awatef; Tabakoff, Widen

    1990-01-01

    A two-color LDV system was used in the measurement of three orthogonal velocity components at 758 points located throughout the scroll and the unvaned portion of the nozzle of a radial inflow turbine scroll. The cold flow experimental results are presented for the velocity field at the scroll tongue. In addition, a total pressure loss of 3.5 percent for the scroll is revealed from the velocity measurements combined with the static pressure readings. Moreover, the measurement of the three normal stresses of the turbulence has showed that the flow is anisotropic. Furthermore, the mean velocity components are compared with a numerical solution of the potential flow field using the finite element technique. The theoretical prediction of the exit flow angle variation agrees well with the experimental results. This variation leads to a higher scroll pattern factor which can be avoided by controlling the scroll cross sectional area distribution.

  9. Three-dimensional fluctuating Couette flow through the porous plates with heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady Couette flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two horizontal porous flat plates is considered. The stationary plate is subjected to a periodic suction and the plate in uniform motion is subjected to uniform injection. Approximate solutions have been obtained for the velocity and the temperature fields, skin friction by using perturbation technique. The heat transfer characteristic has also been studied on taking viscous dissipation into account. It is found that the main flow velocity decreases with increase in frequency parameter. On the other hand, the magnitude of the cross-flow velocity increases with increase in frequency parameter. It is seen that the amplitude of the shear stress due to main flow decreases while that due to cross-flow increases with increase in frequency parameter. It is also seen that the tangent of phase shifts both due to the main and cross-flows decrease with increase in frequency parameter. It is observed that the temperature increases with increase in frequency parameter.

  10. Influence of three mechanical bileaflet prosthetic valve designs on the three-dimensional flow field inside a simulated aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Toshinosuke; Matsumoto, Akira

    2010-12-01

    The current design of the bileaflet valve, the leaflets of which open outside first, differs significantly from the natural valve whose leaflets open center first. This difference generates a completely different flow field in the bileaflet valve compared to that in the natural heart valve. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that the valve design greatly affects the aortic flow field as well as the circulatory flow inside sinuses of Valsalva, using saline solution as a working fluid. A limited discussion on the turbulence flow field that could be generated by the valve was provided. In this continuation of that study, therefore, a dynamic PIV study was conducted to analyze the influence of the heart valve design on the aortic flow field, and particularly on the turbulent profile. This study also aimed to determine the influence of the viscosity of the testing fluid. Three bileaflet prostheses-the St. Jude Medical (SJM), the On-X, and the MIRA valves-were tested under pulsatile flow conditions. Flow through the central orifice of the SJM valve was slower than that through the newer designs. The newer designs tend to show strong flow through all orifices. The On-X valve generates simple jet-type flow while the MIRA valve with circumferentially curved leaflets generates a strong but three-dimensionally diffuse flow, resulting in a more complex flow field downstream of the aortic valve with higher turbulence. A 180° orientation that is more popular clinically seems to provide a less diffuse flow than a 90° orientation. The effect of increasing the viscosity was found to be an increase in the flow velocity through the central orifice and a more organized flow field for all of the valves tested.

  11. Bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization for strut-and-tie modelling of three-dimensional structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Vahid; Ahmadi-Nedushan, Behrouz

    2017-12-01

    This article presents a method for the automatic generation of optimal strut-and-tie models in reinforced concrete structures using a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization method. The methodology presented is developed for compliance minimization relying on the Abaqus finite element software package. The proposed approach deals with the generation of truss-like designs in a three-dimensional environment, addressing the design of corbels and joints as well as bridge piers and pile caps. Several three-dimensional examples are provided to show the capabilities of the proposed framework in finding optimal strut-and-tie models in reinforced concrete structures and verifying its efficiency to cope with torsional actions. Several issues relating to the use of the topology optimization for strut-and-tie modelling of structural concrete, such as chequerboard patterns, mesh-dependency and multiple load cases, are studied. In the last example, a design procedure for detailing and dimensioning of the strut-and-tie models is given according to the American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318-08 provisions.

  12. Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction dynamics of a pool-reactor in-tank component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The safety evaluation of reactor-components often involves the analysis of various types of fluid/structural components interacting in three-dimensional space. For example, in the design of a pool-type reactor several vital in-tank components such as the primary pumps and the intermediate heat exchangers are contained within the primary tank. Typically, these components are suspended from the deck structure and largely submersed in the sodium pool. Because of this positioning these components are vulnerable to structural damage due to pressure wave propagation in the tank during a CDA. In order to assess the structural integrity of these components it is necessary to perform a dynamic analysis in three-dimensional space which accounts for the fluid-structure coupling. A model is developed which has many of the salient features of this fluid-structural component system

  13. The three-dimensional structure of CFA/I adhesion pili: traveler's diarrhea bacteria hang on by a spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiang-Qi; Savarino, Stephen J; Bullitt, Esther

    2008-02-22

    To survive the harsh environment of a churning intestinal tract, bacteria attach to the host epithelium via thin fibers called pili (or fimbriae). Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli bacteria expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) pili and related pili are the most common known bacterial cause of diarrheal disease, including traveler's diarrhea. CFA/I pili, assembled via the alternate chaperone pathway, are essential for binding and colonization of the small bowel by these pathogenic bacteria. Herein, we elucidate unique structural features of CFA/I pili that appear to optimize their function as bacterial tethers in the intestinal tract. Using transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained samples in combination with iterative three-dimensional helical reconstruction methods for image processing, we determined the structure of the CFA/I pilus filament. Our results indicate that strong end-to-end protein interactions and weak interactions between the coils of a sturdy spring-like helix provide the combination of strength, stability, and flexibility required to sustain bacterial adhesion and incite intestinal disease. We propose that CFA/I pili behave like a spring to maintain attachment to the gut lining during vortex mixing and downward flow of the intestinal contents, thereby persisting long enough for these bacteria to colonize the host epithelium and cause enteric disease.

  14. Interactive finite difference preprocessor for three-dimensional fluid flow systems. [PREFLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinstreuer, C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY); Patterson, M.R.

    1981-06-01

    A preprocessor, called PREFLO, consisting of data processing modules combined with a flexible finite difference grid generator is described. This economical, interactive computer code is a useful research tool contributing significantly to the accurate analysis and modeling of large and/or geometrically complex flow systems. PREFLO (PREprocessor for fluid FLOw problems), written in FORTRAN IV, consists of four modules which in turn call various subroutines. The main programs accomplish the following tasks: (1) system identification and selection of appropriate finite difference algorithms; (2) input devices for storage of natural flow boundaries; (3) interactive generation of finite difference meshes and display of computer graphics; (4) preparation of all data files for the source program. The computation of the velocity field near a power plant site is outlined to illustrate the capabilities and application of PREFLO.

  15. Numerical simulation and analysis of ball valve three-dimensional flow based on CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S C; Zhang, Y L; Fang, Z M

    2012-01-01

    The new rotor oil-gas mixture pump that added ball valves in its export is a kind of innovative products, which can better adapt to the oil and gas mixed condition. In order to explore the rule of flow field in the export ball valve of new rotor oil-gas mixture pump, established the 3 d model of ball valve flow field was established. Using the FLUENT software, combining the standard k-ε turbulent model with multiphase flow technology and adopting the SIMPLE algorithm to simulate the 3 d gas-liquid two phase flow field in export ball valve of new rotor oil-gas mixture pump. In the different conditions that the volume of gas rate was 25%, 50%, 75%, through analyzing the velocity field, stress field and the distribution of the liquid and gas with the ball valve open height respectively at 3mm, 5mm, 7mm. Discussed how open height and different volume of gas rate to influence the field in export ball valve in the process of gas-liquid mixing was discussed. The simulation results showed that the greater the open height, the smaller the difference pressure of ball valve; the gap velocity decreasing with the open height increasing. The gas is mainly distributed in the vicinity of the valve ball in the process of gas-liquid mixing. The gas liquid ratio has a little effect on the gap velocity in the same open height. The results showed the flow field forms in the ball valve directly, to a certain degree, it had released the rules of gas-liquid flow in the valve and provided the theoretical guidance for design and optimization of the new rotor oil-gas mixture pump export ball valve.

  16. Impact of anisotropic slip on transient three dimensional MHD flow of ferrofluid over an inclined radiate stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rashad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of anistropic slip on transient three dimensional MHD flow of Cobalt-kerosene ferrofluid over an inclined radiate stretching surface. The governing partial differential equations for this study are solved by the Thomas algorithm with finite-difference type. The impacts of several significant parameters on flow and heat transfer characteristics are exhibited graphically. The conclusion is revealed that the local Nusselt number is significantly promoted due to influence of thermal radiation whereas diminished with elevating the solid volume fraction, magnet parameter and slip factors. Further, the skin friction coefficients visualizes a considerable enhancement with boosting the magnet and radiation parameters, but a prominent reduction is recorded by elevating the solid volume fraction and slip factors.

  17. Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Three-Dimensional Rotor Flow Field in the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    A laser anemometer system was used to provide detailed surveys of the three-dimensional velocity field within the NASA low-speed centrifugal impeller operating with a vaneless diffuser. Both laser anemometer and aerodynamic performance data were acquired at the design flow rate and at a lower flow rate. Floor path coordinates, detailed blade geometry, and pneumatic probe survey results are presented in tabular form. The laser anemometer data are presented in the form of pitchwise distributions of axial, radial, and relative tangential velocity on blade-to-blade stream surfaces at 5-percent-of-span increments, starting at 95-percent-of-span from the hub. The laser anemometer data are also presented as contour and wire-frame plots of throughflow velocity and vector plots of secondary velocities at all measurement stations through the impeller.

  18. Magnetic field effect on a three-dimensional mixed convective flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A uniform magnetic field is assumed to be applied transversely to the direction of the free stream. The expressions for skin friction at the plate in the direction of the main flow and the rate of heat transfer and mass transfer from the plate to the fluid are obtained in non-dimensional form. The amplitudes of the perturbed parts of ...

  19. The Three-Dimensional Velocity Distribution of Wide Gap Taylor-Couette Flow Modelled by CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Shina Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation is conducted for the flow between two concentric cylinders with a wide gap, relevant to bearing chamber applications. This wide gap configuration has received comparatively less attention than narrow gap journal bearing type geometries. The flow in the gap between an inner rotating cylinder and an outer stationary cylinder has been modelled as an incompressible flow using an implicit finite volume RANS scheme with the realisable k-ε model. The model flow is above the critical Taylor number at which axisymmetric counterrotating Taylor vortices are formed. The tangential velocity profiles at all axial locations are different from typical journal bearing applications, where the velocity profiles are quasilinear. The predicted results led to two significant findings of impact in rotating machinery operations. Firstly, the axial variation of the tangential velocity gradient induces an axially varying shear stress, resulting in local bands of enhanced work input to the working fluid. This is likely to cause unwanted heat transfer on the surface in high torque turbomachinery applications. Secondly, the radial inflow at the axial end-wall boundaries is likely to promote the transport of debris to the junction between the end-collar and the rotating cylinder, causing the build-up of fouling in the seal.

  20. Thoughts on the chimera method of simulation of three-dimensional viscous flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    The chimera overset grid is reviewed and discussed relative to other procedures for simulating flow about complex configurations. It is argued that while more refinement of the technique is needed, current schemes are competitive to unstructured grid schemes and should ultimately prove more useful.

  1. Development of a Three-Dimensional Unstructured Euler Solver for High-Speed Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Petronel AFILIPOAE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the solution of the compressible Euler equations on hexahedral meshes for supersonic and hypersonic flows. Spatial discretization is accomplished by a cell-centered finite-volume formulation which employs two different upwind schemes for the computation of convective fluxes. Second-order solutions are attained through a linear state reconstruction technique that yields highly resolved flows in smooth regions while providing a sharp and clean resolution of shocks. The solution gradients required for the higher-order spatial discretization are estimated by a least-square method while Venkatakrishnan limiter is employed to preserve monotonicity and avoid oscillations in the presence of shocks. Furthermore, solutions are advanced in time by an explicit third-order Runge-Kutta scheme and convergence to steady state is accelerated using implicit residual smoothing. Flow around a circular arc in a channel and flow past a circular cylinder are studied and results are presented for various Mach numbers together with comparisons to theoretical and experimental data where possible.

  2. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...

  3. Three-dimensional flow of Prandtl fluid with Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Aziz, Arsalan; Muhammad, Taseer; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-06-01

    This research paper intends to investigate the 3D flow of Prandtl liquid in the existence of improved heat conduction and mass diffusion models. Flow is created by considering linearly bidirectional stretchable sheet. Thermal and concentration diffusions are considered by employing Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion models. Boundary layer approach has been used to simplify the governing PDEs. Suitable nondimensional similarity variables correspond to strong nonlinear ODEs. Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) is employed for solutions development. The role of various pertinent variables on temperature and concentration are analyzed through graphs. The physical quantities such as surface drag coefficients and heat and mass transfer rates at the wall are also plotted and discussed. Our results indicate that the temperature and concentration are decreasing functions of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters respectively.

  4. Three-dimensional finite volume modelling of blood flow in simulated angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algabri, Y. A.; Rookkapan, S.; Chatpun, S.

    2017-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is considered a deadly cardiovascular disease that defined as a focal dilation of blood artery. The healthy aorta size is between 15 and 24 mm based on gender, bodyweight, and age. When the diameter increased to 30 mm or more, the rupture can occur if it is kept growing or untreated. Moreover, the proximal angular neck of aneurysm is categorized as a significant morphological feature with prime harmful effects on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Flow pattern in pathological vessel can influence the vascular intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate the blood flow behaviours in angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm with simulated geometry based on patient’s information using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The 3D angular neck AAA models have been designed by using SolidWorks Software. Consequently, CFD tools are used for simulating these 3D models of angular neck AAA in ANSYS FLUENT Software. Eventually, based on the results, we summarized that the CFD techniques have shown high performance in explaining and investigating the flow patterns for angular neck abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  5. Finite-element three-dimensional ground-water (FE3DGW) flow model - formulation, program listings and users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This document consists of the description of the FE3DGW (Finite Element, Three-Dimensional Groundwater) Hydrologic model third level (high complexity) three-dimensional, finite element approach (Galerkin formulation) for saturated groundwater flow

  6. Three-dimensional analytic probabilities of coupled vibrational-rotational-translational energy transfer for DSMC modeling of nonequilibrium flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes

  7. Three-dimensional granular model of semi-solid metallic alloys undergoing solidification: Fluid flow and localization of feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A.B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) granular model which simulates fluid flow within solidifying alloys with a globular microstructure, such as that found in grain refined Al alloys, is presented. The model geometry within a representative volume element (RVE) consists of a set of prismatic triangular elements representing the intergranular liquid channels. The pressure field within the liquid channels is calculated using a finite elements (FEs) method assuming a Poiseuille flow within each channel and flow conservation at triple lines. The fluid flow is induced by solidification shrinkage and openings at grain boundaries due to deformation of the coherent solid. The granular model predictions are validated against bulk data calculated with averaging techniques. The results show that a fluid flow simulation of globular semi-solid materials is able to reproduce both a map of the 3-D intergranular pressure and the localization of feeding within the mushy zone. A new hot cracking sensitivity coefficient is then proposed. Based on a mass balance performed over a solidifying isothermal volume element, this coefficient accounts for tensile deformation of the semi-solid domain and for the induced intergranular liquid feeding. The fluid flow model is then used to calculate the pressure drop in the mushy zone during the direct chill casting of aluminum alloy billets. The predicted pressure demonstrates that deep in the mushy zone where the permeability is low the local pressure can be significantly lower than the pressure predicted by averaging techniques.

  8. Three dimensional radiative flow of magnetite-nanofluid with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Rashid, Madiha; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Present communication deals with the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in flow of nanofluid by non-linear stretching sheet. Water based nanofluid containing magnetite nanoparticles is considered. Non-linear radiation and non-uniform heat sink/source effects are examined. Non-linear differential systems are computed by Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Convergent solutions of nonlinear systems are established. The optimal data of auxiliary variables is obtained. Impact of several non-dimensional parameters for velocity components, temperature and concentration fields are examined. Graphs are plotted for analysis of surface drag force and heat transfer rate.

  9. Time-domain Green's Function Method for three-dimensional nonlinear subsonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K.; Morino, L.

    1978-01-01

    The Green's Function Method for linearized 3D unsteady potential flow (embedded in the computer code SOUSSA P) is extended to include the time-domain analysis as well as the nonlinear term retained in the transonic small disturbance equation. The differential-delay equations in time, as obtained by applying the Green's Function Method (in a generalized sense) and the finite-element technique to the transonic equation, are solved directly in the time domain. Comparisons are made with both linearized frequency-domain calculations and existing nonlinear results.

  10. The three-dimensional flow in the chamber of a gas centrifuge with an installed obstacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsholz, E.

    1977-01-01

    The flow-field in a very fast rotating chamber under the presence of a stationarily installed obstacle is calculated numerically from the complete set of Navier-Stokes-equations. A special differential approximation applied, provides stable and non-oscillating solutions even within the region of very small Ekman-numbers. This type of approximation will be derived and its advantages are discussed. Finally, a numerical result is presented which includes strong radial density gradients and shows very clearly the compressible effects as well as the mechanism of vortex shedding generated by the obstacle. (orig.) [de

  11. Quasi-three-dimensional analysis of ground water flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport in saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yi.

    1991-01-01

    A computational procedure was developed in this study to provide flexibility needed in the application of three-dimensional groundwater flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport simulations. In the first part of this study, analytical solutions were proposed for the dissolved single-component solute transport problem. These closed form solutions were developed for homogeneous but stratified porous media. This analytical model took into account two-dimensional diffusion-advection in the main aquifer layer and one-dimensional diffusion-advection in the adjacent aquitards, as well as first order radioactive decay and linear adsorption isotherm in both aquifer and aquitards. The associated analytical solutions for solute concentration distributions in the aquifer and aquitards were obtained using Laplace Transformation and Method of Separation of Variables techniques. Next, in order to analyze the problem numerically, a quasi-three-dimensional finite element algorithm was developed based on the multilayer aquifer concept. In this phase, advection, dispersion, adsorption and first order multi-species chemical reaction terms were included to the analysis. Employing this model, without restriction on groundwater flow pattern in the multilayer aquifer system, one may analyze the complex behavior of the groundwater flow and solute movement pattern in the system. These numerical models may be utilized as calibration tools in site characterization studies, or as predictive models during the initial stages of a typical site investigation study. Through application to several test and field problems, the usefulness, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed models were demonstrated. Comparison of results with analytical solution, experimental data and other numerical methods were also discussed

  12. Single calibration multiplane stereo-PIV: the effect of mitral valve orientation on three-dimensional flow in a left ventricle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaid, Hicham; Segers, Patrick; Novara, Matteo; Claessens, Tom; Verdonck, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    The characterization of flow patterns in the left ventricle may help the development and interpretation of flow-based parameters of cardiac function and (patho-)physiology. Yet, in vivo visualization of highly dynamic three-dimensional flow patterns in an opaque and moving chamber is a challenging task. This has been shown in several recent multidisciplinary studies where in vivo imaging methods are often complemented by in silico solutions, or by in vitro methods. Because of its distinctive features, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been extensively used to investigate flow dynamics in the cardiovascular field. However, full volumetric PIV data in a dynamically changing geometry such as the left ventricle remain extremely scarce, which justifies the present study. An investigation of the left ventricle flow making use of a customized cardiovascular simulator is presented; a multiplane scanning-stereoscopic PIV setup is used, which allows for the measurement of independent planes across the measurement volume. Due to the accuracy in traversing the illumination and imaging systems, the present setup allows to reconstruct the flow in a 3D volume performing only one single calibration. The effects of the orientation of a prosthetic mitral valve in anatomical and anti-anatomical configurations have been investigated during the diastolic filling time. The measurement is performed in a phase-locked manner; the mean velocity components are presented together with the vorticity and turbulent kinetic energy maps. The reconstructed 3D flow structures downstream the bileaflet mitral valve are shown, which provides additional insight of the highly three-dimensional flow.

  13. Evaluation of Artificial Caudal Fin for Fish Robot with Two Joints by Using Three-Dimensional Fluid-Structure Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogo Takada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fish robot with image sensors is useful to research for underwater creatures such as fish. However, the propulsion velocity of a fish robot is very slow compared with live fish. It is necessary to swim at a speed several times faster than the speed of the current robots for various usages. Therefore, we are searching for the method of making the robot swim fast. The simulation before making the robot is important. We have made the computational simulation program of three-dimensional fluid-structure analysis. The flow around the caudal fin can be examined by analyzing the fin as an elastic body. We compared the results of numerical analysis with the results of PIV measurement. Both were agreed well. Because the performance of a fish robot with two joints is better than that of a fish robot with one joint, we searched for an excellent fin for the fish robot with two joints by using CFD. We confirmed that the swimming performance of a fish robot becomes very good when the caudal fin is rigid except for the root of the fin which is comparatively flexible.

  14. Three-dimensional spatial structures of solar wind turbulence from 10 000-km to 100-km scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the four Cluster spacecraft, we have determined the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic fields in the solar wind. Three different solar wind intervals of Cluster data are investigated for this purpose, representing three different spatial scales: 10 000 km, 1000 km, and 100 km. The spectra are determined using the wave telescope technique (k-filtering technique without assuming the validity of Taylor's frozen-in-flow hypothesis nor are any assumptions made as to the symmetry properties of the fluctuations. We find that the spectra are anisotropic on all the three scales and the power is extended primarily in the directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, as might be expected of two-dimensional turbulence, however, the analyzed fluctuations are not axisymmetric. The lack of axisymmetry invalidates some earlier techniques using single spacecraft observations that were used to estimate the percentage of magnetic energy residing in quasi-two-dimensional power. However, the dominance of two-dimensional turbulence is consistent with the relatively long mean free paths of cosmic rays in observed in the heliosphere. On the other hand, the spectra also exhibit secondary extended structures oblique from the mean magnetic field direction. We discuss possible origins of anisotropy and asymmetry of solar wind turbulence spectra.

  15. Variability of three-dimensional sea breeze structure in southern France: observations and evaluation of empirical scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Drobinski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb, and to the sea breeze depth (zsb and intensity (usb. They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area.

    Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted; and (iii the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.

  16. Variability of three-dimensional sea breeze structure in southern France: observations and evaluation of empirical scaling laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Drobinski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea-breeze dynamics in southern France is investigated using an airborne Doppler lidar, a meteorological surface station network and radiosoundings, in the framework of the ESCOMPTE experiment conducted during summer 2001 in order to evaluate the role of thermal circulations on pollutant transport and ventilation. The airborne Doppler lidar WIND contributed to three-dimensional (3-D mapping of the sea breeze circulation in an unprecedented way. The data allow access to the onshore and offshore sea breeze extents (xsb, and to the sea breeze depth (zsb and intensity (usb. They also show that the return flow of the sea breeze circulation is very seldom seen in this area due to (i the presence of a systematic non zero background wind, and (ii the 3-D structure of the sea breeze caused by the complex coastline shape and topography. A thorough analysis is conducted on the impact of the two main valleys (Rhône and Durance valleys affecting the sea breeze circulation in the area. Finally, this dataset also allows an evaluation of the existing scaling laws used to derive the sea breeze intensity, depth and horizontal extent. The main results of this study are that (i latitude, cumulative heating and surface friction are key parameters of the sea breeze dynamics; (ii in presence of strong synoptic flow, all scaling laws fail in predicting the sea breeze characteristics (the sea breeze depth, however being the most accurately predicted; and (iii the ratio zsb/usb is approximately constant in the sea breeze flow.

  17. The structure of a three-dimensional boundary layer subjected to streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaleb, Y.; Leschziner, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study a spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer. • We impose a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient. • A collateral flow is formed close to the wall, and this is investigated alongside the skewed upper part of the boundary layer. • A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied. -- Abstract: A spatially-evolving three-dimensional boundary layer, subjected to a streamwise-varying spanwise-homogeneous pressure gradient, equivalent to a body force, is investigated by way of direct numerical simulation. The pressure gradient, prescribed to change its sign half-way along the boundary layer, provokes strong skewing of the velocity vector, with a layer of nearly collateral flow forming close to the wall up to the position of maximum spanwise velocity. A wide range of flow-physical properties have been studied, with particular emphasis on the near-wall layer, including second-moments, major budget contributions and wall-normal two-point correlations of velocity fluctuations and their angles, relative to wall-shear fluctuations. The results illustrate the complexity caused by skewing, including a damping in turbulent mixing and a significant lag between strains and stresses. The study has been undertaken in the context of efforts to develop and test novel hybrid LES–RANS schemes for non-equilibrium near-wall flows, with an emphasis on three-dimensional near-wall straining. Fundamental flow-physical issues aside, the data derived should be of particular relevance to a priori studies of second-moment RANS closure and the development and validation of RANS-type near-wall approximations implemented in LES schemes for high-Reynolds-number complex flows

  18. Numerical Analysis on Effects of Positioning and Height of the Contoured Endwall on the Three-Dimensional Flow in an Annular Turbine Nozzle Guide Vane Cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wu Sang; Kim, Dae Hyun; Min, Jae Hong; Chung Jin Taek

    2007-01-01

    Endwall losses contribute significantly to the overall losses in modern turbomachinery, especially when aerodynamic airfoil load and pressure ratio are increased. Hence, reducing the extend and intensity of the secondary flow structures helps to enhance overall efficiency. From the large range of viable approaches, a promising combination positioning and height of endwall contouring was chosen. The objective of this study is to document the three-dimensional flow in a turbine cascade in terms of streamwise vorticity, total pressure loss distribution and static pressure distribution on the endwall and blade surface and to propose an appropriate positioning and height of the endwall contouring which show best secondary, overall loss reduction among the simulated endwall. The flow through the gas turbine were numerically analyzed using three dimensional Navier-Stroke equations with a commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX-10. The result shows that the overall loss is reduced near the flat endwall rather than contoured endwall, and the case of contoured endwall installed at 30% from leading edge with height of 25% for span showed best performance

  19. Wave propagation properties of frame structures. Formulation for three-dimensional frame structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Since it is generally difficult to predict the occurrence of natural disasters such as earth-quakes, a performance management system that constantly maintains the safety and functionality of structures is required, particularly for critical structures like nuclear power plants. In order to realize such a system, it is becoming important to carry out detailed modeling procedures and analyses to better understand actual phenomena. The aim of our research is to determine the dynamic behavior - especially the wave propagation phenomena - of piping systems in nuclear power plants, which are complicated assemblages of parts. The spectral element method is adopted in this study, and the formulation considering a shear deformation independently for a frame element is described. The Timoshenko beam theory is introduced for the purpose of this formulation. The validity of the presented element will be shown through comparisons with the conventional beam element. (author)

  20. Parallel DSMC Solution of Three-Dimensional Flow Over a Finite Flat Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Robert P.; Wilmoth, Richard G.; Moon, Bongki; Hassan, H. A.; Saltz, Joel

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a parallel implementation of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Runtime library support is used for scheduling and execution of communication between nodes, and domain decomposition is performed dynamically to maintain a good load balance. Performance tests are conducted using the code to evaluate various remapping and remapping-interval policies, and it is shown that a one-dimensional chain-partitioning method works best for the problems considered. The parallel code is then used to simulate the Mach 20 nitrogen flow over a finite-thickness flat plate. It is shown that the parallel algorithm produces results which compare well with experimental data. Moreover, it yields significantly faster execution times than the scalar code, as well as very good load-balance characteristics.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Flow Through Full Passage and Performance Prediction of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Zhou Wenxia; Zhang Jige; Wang Dezhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the level of self-design and domestic manufacture of the reactor coolant pump (nuclear main pump), the software FLUENT was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow through full passage of one nuclear main pump basing on RNG κ-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. The distribution of pressure and velocity of the flow in the impeller's surface was analyzed in different working conditions. Moreover, the performance of the pump was predicted based on the simulation results. The results show that the distributions of pressure and velocity are reasonable in both the working and back face of the blade in the steady working condition. The pressure of the flow is increased from the inlet to the outlet of the pump, and shows the maximal value in the impeller region. Comparatively satisfactory efficiency and head value were obtained in the condition of the pump design. The shaft power of the nuclear main pump is gradually increased with the increase of the flow flux. These results are helpful in understanding the change of the internal flow field in the nuclear main pump, which is of some importance for the pre-exploration and theoretical research on the domestic manufacture of the nuclear main pump. (authors)

  2. Using Flow Characteristics in Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasound Imaging to Predict Complete Responses in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2017-05-01

    Strategies are needed for the identification of a poor response to treatment and determination of appropriate chemotherapy strategies for patients in the early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. We hypothesize that power Doppler ultrasound imaging can provide useful information on predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The solid directional flow of vessels in breast tumors was used as a marker of pathologic complete responses (pCR) in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-one breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had tumors of 2 to 5 cm were recruited. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow imaging technology was used to acquire the indices of tumor blood flow/volume, and the chemotherapy response prediction was established, followed by support vector machine classification. The accuracy of pCR prediction before the first chemotherapy treatment was 83.87% (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.6957). After the second chemotherapy treatment, the accuracy of was 87.9% (AUC = 0.756). Trend analysis showed that good and poor responders exhibited different trends in vascular flow during chemotherapy. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of using the vascular flow in breast tumors to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Flow visualization of three-dimensionality inside the 12 cc Penn State pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszelle, Breigh N; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B

    2010-02-01

    In order to aid the ongoing concern of limited organ availability for pediatric heart transplants, Penn State has continued development of a pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device (PVAD). Initial studies of the PVAD observed an increase in thrombus formation due to differences in flow field physics when compared to adult sized devices, which included a higher degree of three-dimensionality. This unique flow field brings into question the use of 2D planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a flow visualization technique, however the small size and high curvature of the PVAD make other tools such as stereoscopic PIV impractical. In order to test the reliability of the 2D results, we perform a pseudo-3D PIV study using planes both parallel and normal to the diaphragm employing a mock circulatory loop containing a viscoelastic fluid that mimics 40% hematocrit blood. We find that while the third component of velocity is extremely helpful to a physical understanding of the flow, particularly of the diastolic jet and the development of a desired rotational pattern, the flow data taken parallel to the diaphragm is sufficient to describe the wall shear rates, a critical aspect to the study of thrombosis and design of such pumps.

  4. Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Neutron Diffraction in Transmission Mode for Mapping Crystal Grain Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cereser, Alberto; Strobl, Markus; Hall, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    constituting the material. This article presents a new non-destructive 3D technique to study centimeter-sized bulk samples with a spatial resolution of hundred micrometers: time-of-flight three-dimensional neutron diffraction (ToF 3DND). Compared to existing analogous X-ray diffraction techniques, ToF 3DND......-of-flight neutron beamline. The technique was developed and tested with data collected at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) for an iron sample. We successfully reconstructed the shape of 108 grains and developed an indexing procedure...

  5. A method for three-dimensional structural analysis of reinforced concrete containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.

    1989-01-01

    A finite element method designed to assist reactor safety analysts in the three-dimensional numerical simulation of reinforced concrete containments to normal and off-normal mechanical loadings is presented. The development of a lined reinforced concrete plate element is described in detail, and the implementation of an empirical transverse shear failure criteria is discussed. The method is applied to the analysis of a 1/6th scale reinforced concrete containment model subjected to static internal pressurization. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  6. Three-Dimensional Incompressible Navier-Stokes Flow Computations about Complete Configurations Using a Multiblock Unstructured Grid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chunhua; Hyams, Daniel G.; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Gaither, J. Adam; Marcum, David L.; Whitfield, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A multiblock unstructured grid approach is presented for solving three-dimensional incompressible inviscid and viscous turbulent flows about complete configurations. The artificial compressibility form of the governing equations is solved by a node-based, finite volume implicit scheme which uses a backward Euler time discretization. Point Gauss-Seidel relaxations are used to solve the linear system of equations at each time step. This work employs a multiblock strategy to the solution procedure, which greatly improves the efficiency of the algorithm by significantly reducing the memory requirements by a factor of 5 over the single-grid algorithm while maintaining a similar convergence behavior. The numerical accuracy of solutions is assessed by comparing with the experimental data for a submarine with stem appendages and a high-lift configuration.

  7. Laser sintering fabrication of three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds with a flow channel network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, T; Hamajima, D; Montagne, K; Oizumi, S; Naruke, H; Huang, H; Sakai, Y; Kinoshita, H; Fujii, T

    2011-09-01

    The fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds for the reconstruction of highly oxygen-dependent inner organs is discussed. An additive manufacturing technology known as selective laser sintering was employed to fabricate a highly porous scaffold with an embedded flow channel network. A porogen leaching system was used to obtain high porosity. A prototype was developed using the biodegradable plastic polycaprolactone and sodium chloride as the porogen. A high porosity of 90% was successfully obtained. Micro x-ray CT observation was carried out to confirm that channels with a diameter of approximately 1 mm were generated without clogging. The amount of residual salt was 930 µg while the overall volume of the scaffold was 13 cm(3), and it was confirmed that the toxicity of the salt was negligible. The hydrophilization of the scaffold to improve cell adhesion on the scaffold is also discussed. Oxygen plasma ashing and hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide, typically employed to improve the hydrophilicity of plastic surfaces, were tested. The improvement of hydrophilicity was confirmed by an increase in water retention by the porous scaffold from 180% to 500%.

  8. Three-dimensional modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, R.J.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical studies have been made of an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge using the TOUGH2 code to aid in the selection of computational models for performance assessment. The exercise investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to model transient flows through highly fractured tuff and provides a possible means of calibration. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The infiltration test modeled involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water for 36 minutes. The 205 gallon filtration of water observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using measured Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, and a specified fracture aperture of 285 μm. The dual permeability formulation predicted considerable infiltration along the fracture network, which was in agreement with the experimental observations. As expected, minimal fracture penetration of the infiltrating water was calculated using the equivalent continuum model, thus demonstrating that this model is not appropriate for modeling the highly transient experiment. It is therefore recommended that the dual permeability model be given priority when computing high-flux infiltration for use in performance assessment studies

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, RJ.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-09-01

    Numerical studies have been made of an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge using the TOUGH2 code to aid in the selection of computational models for performance assessment. The exercise investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to model transient flows through highly fractured tuff and provides a possible means of calibration. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The infiltration test modeled involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water for 36 minutes. The 205 gallon infiltration of water observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using measured Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, and a specified fracture aperture of 285 microm. The dual permeability formulation predicted considerable infiltration along the fracture network, which was in agreement with the experimental observations. As expected, al fracture penetration of the infiltrating water was calculated using the equivalent continuum model, thus demonstrating that this model is not appropriate for modeling the highly transient experiment. It is therefore recommended that the dual permeability model be given priority when computing high-flux infiltration for use in performance assessment studies

  10. Three dimensional numerical investigation of flow mixing in curved tubes and mass transfer in T-channel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Pradeep; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional flow patterns appearing in geometries such as curved pipes and T-channel junctions have important applications and are attractive for research. Unlike the flow in a straight tube, fluid motion in a curved tube is not parallel to the axis of bend, owing to the presence of centrifugal effects. It is characterized by a secondary flow in a cross-sectional plane normal to the main flow. Consequently, secondary flow separation near the inner wall is observed in the developing region. The strength of the secondary flow is greatly influenced by the curvature ratio and in turn, a non-dimensional parameter called the Dean Number. Secondary flow increases flow resistance, resulting in a larger pressure drop along the bend. The location of the maximum axial velocity gets shifted towards the outer wall. Flow in a T-channel junction is also a configuration of great significance. The simulations of the present work show that flow at low Reynolds numbers (Re ≤ 115) is steady and symmetric. For low Reynolds numbers, flow in the downstream channel remains highly segregated about the centerline. The appearance of vortices in the T-channel junction does little to redistribute concentration when flow remains symmetric. With increasing Reynolds number, transition takes place towards asymmetric flow. The incoming flow field gets redistributed at the center-plane and the dividing streamline becomes increasingly distorted. The flow field is characterized by thin elongated fluid interfaces across which momentum diffusion takes place. Flow at higher Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 250) becomes unsteady in which unstable stagnation stream traces move periodically leftward and rightward at top and bottom walls. Trajectories of mass-less particles show greater dwelling in the junction as compared to those of finite mass particle. The numerical simulation is carried out in the present work using ANUPRAVAHA, a general purpose CFD solver developed at IIT Kanpur in collaboration with

  11. The crystal structures of three pyrazine-2,5-dicarb-oxamides: three-dimensional supra-molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cati, Dilovan S; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2017-05-01

    The complete mol-ecules of the title compounds, N 2 , N 5 -bis-(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C 18 H 16 N 6 O 2 (I), 3,6-dimethyl- N 2 , N 5 -bis-(pyridin-2-yl-meth-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C 20 H 20 N 6 O 2 (II), and N 2 , N 5 -bis-(pyridin-4-ylmeth-yl)pyrazine-2,5-dicarboxamide, C 18 H 16 N 6 O 2 (III), are generated by inversion symmetry, with the pyrazine rings being located about centres of inversion. Each mol-ecule has an extended conformation with the pyridine rings inclined to the pyrazine ring by 89.17 (7)° in (I), 75.83 (8)° in (II) and by 82.71 (6)° in (III). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. In the crystal of (II), mol-ecules are also linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming layers lying parallel to the (10-1) plane. As in (I), the layers are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. In the crystal of (III), mol-ecules are again linked by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, but here form corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. Within the sheets, neighbouring pyridine rings are linked by offset π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.739 (1) Å]. The sheets are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure. Compound (I) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P 2 1 / c . Another monoclinic polymorph, space group C 2/ c , has been reported on by Cockriel et al. [ Inorg. Chem. Commun. (2008), 11 , 1-4]. The mol-ecular structures of the two polymorphs are compared.

  12. Kolmogorov-like spectra in decaying three-dimensional supersonic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.H.; Pouquet, A.; Woodward, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical simulation of decaying supersonic turbulence using the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) algorithm on a computational mesh of 512 3 zones indicates that, once the solenoidal part of the velocity field, representing vortical motions, is fully developed and has reached a self-similar regime, a velocity spectrum compatible with that predicted by the classical theory of Kolmogorov develops. It is followed by a domain with a shallower spectrum. A convergence study is presented to support these assertions. The formation, structure, and evolution of slip surfaces and vortex tubes are presented in terms of perspective volume renderings of fields in physical space

  13. Heat transfer in gas turbine engines and three-dimensional flows; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovic, E. (Editor); O'Brien, J. E. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.

  14. A mathematical model of coronary blood flow control: simulation of patient-specific three-dimensional hemodynamics during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin D.; Asrress, Kaleab N.; Redwood, Simon R.; Figueroa, C. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model of the metabolic feedback and adrenergic feedforward control of coronary blood flow that occur during variations in the cardiac workload. It is based on the physiological observations that coronary blood flow closely follows myocardial oxygen demand, that myocardial oxygen debts are repaid, and that control oscillations occur when the system is perturbed and so are phenomenological in nature. Using clinical data, we demonstrate that the model can provide patient-specific estimates of coronary blood flow changes between rest and exercise, requiring only the patient's heart rate and peak aortic pressure as input. The model can be used in zero-dimensional lumped parameter network studies or as a boundary condition for three-dimensional multidomain Navier-Stokes blood flow simulations. For the first time, this model provides feedback control of the coronary vascular resistance, which can be used to enhance the physiological accuracy of any hemodynamic simulation, which includes both a heart model and coronary arteries. This has particular relevance to patient-specific simulation for which heart rate and aortic pressure recordings are available. In addition to providing a simulation tool, under our assumptions, the derivation of our model shows that β-feedforward control of the coronary microvascular resistance is a mathematical necessity and that the metabolic feedback control must be dependent on two error signals: the historical myocardial oxygen debt, and the instantaneous myocardial oxygen deficit. PMID:26945076

  15. A mathematical model of coronary blood flow control: simulation of patient-specific three-dimensional hemodynamics during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Christopher J; Lau, Kevin D; Asrress, Kaleab N; Redwood, Simon R; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a mathematical model of the metabolic feedback and adrenergic feedforward control of coronary blood flow that occur during variations in the cardiac workload. It is based on the physiological observations that coronary blood flow closely follows myocardial oxygen demand, that myocardial oxygen debts are repaid, and that control oscillations occur when the system is perturbed and so are phenomenological in nature. Using clinical data, we demonstrate that the model can provide patient-specific estimates of coronary blood flow changes between rest and exercise, requiring only the patient's heart rate and peak aortic pressure as input. The model can be used in zero-dimensional lumped parameter network studies or as a boundary condition for three-dimensional multidomain Navier-Stokes blood flow simulations. For the first time, this model provides feedback control of the coronary vascular resistance, which can be used to enhance the physiological accuracy of any hemodynamic simulation, which includes both a heart model and coronary arteries. This has particular relevance to patient-specific simulation for which heart rate and aortic pressure recordings are available. In addition to providing a simulation tool, under our assumptions, the derivation of our model shows that β-feedforward control of the coronary microvascular resistance is a mathematical necessity and that the metabolic feedback control must be dependent on two error signals: the historical myocardial oxygen debt, and the instantaneous myocardial oxygen deficit. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Numerical analysis of three-dimensional turbulent flow in a 90deg bent tube by algebraic Reynolds stress model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Akiyama, Mitsunobu; Shinohara, Yasunori; Hitomi, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    A numerical analysis has been performed for three dimensional developing turbulent flow in a 90deg bent tube with straight inlet and outlet sections by an algebraic Reynolds stress model. To our knowledge, very little has been reported about detailed comparison between calculated results and experimental data containing Reynolds stresses. In calculation, an algebraic Reynolds stress model together with a boundary-fitted coordinate system is applied to a 90deg bent tube in order to solve anisotropic turbulent flow precisely. The calculated results display comparatively good agreement with the experimental data of time averaged velocity and secondary vectors. In addition, the present method predicts as a characteristic feature that the intensity of secondary flow near the inner wall is increased immediately downstream from the bend outlet by the pressure gradient. With regard to comparison of Reynolds stresses, the present method is able to reproduce well the distributions of streamwise normal stress and shear stress defined streamwise and radial velocity fluctuation except for the shear stress defined streamwise and circumferential velocity fluctuation. The present calculation has been found to simulate many features of the developing flow in bent tube satisfactorily, but it has a tendency to underpredict the Reynolds stresses. (author)

  17. Three-Dimensional Mantle Flow Near an Oceanic Paleotransform Fault System: Geological Constraints From the Bogota Peninsula, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, V.; Kruckenberg, S. C.; Titus, S.; Tikoff, B.; Teyssier, C. P.; Drury, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    We provide geological constraints on mantle deformation across a system of two oceanic paleotransform faults exposed in the Bogota Peninsula area, New Caledonia. Mantle deformation occurred at depths corresponding to temperatures of 900 oC and is highly heterogeneous. The paleotransform faults consist of mylonitic shear zones ( 1 km wide), and are surrounded by broader areas in which rotation of both the shape fabric (foliation and lineation) and olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) takes place. Outside the plaeotransform faults, mantle flows oblique to the strike of the mylonitic zones and is characterized by lateral variations in the flow direction. To further constrain the kinematics and type of deformation, we determine the orientation of the crystallographic vorticity axes as an independent tool for constraining deformation geometry (e.g., simple shear, transpression, transtension). The observed mantle flow is associated to lateral variations in: 1) the geometry and degree of anisotropy of spinel shape fabric; 2) olivine CPO type; 3) amount of stretching; and 4) the orientation of the crystallographic vorticity axes. Upper mantle in the vicinity of oceanic transform faults may be characterized by complex, three-dimensional flow patterns and deformation geometries deviating from simple shear.

  18. A computationally efficient simulator for three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of ion implantation into complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Di; Wang Geng; Chen Yang; Li Lin; Shrivastav, Gaurav; Oak, Stimit; Tasch, Al; Banerjee, Sanjay; Obradovic, Borna

    2001-01-01

    A physically-based three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulator has been developed within UT-MARLOWE, which is capable of simulating ion implantation into multi-material systems and arbitrary topography. Introducing the third dimension can result in a severe CPU time penalty. In order to minimize this penalty, a three-dimensional trajectory replication algorithm has been developed, implemented and verified. More than two orders of magnitude savings of CPU time have been observed. An unbalanced Octree structure was used to decompose three-dimensional structures. It effectively simplifies the structure, offers a good balance between modeling accuracy and computational efficiency, and allows arbitrary precision of mapping the Octree onto desired structure. Using the well-established and validated physical models in UT-MARLOWE 5.0, this simulator has been extensively verified by comparing the integrated one-dimensional simulation results with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Two options, the typical case and the worst scenario, have been selected to simulate ion implantation into poly-silicon under various scenarios using this simulator: implantation into a random, amorphous network, and implantation into the worst-case channeling condition, into (1 1 0) orientated wafers

  19. Quantitative analysis of normal fetal medulla oblongata volume and flow by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Ing-Luen; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Yang, Ming-Jie; Yen, Ming-Shyen

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of the fetal medulla oblongata volume (MOV) and blood flow might be important in the evaluation of fetal brain growth. We used three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound (3DPDUS) to assess the fetal MOV and blood flow index in normal gestation. The relationships between these parameters were further analyzed. We assessed the total volume and blood flow index of the fetal MO in normal pregnancies using a 3DPDUS (Voluson 730 Expert). The true sagittal plane over the fetal occipital area was measured by a 3D transabdominal probe to scan the fetal MO under the power Doppler mode. Then, we quantitatively assessed the total volume of the fetal MOV, mean gray area (MG), vascularization index (VI), and flow index (FI). A total of 106 fetuses, ranging from 19 weeks to 39 weeks of gestation, were involved in our study. The volume of the fetal MO was highly positively correlated with gestational age [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.686, p < 0.0001]. The MG was negatively correlated with gestational age [r = -0.544, p < 0.0001). VI and FI showed no significant correlation with gestational age (p = 0.123 and p = 0.219, respectively). 3DPDUS can be used to assess the fetal MOV and blood flow development quantitatively. Our study indicated that fetal MOV and blood flow correlated significantly with the advancement of gestational age. This information may serve as reference data for further studies of the fetal brain and blood flow under abnormal conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Retrograde flow in the dural sinuses detected by three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Akira; Nomiyama, Keita; Takase, Yukinori; Nakazono, Takahiko; Tominaga, Yukiko; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Kudo, Sho

    2007-01-01

    Retrograde flow in the left dural sinuses is sometimes detected by three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D-TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of this phenomenon and its characteristic features on 3D-TOF MR angiograms. We retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiography images of 1,078 patients examined at our institution. All images were obtained by the 3D-TOF technique with one of two 1.5-T scanners. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images in the horizontal rotation view were displayed stereoscopically. We reviewed the source images, inferosuperior MIP images, and horizontal MIP images and identified retrograde flow in the dural sinuses. We found retrograde flow in the dural sinuses of 67 patients on the source images from 3D-TOF MR angiography; the incidence was 6.2%. In 47 of the 67 patients, retrograde flow was identified in the left inferior petrosal sinus, in 13, it was seen in the left sigmoid sinus, and in 6, it was seen in the left inferior petrosal and left sigmoid sinuses. The remaining patient had retrograde flow in the left inferior petrosal and left and right sigmoid sinuses. The mean age of the patients with retrograde flow was slightly greater than that of the patients without this phenomenon (70 years vs 63 years). Retrograde flow in the dural sinuses frequently occurs on the left side in middle-aged and elderly patients during 3D-TOF MR angiography performed with the patient in the supine position. This phenomenon should not be misdiagnosed as a dural arteriovenous fistula. (orig.)

  1. Magneto-electrochemical recovery of diluted metals using three-dimensionally structured electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Dámaris; Romeral, Luis; Lyons, Michael E. G.

    2015-04-01

    In a typical metal recovery process, where highly purified metals are obtained from a concentrated electrolyte, usually the cathodic electrodes are planar and can be described mainly as bi-dimensional. This leads to a low space-time yield and low normalized space velocity with an impact on production rates. New requirements of low-energy consumption yet intensive production factories impose the need to adequate electrodes in order to comply. Furthermore, a reduction in the number of steps required to achieve a product would be ideal. This suggests that direct electro-precipitation of metals contained in diluted electrolytes would be in principle a desirable technique to implement. However, the less concentrated the solution, the higher the IR drop becomes, making the process more energy-consuming and current efficiency strongly decays. Good potential alternatives arise from three-dimensionally designed electrodes in the form of mesh, porous or fluidized beds, for instance, and several examples are well known in literature. Nevertheless, current efficiency can still be a problem in the more diluted electrolytes. Furthermore, the anodic electrode, where the counter reaction takes place, plays also an important role in determining the current efficiency of the overall process. In this case, the liquid-to-gas phase transition implies that the electrodes get a strong gas shield that increases the IR drop. Whereas shifting from bi-dimensional to three-dimensional electrodes could provide an alternative for achieving better performances, it is still far from the expected targets. Therefore alternative or complementary techniques to improve efficiency are required. It is well known that magnetic fields coupled with electric fields enhance mass transport via de Lorentz and other forces. In this work, the applications and properties of three-dimensional arrays subject to magnetic field interactions are examined and compared with the traditional bi-dimensional electrodes

  2. Conversion and comparison of the mathematical, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model to the modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model for the Tesuque aquifer system in northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, A.M.; Szeliga, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater model (using a mathematical groundwater flow code) of the Tesuque aquifer system in northern New Mexico was converted to run using the U.S. Geological Survey 's modular groundwater flow code. Results from the final versions of the predevelopment and 1947 to 2080 transient simulations of the two models are compared. A correlation coefficient of 0.9905 was obtained for the match in block-by-block head-dependent fluxes for predevelopment conditions. There are, however, significant differences in at least two specific cases. In the first case, a difference is associated with the net loss from the Pojoaque River and its tributaries to the aquifer. The net loss by the river is given as 1.134 cu ft/sec using the original groundwater model, which is 38.1% less than the net loss by the river of 1.8319 cu ft/sec computed in this study. In the second case, the large difference is computed for the transient decline in the hydraulic head of a model block near Tesuque Pueblo. The hydraulic-head decline by 2080 is, using the original model, 249 ft, which is 14.7% less than the hydraulic head of 292 ft computed by this study. In general, the differences between the two sets of results are not large enough to lead to different conclusions regarding the behavior of the system at steady state or when pumped. (USGS)

  3. Submicron three-dimensional structures fabricated by reverse contact UV nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehagias, N.; Reboud, Vincent; Chansin, G.

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of a three-dimensional multilayered nanostructure is demonstrated with a newly developed nanofabrication technique, namely, reverse contact ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. This technique is a combination of reverse nanoimprint lithography and contact ultraviolet lithography....... In this process, a UV cross-linkable polymer and a thermoplastic polymer are spin coated onto a patterned hybrid metal-quartz stamp. These thin polymer films are then transferred from the stamp to the substrate by contact at a suitable temperature and pressure. The whole assembly is then exposed to UV light....... After separation of the stamp and the substrate, the unexposed polymer areas are rinsed away with acetone leaving behind the negative features of the original stamp with no residual layer....

  4. Structural Analysis of Three-dimensional Human Neural Tissue derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terrence Brooks, Patrick; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at establishing a method for production of a three-dimensional (3D) human neural tissue derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and analyzing the outcome by a combination of tissue ultrastructure and expression of neural markers. Methods: A two......-step cell culture procedure was implemented by subjecting human iPSCs to a 3D scaffoldbased neural differentiation protocol. First, neural fate-inducing small molecules were used to create a neuroepithelial monolayer. Second, the monolayer was trypsinized into single cells and seeded into a porous...... polystyrene scaffold and further cultured to produce a 3D neural tissue. The neural tissue was characterized by a combination of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: iPSCs developed into a 3D neural tissue expressing markers for neural progenitor cells, early neural...

  5. Designing spatial correlation of quantum dots: towards self-assembled three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, J R R; Zelcovit, J G; Gutierrez, H R; Bettini, J; Cotta, M A

    2008-01-01

    Buried two-dimensional arrays of InP dots were used as a template for the lateral ordering of self-assembled quantum dots. The template strain field can laterally organize compressive (InAs) as well as tensile (GaP) self-assembled nanostructures in a highly ordered square lattice. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the InAs dots are vertically correlated to the InP template, while the GaP dots are vertically anti-correlated, nucleating in the position between two buried InP dots. Finite InP dot size effects are observed to originate InAs clustering but do not affect GaP dot nucleation. The possibility of bilayer formation with different vertical correlations suggests a new path for obtaining three-dimensional pseudocrystals

  6. Method for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Ilinski, Petr; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2009-05-15

    We describe a novel technique to characterize ultrashort electron bunches in Xray Free-Electron Lasers. Namely, we propose to use coherent Optical Transition Radiation to measure three-dimensional (3D) electron density distributions. Our method relies on the combination of two known diagnostics setups, an Optical Replica Synthesizer (ORS) and an Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) imager. Electron bunches are modulated at optical wavelengths in the ORS setup.When these electron bunches pass through a metal foil target, coherent radiation pulses of tens MW power are generated. It is thereafter possible to exploit advantages of coherent imaging techniques, such as direct imaging, diffractive imaging, Fourier holography and their combinations. The proposed method opens up the possibility of real-time, wavelength-limited, single-shot 3D imaging of an ultrashort electron bunch. (orig.)

  7. Posture, speed, and habitat structure: three-dimensional hindlimb kinematics of two species of padless geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Patrick O; Higham, Timothy E; Clark, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    Differences in habitat use are often correlated with differences in morphology and behavior, while animals in similar habitats often exhibit similarities in form and function. However, this has not been tested extensively among lizards, especially geckos. Most studies of gecko locomotion have focused on the ability to adhere to surfaces. However, there are several species of geckos that have either secondarily lost adhesive capabilities or simply lack the capability. We quantified the three-dimensional locomotor kinematics for two desert-dwelling padless geckos, Teratoscincus scincus and Eublepharis macularius, on a level trackway over a range of speeds. Our results indicate that T. scincus landed with a high relative hip height of 48.7 ± 2.4% of total limb length at footfall, while E. macularius exhibited hip heights averaging only 36.0 ± 1.8% of total limb length for footfall. The three-dimensional knee angle of T. scincus averaged 120.6 ± 3.9° at footfall, while E. macularius averaged only 101.6 ± 1.8° at footfall. In addition, the femur of E. macularius was elevated to a much greater extent (i.e., was closer to being perpendicular to the long axis of the body) than that of T. scincus and every other lizard that has been studied, suggesting they move with a "hyper-sprawled" posture. Both of these gecko species live in deserts, but T. scincus is psammophilic while E. macularius inhabits a rocky, more densely vegetated environment. Benefits of the more upright posture of T. scincus on open sandy habitat may include a greater field of view and more efficient locomotion. The more sprawled posture of E. macularius may lower its center of gravity and aid in balance while climbing on rocks or shrubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking surface with velocity slip: A revised model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, R.; Nazar, R.; Pop, I.

    2018-03-01

    A reformulation of the three-dimensional flow of a nanofluid by employing Buongiorno's model is presented. A new boundary condition is implemented in this study with the assumption of nanoparticle mass flux at the surface is zero. This condition is practically more realistic since the nanoparticle fraction at the boundary is latently controlled. This study is devoted to investigate the impact of the velocity slip and suction to the flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluid. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum, energy, and concentration are reduced to the ordinary differential equations by utilizing the appropriate transformation. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by using the built-in bvp4c function in Matlab. Graphical illustrations displaying the physical influence of the several nanofluid parameters on the flow velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction profiles, as well as the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are provided. The present study discovers the existence of dual solutions at a certain range of parameters. Surprisingly, both of the solutions merge at the stretching sheet indicating that the presence of the velocity slip affects the skin friction coefficients. Stability analysis is carried out to determine the stability and reliability of the solutions. It is found that the first solution is stable while the second solution is not stable.

  9. Three-dimensional flow analysis and improvement of slip factor model for forward-curved blades centrifugal fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, En Min; Kim, Kwang Yong

    2004-01-01

    This work developed improved slip factor model and correction method to predict flow through impeller in forward-curved centrifugal fan. Both steady and unsteady three-dimensional CFD analyses were performed to validate the slip factor model and the correction method. The results show that the improved slip factor model presented in this paper could provide more accurate predictions for forward-curved centrifugal impeller than the other slip factor models since the present model takes into account the effect of blade curvature. The correction method is provided to predict mass-averaged absolute circumferential velocity at the exit of impeller by taking account of blockage effects induced by the large-scale backflow near the front plate and flow separation within blade passage. The comparison with CFD results also shows that the improved slip factor model coupled with the present correction method provides accurate predictions for mass-averaged absolute circumferential velocity at the exit of impeller near and above the flow rate of peak total pressure coefficient

  10. Regional Quasi-Three-Dimensional Unsaturated-Saturated Water Flow Model Based on a Vertical-Horizontal Splitting Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Gui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D parallel multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LBM for Bingham plastics which overcomes numerical instabilities in the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids for the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK model. The MRT-LBM and several related mathematical models are briefly described. Papanastasiou’s modified model is incorporated for better numerical stability. The impact of the relaxation parameters of the model is studied in detail. The MRT-LBM is then validated through a benchmark problem: a 3D steady Poiseuille flow. The results from the numerical simulations are consistent with those derived analytically which indicates that the MRT-LBM effectively simulates Bingham fluids but with better stability. A parallel MRT-LBM framework is introduced, and the parallel efficiency is tested through a simple case. The MRT-LBM is shown to be appropriate for parallel implementation and to have high efficiency. Finally, a Bingham fluid flowing past a square-based prism with a fixed sphere is simulated. It is found the drag coefficient is a function of both Reynolds number (Re and Bingham number (Bn. These results reveal the flow behavior of Bingham plastics.

  12. A simple three-dimensional-focusing, continuous-flow mixer for the study of fast protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kelly S; Parul, Dzmitry; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2013-08-07

    We present a simple, yet flexible microfluidic mixer with a demonstrated mixing time as short as 80 μs that is widely accessible because it is made of commercially available parts. To simplify the study of fast protein dynamics, we have developed an inexpensive continuous-flow microfluidic mixer, requiring no specialized equipment or techniques. The mixer uses three-dimensional, hydrodynamic focusing of a protein sample stream by a surrounding sheath solution to achieve rapid diffusional mixing between the sample and sheath. Mixing initiates the reaction of interest. Reactions can be spatially observed by fluorescence or absorbance spectroscopy. We characterized the pixel-to-time calibration and diffusional mixing experimentally. We achieved a mixing time as short as 80 μs. We studied the kinetics of horse apomyoglobin (apoMb) unfolding from the intermediate (I) state to its completely unfolded (U) state, induced by a pH jump from the initial pH of 4.5 in the sample stream to a final pH of 2.0 in the sheath solution. The reaction time was probed using the fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (1,8-ANS) bound to the folded protein. We observed unfolding of apoMb within 760 μs, without populating additional intermediate states under these conditions. We also studied the reaction kinetics of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase using the intrinsic tryptophan emission of the enzyme. We observe sub-millisecond kinetics that we attribute to Michaelis complex formation and loop domain closure. These results demonstrate the utility of the three-dimensional focusing mixer for biophysical studies of protein dynamics.

  13. Three-dimensional flow measurement of a water flow in a sphere-packed pipe by digital holographic PTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Shin-ichi, E-mail: satake@te.noda.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Aoyagi, Yusuke [Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Unno, Noriyuki [Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Yuki, Kazuhisa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi, Daigaku-dori 1-1-1, Sanyo-Onoda, Yamaguchi 756-0884 (Japan); Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Blanket Technology Group, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    A water cooled ceramic breeder for ITER and DEMO of a nuclear fusion reactor plays a significant role in the design of a blanket module. Pebbles of a ceramic tritium breeder are packed in a container of the blanket. Investigation of the flow behavior is necessary in an actual environment of a facility where pressure drop takes place under a complex flow such as in case of the container for the pebble bed. For the development of a facility, it is necessary to be able to monitor fluid motion of a basic flow such as a sphere-packed pipe (SPP). In the present study, to discern the complex flow structures in SPP, digital holographic PTV visualization is carried out by a refractive index-matching method using a water employed as a working fluid. The water is chosen to be able to adjust its refractive index to match to that of the MEXFLON pebble with an index of 1.33. Hologram fringe images of particles behind the spheres can be observed, and the particles’ positions can be reconstructed by a digital hologram. Consequently, 3-D velocity-fields around the spheres are obtained by the reconstructed particles’ positions. The velocity between pebbles is found to be convergence and divergence regions in the SPP.

  14. Measurement and analysis of three-dimensional flow in a centrifugal fan volute with large volute width and rectangular cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, D.; Zhang, Y.; Wen, S.; Liu, Q. [Xi' an Jiaotong University (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Among all the elements of a centrifugal fan, the volute is the one that has the lowest flow efficiency. Therefore, improving the performance of the volute is an efficient way to improve the total performance of a centrifugal fan. To contribute a better understanding of the flow structure in the fan volute, the three-dimensional flow in a centrifugal fan volute with a large volute width and rectangular cross-section has been measured in detail by means of five-hole probe at three different flowrates. The time-average swirling and throughflow velocity, static and total pressure distributions on eight cross-sections in the throughflow direction of the volute are presented. The results show the formation and development of the flow in the fan volute of this type, indicate the variation of flow parameters, and discover some peculiar flow phenomena different from the traditional understanding. On the basis of the experimental results, the main hydraulic losses in this kind of fan volute have been preliminarily classified and analysed. The results show that the traditional one-dimensional design method of the volute should be further improved as it is only based on the law of momentum moment conservation and the ideal assumption that the distribution of flow parameters are uniform at the volute inlet. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional semi-analytical solution to groundwater flow in confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Samani, Nozar; Sleep, Brent

    2009-06-01

    The Laplace domain solutions have been obtained for three-dimensional groundwater flow to a well in confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers. The solutions take into account partial penetration effects, instantaneous drainage or delayed yield, vertical anisotropy and the water table boundary condition. As a basis, the Laplace domain solutions for drawdown created by a point source in uniform, anisotropic confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers are first derived. Then, by the principle of superposition the point source solutions are extended to the cases of partially and fully penetrating wells. Unlike the previous solution for the confined aquifer that contains improper integrals arising from the Hankel transform [Yeh HD, Chang YC. New analytical solutions for groundwater flow in wedge-shaped aquifers with various topographic boundary conditions. Adv Water Resour 2006;26:471-80], numerical evaluation of our solution is relatively easy using well known numerical Laplace inversion methods. The effects of wedge angle, pumping well location and observation point location on drawdown and the effects of partial penetration, screen location and delay index on the wedge boundary hydraulic gradient in unconfined aquifers have also been investigated. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless drawdown-time and boundary gradient-time type curves. The curves are useful for parameter identification, calculation of stream depletion rates and the assessment of water budgets in river basins.

  16. Three-dimensional earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet in a sheared field: comparisons between simulations and observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kondoh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional configuration of earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet is studied using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD simulations on the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model. In this study, the sheared magnetic field in the plasma sheet is newly considered in order to investigate the effects of it to the earthward fast flow, and the results are discussed in comparison with no-shear simulations. The virtual probes located at different positions in our simulation domain in shear/no-shear cases could explain different behavior of fast flows in the real observations.

  17. On the development of a three-dimensional finite-element groundwater flow model of the saturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Faunt, C.C.; Gable, C.W.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Development of a preliminary three-dimensional model of the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain, the potential location for a high-level nuclear waste repository, is presented. The development of the model advances the technology of interfacing: (1)complex three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework modeling; (2) fully three-dimensional, unstructured, finite-element mesh generation; and (3) groundwater flow, heat, and transport simulation. The three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is developed using maps, cross sections, and well data. The framework model data are used to feed an automated mesh generator, designed to discretize irregular three-dimensional solids,a nd to assign materials properties from the hydrogeologic framework model to the tetrahedral elements. The mesh generator facilitated the addition of nodes to the finite-element mesh which correspond to the exact three-dimensional position of the potentiometric surface based on water-levels from wells. A ground water flow and heat simulator is run with the resulting finite- element mesh, within a parameter-estimation program. The application of the parameter-estimation program is designed to provide optimal values of permeability and specified fluxes over the model domain to minimize the residual between observed and simulated water levels

  18. Three-dimensional internal structure of an entire alpine rockglacier, detected by Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Adrian; Kneisel, Christof

    2017-04-01

    are likely connected to permafrost creep processes. The frontal part of the rockglacier is affected by a strong ridge-and-furrow topography with arcuate ridge structures. Frozen conditions within these structures indicate an increase of ice content by thickening through compressive flow. Our study reflects the complexity of landform evolution for Uertsch rockglacier, where glacial and periglacial processes occur in close proximity. This emphasize the value of comprehensive 3-D investigations to assess the geometry and characteristics of larger subsurface structures.

  19. Structure and coarsening at the surface of a dry three-dimensional aqueous foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A E; Chen, B G; Durian, D J

    2013-12-01

    We utilize total-internal reflection to isolate the two-dimensional surface foam formed at the planar boundary of a three-dimensional sample. The resulting images of surface Plateau borders are consistent with Plateau's laws for a truly two-dimensional foam. Samples are allowed to coarsen into a self-similar scaling state where statistical distributions appear independent of time, except for an overall scale factor. There we find that statistical measures of side number distributions, size-topology correlations, and bubble shapes are all very similar to those for two-dimensional foams. However, the size number distribution is slightly broader, and the shapes are slightly more elongated. A more obvious difference is that T2 processes now include the creation of surface bubbles, due to rearrangement in the bulk, and von Neumann's law is dramatically violated for individual bubbles. But nevertheless, our most striking finding is that von Neumann's law appears to holds on average, namely, the average rate of area change for surface bubbles appears to be proportional to the number of sides minus six, but with individual bubbles showing a wide distribution of deviations from this average behavior.

  20. The band structures of three-dimensional nonlinear plasma photonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs for three-dimensional (3D nonlinear plasma photonic crystals (PPCs are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, whose equations for calculations also are deduced. The configuration of 3D nonlinear PPCs is the Kerr nonlinear dielectric spheres (Kerr effect is considered inserted in the plasma background with simple-cubic lattices. The inserted dielectric spheres are Kerr nonlinear dielectrics whose relative permittivities are the functions of the external light intensity. Three different Kerr nonlinear dielectrics are considered, which can be expressed as the functions of space coordinates. The influences of the parameters for the Kerr nonlinear dielectrics on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results demonstrate that the locations, bandwidths and number of PBGs can be manipulated with the different Kerr nonlinear dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs and PPCs with simple-cubic lattices, the more PBGs or larger PBG can be achieved in the 3D nonlinear PPCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel devices based on the PPCs.

  1. Structure of the electromagnetic field in three-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitruk, Pablo; Matthaeus, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations of freely evolving three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are performed, with and without the Hall term in Ohm's law. The parameter controlling the presence of the Hall term is the ratio of the ion skin depth to the macroscopic scale of the turbulence. The ion skin depth is set to be slightly larger than the dissipation length scale (controlled by the resistivity) for the Hall MHD simulations, while it is set to zero for non-Hall MHD simulations. Small initial cross helicity, hybrid helicity, and magnetic helicity are considered. The system is left to evolve for a few turbulent characteristic times and the magnetic field and electric field are analyzed in real and wavenumber space. Distributions (histograms) of the fields are also computed. It is found that the turbulent magnetic field (as well as the velocity field) is almost unaffected by the presence of the Hall term, while the electric field is affected at scales smaller than the ion skin depth, that is, close to the dissipation range in these simulations. The importance of each term in Ohm's law for the electric field is analyzed in wavenumber space. Furthermore, reconnection-like zones are identified, where the importance of each term in Ohm's law can be seen in real space. Reconnection-like zones with magnetic field B=0 (or small) and B≠0 are found within the turbulent state of the system

  2. Fabrication of three-dimensional ordered nanodot array structures by a thermal dewetting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenxing; Yoshino, Masahiko; Yamanaka, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    A new fabrication method for three-dimensional nanodot arrays with low cost and high throughput is developed in this paper. In this process, firstly a 2D nanodot array is fabricated by combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches. A nanoplastic forming technique is utilized as the top-down approach to fabricate a groove grid pattern on an Au layer deposited on a substrate, and self-organization by thermal dewetting is employed as the bottom-up approach. On the first-layer nanodot array, SiO 2 is deposited as a spacer layer. Au is then deposited on the spacer layer and thermal dewetting is conducted to fabricate a second-layer nanodot array. The effective parameters influencing dot formation on the second layer, including Au layer thickness and SiO 2 layer thickness, are studied. It is demonstrated that a 3D nanodot array of good vertical alignment is obtained by repeating the SiO 2 deposition, Au deposition and thermal dewetting. The mechanism of the dot agglomeration process is studied based on geometrical models. The effects of the spacer layer thickness and Au layer thickness on the morphology and alignment of the second-layer dots are discussed. (paper)

  3. Three-dimensional thermal structure and seismogenesis in the Tohoku and Hokkaido subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keken, P. E.; Kita, S.; Nakajima, J.; Bengtson, A. K.; Hacker, B. R.; Abers, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Northern Japan arc is characterized by fast subduction of old oceanic lithosphere. The high density instrumentation and high seismicity make this an ideal natural laboratory to study the interplay between subduction zone dynamics, dehydration, migration of fluids, and seismogenesis. In this study we use high resolution finite element models to predict the thermal structure of the subduction slab below Tohoku (Northern Honshu) and Hokkaido. These models allow us to predict the pressure, temperature and mineralogy of the subducted crust and mantle. We use these models to predict the (p,T) conditions of earthquakes that are relocated with a precision of around 1 km by double difference techniques. Below Northern Hokkaido and Tohoku we find that the earthquake activity is strong in crust and the uppermost mantle for temperatures seismic moment. The strongest 3D variations in this arc occur below southern Hokkaido. This 200 km wide region is characterized by a change in trench geometry, anomalously low heatflow and an anomalous velocity structure in the mantle wedge. Tomographic imaging suggest that continental crust is subducted to significant depth, thereby insulating the subducting slab from the hot mantle wedge at least at intermediate depths. The thermal insulation is also suggested by the deepening of the earthquakes in the slab (Kita et al., EPSL, 2010). This region may be characterized by active crustal erosion which would lead to a further blanketing of the crust by a sedimentary layer. Further modifications in thermal structure are possible due to the 3D wedge flow that is generated by the along-arc variations in trench geometry. We quantitatively verify the relative importance of these processes using 2D and 3D dynamical models. Without the seismically imaged crustal structure the earthquake temperatures are significantly elevated compared to the Tohoku and (northern) Hokkaido sections. If we take the modified crustal structure into account we find a (p

  4. Rapid fabrication of three-dimensional structures for dielectrophoretic sorting of lipid-containing organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schor, Alisha R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a microfluidic particle sorter consisting of three-dimensional, conducting microposts. Our sorter uses dielectrophoresis (DEP) to sort high- and low-lipid phenotypes of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica . Y. lipolytica is one of the many microorganisms being explored as a hydrocarbon source for biodiesel, Omega-3 additives, and other products derived from fatty acids. A rapid, non-destructive, lipid-based sorting tool would accelerate the commercialization of these products. Our device consists of an array of 105, 25 μ m wide gold microposts that span the height of a 15 μ m channel. This array generates an electric field in a microfluidic device that is uniform through the channel height, but has a custom-shaped non-uniformity in the horizontal directions. This is crucial in order to achieve continuous sorting using DEP, as it ensures all cells are exposed to the same conditions throughout the channel height. By using very low currents (100 μ A), we are able to electroplate these post arrays in fewer than 15 min. This is an order of magnitude improvement over previous reports of electroplated microstructures. With an applied signal of 250 MHz, 2.6 V pp in our device, we separate a heterogeneous population with a purity of 97.8% in the low-lipid stream and 71.4% in the high-lipid stream. The high-lipid stream purity can be improved by adjusting the spacing of the array. This unique protocol for the rapid fabrication of 3D microstructures has enabled the creation of a non-invasive sorting tool for genetically engineered, lipid-producing organisms. The ability to screen organisms based on lipid content will alleviate one of the major bottlenecks in commercialization of microbial biofuels. (paper)

  5. The Three-Dimensional Structure of HH 32 from GMOS IFU Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tracy L.; Riera, A.; Raga, A. C.; Aspin, C.

    2004-01-01

    We present new high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the Herbig-Haro object HH 32 from system verification observations made with the GMOS IFU at Gemini North Observatory. The three-dimensional spectral data cover a 8.7"×5.85" spatial field and 4820-7040 Å spectral region centered on the HH 32 A knot complex. We show the position-dependent line profiles and radial velocity channel maps of the Hα line, as well as line ratio velocity channel maps of [O III] λ5007/Hα, [O I] λ6300/Hα, [N II] λ6583/Hα, [S II] λλ(6716+6730)/Hα, and [S II] λ6716/λ6730. We find that the line emission and the line ratios vary significantly on spatial scales of ~1" and over velocities of ~50 km s-1. A ``3/2-dimensional'' bow shock model is qualitatively successful at reproducing the general features of the radial velocity channel maps, but it does not show the same complexity as the data, and it fails to reproduce the line ratios in our high spatial resolution maps. The observations of HH 32 A show two or three superposed bow shocks with separations of ~3", which we interpret as evidence of a line-of-sight superposition of two or three working surfaces located along the redshifted body of the HH 32 outflow. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF, the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  6. Finite volume approximation of the three-dimensional flow equation in axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous media based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-09-01

    In this work the problem of flow in three-dimensional, axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous medium domain is investigated numerically. For this system, it is natural to use cylindrical coordinate system, which is useful in describing phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. This can happen in porous media, for example, in the vicinity of production/injection wells. The basic feature of this system is the fact that the flux component (volume flow rate per unit area) in the radial direction is changing because of the continuous change of the area. In this case, variables change rapidly closer to the axis of symmetry and this requires the mesh to be denser. In this work, we generalize a methodology that allows coarser mesh to be used and yet yields accurate results. This method is based on constructing local analytical solution in each cell in the radial direction and moves the derivatives in the other directions to the source term. A new expression for the harmonic mean of the hydraulic conductivity in the radial direction is developed. Apparently, this approach conforms to the analytical solution for uni-directional flows in radial direction in homogeneous porous media. For the case when the porous medium is heterogeneous or the boundary conditions is more complex, comparing with the mesh-independent solution, this approach requires only coarser mesh to arrive at this solution while the traditional methods require more denser mesh. Comparisons for different hydraulic conductivity scenarios and boundary conditions have also been introduced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Three-dimensional electron diffraction as a complementary technique to powder X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution of powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Hovmöller, Sven; Wan, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Phase identification and structure determination are important and widely used techniques in chemistry, physics and materials science. Recently, two methods for automated three-dimensional electron diffraction (ED) data collection, namely automated diffraction tomography (ADT) and rotation electron diffraction (RED), have been developed. Compared with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and two-dimensional zonal ED, three-dimensional ED methods have many advantages in identifying phases and determining unknown structures. Almost complete three-dimensional ED data can be collected using the ADT and RED methods. Since each ED pattern is usually measured off the zone axes by three-dimensional ED methods, dynamic effects are much reduced compared with zonal ED patterns. Data collection is easy and fast, and can start at any arbitrary orientation of the crystal, which facilitates automation. Three-dimensional ED is a powerful technique for structure identification and structure solution from individual nano- or micron-sized particles, while powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) provides information from all phases present in a sample. ED suffers from dynamic scattering, while PXRD data are kinematic. Three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD are complementary and their combinations are promising for studying multiphase samples and complicated crystal structures. Here, two three-dimensional ED methods, ADT and RED, are described. Examples are given of combinations of three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD for phase identification and structure determination over a large number of different materials, from Ni-Se-O-Cl crystals, zeolites, germanates, metal-organic frameworks and organic compounds to intermetallics with modulated structures. It is shown that three-dimensional ED is now as feasible as X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution, but still needs further development in order to be as accurate as X-ray diffraction. It is expected that three-dimensional ED methods

  8. Three-dimensional electron diffraction as a complementary technique to powder X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution of powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Yun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase identification and structure determination are important and widely used techniques in chemistry, physics and materials science. Recently, two methods for automated three-dimensional electron diffraction (ED data collection, namely automated diffraction tomography (ADT and rotation electron diffraction (RED, have been developed. Compared with X-ray diffraction (XRD and two-dimensional zonal ED, three-dimensional ED methods have many advantages in identifying phases and determining unknown structures. Almost complete three-dimensional ED data can be collected using the ADT and RED methods. Since each ED pattern is usually measured off the zone axes by three-dimensional ED methods, dynamic effects are much reduced compared with zonal ED patterns. Data collection is easy and fast, and can start at any arbitrary orientation of the crystal, which facilitates automation. Three-dimensional ED is a powerful technique for structure identification and structure solution from individual nano- or micron-sized particles, while powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD provides information from all phases present in a sample. ED suffers from dynamic scattering, while PXRD data are kinematic. Three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD are complementary and their combinations are promising for studying multiphase samples and complicated crystal structures. Here, two three-dimensional ED methods, ADT and RED, are described. Examples are given of combinations of three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD for phase identification and structure determination over a large number of different materials, from Ni–Se–O–Cl crystals, zeolites, germanates, metal–organic frameworks and organic compounds to intermetallics with modulated structures. It is shown that three-dimensional ED is now as feasible as X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution, but still needs further development in order to be as accurate as X-ray diffraction. It is expected that three-dimensional

  9. On the calculation of dynamic and heat loads on a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Fortov, V. E.; Golovin, N. N.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow at zero angle of attack. Our aim is to estimate heat and aerodynamic loads on specific body elements. We are considering a previously developed code to solve coupled heat- and mass-transfer problem. The change of the surface shape is taken into account by formation of the iterative process for the wall material ablation. The solution is conducted on the multi-graphics-processing-unit (multi-GPU) cluster. Five Mach number points are considered, namely for M = 20-28. For each point we estimate body shape after surface ablation, heat loads on the surface and aerodynamic loads on the whole body and its elements. The latter is done using Gauss-type quadrature on the surface of the body. The comparison of the results for different Mach numbers is performed. We also estimate the efficiency of the Navier-Stokes code on multi-GPU and central processing unit architecture for the coupled heat and mass transfer problem.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of highly complex microscopic samples using scanning electron microscopy and optical flow estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as one of the major research and industrial equipment for imaging of micro-scale samples and surfaces has gained extensive attention from its emerge. However, the acquired micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D. In the current work a novel and highly accurate approach is proposed to recover the hidden third-dimension by use of multi-view image acquisition of the microscopic samples combined with pre/post-processing steps including sparse feature-based stereo rectification, nonlocal-based optical flow estimation for dense matching and finally depth estimation. Employing the proposed approach, three-dimensional (3D reconstructions of highly complex microscopic samples were achieved to facilitate the interpretation of topology and geometry of surface/shape attributes of the samples. As a byproduct of the proposed approach, high-definition 3D printed models of the samples can be generated as a tangible means of physical understanding. Extensive comparisons with the state-of-the-art reveal the strength and superiority of the proposed method in uncovering the details of the highly complex microscopic samples.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling Three-Dimensional Unsteady Turbulent Flow and Excitation Force in Partial Admission Air Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Air turbines are widely used to convert kinetic energy into power output in power engineering. The unsteady performance of air turbines with partial admission not only influences the aerodynamic performance and thermodynamic efficiency of turbine but also generates strong excitation force on blades to impair the turbine safely operating. Based on three-dimensional viscous compressible Navier-stokes equations, the present study employs RNG (Renormalization group k-ε turbulence model with finite volume discretization on air turbine with partial admission. Numerical models of four different admission rates with full annulus are built and analyzed via CFD (computational fluid dynamics modeling unsteady flows. Results indicate that the unsteady time-averaged isentropic efficiency is lower than the steady isentropic efficiency, and this difference rises as unsteady isentropic efficiency fluctuates stronger when the admission rate is reduced. The rotor axial and tangential forces with time are provided for all four admission rates. The low frequency excitation forces generated by partial admission are extraordinarily higher than the high frequency excitation forces by stator wakes.

  12. Learning the Cell Structures with Three-Dimensional Models: Students' Achievement by Methods, Type of School and Questions' Cognitive Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Naim, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The cell topic was taught to 9th-grade students in three modes of instruction: (a) students "hands-on," who constructed three-dimensional cell organelles and macromolecules during the learning process; (b) teacher demonstration of the three-dimensional model of the cell structures; and (c) teaching the cell topic with the regular…

  13. Three-dimensional saturated-unsaturated flow with axial symmetry to a partially penetrating well in a compressible unconfined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Neuman, Shlomo P.

    2007-01-01

    A new analytical solution is presented for the delayed response process characterizing flow to a partially penetrating well in an unconfined aquifer. The new solution generalizes that of Neuman (1972, 1974) by accounting for unsaturated flow above the water table. Three-dimensional, axially symmetric flow in the unsaturated zone is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value (defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones). Unsaturated soil properties are characterized by an exponent κ having the dimension of inverse length or, equivalently, a dimensionless exponent κD = κb, where b is initial saturated thickness. Our treatment of the unsaturated zone is similar to that of Kroszynski and Dagan (1975), who, however, have ignored internal (artesian) aquifer storage. According to Kroszynski and Dagan, aquifers that are not excessively shallow have values of κD (their parameter a) much greater than 10. We find that in such typical cases, unsaturated flow has little impact on early and late dimensionless time drawdown a short distance below the water table. Unsaturated flow causes drawdown to increase slightly at intermediate dimensionless time values that represent transition from an early artesian-dominated to a late water-table-dominated flow regime. Delayed drainage from the unsaturated zone becomes less and less important as κD increases; as κD → ∞, this effect dies out, and drawdown is controlled entirely by delayed decline in the water table as in the model of Neuman. The unsaturated zone has a major impact on drawdown at intermediate time and a significant impact at early and late times, in the atypical case of κD ≤ 1, becoming the dominant factor as κD approaches zero (the soil water retention capacity becomes very large and/or saturated thickness becomes insignificant). Our

  14. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of electromagnetically driven multiscale shallow layer flows: Numerical modeling and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeau, Sylvain; Ferrari, Simone; Rossi, Lionel

    2008-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations of a flow driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing are performed in order to reproduce with maximum accuracy the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) flow generated by the same multiscale forcing in the laboratory. The method presented is based on a 3D description of the flow and the electromagnetic forcing. Very good agreements between our simulations and the experiments are found both on velocity and acceleration field, this last comparison being, to our knowledge, done for the first time. Such agreement requires that both experiments and simulations are carefully performed and, more importantly, that the underlying simplification to model the experiments and the multiscale electromagnetic forcing do not introduce significant errors. The results presented in this paper differ significantly from previous 2D direct numerical simulation in which a classical linear Rayleigh friction modeling term was used to mimic the effect of the wall-normal friction. Indeed, purely 2D simulations are found to underestimate the Reynolds number and, due to the dominance of nonhomogeneous bottom friction, lead to the wrong physical mechanism. For the range of conditions presented in this paper, the Reynolds number, defined by the ratio between acceleration and viscous terms, remains the order of unity, and the Hartmann number, defined by the ratio between electromagnetic force terms and viscous terms, is about 2. The main conclusion is that 3D simulations are required to model the (3D) electromagnetic forces and the wall-normal shear. Indeed, even if the flow is quasi-2D in terms of energy, a full 3D approach is required to simulate these shallow layer flows driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing. In the range of forcing intensity investigated in this paper, these multiscale flows remain quasi-2D, with negligible energy in the wall-normal velocity component. It is also shown that the driving terms are the electromagnetic forcing and

  15. Three-dimensional structure determination protocol for noncrystalline biomolecules using x-ray free-electron laser diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-02-01

    Coherent and intense x-ray pulses generated by x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources are paving the way for structural determination of noncrystalline biomolecules. However, due to the small scattering cross section of electrons for x rays, the available incident x-ray intensity of XFEL sources, which is currently in the range of 10(12)-10(13) photons/μm(2)/pulse, is lower than that necessary to perform single-molecule diffraction experiments for noncrystalline biomolecules even with the molecular masses of megadalton and submicrometer dimensions. Here, we propose an experimental protocol and analysis method for visualizing the structure of those biomolecules by the combined application of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction methods. To compensate the small scattering cross section of biomolecules, in our protocol, a thin vitreous ice plate containing several hundred biomolecules/μm(2) is used as sample, a setup similar to that utilized by single-molecule cryoelectron microscopy. The scattering cross section of such an ice plate is far larger than that of a single particle. The images of biomolecules contained within irradiated areas are then retrieved from each diffraction pattern, and finally provide the three-dimensional electron density model. A realistic atomic simulation using large-scale computations proposed that the three-dimensional structure determination of the 50S ribosomal subunit embedded in a vitreous ice plate is possible at a resolution of 0.8 nm when an x-ray beam of 10(16) photons/500×500 nm(2)/pulse is available.

  16. Elfin: An algorithm for the computational design of custom three-dimensional structures from modular repeat protein building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Ting; Brunette, T J; Baker, David; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Parmeggiani, Fabio

    2018-02-01

    Computational protein design methods have enabled the design of novel protein structures, but they are often still limited to small proteins and symmetric systems. To expand the size of designable proteins while controlling the overall structure, we developed Elfin, a genetic algorithm for the design of novel proteins with custom shapes using structural building blocks derived from experimentally verified repeat proteins. By combining building blocks with compatible interfaces, it is possible to rapidly build non-symmetric large structures (>1000 amino acids) that match three-dimensional geometric descriptions provided by the user. A run time of about 20min on a laptop computer for a 3000 amino acid structure makes Elfin accessible to users with limited computational resources. Protein structures with controlled geometry will allow the systematic study of the effect of spatial arrangement of enzymes and signaling molecules, and provide new scaffolds for functional nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Label-free three-dimensional (3D) structural imaging in live cells using intrinsic optical refractive index

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen

    2017-04-14

    Here we report a method for visualization of volumetric structural information of live biological samples with no exogenous contrast agents. The process is made possible through a technique that involves generation, synthesis and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) Fourier components of light diffracted by the sample. This leads to the direct recovery of quantitative cellular morphology with no iterative procedures for reduced computational complexity. Combing with the fact that the technique is easily adaptive to any imaging platform and requires minimum sample preparation, our proposed method is particularly promising for observing fast, volumetric and dynamic events previously only accessible through staining methods.

  18. Label-free three-dimensional (3D) structural imaging in live cells using intrinsic optical refractive index

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen; Malek, Michael; Poon, Ivan K. H.; Jiang, Lanzhou; Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Roberts, Ann; Quiney, Harry; Zhang, Douguo; Yuan, Xiaocong; Lin, Jiao; Depeursinge, Christian; Marquet, Pierre; Kou, Shan Shan

    2017-01-01

    Here we report a method for visualization of volumetric structural information of live biological samples with no exogenous contrast agents. The process is made possible through a technique that involves generation, synthesis and analysis of three-dimensional (3D) Fourier components of light diffracted by the sample. This leads to the direct recovery of quantitative cellular morphology with no iterative procedures for reduced computational complexity. Combing with the fact that the technique is easily adaptive to any imaging platform and requires minimum sample preparation, our proposed method is particularly promising for observing fast, volumetric and dynamic events previously only accessible through staining methods.

  19. Three-dimensional fluid mechanics of particulate two-phase flows in U-bend and helical conduits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prashant; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.

    2006-04-01

    The results of numerous studies performed to date have shown that the performance of various hydraulic systems can be significantly improved by using curved conduit geometries instead of straight tubes. In particular, the formation of Dean vortices, which enhance the development of centrifugal instabilities, has been identified as a factor behind reducing the near-wall concentration buildup in particulate flow devices (e.g., in membrane filtration modules). Still, several issues regarding the effect of conduit curvature on local multidimensional phenomena governing fluid flow still remain open. A related issue is concerned with the impact that conduit geometry makes on the concentration distribution of a dispersed phase in two-phase flows in general, and in particulate flows (solid/liquid or solid/gas suspensions) in particular. It turns out that only very limited efforts have been made in the past to understand the fluid mechanics of such flows via advanced computer simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of full three-dimensional (3D) theoretical and numerical analyses of single- and two-phase dilute particle/liquid flows in U-bend and helical curved conduits. The numerical analysis is based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed using a state-of-the-art multiphase flow computer code, NPHASE. The major issues discussed in the first part of the paper are concerned with the effect of curved/coiled geometry on the evolution of flow field and the associated wall shear. It has been demonstrated that the primary curvature (a common factor for both the U-bend and helix geometries) may cause a substantial asymmetry in the radial distribution of the main flow velocity. This, in turn, leads to a significant, albeit highly nonuniform, increase in the wall shear stress. Specifically, the wall shear around the outer half of tube circumference may become twice the corresponding value for a straight tube, and gradually decrease to

  20. Application of Fermat's Principle to Calculation of the Errors of Acoustic Flow-Rate Measurements for a Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow or Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. G.; Shkundin, S. Z.

    2018-01-01

    Fermat's variational principle is used for derivation of the formula for the time of propagation of a sonic signal between two set points A and B in a steady three-dimensional flow of a fluid or gas. It is shown that the fluid flow changes the time of signal reception by a value proportional to the flow rate independently of the velocity profile. The time difference in the reception of the signals from point B to point A and vice versa is proportional with a high accuracy to the flow rate. It is shown that the relative error of the formula does not exceed the square of the largest Mach number. This makes it possible to measure the flow rate of a fluid or gas with an arbitrary steady subsonic velocity field.

  1. Three Dimensional Simulations of Multiphase Flows Using a Lattice Boltzmann Method Suitable for High Density Ratios - 12126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokaltun, Seckin; McDaniel, Dwayne; Roelant, David [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Multiphase flows involving gas and liquid phases can be observed in engineering operations at various Department of Energy sites, such as mixing of slurries using pulsed-air mixers and hydrogen gas generation in liquid waste tanks etc. The dynamics of the gas phase in the liquid domain play an important role in the mixing effectiveness of the pulsed-air mixers or in the level of gas pressure build-up in waste tanks. To understand such effects, computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD) can be utilized by developing a three-dimensional computerized multiphase flow model that can predict accurately the behavior of gas motion inside liquid-filled tanks by solving the governing mathematical equations that represent the physics of the phenomena. In this paper, such a CFD method, lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), is presented that can model multiphase flows accurately and efficiently. LBM is favored over traditional Navier-Stokes based computational models since interfacial forces are handled more effectively in LBM. The LBM is easier to program, more efficient to solve on parallel computers, and has the ability to capture the interface between different fluid phases intrinsically. The LBM used in this paper can solve for the incompressible and viscous flow field in three dimensions, while at the same time, solve the Cahn-Hillard equation to track the position of the gas-liquid interface specifically when the density and viscosity ratios between the two fluids are high. This feature is of primary importance since the previous LBM models proposed for multiphase flows become unstable when the density ratio is larger than 10. The ability to provide stable and accurate simulations at large density ratios becomes important when the simulation case involves fluids such as air and water with a density ratio around 1000 that are common to many engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the capability of the 3D LBM method at high density ratios, a static bubble simulation is

  2. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modelling of Flow and Sediment Transport for Field Scale Application of Stream Barbs at Sawmill Creek, Ottawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E. C.; Rennie, C. D.; Townsend, R. D.

    2009-05-01

    Stream barbs (a type of submerged groyne or spur dike) are low-profile linear rock structures that prevent the erosion of stream banks by redirecting high velocity flow away from the bank. Stream barbs are becoming a popular method for stream bank protection as they can be built at a relatively low cost and provide added ecological benefit. The design and construction of stream barbs in Sawmill Creek, a small urban stream in the city of Ottawa, Canada, will serve as a demonstration project for the use of barbs as a bank stabilization technique that will contribute to the rehabilitation of urban creeks while reducing erosion threats to property and infrastructure. As well as providing bank protection, these structures promote vegetated stream banks, create resting pools and scour holes for fish habitat, and increase bio-diversity for aquatic species. Despite these benefits, stream barbs are not a common means of stream bank protection in Canada, due largely to a lack of suitable design guidelines. The overall goal of stream habitat restoration in incising channel systems should be to accelerate natural processes of channel equilibrium recovery, riparian re-vegetation, and stream-floodplain interaction. Incorporating stream barbs, instead of traditional bank protection measures, attempts to achieve these goals. A three-dimensional numerical model: 'Simulation in Intakes with Multiblock option' (SSIIM), was used to model the effects of placing a series of stream barbs along an unstable section of Sawmill Creek. The average bankfull depth, width, and discharge of the creek are 1.2 m, 7.5 m, and 9 m3/s respectively. The model was used to assess various design alternatives for a series of seven stream barbs at two consecutive channel bends requiring stabilization measures along their outer banks. Design criteria were principally based on the reduction of velocity, shear stress and subsequent erosion at the outside bank of each bend, and on the relocation of a new thalweg

  3. [Initial study of transthoracic echocardiography guided three-dimensional printing on the application of assessment of structural heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y B; Liu, J S; Wang, L Q; Guan, X; Luo, Y J; Geng, J; Geng, Q G; Lin, Y J; Zhang, L X; Li, X X; Lu, Y P

    2017-08-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic value of preoperative transthoracic echocardiography guided three dimensional printing model (TTE Guided 3DPM) on the assessment of structural heart disease (SHD). Methods: From February 2016 to October 2016, 44 patients underwent cardiac surgery in Tianjin Chest Hospital, forty-four patients were assessed preoperatively using TTE Guided 3DPM, including 25 males and 19 females, aged 3-75 years, with an average of (44±22) years. compared to conventional three dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D-TTE), and took direct intraoperative findings as "Golden Standard" simultaneously. There are twelve patients with SHD, including four cases with mitral prolapse, two cases with partial endocardial cushion defect, two cases with secondary atrial septal defect, two cases with rheumatic mitral stenosis, one case with tetralogy of Fallot, one case with ventricular septal defect (VSD), thirty-two patients without SHD were designed as negative control. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of TTE Guided 3DPM were greater than or equal to 3D-TTE, P value of McNemar test of 3D-TTE was greater than 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, kappa =0.745, P Guided 3DPM was greater than 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, kappa =0.955, P Guided 3DPM and gold standards were consistent. Compared with 3D-TTE and TTE Guided 3DPM, P value was greater than 0.05, the difference was not statistically significant, kappa =0.879, P Guided 3DPM were consistent. TTE Guided 3DPM displayed the three-dimensional structure of SHD cardiac lesions clearly, which were consistent with intraoperative findings. Conclusion: TTE Guided 3DPM provides essential information for the preoperative evaluation and decision of SHD.

  4. Modeling two-phase flow in three-dimensional complex flow-fields of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Luo, Gang; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-10-01

    3D fine-mesh flow-fields recently developed by Toyota Mirai improved water management and mass transport in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks, suggesting their potential value for robust and high-power PEM fuel cell stack performance. In such complex flow-fields, Forchheimer's inertial effect is dominant at high current density. In this work, a two-phase flow model of 3D complex flow-fields of PEMFCs is developed by accounting for Forchheimer's inertial effect, for the first time, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of liquid water behavior and mass transport inside 3D complex flow-fields and their adjacent gas diffusion layers (GDL). It is found that Forchheimer's inertial effect enhances liquid water removal from flow-fields and adds additional flow resistance around baffles, which improves interfacial liquid water and mass transport. As a result, substantial improvements in high current density cell performance and operational stability are expected in PEMFCs with 3D complex flow-fields, compared to PEMFCs with conventional flow-fields. Higher current density operation required to further reduce PEMFC stack cost per kW in the future will necessitate optimizing complex flow-field designs using the present model, in order to efficiently remove a large amount of product water and hence minimize the mass transport voltage loss.

  5. Three-dimensional Upper Crustal Velocity and Attenuation Structures of the Central Tibetan Plateau from Local Earthquake Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B.; Liang, X.; Lin, G.; Tian, X.; Zhu, G.; Mechie, J.; Teng, J.

    2017-12-01

    A series of V-shaped conjugate strike-slip faults are the most spectacular geologic features in the central Tibetan plateau. A previous study suggested that this conjugate strike-slip fault system accommodates the east-west extension and coeval north-south contraction. Another previous study suggested that the continuous convergence between the Indian and Eurasian continents and the eastward asthenospheric flow generated lithospheric paired general-shear (PGS) deformation, which then caused the development of conjugate strike-slip faults in central Tibet. Local seismic tomography can image three dimensional upper-crustal velocity and attenuation structures in central Tibet, which will provide us with more information about the spatial distribution of physical properties and compositional variations around the conjugate strike-slip fault zone. Ultimately, this information could improve our understanding of the development mechanism of the conjugate strike-slip fault system. In this study, we collected 6,809 Pg and 2,929 Sg arrival times from 414 earthquakes recorded by the temporary SANDWICH and permanent CNSN networks from November 2013 to November 2015. We also included 300 P and 17 S arrival times from 12 shots recorded by the INDEPTH III project during the summer of 1998 in the velocity tomography. We inverted for preliminary Vp and Vp/Vs models using the SIMUL2000 tomography algorithm, and then relocated the earthquakes with these preliminary velocity models. After that, we inverted for the final velocity models with these improved source locations and origin times. After the velocity inversion, we performed local attenuation tomography using t* measurements from the same dataset with an already existing approach. There are correlated features in the velocity and attenuation structures. From the surface to 10 km depth, the study area is dominated by high Vp and Qp anomalies. However, from 10 km to 20 km depth, there is a low Vp and Qp zone distributed along the

  6. Seismic response analysis of soil-structure interactive system using a coupled three-dimensional FE-IE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong-Soo; Seo, Choon-Gyo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a slightly new three-dimensional radial-shaped dynamic infinite elements fully coupled to finite elements for an analysis of soil-structure interaction system in a horizontally layered medium. We then deal with a seismic analysis technique for a three-dimensional soil-structure interactive system, based on the coupled finite-infinite method in frequency domain. The dynamic infinite elements are simulated for the unbounded domain with wave functions propagating multi-generated wave components. The accuracy of the dynamic infinite element and effectiveness of the seismic analysis technique may be demonstrated through a typical compliance analysis of square surface footing, an L-shaped mat concrete footing on layered soil medium and two kinds of practical seismic analysis tests. The practical analyses are (1) a site response analysis of the well-known Hualien site excited by all travelling wave components (primary, shear, Rayleigh waves) and (2) a generation of a floor response spectrum of a nuclear power plant. The obtained dynamic results show good agreement compared with the measured response data and numerical values of other soil-structure interaction analysis package.

  7. The shikimate pathway: review of amino acid sequence, function and three-dimensional structures of the enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Rafia; Jallu, Shais; Singh, T P

    2015-06-01

    The aromatic compounds such as aromatic amino acids, vitamin K and ubiquinone are important prerequisites for the metabolism of an organism. All organisms can synthesize these aromatic metabolites through shikimate pathway, except for mammals which are dependent on their diet for these compounds. The pathway converts phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose 4-phosphate to chorismate through seven enzymatically catalyzed steps and chorismate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of variety of aromatic compounds. These enzymes have shown to play a vital role for the viability of microorganisms and thus are suggested to present attractive molecular targets for the design of novel antimicrobial drugs. This review focuses on the seven enzymes of the shikimate pathway, highlighting their primary sequences, functions and three-dimensional structures. The understanding of their active site amino acid maps, functions and three-dimensional structures will provide a framework on which the rational design of antimicrobial drugs would be based. Comparing the full length amino acid sequences and the X-ray crystal structures of these enzymes from bacteria, fungi and plant sources would contribute in designing a specific drug and/or in developing broad-spectrum compounds with efficacy against a variety of pathogens.

  8. Mesoscale Eddies in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Three-Dimensional Eddy Structures and Heat/Salt Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Di; Brandt, Peter; Chang, Ping; Schütte, Florian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jinhui; Zeng, Jisheng

    2017-12-01

    The region encompassing the Kuroshio Extension (KE) in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean (25°N-45°N and 130°E-180°E) is one of the most eddy-energetic regions of the global ocean. The three-dimensional structures and transports of mesoscale eddies in this region are comprehensively investigated by combined use of satellite data and Argo profiles. With the allocation of Argo profiles inside detected eddies, the spatial variations of structures of eddy temperature and salinity anomalies are analyzed. The results show that eddies predominantly have subsurface (near-surface) intensified temperature and salinity anomalies south (north) of the KE jet, which is related to different background stratifications between these regions. A new method based on eddy trajectories and the inferred three-dimensional eddy structures is proposed to estimate heat and salt transports by eddy movements in a Lagrangian framework. Spatial distributions of eddy transports are presented over the vicinity of the KE for the first time. The magnitude of eddy-induced meridional heat (freshwater volume) transport is on the order of 0.01 PW (103 m3/s). The eddy heat transport divergence results in an oceanic heat loss south and heat gain north of the KE, thereby reinforcing and counteracting the oceanic heat loss from air-sea fluxes south and north of the KE jet, respectively. It also suggests a poleward heat transport across the KE jet due to eddy propagation.

  9. A simplified description of the three-dimensional structure of agroforestry trees for use with a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, S.

    1998-01-01

    To simulate transmitted radiation in agroforestry systems, radiative transfer models usually require a detailed three-dimensional description of the tree canopy. We propose here a simplification of the description of the three-dimensional structure of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium). The simplified tree description was tested against the detailed one for five-year-old wild cherry. It allowed accurate simulation of transmitted radiation and avoided tedious measurements of tree structure. The simplified description was then applied to older trees. Allometric relationships were used to compute the parameters not available on free-grown trees. The transmitted radiation in an agroforestry system was simulated at four different ages: 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. The trees were planted on a 5 m square grid. Two row orientations, chosen to provide different transmitted radiation patterns, were tested: north/south and north- east/south-west. The simulations showed that the daily mean transmitted radiation was reduced from 92% of incident radiation under five-year-old trees to 37% under 20-year-old trees. The variability of transmitted radiation increased with tree growth. The row orientation had only small effects on the shaded area at the beginning and end of the day when solar elevation was low. (author)

  10. A three-dimensional multiphase flow model for assesing NAPL contamination in porous and fractured media, 1. Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyakorn, P. S.; Panday, S.; Wu, Y. S.

    1994-06-01

    A three-dimensional, three-phase numerical model is presented for stimulating the movement on non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPL's) through porous and fractured media. The model is designed for practical application to a wide variety of contamination and remediation scenarios involving light or dense NAPL's in heterogeneous subsurface systems. The model formulation is first derived for three-phase flow of water, NAPL and air (or vapor) in porous media. The formulation is then extended to handle fractured systems using the dual-porosity and discrete-fracture modeling approaches The model accommodates a wide variety of boundary conditions, including withdrawal and injection well conditions which are treated rigorously using fully implicit schemes. The three-phase of formulation collapses to its simpler forms when air-phase dynamics are neglected, capillary effects are neglected, or two-phase-air-liquid, liquid-liquid systems with one or two active phases are considered. A Galerkin procedure with upstream weighting of fluid mobilities, storage matrix lumping, and fully implicit treatment of nonlinear coefficients and well conditions is used. A variety of nodal connectivity schemes leading to finite-difference, finite-element and hybrid spatial approximations in three dimensions are incorporated in the formulation. Selection of primary variables and evaluation of the terms of the Jacobian matrix for the Newton-Raphson linearized equations is discussed. The various nodal lattice options, and their significance to the computational time and memory requirements with regards to the block-Orthomin solution scheme are noted. Aggressive time-stepping schemes and under-relaxation formulas implemented in the code further alleviate the computational burden.

  11. Finite element study of three dimensional radiative nano-plasma flow subject to Hall and ion slip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohm’s law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search ηmax and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8. Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu and Silver (Ag. Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid. Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field. Keywords: Nanofluid, Grid independent study, Convergence, Error analysis, Skin friction, Joule heating, Viscous dissipation, Hall and ion currents

  12. Assessing factors affecting the thermal properties of a passive thermal refuge using three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.

  13. CEASEMT system: the COCO code. Automatic network of planar and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charras, Thierry; Hoffmann, Alain.

    1977-01-01

    COCO is a code written in Fortran IV for IBM 360; it is intended to meshing bi- or tri-dimensional structures: planar structures, shells and beams, pipes in space. The existence of a real language makes possible a simple flexible use of COCO. Due to its modular structure COCO can incorporate new feasibilities if needed. The elements can have 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, 20 vertices at will. COCO makes it possible to divide the network of the structure in independent sectors and gather them together through new numbering. Partial results can be verified at any time by listing or displaying them on a cathode screen [fr

  14. Issues in measure-preserving three dimensional flow integrators: Self-adjointness, reversibility, and non-uniform time stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012

  15. Structural origin of dynamic heterogeneity in three-dimensional colloidal glass formers and its link to crystal nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-06-16

    The physical understanding of glass transition remains a major challenge of physics and materials science. Among various glass-forming liquids, a colloidal liquid interacting with hard-core repulsion is now regarded as one of the most ideal model systems. Here we study the structure and dynamics of three-dimensional polydisperse colloidal liquids by Brownian dynamics simulations. We reveal that medium-range crystalline bond orientational order of the hexagonal close packed structure grows in size and lifetime with increasing packing fraction. We show that dynamic heterogeneity may be a direct consequence of this transient structural ordering, which suggests its origin is thermodynamic rather than kinetic. We also reveal that nucleation of crystals preferentially occurs in regions of high medium-range order, reflecting the low crystal-liquid interfacial energy there. These findings may shed new light not only on the fundamental nature of the glass transition, but also the mechanism of crystal nucleation.

  16. Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xuanming; Sun Hongbo; Kaneko, Koshiro; Kaw