WorldWideScience

Sample records for three-dimensional elemental mapping

  1. Creating three-dimensional thermal maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Price

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Price_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30895 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Price_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Creating Three...-Dimensional Thermal Maps Mathew Price Cogency cc Cape Town Email: mathew@cogency.co.za Jeremy Green CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jgreen@csir.co.za John Dickens CSIR Centre for Mining Innovation Johannesburg Email: jdickens...

  2. Three-Dimensional Maps for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.

    2012-07-01

    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to property, improve the monitoring of these disasters, and facilitate estimates of the damages and losses resulting from them. The maintenance and accessibility of spatial information has improved enormously with the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), especially with second-generation SDIs, in which the original product-based SDI was improved to a process-based SDI. Through the use of SDIs, geo-information is made available to local, national and international organisations in regions affected by natural disasters as well as to volunteers serving in these areas. Volunteer-based systems for information collection (e.g., Ushahidi) have been created worldwide. However, the use of 3D maps is still limited. This paper discusses the applicability of 3D geo-information to disaster management. We discuss some important aspects of maps for disaster management, such as user-centred maps, the necessary components for 3D maps, symbols, and colour schemas. In addition, digital representations are evaluated with respect to their visual controls, i.e., their usefulness for the navigation and exploration of the information. Our recommendations are based on responses from a variety of users of these technologies, including children, geospecialists and disaster managers from different countries.

  3. Signal processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.; David, D.; Lamant, D.

    1987-01-01

    Digital processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps improves accuracy of detection: flattening, filtering, computing deconvolution, mapping new variables,.., give new possibilities for difficult test problems. With simulation of defects, probes, probe travels, it is now possible to compute new eddy current processes, without machining defects or building probes

  4. Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)

  5. Mapping three-dimensional temperature in microfluidic chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2013-11-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) temperature mapping method with high spatial resolution and acquisition rate is of vital importance in evaluating thermal processes in micro-environment. We have synthesized a new temperature-sensitive functional material (Rhodamine B functionalized Polydimethylsiloxane). By performing optical sectioning of this material, we established an advanced method for visualizing the micro-scale 3D thermal distribution inside microfluidic chip with down to 10 ms temporal resolution and 2 ~ 6 °C temperature resolution depending the capture parameters. This method is successfully applied to monitor the local temperature variation throughout micro-droplet heat transfer process and further reveal exothermic nanoliter droplet reactions to be unique and milder than bench-top experiment.

  6. Three-dimensional brain mapping using fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Chuzo; Umeda, Masahiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Aoki, Ichio; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Naruse, Shoji.

    1997-01-01

    Functional mapping of the activated brain, the location and extent of the activated area were determined, during motor tasks and sensory stimulation using fMRI superimposed on 3D anatomical MRI. Twelve volunteers were studied. The fMR images were acquired using a 2D gradient echo echo planar imaging sequence. The 3D anatomical MR images of the whole brain were acquired using a conventional 3D gradient echo sequence. Motor tasks were sequential opposition of fingers, clenching a hand and elbow flexion. Somatosensory stimulation were administered by scrubbing the palm and sole with a washing sponge. Visual stimulation consisted of full visual field stimulation. Data were analyzed by the cross-correlation method. Transversal fMR images and anatomical images were reconstructed using both volume-, surface-rendering methods, and reconstructed for coronal and sagittal sections. Activated areas were expressed using the three primary colors. Motor tasks activated the contralateral primary motor area (M1), the primary somatosensory area (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA). Somatosensory tasks activated the contralateral S1, M1 and secondary sensory area (S2). Activated areas during full visual field stimulation was observed in the bilateral occipital lobe, including both the primary cortex. Three-dimensional brain mapping allowed visualization of the anatomical location and extent of the activated brain during both motor task and sensory stimulation. Using this method we could obtain a functional map similar to the Penfield's schema. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional discrete element method simulation of core disking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunchuan; Wu, Haoyan; Kemeny, John

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of core disking is commonly seen in deep drilling of highly stressed regions in the Earth's crust. Given its close relationship with the in situ stress state, the presence and features of core disking can be used to interpret the stresses when traditional in situ stress measuring techniques are not available. The core disking process was simulated in this paper using the three-dimensional discrete element method software PFC3D (particle flow code). In particular, PFC3D is used to examine the evolution of fracture initiation, propagation and coalescence associated with core disking under various stress states. In this paper, four unresolved problems concerning core disking are investigated with a series of numerical simulations. These simulations also provide some verification of existing results by other researchers: (1) Core disking occurs when the maximum principal stress is about 6.5 times the tensile strength. (2) For most stress situations, core disking occurs from the outer surface, except for the thrust faulting stress regime, where the fractures were found to initiate from the inner part. (3) The anisotropy of the two horizontal principal stresses has an effect on the core disking morphology. (4) The thickness of core disk has a positive relationship with radial stress and a negative relationship with axial stresses.

  8. Analysis of Human Fibroadenomas Using Three-Dimensional Impedance Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapore, Alexander J.; King, Michael R.; Harter, Josephine; Sarwate, Sandhya; Oelze, Michael L.; Zagzebski, James A.; Do, Minh N.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional impedance maps (3DZMs) are virtual volumes of acoustic impedance values constructed from histology to represent tissue microstructure acoustically. From the 3DZM, the ultrasonic backscattered power spectrum can be predicted and model based scatterer properties, such as effective scatterer diameter (ESD), can be estimated. Additionally, the 3DZM can be exploited to visualize and identify possible scattering sites, which may aid in the development of more effective scattering models to better represent the ultrasonic interaction with underlying tissue microstructure. In this study, 3DZMs were created from a set of human fibroadenoma samples. ESD estimates were made assuming a fluid-filled sphere form factor model from 3DZMs of volume 300 × 300 × 300 µm. For a collection of 33 independent human fibroadenoma tissue samples, the ESD was estimated to be 111 ± 40.7 µm. The 3DZMs were then investigated visually to identify possible scattering sources which conformed to the estimated model scatterer dimensions. This estimation technique allowed a better understanding of the spatial distribution and variability of the estimates throughout the volume. PMID:21278015

  9. Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Brain-Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    1975-76, one of these brains was hand digitized. It was then reconstructed three dimensionally, using an Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2. This...Yakovlev Collection, we use the Evans and Sutherland Picture System 2 which we have been employing for this purpose for a dozen years. Its virtue is...careful, experimentally designed new protocol (See Figure 20). Most of these heads were imaged with Computed Tomography, thanks to Clint Stiles of Picker

  10. Mapping method for generating three-dimensional meshes: past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.; Oakes, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two transformations are derived in this paper. One is a mapping of a unit square onto a surve and the other is a mapping of a unit cube onto a three-dimensional region. Two meshing computer programs are then discussed that use these mappings. The first is INGEN, which has been used to calculate three-dimensional meshes for approximately 15 years. This meshing program uses an index scheme to number boundaries, surfaces, and regions. With such an index scheme, it is possible to control nodal points, elements, and boundary conditions. The second is ESCHER, a meshing program now being developed. Two primary considerations governing development of ESCHER are that meshes graded using quadrilaterals are required and that edge-line geometry defined by Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems will be a major source of geometry definition. This program separates the processes of nodal-point connectivity generation, computation of nodal-point mapping space coordinates, and mapping of nodal points into model space

  11. hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is the first of a series of papers devoted to the study of h-p spec- .... element functions defined on mesh elements in the new system of variables with a uni- ... the spectral element functions on these elements and give construction of the stability .... By Hm( ), we denote the usual Sobolev space of integer order m ≥ 0 ...

  12. The Topology Optimization of Three-dimensional Cooling Fins by the Internal Element Connectivity Parameterization Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Sung Min; Kim, Yoon Young

    2007-01-01

    This work is concerned with the topology optimization of three-dimensional cooling fins or heat sinks. Motivated by earlier success of the Internal Element Connectivity Method (I-ECP) method in two dimensional problems, the extension of I-ECP to three-dimensional problems is carried out. The main efforts were made to maintain the numerical trouble-free characteristics of I-ECP for full three-dimensional problems; a serious numerical problem appearing in thermal topology optimization is erroneous temperature undershooting. The effectiveness of the present implementation was checked through the design optimization of three-dimensional fins

  13. [Application Progress of Three-dimensional Laser Scanning Technology in Medical Surface Mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Hou, He; Han, Yuchuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xianfeng; Wang, Mingshi

    2016-04-01

    The booming three-dimensional laser scanning technology can efficiently and effectively get spatial three-dimensional coordinates of the detected object surface and reconstruct the image at high speed,high precision and large capacity of information.Non-radiation,non-contact and the ability of visualization make it increasingly popular in three-dimensional surface medical mapping.This paper reviews the applications and developments of three-dimensional laser scanning technology in medical field,especially in stomatology,plastic surgery and orthopedics.Furthermore,the paper also discusses the application prospects in the future as well as the biomedical engineering problems it would encounter with.

  14. hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elliptic boundary value problems on non-smooth domains in R3. For Dirichlet problems, ... of variable degree bounded by W. Let N denote the number of layers in the geomet- ric mesh ... We prove a stability theorem for mixed problems when the spectral element functions vanish ..... Applying Theorem 3.1,. ∫ r l. |Mu|2dx −.

  15. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  16. High-resolution three-dimensional mapping of semiconductor dopant potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twitchett, AC; Yates, TJV; Newcomb, SB

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how a combin......Semiconductor device structures are becoming increasingly three-dimensional at the nanometer scale. A key issue that must be addressed to enable future device development is the three-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions, ideally under "working conditions". Here we demonstrate how...... a combination of electron holography and electron tomography can be used to determine quantitatively the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in an electrically biased semiconductor device with nanometer spatial resolution....

  17. Three-dimensional modeling with finite element codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.

    1986-01-17

    This paper describes work done to model magnetostatic field problems in three dimensions. Finite element codes, available at LLNL, and pre- and post-processors were used in the solution of the mathematical model, the output from which agreed well with the experimentally obtained data. The geometry used in this work was a cylinder with ports in the periphery and no current sources in the space modeled. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškar Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  19. Three-Dimensional Orientation Mapping in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Haihua; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2011-01-01

    resolution of 200 nanometers (nm). We describe here a nondestructive technique that enables 3D orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope of mono- and multiphase nanocrystalline materials with a spatial resolution reaching 1 nm. We demonstrate the technique by an experimental study...

  20. Quarter elliptical crack growth using three dimensional finite element method and crack closure technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozin, Mohammad-Hosein; Aghaie-Khafri, Mehrdad [K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Shape evolution of a quarter-elliptical crack emanating from a hole is studied. Three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the fatigue crack closure was considered and the stress intensity factor was calculated based on the duplicated elastic model at each crack tip node. The crack front node was advanced proportional to the imposed effective stress intensity factor. Remeshing was applied at each step of the crack growth and solution mapping algorithm was considered. Crack growth retardation at free surfaces was successfully observed. A MATLAB-ABAQUS interference code was developed for the first time to perform crack growth on the basis of crack closure. Simulation results indicated that crack shape is sensitive to the remeshing strategy. Predictions based on the proposed models were in good agreement with Carlson's experiments results.

  1. Physical Webbing: Collaborative Kinesthetic Three-Dimensional Mind Maps[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marian H.

    2012-01-01

    Mind Mapping has predominantly been used by individuals or collaboratively in groups as a paper-based or computer-generated learning strategy. In an effort to make Mind Mapping kinesthetic, collaborative, and three-dimensional, an innovative pedagogical strategy, termed Physical Webbing, was devised. In the Physical Web activity, groups…

  2. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of residual magnetic field for ferromagnets under early damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Kai; Shen, Kai; Wang, Zheng-Dao; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 3D finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. The contour maps of tangential and normal RMF gradients are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. The results show that the tangential peak–peak amplitude and normal peak–vale amplitude are remarkably different in 2D and 3D simulations, but the tangential peak–peak width and normal peak–vale width are similar. Moreover, some key points are capable of capturing the plastic-zone shape, especially when the lift-off is small enough. The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with Metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. • The contour maps of gradients of the tangential and normal residual magnetic fields are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. • The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with metal magnetic memory technique

  3. Optimal Layout Design using the Element Connectivity Parameterization Method: Application to Three Dimensional Geometrical Nonlinear Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-01-01

    The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty, the ele......) stiffness matrix of continuum finite elements. Therefore, any finite element code, including commercial codes, can be readily used for the ECP implementation. The key ideas and characteristics of these methods will be presented in this paper....

  4. Systems and methods that generate height map models for efficient three dimensional reconstruction from depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert

    2015-12-08

    Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.

  5. SU-E-T-752: Three-Dimensional Carcinogenic Maps Induced by Photons and Protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manem, V; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Evaluate the excess relative risk (ERR) induced by photons and protons in each voxel of the lung, and display it as a three-dimensional map, known as the ERRM (i.e. excess relative risk map) along with the dose distribution map. In addition, we also study the effect of variations in the linear energy transfer (LET) distribution on ERRM for a given proton plan. Methods: The excess relative risk due to radiation is estimated using the initiation-inactivation-proliferation formalism. This framework accounts for three biological phenomenon: mutation induction, cell kill and proliferation. Cell kill and mutation induction are taken as a function of LET using experimental data. LET distributions are calculated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. ERR is then estimated for each voxel in the organ, and displayed as a three dimensional carcinogenic map. Results: The differences in the ERR’s between photons and protons is seen from the three-dimensional ERR map. In addition, we also varied the LET of a proton plan and observed the differences in the corresponding ERR maps demonstrating variations in the ERR maps depend on features of a proton plan. Additionally, our results suggest that any two proton plans that have the same integral dose does not necessarily imply identical ERR maps, and these changes are due to the variations in the LET distribution map. Conclusion: Clinically, it is important to have a three dimensional display of biological end points. This study is an effort to introduce 3D ERR maps into the treatment planning workflow for certain sites such as pediatric head and neck tumors.

  6. Three Dimensional Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (3D-FEED) Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latecki, L.J.; Schouten, Theo E.; Mount, D.M.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Wu, A.Y.; van den Broek, Egon

    2006-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. Recently, the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation was launched. In this paper, we present the three dimensional (3D) version of

  7. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Lin, Xue [Northwest University, School of Cultural Heritage, Xi' an (China)

    2016-09-15

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)

  8. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Lin, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)

  9. [Three dimensional finite element model of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Fei, Q; Li, D; Li, J J; Meng, H; Su, N; Fan, Z H; Wang, B Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To build a three-dimensional finite element models of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty with short-segmental lateral mass screws fusion. Methods: The C(2)-C(7) segmental data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of a male patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and spinal stenosis.Three-dimensional finite element models of a modified cervical single open-door laminoplasty (before and after surgery) were constructed by the combination of software package MIMICS, Geomagic and ABAQUS.The models were composed of bony vertebrae, articulating facets, intervertebral disc and associated ligaments.The loads of moments 1.5Nm at different directions (flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation)were applied at preoperative model to calculate intersegmental ranges of motion.The results were compared with the previous studies to verify the validation of the models. Results: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty had 102258 elements (preoperative model) and 161 892 elements (postoperative model) respectively, including C(2-7) six bony vertebraes, C(2-3)-C(6-7) five intervertebral disc, main ligaments and lateral mass screws.The intersegmental responses at the preoperative model under the loads of moments 1.5 Nm at different directions were similar to the previous published data. Conclusion: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty were successfully established and had a good biological fidelity, which can be used for further study.

  10. Three-dimensional velocity map imaging: Setup and resolution improvement compared to three-dimensional ion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczok, S.; Goedecke, N.; Veckenstedt, M.; Maul, C.; Gericke, K.-H.; Chichinin, A. I.

    2009-01-01

    For many years the three-dimensional (3D) ion imaging technique has not benefited from the introduction of ion optics into the field of imaging in molecular dynamics. Thus, a lower resolution of kinetic energy as in comparable techniques making use of inhomogeneous electric fields was inevitable. This was basically due to the fact that a homogeneous electric field was needed in order to obtain the velocity component in the direction of the time of flight spectrometer axis. In our approach we superimpose an Einzel lens field with the homogeneous field. We use a simulation based technique to account for the distortion of the ion cloud caused by the inhomogeneous field. In order to demonstrate the gain in kinetic energy resolution compared to conventional 3D Ion Imaging, we use the spatial distribution of H + ions emerging from the photodissociation of HCl following the two photon excitation to the V 1 Σ + state. So far a figure of merit of approximately four has been achieved, which means in absolute numbers Δv/v=0.022 compared to 0.086 at v≅17 000 m/s. However, this is not a theoretical limit of the technique, but due to our rather short TOF spectrometer (15 cm). The photodissociation of HBr near 243 nm has been used to recognize and eliminate systematic deviations between the simulation and the experimentally observed distribution. The technique has also proven to be essential for the precise measurement of translationally cold distributions.

  11. A high-resolution map of the three-dimensional chromatin interactome in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fulai; Li, Yan; Dixon, Jesse R; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ye, Zhen; Lee, Ah Young; Yen, Chia-An; Schmitt, Anthony D; Espinoza, Celso A; Ren, Bing

    2013-11-14

    A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to permit a whole-genome, unbiased view of chromatin interactions. Here we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in human fibroblasts using a genome-wide 3C analysis method (Hi-C). We determined over one million long-range chromatin interactions at 5-10-kb resolution, and uncovered general principles of chromatin organization at different types of genomic features. We also characterized the dynamics of promoter-enhancer contacts after TNF-α signalling in these cells. Unexpectedly, we found that TNF-α-responsive enhancers are already in contact with their target promoters before signalling. Such pre-existing chromatin looping, which also exists in other cell types with different extracellular signalling, is a strong predictor of gene induction. Our observations suggest that the three-dimensional chromatin landscape, once established in a particular cell type, is relatively stable and could influence the selection or activation of target genes by a ubiquitous transcription activator in a cell-specific manner.

  12. A differential algebraic integration algorithm for symplectic mappings in systems with three-dimensional magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.; Lee, S.Y.; Yan, Y.T.

    2006-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  13. A Differential Algebraic Integration Algorithm for Symplectic Mappings in Systems with Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P

    2004-01-01

    A differential algebraic integration algorithm is developed for symplectic mapping through a three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic field. The self-consistent reference orbit in phase space is obtained by making a canonical transformation to eliminate the linear part of the Hamiltonian. Transfer maps from the entrance to the exit of any 3-D magnetic field are then obtained through slice-by-slice symplectic integration. The particle phase-space coordinates are advanced by using the integrable polynomial procedure. This algorithm is a powerful tool to attain nonlinear maps for insertion devices in synchrotron light source or complicated magnetic field in the interaction region in high energy colliders

  14. Subsonic flow past three-dimensional localised heating elements in boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljohani, A F [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Gajjar, J S B, E-mail: j.gajjar@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    The problem of subsonic flow past three-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical-type (MEMS-type) heating elements placed on a flat surface, where the MEMS devices have hump-shaped surfaces, is investigated using the triple-deck theory. The compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by the energy equation are considered in the limit when the Reynolds number is large. The dimensions of the MEMS devices considered are such that the flow perturbations are governed by the three-dimensional subsonic triple-deck equations formulated with the aid of method of matched expansions. The linear analysis of these equations is presented and our results provide an insight into how the MEMS heating elements may be used to positively control the local flow properties. (paper)

  15. Development of three-dimensional transport code by the double finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro

    1985-01-01

    Development of a three-dimensional neutron transport code by the double finite element method is described. Both of the Galerkin and variational methods are adopted to solve the problem, and then the characteristics of them are compared. Computational results of the collocation method, developed as a technique for the vaviational one, are illustrated in comparison with those of an Ssub(n) code. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional geologic mapping of the Cenozoic basin fill, Amargosa Desert basin, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the subsurface geologic framework of the Cenozoic basin fill that underlies the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada and southeastern California has been improved by using borehole data to construct three-dimensional lithologic and interpreted facies models. Lithologic data from 210 boreholes from a 20-kilometer (km) by 90-km area were reduced to a limited suite of descriptors based on geologic knowledge of the basin and distributed in three-dimensional space using interpolation methods. The resulting lithologic model of the Amargosa Desert basin portrays a complex system of interfingered coarse- to fine-grained alluvium, playa and palustrine deposits, eolian sands, and interbedded volcanic units. Lithologic units could not be represented in the model as a stacked stratigraphic sequence due to the complex interfingering of lithologic units and the absence of available time-stratigraphic markers. Instead, lithologic units were grouped into interpreted genetic classes, such as playa or alluvial fan, to create a three-dimensional model of the interpreted facies data. Three-dimensional facies models computed from these data portray the alluvial infilling of a tectonically formed basin with intermittent internal drainage and localized regional groundwater discharge. The lithologic and interpreted facies models compare favorably to resistivity, aeromagnetic, and geologic map data, lending confidence to the interpretation.

  17. Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atluri, S.N.; Kathiresan, K.; Kobayashi, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent

  18. Participatory three dimensional mapping for the preparation of landslide disaster risk reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusratmoko, Eko; Wibowo, Adi; Cholid, Sofyan; Pin, Tjiong Giok

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of applications of participatory three dimensional mapping (P3DM) method for fqcilitating the people of Cibanteng' village to compile a landslide disaster risk reduction program. Physical factors, as high rainfall, topography, geology and land use, and coupled with the condition of demographic and social-economic factors, make up the Cibanteng region highly susceptible to landslides. During the years 2013-2014 has happened 2 times landslides which caused economic losses, as a result of damage to homes and farmland. Participatory mapping is one part of the activities of community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRR)), because of the involvement of local communities is a prerequisite for sustainable disaster risk reduction. In this activity, participatory mapping method are done in two ways, namely participatory two-dimensional mapping (P2DM) with a focus on mapping of disaster areas and participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) with a focus on the entire territory of the village. Based on the results P3DM, the ability of the communities in understanding the village environment spatially well-tested and honed, so as to facilitate the preparation of the CBDRR programs. Furthermore, the P3DM method can be applied to another disaster areas, due to it becomes a medium of effective dialogue between all levels of involved communities.

  19. PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL STOKES FLOW SIMULATION USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Pribytok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel computing technique for modeling three-dimensional viscous flow (Stokes flow using direct boundary element method is presented. The problem is solved in three phases: sampling and construction of system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE, its decision and finding the velocity of liquid at predetermined points. For construction of the system and finding the velocity, the parallel algorithms using graphics CUDA cards programming technology have been developed and implemented. To solve the system of linear algebraic equations the implemented software libraries are used. A comparison of time consumption for three main algorithms on the example of calculation of viscous fluid motion in three-dimensional cavity is performed.

  20. Pseudo three-dimensional modeling of particle-fuel packing using distinct element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki, Daisuke; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Vibration-based packing of sphere-pac fuel is a key technology in a nuclear fuel manufacturing. In the production process of sphere-pac fuel, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel is formed to spherical form and is packed in a cladding tube by adding a vibration force. In the present study, we have developed a numerical simulation method to investigate the behavior of the particles in a vibrated tube using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). In general, the DEM requires a significant computational cost. Therefore we propose a new approach in which a small particle can move through the space between three larger particles even in the two-dimensional simulation. We take into account an equivalent three-dimensional effect in the equations of motion. Thus it is named pseudo three-dimensional modeling. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional mapping of fluorescent nanoparticles using incoherent digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Takumi; Abe, Ryosuke; Hayasaki, Yoshio

    2015-07-15

    Three-dimensional mapping of fluorescent nanoparticles was performed by using incoherent digital holography. The positions of the nanoparticles were quantitatively determined by using Gaussian fitting of the axial- and lateral-diffraction distributions through position calibration from the observation space to the sample space. It was found that the axial magnification was constant whereas the lateral magnification linearly depended on the axial position of the fluorescent nanoparticles. The mapping of multiple fluorescent nanoparticles fixed in gelatin and a single fluorescent nanoparticle manipulated with optical tweezers in water were demonstrated.

  2. Simulation of three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible flows by a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.T.; Gresho, P.M.; Lee, R.L.; Upson, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element model has been developed for simulating the dynamics of problems encountered in atmospheric pollution and safety assessment studies. The model is based on solving the set of three-dimensional, time-dependent, conservation equations governing incompressible flows. Spatial discretization is performed via a modified Galerkin finite element method, and time integration is carried out via the forward Euler method (pressure is computed implicitly, however). Several cost-effective techniques (including subcycling, mass lumping, and reduced Gauss-Legendre quadrature) which have been implemented are discussed. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the model

  3. Three-dimensional mapping of the local interstellar medium with composite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, L.; Lallement, R.; Vergely, J. L.; Elyajouri, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Three-dimensional maps of the Galactic interstellar medium are general astrophysical tools. Reddening maps may be based on the inversion of color excess measurements for individual target stars or on statistical methods using stellar surveys. Three-dimensional maps based on diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) have also been produced. All methods benefit from the advent of massive surveys and may benefit from Gaia data. Aims: All of the various methods and databases have their own advantages and limitations. Here we present a first attempt to combine different datasets and methods to improve the local maps. Methods: We first updated our previous local dust maps based on a regularized Bayesian inversion of individual color excess data by replacing Hipparcos or photometric distances with Gaia Data Release 1 values when available. Secondly, we complemented this database with a series of ≃5000 color excess values estimated from the strength of the λ15273 DIB toward stars possessing a Gaia parallax. The DIB strengths were extracted from SDSS/APOGEE spectra. Third, we computed a low-resolution map based on a grid of Pan-STARRS reddening measurements by means of a new hierarchical technique and used this map as the prior distribution during the inversion of the two other datasets. Results: The use of Gaia parallaxes introduces significant changes in some areas and globally increases the compactness of the structures. Additional DIB-based data make it possible to assign distances to clouds located behind closer opaque structures and do not introduce contradictory information for the close structures. A more realistic prior distribution instead of a plane-parallel homogeneous distribution helps better define the structures. We validated the results through comparisons with other maps and with soft X-ray data. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the combination of various tracers is a potential tool for more accurate maps. An online tool makes it possible to

  4. On the development of a three-dimensional finite-element groundwater flow model of the saturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Faunt, C.C.; Gable, C.W.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Development of a preliminary three-dimensional model of the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain, the potential location for a high-level nuclear waste repository, is presented. The development of the model advances the technology of interfacing: (1)complex three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework modeling; (2) fully three-dimensional, unstructured, finite-element mesh generation; and (3) groundwater flow, heat, and transport simulation. The three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is developed using maps, cross sections, and well data. The framework model data are used to feed an automated mesh generator, designed to discretize irregular three-dimensional solids,a nd to assign materials properties from the hydrogeologic framework model to the tetrahedral elements. The mesh generator facilitated the addition of nodes to the finite-element mesh which correspond to the exact three-dimensional position of the potentiometric surface based on water-levels from wells. A ground water flow and heat simulator is run with the resulting finite- element mesh, within a parameter-estimation program. The application of the parameter-estimation program is designed to provide optimal values of permeability and specified fluxes over the model domain to minimize the residual between observed and simulated water levels

  5. Color Image Encryption Using Three-Dimensional Sine ICMIC Modulation Map and DNA Sequence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; He, Yi; Yu, Mengyao

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a three-dimensional hyperchaotic Sine ICMIC modulation map (3D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) method. Based on this map, a novel color image encryption algorithm is designed by employing a hybrid model of multidirectional circular permutation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking. In this scheme, the pixel positions of image are scrambled by multidirectional circular permutation, and the pixel values are substituted by DNA sequence operations. The simulation results and security analysis show that the algorithm has good encryption effect and strong key sensitivity, and can resist brute-force, statistical, differential, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  6. A three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for elasto-plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hyung; Im, Se Yong; Lim, Jae Hyuk; Sohn, Dong Woo

    2015-01-01

    This work is concerned with a three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for application to elastic-plastic analysis. The formulation of smoothed finite elements is extended to cover elastic-plastic deformations beyond the classical linear theory of elasticity, which has been the major application domain of smoothed finite elements. The finite strain deformations are treated with the aid of the formulation based on the hyperelastic constitutive equation. The volumetric locking originating from the nearly incompressible behavior of elastic-plastic deformations is remedied by relaxing the volumetric strain through the mean value. The comparison with the conventional finite elements demonstrates the effectiveness and accuracy of the present approach.

  7. A three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for elasto-plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hyung; Im, Se Yong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae Hyuk [KARI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Dong Woo [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with a three-dimensional cell-based smoothed finite element method for application to elastic-plastic analysis. The formulation of smoothed finite elements is extended to cover elastic-plastic deformations beyond the classical linear theory of elasticity, which has been the major application domain of smoothed finite elements. The finite strain deformations are treated with the aid of the formulation based on the hyperelastic constitutive equation. The volumetric locking originating from the nearly incompressible behavior of elastic-plastic deformations is remedied by relaxing the volumetric strain through the mean value. The comparison with the conventional finite elements demonstrates the effectiveness and accuracy of the present approach.

  8. Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional /3-D/ topographic mapping of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, M. D.; Altschuler, B. R.; Taboada, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the generic utility of a robot in a factory/assembly environment could be substantially enhanced by providing a vision capability to the robot. A standard videocamera for robot vision provides a two-dimensional image which contains insufficient information for a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of an object. Approaches which supply the additional information needed for the three-dimensional mapping of objects with complex surface shapes are briefly considered and a description is presented of a laser-based system which can provide three-dimensional vision to a robot. The system consists of a laser beam array generator, an optical image recorder, and software for controlling the required operations. The projection of a laser beam array onto a surface produces a dot pattern image which is viewed from one or more suitable perspectives. Attention is given to the mathematical method employed, the space coding technique, the approaches used for obtaining the transformation parameters, the optics for laser beam array generation, the hardware for beam array coding, and aspects of image acquisition.

  9. Non-Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elements for Composite Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kohnehpooshi

    Full Text Available Abstract The current investigation focused on the development of effective and suitable modelling of reinforced concrete component with and without strengthening. The modelling includes physical and constitutive models. New interface elements have been developed, while modified constitutive law have been applied and new computational algorithm is utilised. The new elements are the Truss-link element to model the interaction between concrete and reinforcement bars, the interface element between two plate bending elements and the interface element to represent the interfacial behaviour between FRP, steel plates and concrete. Nonlinear finite-element (FE codes were developed with pre-processing. The programme was written using FORTRAN language. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element programme were achieved by analyzing several examples from the literature. The application of the 3D FE code was further enhanced by carrying out the numerical analysis of the three dimensional finite element analysis of FRP strengthened RC beams, as well as the 3D non-linear finite element analysis of girder bridge. Acceptable distributions of slip, deflection, stresses in the concrete and FRP plate have also been found. These results show that the new elements are effective and appropriate to be used for structural component modelling.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of eddy current with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1977-05-01

    The finite element method is applied to three-dimensional analysis of eddy current induced in a large Tokamak device (JT-60). Two techniques to study the eddy current are presented: those of ordinary vector potential and modified vector potential. The latter is originally developed for decreasing dimension of the global matrix. Theoretical treatment of these two is given. The skin effect for alternate current flowing in the circular loop of rectangular cross section is examined as an example of the modified vector potential technique, and the result is compared with analytical one. This technique is useful in analysis of the eddy current problem. (auth.)

  11. Three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a nuclear waste truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a hypothetical accident event for the preliminary design of a shipping cask which is used to transport radioactive waste by standard tractor-semitrailer truck. The nonlinear dynamic structural analysis code DYNA3D run on Sandia's Cray-1 computer was used to calculate the effects of the cask's closure-end impacting a rigid frictionless surface on an edge of its external impact limiter after a 30-foot fall. The center of gravity of the cask (made of 304 stainless steel and depleted uranium) was assumed to be directly above the impact point. An elastic-plastic material constitutive model was used to calculate the nonlinear response of the cask components to the transient loading. Interactive color graphics (PATRAN and MOVIE BYU) were used throughout the analysis, proving to be extremely helpful for generation and verification of the geometry and boundary conditions of the finite element model and for interpretation of the analysis results. Results from the calculations show the cask sustained large localized deformations. However, these were almost entirely confined to the impact limiters built into the cask. The closure sections were determined to remain intact, and leakage would not be expected after the event. As an example of a large three-dimensional finite element dynamic impact calculation, this analysis can serve as an excellent benchmark for computer aided design procedures

  12. Implicit three-dimensional finite-element formulation for the nonlinear structural response of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1975-09-01

    The formulation of a finite-element procedure for the implicit transient and static analysis of plate/shell type structures in three-dimensional space is described. The triangular plate/shell element can sustain both membrane and bending stresses. Both geometric and material nonlinearities can be treated, and an elastic-plastic material law has been incorporated. The formulation permits the element to undergo arbitrarily large rotations and translations; but, in its present form it is restricted to small strains. The discretized equations of motion are obtained by a stiffness method. An implicit integration algorithm based on trapezoidal integration formulas is used to integrate the discretized equations of motion in time. To ensure numerical stability, an iterative solution procedure with equilibrium checks is used

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements based on mobile LiDAR point cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuejian; Mao, Wenbo; Bi, Jiantao; Ji, Wei; He, Zhanjun

    2014-11-01

    Ground-based LiDAR is one of the most effective city modeling tools at present, which has been widely used for three-dimensional reconstruction of outdoor objects. However, as for indoor objects, there are some technical bottlenecks due to lack of GPS signal. In this paper, based on the high-precision indoor point cloud data which was obtained by LiDAR, an international advanced indoor mobile measuring equipment, high -precision model was fulfilled for all indoor ancillary facilities. The point cloud data we employed also contain color feature, which is extracted by fusion with CCD images. Thus, it has both space geometric feature and spectral information which can be used for constructing objects' surface and restoring color and texture of the geometric model. Based on Autodesk CAD platform and with help of PointSence plug, three-dimensional reconstruction of indoor whole elements was realized. Specifically, Pointools Edit Pro was adopted to edit the point cloud, then different types of indoor point cloud data was processed, including data format conversion, outline extracting and texture mapping of the point cloud model. Finally, three-dimensional visualization of the real-world indoor was completed. Experiment results showed that high-precision 3D point cloud data obtained by indoor mobile measuring equipment can be used for indoor whole elements' 3-d reconstruction and that methods proposed in this paper can efficiently realize the 3 -d construction of indoor whole elements. Moreover, the modeling precision could be controlled within 5 cm, which was proved to be a satisfactory result.

  14. Time-efficient, high-resolution, whole brain three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnykh, Vasily L

    2016-05-01

    Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping is a quantitative MRI method that reconstructs parametric maps of a relative amount of macromolecular protons causing the magnetization transfer (MT) effect and provides a biomarker of myelination in neural tissues. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution whole brain MPF mapping technique using a minimal number of source images for scan time reduction. The described technique was based on replacement of an actually acquired reference image without MT saturation by a synthetic one reconstructed from R1 and proton density maps, thus requiring only three source images. This approach enabled whole brain three-dimensional MPF mapping with isotropic 1.25 × 1.25 × 1.25 mm(3) voxel size and a scan time of 20 min. The synthetic reference method was validated against standard MPF mapping with acquired reference images based on data from eight healthy subjects. Mean MPF values in segmented white and gray matter appeared in close agreement with no significant bias and small within-subject coefficients of variation (maps demonstrated sharp white-gray matter contrast and clear visualization of anatomical details, including gray matter structures with high iron content. The proposed synthetic reference method improves resolution of MPF mapping and combines accurate MPF measurements with unique neuroanatomical contrast features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucht, Tore

    2009-01-01

    A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...... element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering...

  16. Computational Performance of a Parallelized Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Element Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshard, Christoph; Bouffanais, Roland; Clémençon, Christian; Deville, Michel O.; Fiétier, Nicolas; Gruber, Ralf; Kehtari, Sohrab; Keller, Vincent; Latt, Jonas

    In this paper, a comprehensive performance review of an MPI-based high-order three-dimensional spectral element method C++ toolbox is presented. The focus is put on the performance evaluation of several aspects with a particular emphasis on the parallel efficiency. The performance evaluation is analyzed with help of a time prediction model based on a parameterization of the application and the hardware resources. A tailor-made CFD computation benchmark case is introduced and used to carry out this review, stressing the particular interest for clusters with up to 8192 cores. Some problems in the parallel implementation have been detected and corrected. The theoretical complexities with respect to the number of elements, to the polynomial degree, and to communication needs are correctly reproduced. It is concluded that this type of code has a nearly perfect speed up on machines with thousands of cores, and is ready to make the step to next-generation petaflop machines.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional ultrasound of carotid atherosclerosis: mapping regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasinski, Adam; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron; Parraga, Grace

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate differences in carotid atherosclerosis measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS). Ten subject volunteers underwent carotid 3DUS and MRI (multislice black blood fast spin echo, T1-weighted contrast, double inversion recovery, 0.5 mm in-plane resolution, 2 mm slice, 3.0 T) within 1 hour. 3DUS and MR images were manually segmented by two observers providing vessel wall and lumen contours for quantification of vessel wall volume (VWV) and generation of carotid thickness maps. MRI VWV (1040 +/- 210 mm(3)) and 3DUS VWV (540 +/- 110 mm(3)) were significantly different (P Power Doppler US confirmed that heterogeneity in the common carotid artery in all patients resulted from apparent flow disturbances, not atherosclerotic plaque. MRI and 3DUS VWV were significantly different and carotid maps showed homogeneous thickness differences and heterogeneity in specific regions of interest identified as MR flow artifacts in the common carotid artery.

  18. Construction and assessment of hierarchical edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midtgaard, Ole-Morten

    1997-12-31

    This thesis considers the feasibility of doing calculations to optimize electrical machines without the need to build expensive prototypes. It deals with the construction and assessment of new, hierarchical, hexahedral edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents with the electric vector potential formulation. The new elements, five in all, gave up to second-order approximations for both the magnetic field and the current density. Theoretical arguments showed these elements to be more economical for a given polynomial order of the approximated fields than the serendipity family of nodal elements. Further it was pointed out how the support of a source field computed by using edge elements could be made very small provided that a proper spanning tree was used in the edge element mesh. This was exploited for the voltage forcing technique, where source fields were used as basis functions, with unknown total currents in voltage forced conductors as degrees of freedom. The practical assessment of the edge elements proved the accuracy to improve with increasing polynomial order, both for local and global quantities. The most economical element was, however, one giving only complete first-order approximations for both fields. Further, the edge elements turned out to be better than the nodal elements also in practice. For the voltage forcing technique, source field basis functions which had small support, resulted in large reduction of the CPU-time for solving the main equation system, compared to source fields which had large support. The new elements can be used in a p-type adaptive scheme, and they should also be applicable for other tangentially continuous field problems. 67 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Application of finite-element method to three-dimensional nuclear reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the finite element method to solve a realistic one-or-two energy group, multiregion, three-dimensional static neutron diffusion problem is studied. Linear, quadratic, and cubic serendipity box-shape elements are used. The resulting sets of simultaneous algebraic equations with thousands of unknowns are solved by the conjugate gradient method, without forming the large coefficient matrix explicitly. This avoids the complicated data management schemes to store such a large coefficient matrix. Three finite-element computer programs: FEM-LINEAR, FEM-QUADRATIC and FEM-CUBIC were developed, using the linear, quadratic, and cubic box-shape elements respectively. They are self-contained, using simple nodal labeling schemes, without the need for separate finite element mesh generating routines. The efficiency and accuracy of these computer programs are then compared among themselves, and with other computer codes. The cubic element model is not recommended for practical usage because it gives almost identical results as the quadratic model, but it requires considerably longer computation time. The linear model is less accurate than the quadratic model, but it requires much shorter computation time. For a large 3-D problem, the linear model is to be preferred since it gives acceptable accuracy. The quadratic model may be used if improved accuracy is desired

  20. The dimension split element-free Galerkin method for three-dimensional potential problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z. J.; Cheng, H.; Ma, L. D.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the dimension split element-free Galerkin (DSEFG) method for three-dimensional potential problems, and the corresponding formulae are obtained. The main idea of the DSEFG method is that a three-dimensional potential problem can be transformed into a series of two-dimensional problems. For these two-dimensional problems, the improved moving least-squares (IMLS) approximation is applied to construct the shape function, which uses an orthogonal function system with a weight function as the basis functions. The Galerkin weak form is applied to obtain a discretized system equation, and the penalty method is employed to impose the essential boundary condition. The finite difference method is selected in the splitting direction. For the purposes of demonstration, some selected numerical examples are solved using the DSEFG method. The convergence study and error analysis of the DSEFG method are presented. The numerical examples show that the DSEFG method has greater computational precision and computational efficiency than the IEFG method.

  1. Seismic response of three-dimensional rockfill dams using the Indirect Boundary Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Arellano-Guzman, Mauricio; Perez-Gavilan, Juan J; Suarez, Martha; Marengo-Mogollon, Humberto; Chaillat, Stephanie; Jaramillo, Juan Diego; Gomez, Juan; Iturraran-Viveros, Ursula; Rodriguez-Castellanos, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) is used to compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model. The IBEM is based on a single layer integral representation of elastic fields in terms of the full-space Green function, or fundamental solution of the equations of dynamic elasticity, and the associated force densities along the boundaries. The method has been applied to simulate the ground motion in several configurations of surface geology. Moreover, the IBEM has been used as benchmark to test other procedures. We compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model placed within a canyon that constitutes an irregularity on the surface of an elastic half-space. The rockfill is also assumed elastic with hysteretic damping to account for energy dissipation. Various types of incident waves are considered to analyze the physical characteristics of the response: symmetries, amplifications, impulse response and the like. Computations are performed in the frequency domain and lead to time response using Fourier analysis. In the present implementation a symmetrical model is used to test symmetries. The boundaries of each region are discretized into boundary elements whose size depends on the shortest wavelength, typically, six boundary segments per wavelength. Usually, the seismic response of rockfill dams is simulated using either finite elements (FEM) or finite differences (FDM). In most applications, commercial tools that combine features of these methods are used to assess the seismic response of the system for a given motion at the base of model. However, in order to consider realistic excitation of seismic waves with different incidence angles and azimuth we explore the IBEM.

  2. Three-dimensional ultrasonic imaging of concrete elements using different SAFT data acquisition and processing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schickert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing systems using transducer arrays and the SAFT (Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) reconstruction allow for imaging the internal structure of concrete elements. At one-sided access, three-dimensional representations of the concrete volume can be reconstructed in relatively great detail, permitting to detect and localize objects such as construction elements, built-in components, and flaws. Different SAFT data acquisition and processing schemes can be utilized which differ in terms of the measuring and computational effort and the reconstruction result. In this contribution, two methods are compared with respect to their principle of operation and their imaging characteristics. The first method is the conventional single-channel SAFT algorithm which is implemented using a virtual transducer that is moved within a transducer array by electronic switching. The second method is the Combinational SAFT algorithm (C-SAFT), also named Sampling Phased Array (SPA) or Full Matrix Capture/Total Focusing Method (TFM/FMC), which is realized using a combination of virtual transducers within a transducer array. Five variants of these two methods are compared by means of measurements obtained at test specimens containing objects typical of concrete elements. The automated SAFT imaging system FLEXUS is used for the measurements which includes a three-axis scanner with a 1.0 m × 0.8 m scan range and an electronically switched ultrasonic array consisting of 48 transducers in 16 groups. On the basis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructed images, qualitative and some quantitative results of the parameters image resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement time, and computational effort are discussed in view of application characteristics of the SAFT variants

  3. Three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography based on graphics-processing-unit-accelerated finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kuan; He, Ling; Zhu, Ziqiang; Tang, Jingtian; Xiao, Jiaying

    2013-12-01

    Compared with commonly used analytical reconstruction methods, the frequency-domain finite element method (FEM) based approach has proven to be an accurate and flexible algorithm for photoacoustic tomography. However, the FEM-based algorithm is computationally demanding, especially for three-dimensional cases. To enhance the algorithm's efficiency, in this work a parallel computational strategy is implemented in the framework of the FEM-based reconstruction algorithm using a graphic-processing-unit parallel frame named the "compute unified device architecture." A series of simulation experiments is carried out to test the accuracy and accelerating effect of the improved method. The results obtained indicate that the parallel calculation does not change the accuracy of the reconstruction algorithm, while its computational cost is significantly reduced by a factor of 38.9 with a GTX 580 graphics card using the improved method.

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Three-Dimensional (3D Auxetic Textile Composite under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifang Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a finite element (FE analysis of three-dimensional (3D auxetic textile composite by using commercial software ANSYS 15 under compression. The two-dimensional (2D FE model was first developed and validated by experiment. Then, the validated model was used to evaluate effects of structural parameters and constituent material properties. For the comparison, 3D non-auxetic composite that was made with the same constituent materials and structural parameters, but with different yarn arrangement in the textile structure was also analyzed at the same time. The analysis results showed that the auxetic and non-auxetic composites have different compression behaviors and the auxetic composite has better the energy absorption capacity than the non-auxetic composite under the same compression stress. The study has provided us a guidance to design and fabricate auxetic composites with the required mechanical behavior by appropriately selecting structural parameters and constituent materials.

  5. Three-dimensional finite element modelling of the uniaxial tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    . One of the most direct methods for determination of the σ-w relationship is the uniaxial tension test, where a notched specimen is pulled apart while the tensile load and the crack opening displacement is observed. This method is appealing since the interpretation is straightforward. The method......Experimental determination of the stress-crack opening relationship (σ-w) for concrete as defined in the fictitious crack model has proven to be difficult. This is due to the problems that may arise from application of the inverse analysis method necessary for the derivation of the relationship...... is examined in this paper through three dimensional finite element analyses. It is concluded that the interpretation of the uniaxial tension test is indeed straightforward, if the testing machine stiffness is sufficiently high....

  6. Three-dimensional multiple reciprocity boundary element method for one-group neutron diffusion eigenvalue computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1996-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity method (MRM) in conjunction with the boundary element method has been employed to solve one-group eigenvalue problems described by the three-dimensional (3-D) neutron diffusion equation. The domain integral related to the fission source is transformed into a series of boundary-only integrals, with the aid of the higher order fundamental solutions based on the spherical and the modified spherical Bessel functions. Since each degree of the higher order fundamental solutions in the 3-D cases has a singularity of order (1/r), the above series of boundary integrals requires additional terms which do not appear in the 2-D MRM formulation. The critical eigenvalue itself can be also described using only boundary integrals. Test calculations show that Wielandt's spectral shift technique guarantees rapid and stable convergence of 3-D MRM computations. (author)

  7. Topology optimization for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves using an edge element-based finite-element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable.

  8. Nanoscale mapping of the three-dimensional deformation field within commercial nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, Muhammad Salman; Hoxley, David; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Coughlan, Hannah D.; Darmanin, Connie; Johnson, Brett C.; Harder, Ross; Clark, Jesse N.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Abbey, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The unique properties of nanodiamonds make them suitable for use in a wide range of applications, including as biomarkers for cellular tracking in vivo at the molecular level. The sustained fluorescence of nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centres is related to their internal structure and strain state. Theoretical studies predict that the location of the N-V centre and the nanodiamonds' residual elastic strain state have a major influence on their photoluminescence properties. However, to date there have been no direct measurements made of their spatially resolved deformation fields owing to the challenges that such measurements present. Here we apply the recently developed technique of Bragg coherent diffractive imaging (BCDI) to map the three-dimensional deformation field within a single nanodiamond of approximately 0.5 µm diameter. The results indicate that there are high levels of residual elastic strain present in the nanodiamond which could have a critical influence on its optical and electronic properties.

  9. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DUST MAPPING REVEALS THAT ORION FORMS PART OF A LARGE RING OF DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Kaiser, N.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the three-dimensional distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14° diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the ''Orion dust ring''. The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current Hα features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation

  10. Three-dimensional field map of the Fermilab D0 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostiguy, J.; Yamada, R.

    1991-08-01

    The D0 detector is a general purpose hadron collider detector presently under construction at Fermilab and scheduled to be put in operation in the fall of 1991. The D0 muon detection system is composed of three major toroids referred to respectively as the Central Field (CF) toroid and the End Field (EF) toroids. The complete detector weighs in excess of 4000 metric tons and rests on a steel platform. The muon detection system was designed using standard 2D codes and flux maps inside were obtained for each of the toroids taken separately. Various magnetic field measurements were performed; discrepancies with the design calculations have been observed and attributed to three dimensional effects. In this paper, we compare the predictions of the 2D computations to 3D calculations for a fully assembled detector. We also estimate the electromagnetic forces between the toroids and discuss other 3D effects, in particular, the effect of the supporting platform. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Biomechanical Property of a Newly Designed Assembly Locking Compression Plate: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Jun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed and validated a refined three-dimensional finite element model of middle femoral comminuted fracture to compare the biomechanical stability after two kinds of plate fixation: a newly designed assembly locking compression plate (NALCP and a locking compression plate (LCP. CT data of a male volunteer was converted to middle femoral comminuted fracture finite element analysis model. The fracture was fixated by NALCP and LCP. Stress distributions were observed. Under slow walking load and torsion load, the stress distribution tendency of the two plates was roughly uniform. The anterolateral femur was the tension stress area, and the bone block shifted toward the anterolateral femur. Maximum stress was found on the lateral border of the number 5 countersink of the plate. Under a slow walking load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.160e+03 MPa and the LCP was 8.561e+02 MPa. Under torsion load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.260e+03 MPa and the LCP was 6.813e+02 MPa. Based on those results of finite element analysis, the NALCP can provide adequate mechanical stability for comminuted fractures, which would help fixate the bone block and promote bone healing.

  12. Summary of three-dimensional animation creation based on ethnic culture element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Zhaopo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available three-dimensional animation is a product combined by technology and art. It is an artistic ex-pression form combining painting, film & television, digital technology, music, and literature. As an audio and visual art, three-dimensional animation has its own unique culture-loading function, technical aesthetic charac-teristics, and requirements for national art expression. This paper aims to find the method to combine digital technology and national art in combination of three-dimensional animation short film creation, and hopes to clear the road for the cultivation of domestic three-dimensional animation quality project.

  13. A three-dimensional finite element model for biomechanical analysis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Xing; Yang, Liu; Li, Kai; He, Rui; Yang, Bin; Zhan, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yu, Bing-Nin; Jian, Zhe

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the hip. The images of the hip were obtained from Chinese visible human dataset. The hip model includes acetabular bone, cartilage, labrum, and bone. The cartilage of femoral head was constructed using the AutoCAD and Solidworks software. The hip model was imported into ABAQUS analysis system. The contact surface of the hip joint was meshed. To verify the model, the single leg peak force was loaded, and contact area of the cartilage and labrum of the hip and pressure distribution in these structures were observed. The constructed 3D hip model reflected the real hip anatomy. Further, this model reflected biomechanical behavior similar to previous studies. In conclusion, this 3D finite element hip model avoids the disadvantages of other construction methods, such as imprecision of cartilage construction and the absence of labrum. Further, it provides basic data critical for accurately modeling normal and abnormal loads, and the effects of abnormal loads on the hip.

  14. Three Dimensional Plenoptic PIV Measurements of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Overlying a Hemispherical Roughness Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurements were made using a plenoptic camera on the flow around a roughness element immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. A refractive index matched approach allowed whole-field optical access from a single camera to a measurement volume that includes transparent solid geometries. In particular, this experiment measures the flow over a single hemispherical roughness element made of acrylic and immersed in a working fluid consisting of Sodium Iodide solution. Our results demonstrate that plenoptic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a viable technique to obtaining statistically-significant volumetric velocity measurements even in a complex separated flow. The boundary layer to roughness height-ratio of the flow was 4.97 and the Reynolds number (based on roughness height) was 4.57×103. Our measurements reveal key flow features such as spiraling legs of the shear layer, a recirculation region, and shed arch vortices. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the instantaneous velocity and vorticity data to extract these features. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1235726.

  15. Three-dimensional finite element models of the human pubic symphysis with viscohyperelastic soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoping; Alonso, Jorge E; Kim, Jong-Eun; Davidson, James S; Etheridge, Brandon S; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2006-09-01

    Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of human pubic symphyses were constructed from computed tomography image data of one male and one female cadaver pelvis. The pubic bones, interpubic fibrocartilaginous disc and four pubic ligaments were segmented semi-automatically and meshed with hexahedral elements using automatic mesh generation schemes. A two-term viscoelastic Prony series, determined by curve fitting results of compressive creep experiments, was used to model the rate-dependent effects of the interpubic disc and the pubic ligaments. Three-parameter Mooney-Rivlin material coefficients were calculated for the discs using a heuristic FE approach based on average experimental joint compression data. Similarly, a transversely isotropic hyperelastic material model was applied to the ligaments to capture average tensile responses. Linear elastic isotropic properties were assigned to bone. The applicability of the resulting models was tested in bending simulations in four directions and in tensile tests of varying load rates. The model-predicted results correlated reasonably with the joint bending stiffnesses and rate-dependent tensile responses measured in experiments, supporting the validity of the estimated material coefficients and overall modeling approach. This study represents an important and necessary step in the eventual development of biofidelic pelvis models to investigate symphysis response under high-energy impact conditions, such as motor vehicle collisions.

  16. Experimental study of soil-structure interaction for proving the three dimensional thin layered element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Y.; Ogiwara, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Nakayama, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the earthquake response of a structure can be significantly affected by the dynamic interaction between the structure and the surrounding soil. Dynamic soil-structure interaction effects are usually analyzed by using a lumped mass model or a finite element model. In the lumped mass model, the soil is represented by springs and dashpots based on the half-space elastic theory. Each model has its advantages and limitations. The Three Dimensional Thin Layered Element Theory has been developed by Dr. Hiroshi Tajimi based on the combined results of the abovementioned lumped mass model and finite element model. The main characteristic of this theory is that, in consideration and can be applied in the analysis of many problems in soil-structure interaction, such as those involving radiation damping, embedded structures, and multi-layered soil deposits. This paper describes test results on a small scale model used to prove the validity of the computer program based on the Thin Layered Element Theory. As a numerical example, the response analysis of a PWR nuclear power plant is carried out using this program. The vibration test model is simplified and the scale is 1/750 for line. The soil layer of the model is made of congealed gelatine. The test soil layer is 80 cm long, 35 cm wide and 10 cm thick. The super structure is a one mass model made of metal sheet spring and solid mass metal. As fixed inputs, sinusoidal waves (10, 20 gal level) are used. The displacements of the top and base of the super structure, and the accelerations and the displacements of the shaking table are measured. The main parameter of the test is the shear wave velocity of the soil layer. (orig./RW)

  17. Three-Dimensional Mapping of mRNA Export through the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Schnell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The locations of transcription and translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells are spatially separated by the nuclear envelope (NE. Plenty of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs embedded in the NE function as the major gateway for the export of transcribed mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the NPC, perhaps one of the largest protein complexes, provides a relatively large channel for macromolecules to selectively pass through it in inherently three-dimensional (3D movements, this channel is nonetheless below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. A full understanding of the mRNA export mechanism urgently requires real-time mapping of the 3D dynamics of mRNA in the NPC of live cells with innovative imaging techniques breaking the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy. Recently, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking (SPT techniques have been applied to the study of nuclear export of mRNA in live cells. In this review, we emphasize the necessity of 3D mapping techniques in the study of mRNA export, briefly summarize the feasibility of current 3D imaging approaches, and highlight the new features of mRNA nuclear export elucidated with a newly developed 3D imaging approach combining SPT-based super-resolution imaging and 2D-to-3D deconvolution algorithms.

  18. Synthetic three-dimensional turbulent passive scalar fields via the minimal Lagrangian map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    A method for simple but realistic generation of three-dimensional synthetic turbulent passive scalar fields is presented. The method is an extension of the minimal turnover Lagrangian map approach (MTLM) [C. Rosales and C. Meneveau, Phys. Rev. E 78, 016313 (2008)] formulated for the generation of synthetic turbulent velocity fields. In this development, the minimal Lagrangian map is applied to deform simultaneously a vector field and an advected scalar field. This deformation takes place over a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing a range from integral to dissipative scales. For each scale, fluid particles are mapped transporting the scalar property, without interaction or diffusional effects, from their initial configuration to new positions determined only by their velocity at the beginning of the motion and a parameter chosen to accumulate deformation for the equivalent of the phenomenological "turn-over" time scale. The procedure is studied for the case of inertial-convective regime. It is found that many features of passive scalar turbulence are well reproduced by this simple kinematical construction. Fundamental statistics of the resulting synthetic scalar fields, evaluated through the flatness and probability density functions of the scalar gradient and scalar increments, reproduce quite well the known statistical characteristics of passive scalars in turbulent fields. High-order statistics are also consistent with those observed in real hydrodynamic turbulence. The anomalous scaling of real turbulence is well reproduced for different kind of structure functions, with good quantitative agreement in general, for the scaling exponents. The spatial structure of the scalar field is also quite realistic, as well as several characteristics of the dissipation fields for the scalar variance and kinetic energy. Similarly, the statistical geometry at dissipative scales that ensues from the coupling of velocity and scalar gradients behaves in agreement with what is

  19. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Thermomechanical Problems in Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite/Titanium Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. S. Jamaludin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of hydroxyapatite (HA as the ceramic phase and titanium (Ti as the metallic phase in HA/Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs shows an excellent combination of high biocompatibility and high mechanical properties in a structure. Because the gradation of these properties is one of the factors that affects the response of the functionally graded (FG plates, this paper is presented to show the domination of the grading parameter on the displacement and stress distribution of the plates. A three-dimensional (3D thermomechanical model of a 20-node brick quadratic element is used in the simulation of the thermoelastic behaviors of HA/Ti FG plates subjected to constant and functional thermal, mechanical, and thermomechanical loadings. The convergence properties of the present results are examined thoroughly in order to assess the accuracy of the theory applied and to compare them with the established research results. Instead of the grading parameter, this study reveals that the loading field distribution can be another factor that reflects the thermoelastic properties of the HA/Ti FG plates. The FG structure is found to be able to withstand the thermal stresses while preserving the high toughness properties and thus shows its ability to operate at high temperature.

  20. Application of three dimensional finite element modeling for the simulation of machining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.E.; Wu, W.T.; Chigurupati, P.; Jinn, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, metal cutting simulations have been performed using two dimensional approximations of the actual process. Factors such as chip morphology, cutting force, temperature, and tool wear can all be predicted on the computer. However, two dimensional simulation is limited to processes which are orthogonal, or which can be closely approximated as orthogonal.Advances in finite element technology, coupled with continuing improvement in the availability of low cost, high performance computer hardware, have made the three dimensional simulation of a large variety of metal cutting processes practical. Specific improvements include efficient FEM solvers, and robust adaptive remeshing. As researchers continue to gain an improved understanding of wear, material representation, tool coatings, fracture, and other such phenomena, the machining simulation system also must adapt to incorporate these evolving models.To demonstrate the capabilities of the 3D simulation system, a variety of drilling, milling, and turning processes have been simulated and will be presented in this paper. Issues related to computation time and simulation accuracy will also be addressed

  1. Electrothermal Equivalent Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Model of a Single Neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Ilaria; Destrade, Michel; Duffy, Maeve; McHugh, Peter

    2018-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for modelling the interdependence of electrical and mechanical phenomena in nervous cells, by using electrothermal equivalences in finite element (FE) analysis so that existing thermomechanical tools can be applied. First, the equivalence between electrical and thermal properties of the nerve materials is established, and results of a pure heat conduction analysis performed in Abaqus CAE Software 6.13-3 are validated with analytical solutions for a range of steady and transient conditions. This validation includes the definition of equivalent active membrane properties that enable prediction of the action potential. Then, as a step toward fully coupled models, electromechanical coupling is implemented through the definition of equivalent piezoelectric properties of the nerve membrane using the thermal expansion coefficient, enabling prediction of the mechanical response of the nerve to the action potential. Results of the coupled electromechanical model are validated with previously published experimental results of deformation for squid giant axon, crab nerve fibre, and garfish olfactory nerve fibre. A simplified coupled electromechanical modelling approach is established through an electrothermal equivalent FE model of a nervous cell for biomedical applications. One of the key findings is the mechanical characterization of the neural activity in a coupled electromechanical domain, which provides insights into the electromechanical behaviour of nervous cells, such as thinning of the membrane. This is a first step toward modelling three-dimensional electromechanical alteration induced by trauma at nerve bundle, tissue, and organ levels.

  2. Three-dimensional finite element model for flexible pavement analyses based field modulus measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, G.; Thenoux, G.; Rodriguez-Roa, F.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with the present development of empirical-mechanistic tools, this paper presents an alternative to traditional analysis methods for flexible pavements using a three-dimensional finite element formulation based on a liner-elastic perfectly-plastic Drucker-Pager model for granular soil layers and a linear-elastic stress-strain law for the asphalt layer. From the sensitivity analysis performed, it was found that variations of +-4 degree in the internal friction angle of granular soil layers did not significantly affect the analyzed pavement response. On the other hand, a null dilation angle is conservatively proposed for design purposes. The use of a Light Falling Weight Deflectometer is also proposed as an effective and practical tool for on-site elastic modulus determination of granular soil layers. However, the stiffness value obtained from the tested layer should be corrected when the measured peak deflection and the peak force do not occur at the same time. In addition, some practical observations are given to achieve successful field measurements. The importance of using a 3D FE analysis to predict the maximum tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer (related to pavement fatigue) and the maximum vertical comprehensive strain transmitted to the top of the granular soil layers (related to rutting) is also shown. (author)

  3. Mapping of Mechanical Strains and Stresses around Quiescent Engineered Three-Dimensional Epithelial Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how physical signals guide biological processes requires qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the mechanical forces generated and sensed by cells in a physiologically realistic three-dimensional (3D) context. Here, we used computational modeling and engineered epithelial tissues of precise geometry to define the experimental parameters that are required to measure directly the mechanical stress profile of 3D tissues embedded within native type I collagen. We found that to calculate the stresses accurately in these settings, we had to account for mechanical heterogeneities within the matrix, which we visualized and quantified using confocal reflectance and atomic force microscopy. Using this technique, we were able to obtain traction forces at the epithelium-matrix interface, and to resolve and quantify patterns of mechanical stress throughout the surrounding matrix. We discovered that whereas single cells generate tension by contracting and pulling on the matrix, the contraction of multicellular tissues can also push against the matrix, causing emergent compression. Furthermore, tissue geometry defines the spatial distribution of mechanical stress across the epithelium, which communicates mechanically over distances spanning hundreds of micrometers. Spatially resolved mechanical maps can provide insight into the types and magnitudes of physical parameters that are sensed and interpreted by multicellular tissues during normal and pathological processes. PMID:22828342

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of light transmittance and foliage distribution using lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, K.W.; Csillag, F.; Atkinson, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    The horizontal and vertical distributions of light transmittance were evaluated as a function of foliage distribution using lidar (light detection and ranging) observations for a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) stand in the Turkey Lakes Watershed. Along the vertical profile of vegetation, horizontal slices of probability of light transmittance were derived from an Optech ALTM 1225 instrument's return pulses (two discrete, 15-cm diameter returns) using indicator kriging. These predictions were compared with (i) below canopy (1-cm spatial resolution) transect measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) and (ii) measurements of tree height. A first-order trend was initially removed from the lidar returns. The vertical distribution of vegetation height was then sliced into nine percentiles and indicator variograms were fitted to them. Variogram parameters were found to vary as a function of foliage height above ground. In this paper, we show that the relationship between ground measurements of FPAR and kriged estimates of vegetation cover becomes stronger and tighter at coarser spatial resolutions. Three-dimensional maps of foliage distribution were computed as stacks of the percentile probability surfaces. These probability surfaces showed correspondence with individual tree-based observations and provided a much more detailed characterization of quasi-continuous foliage distribution. These results suggest that discrete-return lidar provides a promising technology to capture variations of foliage characteristics in forests to support the development of functional linkages between biophysical and ecological studies. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of different implant configurations for a mandibular fixed prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Giovanni; Tellini, Simone; Vangi, Dario; Branchi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of stresses in bone, implants, and prosthesis were analyzed via three-dimensional finite element modeling in different implant configurations for a fixed implant-supported prosthesis in an edentulous mandible. A finite element model was created with data obtained from computed tomographic scans of a human mandible. Anisotropic characteristics for cortical and cancellous bone were incorporated into the model. Six different configurations of intraforaminal implants were tested, with the number of implants varying from three to five and the distal implants inserted either parallel to the other implants or tilted distally by 17 or 34 degrees. A prosthetic structure connecting the implants was designed, with 20-mm posterior cantilevers for the parallel implant configurations, and a load of 200 N was applied to the distal portion of the cantilevers. Stresses were measured at the level of the implant, the prosthetic structure, and the bone. Bone-level stresses were analyzed at the implant-bone interface, at the external cortical bone surface, distal to the terminal implant, and in the cancellous bone along the implant body. A three-parallel-implant configuration resulted in higher stress in the implant and bone than configurations with four or five parallel implants. Configurations with the distal implants tilted resulted in a more favorable stress distribution at all levels. In parallel-implant configurations for fixed implant-supported mandibular prostheses, four and five implants resulted in similar stress distribution in the bone, framework, and implants. A distribution of four implants with the distal implants tilted 34 degrees (ie, the "All-on-Four" configuration) resulted in a favorable reduction of stresses in the bone, framework, and implants.

  6. Three-dimensional optimization and sensitivity analysis of dental implant thread parameters using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramizadeh, Maryam; Katoozian, Hamidreza; Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to optimize the thread depth and pitch of a recently designed dental implant to provide uniform stress distribution by means of a response surface optimization method available in finite element (FE) software. The sensitivity of simulation to different mechanical parameters was also evaluated. A three-dimensional model of a tapered dental implant with micro-threads in the upper area and V-shaped threads in the rest of the body was modeled and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA). An axial load of 100 N was applied to the top of the implants. The model was optimized for thread depth and pitch to determine the optimal stress distribution. In this analysis, micro-threads had 0.25 to 0.3 mm depth and 0.27 to 0.33 mm pitch, and V-shaped threads had 0.405 to 0.495 mm depth and 0.66 to 0.8 mm pitch. The optimized depth and pitch were 0.307 and 0.286 mm for micro-threads and 0.405 and 0.808 mm for V-shaped threads, respectively. In this design, the most effective parameters on stress distribution were the depth and pitch of the micro-threads based on sensitivity analysis results. Based on the results of this study, the optimal implant design has micro-threads with 0.307 and 0.286 mm depth and pitch, respectively, in the upper area and V-shaped threads with 0.405 and 0.808 mm depth and pitch in the rest of the body. These results indicate that micro-thread parameters have a greater effect on stress and strain values.

  7. MO-C-17A-08: Evaluation of Lung Deformation Using Three Dimensional Strain Maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, T [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Huang, Q [Duke Unversity, Durham, NC (United States); Miller, W [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Zhong, X [Siemens Healthcare, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yin, F; Cai, J [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a systematic approach to generate three dimensional (3D) strain maps of lung using the displacement vector field (DVF) during the respiratory deformation, and to demonstrate its application in evaluating deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: A DVF based strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was calculated from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six nearest neighbors. The maximum and minimum stretches of a VOI can be determined by the principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}), which are the eigenvalues and the corresponding strain tensors. Two healthy volunteers enrolled in this study under IRB-approved protocol, each was scanned using 3D Hyperpolarized He-3 tagging-MRI and 3D proton-MRI with TrueFISP sequence at the endof- inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE) phases. 3D DVFs of tagging- and proton-MRI were obtained by the direct measurements of the tagging grid trajectory and by the DIR method implemented in commercial software. Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated for all DVFs. The principal strain E1s were calculated as 0.43±0.05 and 0.17±0.25 for tagging-MRI and proton-MRI, respectively. The large values of E{sub 1} indicate the predominant lung motion in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Given that the DVFs from the tagging images are considered as the ground truth, the discrepancies in the DIR-based strain maps suggest the inaccuracy of the DIR algorithm. In the E{sub 1} maps of tagging-MRI for subject 1, the fissures were distinguishable by the larger values (0.49±0.02) from the adjacent tissues (0.41±0.03) due to the larger relative displacement between the lung lobes. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a methodology to generate DVF-based 3D strain maps of lung. It can potentially enable us to better understand the pulmonary biomechanics and to evaluate and improve the DIR algorithms for the lung deformation. We are currently studying more

  8. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis on Stress Distribution of Internal Implant-Abutment Engagement Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yong; Huh, Yun-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    To investigate the stress distribution in an implant-abutment complex with a preloaded abutment screw by comparing implant-abutment engagement features using three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). For FEA modeling, two implants-one with a single (S) engagement system and the other with a double (D) engagement system-were placed in the human mandibular molar region. Two types of abutments (hexagonal, conical) were connected to the implants. Different implant models (a single implant, two parallel implants, and mesial and tilted distal implants with 1-mm bone loss) were assumed. A static axial force and a 45-degree oblique force of 200 N were applied as the sum of vectors to the top of the prosthetic occlusal surface with a preload of 30 Ncm in the abutment screw. The von Mises stresses at the implant-abutment and abutment-screw interfaces were measured. In the single implant model, the S-conical abutment type exhibited broader stress distribution than the S-hexagonal abutment. In the double engagement system, the stress concentration was high in the lower contact area of the implant-abutment engagement. In the tilted implant model, the stress concentration point was different from that in the parallel implant model because of the difference in the bone level. The double engagement system demonstrated a high stress concentration at the lower contact area of the implant-abutment interface. To decrease the stress concentration, the type of engagement features of the implant-abutment connection should be carefully considered.

  9. Application of hexagonal element scheme in finite element method to three-dimensional diffusion problem of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Misako; Higuchi, Kenji

    1983-01-01

    The finite element method is applied in Galerkin-type approximation to three-dimensional neutron diffusion equations of fast reactors. A hexagonal element scheme is adopted for treating the hexagonal lattice which is typical for fast reactors. The validity of the scheme is verified by applying the scheme as well as alternative schemes to the neutron diffusion calculation of a gas-cooled fast reactor of actual scale. The computed results are compared with corresponding values obtained using the currently applied triangular-element and also with conventional finite difference schemes. The hexagonal finite element scheme is found to yield a reasonable solution to the problem taken up here, with some merit in terms of saving in computing time, but the resulting multiplication factor differs by 1% and the flux by 9% compared with the triangular mesh finite difference scheme. The finite element method, even in triangular element scheme, would appear to incur error in inadmissible amount and which could not be easily eliminated by refining the nodes. (author)

  10. Virtual gap element approach for the treatment of non-matching interface using three-dimensional solid elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeo-Ul; Youn, Sung-Kie; Park, K. C.

    2017-10-01

    A method for three-dimensional non-matching interface treatment with a virtual gap element is developed. When partitioned structures contain curved interfaces and have different brick meshes, the discretized models have gaps along the interfaces. As these gaps bring unexpected errors, special treatments are required to handle the gaps. In the present work, a virtual gap element is introduced to link the frame and surface domain nodes in the frame work of the mortar method. Since the surface of the hexahedron element is quadrilateral, the gap element is pyramidal. The pyramidal gap element consists of four domain nodes and one frame node. Zero-strain condition in the gap element is utilized for the interpolation of frame nodes in terms of the domain nodes. This approach is taken to satisfy the momentum and energy conservation. The present method is applicable not only to curved interfaces with gaps, but also to flat interfaces in three dimensions. Several numerical examples are given to describe the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method.

  11. FREESURF: A three-dimensional finite-element model for simulating groundwater flow into and around an excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzman, Morley

    1992-07-15

    A three-dimensional finite-element code was developed and used to simulate the flow of groundwater towards an excavation in a saturated porous medium, allowing for seepage faces. An iterative procedure was used to predict the movement of the water table and the seepage flux. The numerical solution agreed well with experimental results from a sandbox experiment. (auth)

  12. Three-dimensional maps of all chromosomes in human male fibroblast nuclei and prometaphase rosettes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bolzer

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of higher-order chromatin arrangements are an essential part of ongoing attempts to explore changes in epigenome structure and their functional implications during development and cell differentiation. However, the extent and cell-type-specificity of three-dimensional (3D chromosome arrangements has remained controversial. In order to overcome technical limitations of previous studies, we have developed tools that allow the quantitative 3D positional mapping of all chromosomes simultaneously. We present unequivocal evidence for a probabilistic 3D order of prometaphase chromosomes, as well as of chromosome territories (CTs in nuclei of quiescent (G0 and cycling (early S-phase human diploid fibroblasts (46, XY. Radial distance measurements showed a probabilistic, highly nonrandom correlation with chromosome size: small chromosomes-independently of their gene density-were distributed significantly closer to the center of the nucleus or prometaphase rosette, while large chromosomes were located closer to the nuclear or rosette rim. This arrangement was independently confirmed in both human fibroblast and amniotic fluid cell nuclei. Notably, these cell types exhibit flat-ellipsoidal cell nuclei, in contrast to the spherical nuclei of lymphocytes and several other human cell types, for which we and others previously demonstrated gene-density-correlated radial 3D CT arrangements. Modeling of 3D CT arrangements suggests that cell-type-specific differences in radial CT arrangements are not solely due to geometrical constraints that result from nuclear shape differences. We also found gene-density-correlated arrangements of higher-order chromatin shared by all human cell types studied so far. Chromatin domains, which are gene-poor, form a layer beneath the nuclear envelope, while gene-dense chromatin is enriched in the nuclear interior. We discuss the possible functional implications of this finding.

  13. Mapping genetic variations to three-dimensional protein structures to enhance variant interpretation: a proposed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusman, Gustavo; Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Dougherty, Jennifer; Duarte, José M; Hoffman, Andrew S; Barton, Geoffrey J; Bendixen, Emøke; Bergquist, Timothy; Bock, Christian; Brunk, Elizabeth; Buljan, Marija; Burley, Stephen K; Cai, Binghuang; Carter, Hannah; Gao, JianJiong; Godzik, Adam; Heuer, Michael; Hicks, Michael; Hrabe, Thomas; Karchin, Rachel; Leman, Julia Koehler; Lane, Lydie; Masica, David L; Mooney, Sean D; Moult, John; Omenn, Gilbert S; Pearl, Frances; Pejaver, Vikas; Reynolds, Sheila M; Rokem, Ariel; Schwede, Torsten; Song, Sicheng; Tilgner, Hagen; Valasatava, Yana; Zhang, Yang; Deutsch, Eric W

    2017-12-18

    The translation of personal genomics to precision medicine depends on the accurate interpretation of the multitude of genetic variants observed for each individual. However, even when genetic variants are predicted to modify a protein, their functional implications may be unclear. Many diseases are caused by genetic variants affecting important protein features, such as enzyme active sites or interaction interfaces. The scientific community has catalogued millions of genetic variants in genomic databases and thousands of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank. Mapping mutations onto three-dimensional (3D) structures enables atomic-level analyses of protein positions that may be important for the stability or formation of interactions; these may explain the effect of mutations and in some cases even open a path for targeted drug development. To accelerate progress in the integration of these data types, we held a two-day Gene Variation to 3D (GVto3D) workshop to report on the latest advances and to discuss unmet needs. The overarching goal of the workshop was to address the question: what can be done together as a community to advance the integration of genetic variants and 3D protein structures that could not be done by a single investigator or laboratory? Here we describe the workshop outcomes, review the state of the field, and propose the development of a framework with which to promote progress in this arena. The framework will include a set of standard formats, common ontologies, a common application programming interface to enable interoperation of the resources, and a Tool Registry to make it easy to find and apply the tools to specific analysis problems. Interoperability will enable integration of diverse data sources and tools and collaborative development of variant effect prediction methods.

  14. Titanium versus zirconia implants supporting maxillary overdentures: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Reham B; Elkhadem, Amr H; Ma, Sunyoung; Swain, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the stress and strain occurring in peri-implant bone and implants used to support maxillary overdentures. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) was used to compare one-piece zirconia and titanium implants. Two types of implants were simulated using a 3D FEA model: one-piece zirconia and titanium implants (diameter, 3.8 × 11.5 mm) with 2.25-mm diameter ball abutments. In each simulation four implants were placed bilaterally in the canine/premolar region of an edentulous maxillary model. Static loads were applied axially and 20 degrees buccolingually on the buccal slope of the lingual cusps of posterior teeth of the first quadrant. Von Mises stresses and equivalent strains generated in peri-implant bone and first principal stresses in the implants were calculated. Comparable stress and strain values were shown in the peri-implant bone for both types of implants. The maximum equivalent strain produced in the peri-implant region was mostly within the range for bone augmentation. Under oblique loading, maximum von Mises stresses and equivalent strain were more evident at the neck of the most distal implant on the loaded side. Under axial load, the stress and strain were transferred to the peri-implant bone around the apex of the implant. Maximum tensile stresses that developed for either material were well below their fracture strength. The highest stresses were mainly located at the distobuccal region of the neck for the two implant materials under both loading conditions. From a biomechanical point of view, ceramic implants made from yttrium-stabilized tetragonal polycrystalline zirconia may be a potential alternative to conventional titanium implants for the support of overdentures. This is particularly relevant for a select group of patients with a proven allergy to titanium. Prospective clinical studies are still required to confirm these in vitro results. Different simulations presenting various cortical bone

  15. Mapping of strain mechanisms in barium titanate by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta

    This thesis presents an in-situ three-dimensional study of the grain-scale response of a prototypical piezoelectric ceramic, barium titanate (BT), to an exernally applied electric field. Piezoceramics take advantage of the coupling of electrical and mechanical energies for use in sensors and actu......This thesis presents an in-situ three-dimensional study of the grain-scale response of a prototypical piezoelectric ceramic, barium titanate (BT), to an exernally applied electric field. Piezoceramics take advantage of the coupling of electrical and mechanical energies for use in sensors...

  16. Three-dimensional display of femoral head cartilage thickness maps from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, R.A.; Dolecki, M.; Rubash, H.E.; Thaete, F.L.; Hernden, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of methods for three-dimensional display and analysis of the articular cartilage of the hip from MR images. Cadaveric femoral head specimens were images with three-dimensional GRASS MR imaging. Data were analyzed on a SUN workstation with original software, the ANALYZE package from Richard Robb's Biomedical Research Group at the Mayo Clinic, and SUN's Voxvu program. The articular cartilage was isolated by manually segmenting images. An original computer ray tracing method measured the cartilage thickness radially and produced movies of a rotating femoral head, displaying brightness proportional to cartilage thickness

  17. Three-dimensional thermal finite element modeling of lithium-ion battery in thermal abuse application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guifang; Long, Bo; Cheng, Bo; Zhou, Shiqiong; Xu, Peng; Cao, Binggang

    In order to better understand the thermal abuse behavior of high capacities and large power lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle application, a three-dimensional thermal model has been developed for analyzing the temperature distribution under abuse conditions. The model takes into account the effects of heat generation, internal conduction and convection, and external heat dissipation to predict the temperature distribution in a battery. Three-dimensional model also considers the geometrical features to simulate oven test, which are significant in larger cells for electric vehicle application. The model predictions are compared to oven test results for VLP 50/62/100S-Fe (3.2 V/55 Ah) LiFePO 4/graphite cells and shown to be in great agreement.

  18. Formulation of stiffness equation for a three-dimensional isoparametric element with elastic-plastic material and large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.Y.; Prachuktam, S.; Reich, M.

    1975-01-01

    The formulation of the stiffness equation for an 8 to 21 node isoparametric element with elastic-plastic material and large deformation is presented. The formulation has been implemented in a nonlinear finite element program for the analysis of three-dimensional continuums. To demonstrate the utility of the formulation, a thick-walled cylinder was analyzed and the results are compared favorably with a known solution. The element type presented can be applied not only to 3-D continuums, but also to plate or shell structures, for which degenerated isoparametric elements may be used

  19. Laser-Assisted Field Evaporation and Three-Dimensional Atom-by-Atom Mapping of Diamond Isotopic Homojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Samik; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2016-02-10

    It addition to its high evaporation field, diamond is also known for its limited photoabsorption, strong covalent bonding, and wide bandgap. These characteristics have been thought for long to also complicate the field evaporation of diamond and make its control hardly achievable on the atomistic-level. Herein, we demonstrate that the unique behavior of nanoscale diamond and its interaction with pulsed laser lead to a controlled field evaporation thus enabling three-dimensional atom-by-atom mapping of diamond (12)C/(13)C homojunctions. We also show that one key element in this process is to operate the pulsed laser at high energy without letting the dc bias increase out of bounds for diamond nanotip to withstand. Herein, the role of the dc bias in evaporation of diamond is essentially to generate free charge carriers within the nanotip via impact ionization. The mobile free charges screen the internal electric field, eventually creating a hole rich surface where the pulsed laser is effectively absorbed leading to an increase in the nanotip surface temperature. The effect of this temperature on the uncertainty in the time-of-flight of an ion, the diffusion of atoms on the surface of the nanotip, is also discussed. In addition to paving the way toward a precise manipulation of isotopes in diamond-based nanoscale and quantum structures, this result also elucidates some of the basic properties of dielectric nanostructures under high electric field.

  20. Solution of three-dimensional energy equation using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, V.; Singh, R.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work an attempt has been made to formulate an efficient 3-D finite element program for solving coupled momentum-energy equation with unsymmetric frontal solver and a suitable upwinding scheme. Based on the above solution technique of energy equation it can be concluded that upwinding scheme can lead to fairly accurate and smooth results even with coarse mesh. Otherwise the mesh size requirement will be extremely stringent for most of the practical problems. With upwinding the additional computer time required is marginally more. This effort has resulted in getting practical solution for large size real life problems in nuclear industry. The program was used for computation of temperature field in heavy water moderator of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) reactor, in new mode of operation. (author). 9 refs., 7 figs

  1. Three-dimensional atrial wall thickness maps to inform catheter ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Martin; Rajani, Ronak; Plank, Gernot; Gaddum, Nicholas; Carr-White, Gerry; Wright, Matt; O'Neill, Mark; Niederer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Transmural lesion formation is critical to success in atrial fibrillation ablation and is dependent on left atrial wall thickness (LAWT). Pre- and peri-procedural planning may benefit from LAWT measurements. To calculate the LAWT, the Laplace equation was solved over a finite element mesh of the left atrium derived from the segmented computed tomographic angiography (CTA) dataset. Local LAWT was then calculated from the length of field lines derived from the Laplace solution that spanned the wall from the endocardium or epicardium. The method was validated on an atrium phantom and retrospectively applied to 10 patients who underwent routine coronary CTA for standard clinical indications at our institute. The Laplace wall thickness algorithm was validated on the left atrium phantom. Wall thickness measurements had errors of atrial wall thickness measurements were performed on 10 patients. Successful comprehensive LAWT maps were generated in all patients from the coronary CTA images. Mean LAWT measurements ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 mm and showed significant inter and intra patient variability. Left atrial wall thickness can be measured robustly and efficiently across the whole left atrium using a solution of the Laplace equation over a finite element mesh of the left atrium. Further studies are indicated to determine whether the integration of LAWT maps into pre-existing 3D anatomical mapping systems may provide important anatomical information for guiding radiofrequency ablation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evaluation of the parameters affecting bone temperature during drilling using a three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Zhuang, Jun-Yan; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Hsiao, Chih-Kun

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model was constructed and experimentally validated and was used to investigate the parameters which influence bone temperature during drilling, including the drill speed, feeding force, drill bit diameter, and bone density. Results showed the proposed three-dimensional dynamic elastoplastic finite element model can effectively simulate the temperature elevation during bone drilling. The bone temperature rise decreased with an increase in feeding force and drill speed, however, increased with the diameter of drill bit or bone density. The temperature distribution is significantly affected by the drilling duration; a lower drilling speed reduced the exposure duration, decreases the region of the thermally affected zone. The constructed model could be applied for analyzing the influence parameters during bone drilling to reduce the risk of thermal necrosis. It may provide important information for the design of drill bits and surgical drilling powers.

  3. Three-dimensional finite elements for the analysis of soil contamination using a multiple-porosity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zein, Abbas; Carter, John P.; Airey, David W.

    2006-06-01

    A three-dimensional finite-element model of contaminant migration in fissured clays or contaminated sand which includes multiple sources of non-equilibrium processes is proposed. The conceptual framework can accommodate a regular network of fissures in 1D, 2D or 3D and immobile solutions in the macro-pores of aggregated topsoils, as well as non-equilibrium sorption. A Galerkin weighted-residual statement for the three-dimensional form of the equations in the Laplace domain is formulated. Equations are discretized using linear and quadratic prism elements. The system of algebraic equations is solved in the Laplace domain and solution is inverted to the time domain numerically. The model is validated and its scope is illustrated through the analysis of three problems: a waste repository deeply buried in fissured clay, a storage tank leaking into sand and a sanitary landfill leaching into fissured clay over a sand aquifer.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction and modeling of middle ear biomechanics by high-resolution computed tomography and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Peir-Rong; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2006-05-01

    To present a systematic and practical approach that uses high-resolution computed tomography to derive models of the middle ear for finite element analysis. This prospective study included 31 subjects with normal hearing and no previous otologic disorders. Temporal bone images obtained from 15 right ears and 16 left ears were used for evaluation and reconstruction. High-resolution computed tomography of temporal bone was performed using simultaneous acquisition of 16 sections with a collimated slice thickness of 0.625 mm. All images were transferred to an Amira visualization system for three-dimensional reconstruction. The created three-dimensional model was translated into two commercial modeling packages, Patran and ANSYS, for finite element analysis. The characteristic dimensions of the model were measured and compared with previously published histologic section data. This result confirms that the geometric model created by the proposed method is accurate except that the tympanic membrane is thicker than when measured by the histologic section method. No obvious difference in the geometrical dimension between right and left ossicles was found (P > .05). The three-dimensional model created by finite element method and predicted umbo and stapes displacements are close to the bounds of the experimental curves of Nishihara's, Huber's, Gan's, and Sun's data across the frequency range of 100 to 8000 Hz. The model includes a description of the geometry of the middle ear components and dynamic equations of vibration. The proposed method is quick, practical, low-cost, and, most importantly, noninvasive as compared with histologic section methods.

  5. Three dimensional mapping of strontium in bone by dual energy K-edge subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D M L; Chapman, L D; Carter, Y; Zhouping, W; Wu, Y; Panahifar, A; Duke, M J M; Doschak, M; Britz, H M; Bewer, B

    2012-01-01

    The bones of many terrestrial vertebrates, including humans, are continually altered through an internal process of turnover known as remodeling. This process plays a central role in bone adaptation and disease. The uptake of fluorescent tetracyclines within bone mineral is widely exploited as a means of tracking new tissue formation. While investigation of bone microarchitecture has undergone a dimensional shift from 2D to 3D in recent years, we lack a 3D equivalent to fluorescent labeling. In the current study we demonstrate the ability of synchrotron radiation dual energy K-edge subtraction (KES) imaging to map the 3D distribution of elemental strontium within rat vertebral samples. This approach has great potential for ex vivo analysis of preclinical models and human tissue samples. KES also represents a powerful tool for investigating the pharmokinetics of strontium-based drugs recently approved in many countries around the globe for the treatment of osteoporosis. (paper)

  6. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultheis, M. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de Côte d' Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zasowski, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allende Prieto, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Anders, F.; Chiappini, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Beers, T. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bizyaev, D. [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Frinchaboy, P. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, TCU Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Ge, J. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holtzman, J. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Muna, D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nidever, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shetrone, M., E-mail: mathias.schultheis@oca.eu, E-mail: gail.zasowski@gmail.com [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  7. Extinction maps toward the Milky Way bulge: Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests with apogee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultheis, M.; Zasowski, G.; Allende Prieto, C.; Anders, F.; Chiappini, C.; Beaton, R. L.; García Pérez, A. E.; Majewski, S. R.; Beers, T. C.; Bizyaev, D.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Ge, J.; Hearty, F.; Schneider, D. P.; Holtzman, J.; Muna, D.; Nidever, D.; Shetrone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Galactic interstellar extinction maps are powerful and necessary tools for Milky Way structure and stellar population analyses, particularly toward the heavily reddened bulge and in the midplane. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable extinction measures and distances for a large number of stars that are independent of these maps, tests of their accuracy and systematics have been limited. Our goal is to assess a variety of photometric stellar extinction estimates, including both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps, using independent extinction measures based on a large spectroscopic sample of stars toward the Milky Way bulge. We employ stellar atmospheric parameters derived from high-resolution H-band Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectra, combined with theoretical stellar isochrones, to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances for a sample of more than 2400 giants toward the Milky Way bulge. We compare these extinction values to those predicted by individual near-IR and near+mid-IR stellar colors, two-dimensional bulge extinction maps, and three-dimensional extinction maps. The long baseline, near+mid-IR stellar colors are, on average, the most accurate predictors of the APOGEE extinction estimates, and the two-dimensional and three-dimensional extinction maps derived from different stellar populations along different sightlines show varying degrees of reliability. We present the results of all of the comparisons and discuss reasons for the observed discrepancies. We also demonstrate how the particular stellar atmospheric models adopted can have a strong impact on this type of analysis, and discuss related caveats.

  8. Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Neutron Diffraction in Transmission Mode for Mapping Crystal Grain Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cereser, Alberto; Strobl, Markus; Hall, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    constituting the material. This article presents a new non-destructive 3D technique to study centimeter-sized bulk samples with a spatial resolution of hundred micrometers: time-of-flight three-dimensional neutron diffraction (ToF 3DND). Compared to existing analogous X-ray diffraction techniques, ToF 3DND......-of-flight neutron beamline. The technique was developed and tested with data collected at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) for an iron sample. We successfully reconstructed the shape of 108 grains and developed an indexing procedure...

  9. Dynamics and bifurcations of a three-dimensional piecewise-linear integrable map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuwankotta, J M; Quispel, G R W; Tamizhmani, K M

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a four-parameter family of piecewise-linear ordinary difference equations (OΔEs) in R 3 . This system is obtained as a limit of another family of three-dimensional integrable systems of OΔEs. We prove that the limiting procedure sends integrals of the original system to integrals of the limiting system. We derive some results for the solutions such as boundedness of solutions and the existence of periodic solutions. We describe all topologically different shapes of the integral manifolds and present all possible scenarios of transitions as we vary the natural parameters in the system, i.e. the values of the integrals

  10. Structural characterization of self-assembled semiconductor islands by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction mapping in reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V.; Mundboth, K.; Mokuta, C.; Metzger, T.H.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Boeck, T.; Schmidbauer, M.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time self-organized epitaxially grown semiconductor islands were investigated by a full three-dimensional mapping of the scattered X-ray intensity in reciprocal space. Intensity distributions were measured in a coplanar diffraction geometry around symmetric and asymmetric Bragg reflections. The 3D intensity maps were compared with theoretical simulations based on continuum-elasticity simulations of internal strains in the islands and on kinematical scattering theory whereby local chemical composition and strain profiles of the islands were retrieved

  11. Examination and Improvement of Accuracy of Three-Dimensional Elastic Crack Solutions Obtained Using Finite Element Alternating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jai Hak; Nikishkov, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    An SGBEM (symmetric Galerkin boundary element method)-FEM alternating method has been proposed by Nikishkov, Park and Atluri. This method can be used to obtain mixed-mode stress intensity factors for planar and nonplanar three-dimensional cracks having an arbitrary shape. For field applications, however, it is necessary to verify the accuracy and consistency of this method. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the effects of several factors on the accuracy of the stress intensity factors obtained using the above mentioned alternating method. The obtained stress intensity factors are compared with the known values provided in handbooks, especially in the case of internal and external circumferential semi-elliptical surface cracks. The results show that the SGBEM-FEM alternating method yields accurate stress intensity factors for three-dimensional cracks, including internal and external circumferential surface cracks and that the method can be used as a robust crack analysis tool for solving field problems

  12. Matrix-type multiple reciprocity boundary element method for solving three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Sahashi, Naoki.

    1997-01-01

    The multiple reciprocity boundary element method has been applied to three-dimensional two-group neutron diffusion problems. A matrix-type boundary integral equation has been derived to solve the first and the second group neutron diffusion equations simultaneously. The matrix-type fundamental solutions used here satisfy the equation which has a point source term and is adjoint to the neutron diffusion equations. A multiple reciprocity method has been employed to transform the matrix-type domain integral related to the fission source into an equivalent boundary one. The higher order fundamental solutions required for this formulation are composed of a series of two types of analytic functions. The eigenvalue itself is also calculated using only boundary integrals. Three-dimensional test calculations indicate that the present method provides stable and accurate solutions for criticality problems. (author)

  13. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

  14. Studies on the numerical solution of three-dimensional stationary diffusion equations using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, H.P.

    1976-05-01

    The finite element method is applied to the solution of the stationary 3D group diffusion equations. For this, a programme system with the name of FEM3D is established which also includes a module for semi-automatic mesh generation. Tetrahedral finite elements are used. The neutron fluxes are described by complete first- or second-order Lagrangian polynomials. General homogeneous boundary conditions are allowed. The studies show that realistic three-dimensional problems can be solved at less expense by iterative methods, in particular so when especially adapted matrix handling and storage schemes are used efficiently. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Air Flow at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.; Baldi, Sandro

    2009-11-01

    In this experimental work both qualitative (flow visualisation) and quantitative (laser Doppler anemometry) methods were applied in a wind tunnel in order to describe the complex three-dimensional flow field in a real environment (a street canyon intersection). The main aim was an examination of the mean flow, turbulence and flow pathlines characterising a complex three-dimensional urban location. The experiments highlighted the complexity of the observed flows, particularly in the upwind region of the intersection. In this complex and realistic situation some details of the upwind flow, such as the presence of two tall towers, play an important role in defining the flow field within the intersection, particularly at roof level. This effect is likely to have a strong influence on the mass exchange mechanism between the canopy flow and the air aloft, and therefore the distribution of pollutants. This strong interaction between the flows inside and outside the urban canopy is currently neglected in most state-of-the-art local scale dispersion models.

  16. Three-Dimensional Color Code Thresholds via Statistical-Mechanical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubica, Aleksander; Beverland, Michael E.; Brandão, Fernando; Preskill, John; Svore, Krysta M.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) color codes have advantages for fault-tolerant quantum computing, such as protected quantum gates with relatively low overhead and robustness against imperfect measurement of error syndromes. Here we investigate the storage threshold error rates for bit-flip and phase-flip noise in the 3D color code (3DCC) on the body-centered cubic lattice, assuming perfect syndrome measurements. In particular, by exploiting a connection between error correction and statistical mechanics, we estimate the threshold for 1D stringlike and 2D sheetlike logical operators to be p3DCC (1 )≃1.9 % and p3DCC (2 )≃27.6 % . We obtain these results by using parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations to study the disorder-temperature phase diagrams of two new 3D statistical-mechanical models: the four- and six-body random coupling Ising models.

  17. Three-dimensional distributions of elements in biological samples by energy-filtered electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leapman, R.D.; Kocsis, E.; Zhang, G.; Talbot, T.L.; Laquerriere, P

    2004-07-15

    By combining electron tomography with energy-filtered electron microscopy, we have shown the feasibility of determining the three-dimensional distributions of phosphorus in biological specimens. Thin sections of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans were prepared by high-pressure freezing, freeze-substitution and plastic embedding. Images were recorded at energy losses above and below the phosphorus L{sub 2,3} edge using a post-column imaging filter operating at a beam energy of 120 keV. The unstained specimens exhibited minimal contrast in bright-field images. After it was determined that the specimen was sufficiently thin to allow two-window ratio imaging of phosphorus, pairs of pre-edge and post-edge images were acquired in series over a tilt range of {+-}55 deg. at 5 deg. increments for two orthogonal tilt axes. The projected phosphorus distributions were aligned using the pre-edge images that contained inelastic contrast from colloidal gold particles deposited on the specimen surface. A reconstruction and surface rendering of the phosphorus distribution clearly revealed features 15-20 nm in diameter, which were identified as ribosomes distributed along the stacked membranes of endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm. The sensitivity of the technique was estimated at <35 phosphorus atoms per voxel based on the known total ribosomal phosphorus content of approximately 7000 atoms. Although a high electron dose of approximately 10{sup 7} e/nm{sup 2} was required to record two-axis tilt series, specimens were sufficiently stable to allow image alignment and tomographic reconstruction.

  18. Adaptive contact elements for three-dimensional fluid-structure interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element method is developed for treating the mechanics of contact between two deformable bodies which occurs, for example, at fluid-structure interfaces. The method uses a family of adaptive contact elements, which are based upon the penalty method, to handle all of the possible contact configurations that can occur between the discretized contacting bodies. The contact element's nodal connectivity is allowed to change during the computations in order to accommodate finite sliding. The infusion of these elements in the interface results in satisfying the force equilibrium condition during contact. The methodology has been implemented into the NEPTUNE code. Results are presented for an illustrative problem

  19. Adaptive contact elements for three-dimensional fluid-structure interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element method is developed for treating the mechanics of contact between two deformable bodies which occurs, for example, at fluid-structure interfaces. The method uses a family of adaptive contact elements, which are based upon the penalty method, to handle all of the possible contact configurations that can occur between the discretized contacting bodies. The contact element's nodal connectivity is allowed to change during the computations in order to accommodate finite sliding. The infusion of these elements in the interface results in satisfying the force equilibrium condition during contact. The methodology has been implemented into the NEPTUNE code. Results are presented for an illustrative problem.

  20. A new method for mapping the three-dimensional atomic distribution within nanoparticles by atom probe tomography (APT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Ho; Kang, Phil Woong; Park, O Ok; Seol, Jae-Bok; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Pyuck-Pa

    2018-07-01

    We present a new method of preparing needle-shaped specimens for atom probe tomography from freestanding Pd and C-supported Pt nanoparticles. The method consists of two steps, namely electrophoresis of nanoparticles on a flat Cu substrate followed by electrodeposition of a Ni film acting as an embedding matrix for the nanoparticles. Atom probe specimen preparation can be subsequently carried out by means of focused-ion-beam milling. Using this approach, we have been able to perform correlative atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy analyses on both nanoparticle systems. Reliable mass spectra and three-dimensional atom maps could be obtained for Pd nanoparticle specimens. In contrast, atom probe samples prepared from C-supported Pt nanoparticles showed uneven field evaporation and hence artifacts in the reconstructed atom maps. Our developed method is a viable means of mapping the three-dimensional atomic distribution within nanoparticles and is expected to contribute to an improved understanding of the structure-composition-property relationships of various nanoparticle systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of dodecane in three-dimensional porous graphene sponge by Raman mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xitao; Zafar, Amina; Shi, Zhixiang; Ni, Zhenhua; Bi, Hengchang; Sun, Litao; Liang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon nano-materials, e.g. a graphene sponge (GS) are promising candidates for the removal of pollutants and the separation of oil and water. A systematic study on how oils or organic solvents disperse in the porous structures of 3D carbon nano-materials, and the factors affecting their sorption process, would be beneficial for designing a superior sorbent with desirable porous structures. Here, confocal Raman spectroscopic imaging was utilized to explore the absorption and desorption processes of dodecane (a constituent in petroleum products) in 3D porous GS with different pore size. It was found that dodecane predominately locates within the interior pores composed of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets, which provide storage spaces for the absorbed molecules. The larger pore GS has a higher absorption capacity and faster desorption rate compared to the smaller one, which is due to the higher pore volume and weaker interaction with the absorbed molecules. A possible mechanism was also proposed to explain the role of porous macrostructures on the absorption and desorption properties of GSs. (paper)

  2. Three-dimensional atomic mapping of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanghua, E-mail: wanghua.chen@polytechnique.edu; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pareige, Philippe [GPM, CNRS, Université et INSA de Rouen, Normandie Université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2016-06-20

    Hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) is a nanostructured material consisting of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. Its use as the intrinsic layer in thin film p-i-n solar cells has led to good cell properties in terms of stability and efficiency. Here, we have been able to assess directly the concentration and distribution of nanocrystals and impurities (dopants) in p-i-n solar cells, by using femtosecond laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). An effective sample preparation method for APT characterization is developed. Based on the difference in atomic density between hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon, we are able to distinguish the nanocrystals from the amorphous matrix by using APT. Moreover, thanks to the three-dimensional reconstruction, we demonstrate that Si nanocrystals are homogeneously distributed in the entire intrinsic layer of the solar cell. The influence of the process pressure on the incorporation of nanocrystals and their distribution is also investigated. Thanks to APT we could determine crystalline fractions as low as 4.2% in the pm-Si:H films, which is very difficult to determine by standard techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Moreover, we also demonstrate a sharp p/i interface in our solar cells.

  3. Flow Interactions of Two- and Three-Dimensional Networked Bio-Inspired Control Elements in an In-Line Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2018-04-19

    -dimensions. These results can aid in the design of networked bio-inspired control elements that through integrated sensing can synchronize to three-dimensional flow interactions. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Gravimetric and dilatometric research of elements action on three dimensional filter by themal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Shayakhmetov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work there are presented the results of studying the filtering elements weight changes when heated. For all the variants of filtering elements at the primary stages of heating there is characteristic increasing their linear dimensions due to their thermal expansion. It was established that using hydrolyzed ethyl silicate as a binder, as well as water solution of liquid glass with addition of aluminum powder in the refractory material permits to obtain filtering elements without high-temperature solid-phase sintering.

  5. Characteristics of sandwich-type structural elements built of advanced composite materials from three dimensional fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón, L.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-type structures have proved to be alternatives of great success for several fields of application, and specially in the building sector. This is due to their outstanding properties of .specific rigidity and strength against bending loads and other range of advantages like fatigue and impact resistance, attainment of flat and smooth surfaces, high electric and thermal insulation, design versatility and some others. However, traditional sandwich structures present problems like their tendency towards delamination, stress concentrations in bores or screwed Joints, and pre resistance. These problems are alleviated thanks to the use of new sandwich structures built using three dimensional structures of advanced composite materials, maintaining the present advantages for more traditional sandwich structures. At this rate, these new structures can be applied in several areas where conventional sandwich structures used to be like walls, partitions, floor and ceiling structures, domes, vaults and dwellings, but with greater success.

    Las estructuras tipo sándwich han demostrado ser alternativas de gran éxito para diversos campos de aplicación y, en concreto, en el sector de la construcción, listo es gracias a sus excelentes propiedades de rigidez y resistencia específica frente a cargas de flexión y otra larga lista de ventajas, a la que pertenecen, por ejemplo, su buena resistencia a fatiga, resistencia al impacto, obtención de superficies lisas y suaves, elevado aislamiento térmico y eléctrico, versatilidad de diseño y otras. Sin embargo, las estructuras sándwich, tradicionales presentan una problemática consistente en su tendencia a la delaminación, concentraciones de tensiones ¿aparecidas ante la existencia de agujeros o uniones atornilladas y resistencia al fuego. Estos problemas son pifiados gracias a la aplicación de estructuras novedosas tipo sándwich, construidas a partir de tejidos tridimensionales de materiales

  6. Finite element formulation for fluid-structure interaction in three-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    A development is presented for a three-dimension hexahedral hydrodynamic finite-element. Using trilinear shape functions and assuming a constant pressure field in each element, simple relations were obtained for internal nodal forces. Because the formulation was based upon a rate approach it was applicable to problems involving large displacements. This element was incorporated into an existing plate-shell finite element code. Diagonal mass matrices were used and the resulting discrete equations of motion were solved using explicit temporal integrator. Results for several problems were presented which compare numerical predictions to closed form analytical solutions. In addition, the fluid-structure interaction problem of a fluid-filled, cylindrical vessel containing internal cylinders was studied. The internal cylinders were cantilever supported from the top cover of the vessel and were periodically located circumferentially at a fixed radius. A pressurized cylindrical cavity located at the bottom of the vessel at its centerline provided the loading

  7. Development of the hierarchical domain decomposition boundary element method for solving the three-dimensional multiregion neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Gou; Tsuji, Masashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2001-01-01

    A hierarchical domain decomposition boundary element method (HDD-BEM) that was developed to solve a two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation has been modified to deal with three-dimensional problems. In the HDD-BEM, the domain is decomposed into homogeneous regions. The boundary conditions on the common inner boundaries between decomposed regions and the neutron multiplication factor are initially assumed. With these assumptions, the neutron diffusion equations defined in decomposed homogeneous regions can be solved respectively by applying the boundary element method. This part corresponds to the 'lower level' calculations. At the 'higher level' calculations, the assumed values, the inner boundary conditions and the neutron multiplication factor, are modified so as to satisfy the continuity conditions for the neutron flux and the neutron currents on the inner boundaries. These procedures of the lower and higher levels are executed alternately and iteratively until the continuity conditions are satisfied within a convergence tolerance. With the hierarchical domain decomposition, it is possible to deal with problems composing a large number of regions, something that has been difficult with the conventional BEM. In this paper, it is showed that a three-dimensional problem even with 722 regions can be solved with a fine accuracy and an acceptable computation time. (author)

  8. Finite-element three-dimensional ground-water (FE3DGW) flow model - formulation, program listings and users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This document consists of the description of the FE3DGW (Finite Element, Three-Dimensional Groundwater) Hydrologic model third level (high complexity) three-dimensional, finite element approach (Galerkin formulation) for saturated groundwater flow

  9. Finite element analysis of stresses in fixed prosthesis and cement layer using a three-dimensional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To understand the effect of masticatory and parafunctional forces on the integrity of the prosthesis and the underlying cement layer. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress pattern in the cement layer and the fixed prosthesis, on subjecting a three-dimensional finite element model to simulated occlusal loading. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element model was simulated to replace missing mandibular first molar with second premolar and second molar as abutments. The model was subjected to a range of occlusal loads (20, 30, 40 MPa in two different directions - vertical and 30° to the vertical. The cements (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and composite were modeled with two cement thicknesses - 25 and 100 μm. Stresses were determined in certain reference points in fixed prosthesis and the cement layer. Statistical Analysis Used: The stress values are mathematic calculations without variance; hence, statistical analysis is not routinely required. Results: Stress levels were calculated according to Von Mises criteria for each node. Maximum stresses were recorded at the occlusal surface, axio-gingival corners, followed by axial wall. The stresses were greater with lateral load and with 100-μm cement thickness. Results revealed higher stresses for zinc phosphate cement, followed by composites. Conclusions: The thinner cement interfaces favor the success of the prosthesis. The stresses in the prosthesis suggest rounding of axio-gingival corners and a well-established finish line as important factors in maintaining the integrity of the prosthesis.

  10. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2013-11-13

    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  11. Three-dimensional micro-scale strain mapping in living biological soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo, Eng Kuan; Sibole, Scott C; Han, Sang Kuy; Herzog, Walter

    2018-04-01

    Non-invasive characterization of the mechanical micro-environment surrounding cells in biological tissues at multiple length scales is important for the understanding of the role of mechanics in regulating the biosynthesis and phenotype of cells. However, there is a lack of imaging methods that allow for characterization of the cell micro-environment in three-dimensional (3D) space. The aims of this study were (i) to develop a multi-photon laser microscopy protocol capable of imprinting 3D grid lines onto living tissue at a high spatial resolution, and (ii) to develop image processing software capable of analyzing the resulting microscopic images and performing high resolution 3D strain analyses. Using articular cartilage as the biological tissue of interest, we present a novel two-photon excitation imaging technique for measuring the internal 3D kinematics in intact cartilage at sub-micrometer resolution, spanning length scales from the tissue to the cell level. Using custom image processing software, we provide accurate and robust 3D micro-strain analysis that allows for detailed qualitative and quantitative assessment of the 3D tissue kinematics. This novel technique preserves tissue structural integrity post-scanning, therefore allowing for multiple strain measurements at different time points in the same specimen. The proposed technique is versatile and opens doors for experimental and theoretical investigations on the relationship between tissue deformation and cell biosynthesis. Studies of this nature may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cell mechano-transduction, and thus, adaptation and degeneration of soft connective tissues. We presented a novel two-photon excitation imaging technique for measuring the internal 3D kinematics in intact cartilage at sub-micrometer resolution, spanning from tissue length scale to cellular length scale. Using a custom image processing software (lsmgridtrack), we provide accurate and robust micro

  12. A three-dimensional spectral element model for the solution of the hydrostatic primitive equations

    CERN Document Server

    Iskandarani, M; Levin, J C

    2003-01-01

    We present a spectral element model to solve the hydrostatic primitive equations governing large-scale geophysical flows. The highlights of this new model include unstructured grids, dual h-p paths to convergence, and good scalability characteristics on present day parallel computers including Beowulf-class systems. The behavior of the model is assessed on three process-oriented test problems involving wave propagation, gravitational adjustment, and nonlinear flow rectification, respectively. The first of these test problems is a study of the convergence properties of the model when simulating the linear propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves. The second is an intercomparison of spectral element and finite-difference model solutions to the adjustment of a density front in a straight channel. Finally, the third problem considers the comparison of model results to measurements obtained from a laboratory simulation of flow around a submarine canyon. The aforementioned tests demonstrate the good performance of th...

  13. Three-dimensionality of space in the structure of the periodic table of chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veremeichik, T. F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dimension of the 3D homogeneous and isotropic Euclidean space, and the electron spin on the self-organization of the electron systems of atoms of chemical elements is considered. It is shown that the finite dimension of space creates the possibility of periodicity in the structure of an electron cloud, while the value of the dimension determines the number of stable systems of electrons at different levels of the periodic table of chemical elements and some characteristics of the systems. The conditions for the stability of systems of electrons and the electron system of an atom as a whole are considered. On the basis of the results obtained, comparison with other hierarchical systems (nanostructures and biological structures) is performed

  14. Three-dimensional Finite Element Modelling of Composite Slabs for High Speed Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlilo, Nhlanganiso; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-12-01

    Currently precast steel-concrete composite slabs are being considered on railway bridges as a viable alternative replacement for timber sleepers. However, due to their nature and the loading conditions, their behaviour is often complex. Present knowledge of the behaviour of precast steel-concrete composite slabs subjected to rail loading is limited. FEA is an important tool used to simulate real life behaviour and is widely accepted in many disciples of engineering as an alternative to experimental test methods, which are often costly and time consuming. This paper seeks to detail FEM of precast steel-concrete slabs subjected to standard in-service loading in high-speed rail with focus on the importance of accurately defining material properties, element type, mesh size, contacts, interactions and boundary conditions that will give results representative of real life behaviour. Initial finite element model show very good results, confirming the accuracy of the modelling procedure

  15. Three-dimensional Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose in 22 nm bulk nFinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikyriakou, Eleni, E-mail: ec3g12@soton.ac.uk; Potter, Kenneth; Redman-White, William; De Groot, C.H.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of Total Ionizing Dose using the Finite Elements Method. • Carrier generation, transport and trapping in the oxide. • Application in three-dimensional bulk FinFET model of 22 nm node. • Examination of trapped charge in the Shallow Trench Isolation. • Trapped charge dependency of parasitic transistor current. - Abstract: Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose effects on 22 nm bulk Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) devices using the commercial software Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD is presented. The simulation parameters are extracted by calibrating the charge trapping model to experimental results on 400 nm SiO{sub 2} capacitors irradiated under zero bias. The FinFET device characteristics are calibrated to the Intel 22 nm bulk technology. Irradiation simulations of the transistor performed with all terminals unbiased reveal increased hardness up to a total dose of 1 MRad(SiO{sub 2}).

  16. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of implant-assisted removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ju-Won; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2017-06-01

    Whether the implant abutment in implant-assisted removable partial dentures (IARPDs) functions as a natural removable partial denture (RPD) tooth abutment is unknown. The purpose of this 3-dimensional finite element study was to analyze the biomechanical behavior of implant crown, bone, RPD, and IARPD. Finite element models of the partial maxilla, teeth, and prostheses were generated on the basis of a patient's computed tomographic data. The teeth, surveyed crowns, and RPDs were created in the model. With the generated components, four 3-dimensional finite element models of the partial maxilla were constructed: tooth-supported RPD (TB), implant-supported RPD (IB), tooth-tissue-supported RPD (TT), and implant-tissue-supported RPD (IT) models. Oblique loading of 300 N was applied on the crowns and denture teeth. The von Mises stress and displacement of the denture abutment tooth and implant system were identified. The highest von Mises stress values of both IARPDs occurred on the implants, while those of both natural tooth RPDs occurred on the frameworks of the RPDs. The highest von Mises stress of model IT was about twice that of model IB, while the value of model TT was similar to that of model TB. The maximum displacement was greater in models TB and TT than in models IB and IT. Among the 4 models, the highest maximum displacement value was observed in the model TT and the lowest value was in the model IB. Finite element analysis revealed that the stress distribution pattern of the IARPDs was different from that of the natural tooth RPDs and the stress distribution of implant-supported RPD was different from that of implant-tissue-supported RPD. When implants are used for RPD abutments, more consideration concerning the RPD design and the number or location of the implant is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional parallel edge-based finite element modeling of electromagnetic data with field redatuming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Čuma, Martin; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom signific......This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom...... significantly. The linear system of finite element equations is solved using parallel direct solvers which are robust for ill-conditioned systems and efficient for multiple source electromagnetic (EM) modeling. We also introduce a novel approach to compute the scalar components of the electric field from...... the tangential components along each edge based on field redatuming. The method can produce a more accurate result as compared to conventional approach. We have applied the developed algorithm to compute the EM response for a typical 3D anisotropic geoelectrical model of the off-shore HC reservoir with complex...

  18. Parallelized Three-Dimensional Resistivity Inversion Using Finite Elements And Adjoint State Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaa, Ralf; Gross, Lutz; Du Plessis, Jaco

    2015-04-01

    The resistivity method is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods, which employs one pair of electrodes to inject current into the ground and one or more pairs of electrodes to measure the electrical potential difference. The potential difference is a non-linear function of the subsurface resistivity distribution described by an elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) of the Poisson type. Inversion of measured potentials solves for the subsurface resistivity represented by PDE coefficients. With increasing advances in multichannel resistivity acquisition systems (systems with more than 60 channels and full waveform recording are now emerging), inversion software require efficient storage and solver algorithms. We developed the finite element solver Escript, which provides a user-friendly programming environment in Python to solve large-scale PDE-based problems (see https://launchpad.net/escript-finley). Using finite elements, highly irregular shaped geology and topography can readily be taken into account. For the 3D resistivity problem, we have implemented the secondary potential approach, where the PDE is decomposed into a primary potential caused by the source current and the secondary potential caused by changes in subsurface resistivity. The primary potential is calculated analytically, and the boundary value problem for the secondary potential is solved using nodal finite elements. This approach removes the singularity caused by the source currents and provides more accurate 3D resistivity models. To solve the inversion problem we apply a 'first optimize then discretize' approach using the quasi-Newton scheme in form of the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) method (see Gross & Kemp 2013). The evaluation of the cost function requires the solution of the secondary potential PDE for each source current and the solution of the corresponding adjoint-state PDE for the cost function gradients with respect to the subsurface

  19. Transcatheter radiofrequency ablation under the guidance of three-dimensional mapping for the treatment of complex cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Lang; Wang Hong; Lai Hengli; Ying Qiulin; Chen Zhangqiang; Lu Linxiang; Qiu Yun; Xiao Chengwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter radiofrequency ablation guided by a three-dimensional mapping system (Ensite or Carto) for the treatment of complex cardiac arrhythmias. Methods: A cohort of 123 consecutive hospitalized inpatients during the period from February 2006 to December 2008 were selected for this study. These patients suffered from various arrhythmias, including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (n = 58), persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation (n = 10), atrial flutter (n = 13), atrial tachycardia (n = 12) and ventricular tachycardia or frequent ventricular premature beats (n = 30). Transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias was performed under the guidance of an EnSite3000 / NavX or Array mapping system in 80 cases, and under the guidance of a CARTO mapping system in the remaining 43 cases. Results: Successful ablation of arrhythmias was obtained by single operation in 106 cases (86.18%), including 59 cases with atrial fibrillation, 11 cases with atrial flutter, 10 cases with atrial tachycardia, and 26 cases with ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular beat.Ablation procedure was carried out and was successful in 10 cases with a successful rate of 94.31%, including 5 cases with atrial fibrillation, 1 case with recurred atrial flutter, 1 case with recurrent atrial tachycardia, and 3 cases with ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular beat.After operation, complications occurred in 6 cases, including cardiac tamponade in 4 cases, distal embolism of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 1 case, and pulmonary embolism in 1 case. Conclusion: Three-dimensional mapping system can clearly and stereoscopically display the cardiac structures. Therefore, this technique is of great value in guiding the transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for complex arrhythmias, in improving the success rate of ablation and in increasing the safety of the procedure. (authors)

  20. DART: a robust algorithm for fast reconstruction of three-dimensional grain maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batenburg, K.J.; Sijbers, J.; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    and moderate noise levels, DART is shown to generate essentially perfect two-dimensional grain maps for as few as three projections per grain with running times on a PC in the range of less than a second. This is seen as opening up the possibility for fast reconstructions in connection with in situ studies....

  1. Finite elements for the calculation of turbulent flows in three-dimensional complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, A.

    A finite element program for the calculation of incompressible turbulent flows is presented. In order to reduce the required storage an iterative algorithm is used which solves the necessary equations sequentially. The state of turbulence is defined by the k-epsilon model. In addition to the standard k-epsilon model, the modification of Bardina et al., taking into account the rotation of the mean flow, is investigated. With this program, the flow in the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine is examined. Calculations are carried out for swirling and nonswirling entrance flow. The results are compared with measurements.

  2. ImageParser: a tool for finite element generation from three-dimensional medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada T

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite element method (FEM is a powerful mathematical tool to simulate and visualize the mechanical deformation of tissues and organs during medical examinations or interventions. It is yet a challenge to build up an FEM mesh directly from a volumetric image partially because the regions (or structures of interest (ROIs may be irregular and fuzzy. Methods A software package, ImageParser, is developed to generate an FEM mesh from 3-D tomographic medical images. This software uses a semi-automatic method to detect ROIs from the context of image including neighboring tissues and organs, completes segmentation of different tissues, and meshes the organ into elements. Results The ImageParser is shown to build up an FEM model for simulating the mechanical responses of the breast based on 3-D CT images. The breast is compressed by two plate paddles under an overall displacement as large as 20% of the initial distance between the paddles. The strain and tangential Young's modulus distributions are specified for the biomechanical analysis of breast tissues. Conclusion The ImageParser can successfully exact the geometry of ROIs from a complex medical image and generate the FEM mesh with customer-defined segmentation information.

  3. Seismic response of three-dimensional topographies using a time-domain boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janod, François; Coutant, Olivier

    2000-08-01

    We present a time-domain implementation for a boundary element method (BEM) to compute the diffraction of seismic waves by 3-D topographies overlying a homogeneous half-space. This implementation is chosen to overcome the memory limitations arising when solving the boundary conditions with a frequency-domain approach. This formulation is flexible because it allows one to make an adaptive use of the Green's function time translation properties: the boundary conditions solving scheme can be chosen as a trade-off between memory and cpu requirements. We explore here an explicit method of solution that requires little memory but a high cpu cost in order to run on a workstation computer. We obtain good results with four points per minimum wavelength discretization for various topographies and plane wave excitations. This implementation can be used for two different aims: the time-domain approach allows an easier implementation of the BEM in hybrid methods (e.g. coupling with finite differences), and it also allows one to run simple BEM models with reasonable computer requirements. In order to keep reasonable computation times, we do not introduce any interface and we only consider homogeneous models. Results are shown for different configurations: an explosion near a flat free surface, a plane wave vertically incident on a Gaussian hill and on a hemispherical cavity, and an explosion point below the surface of a Gaussian hill. Comparison is made with other numerical methods, such as finite difference methods (FDMs) and spectral elements.

  4. A Three-Dimensional Foil Bearing Performance Map Applied to Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    stress brought on by excessive viscous power loss; therefore a map that graphically relates component and system-level parameters (bearing size, applied...Introduction Foil bearings are self-acting, hydrodynamic gas bearings that use air as their working fluid . Their use in rotating systems eliminates the...weight, maintenance requirements, speed, and temperature limitations associated with conventional oil-lubricated rotor supports (i.e., bearings, dampers

  5. Isotropic three-dimensional T2 mapping of knee cartilage: Development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotti, Roberto; Omoumi, Patrick; Bonanno, Gabriele; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; van Heeswijk, Ruud B

    2018-02-01

    1) To implement a higher-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping technique that uses sequential T 2 -prepared segmented gradient-recalled echo (Iso3DGRE) images for knee cartilage evaluation, and 2) to validate it both in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Iso3DGRE sequence with an isotropic 0.6 mm spatial resolution was developed on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the pulse sequence parameters. A phantom study was performed to validate the T 2 estimation accuracy. The repeatability of the sequence was assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 7). T 2 values were compared with those from a clinical standard 2D multislice multiecho (MSME) T 2 mapping sequence in knees of healthy volunteers (n = 13) and in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA, n = 5). The numerical simulations resulted in 100 excitations per segment and an optimal radiofrequency (RF) excitation angle of 15°. The phantom study demonstrated a good correlation of the technique with the reference standard (slope 0.9 ± 0.05, intercept 0.2 ± 1.7 msec, R 2 ≥ 0.99). Repeated measurements of cartilage T 2 values in healthy volunteers showed a coefficient of variation of 5.6%. Both Iso3DGRE and MSME techniques found significantly higher cartilage T 2 values (P < 0.03) in OA patients. Iso3DGRE precision was equal to that of the MSME T 2 mapping in healthy volunteers, and significantly higher in OA (P = 0.01). This study successfully demonstrated that high-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping for knee cartilage characterization is feasible, accurate, repeatable, and precise. The technique allows for multiplanar reformatting and thus T 2 quantification in any plane of interest. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:362-371. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Numerical stress analysis of toroidal coil by three-dimensional finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hidetomo; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1977-10-01

    A structure analysis program based on finite element method for toroidal coils, developed in JAERI, and its example application to a medium-size tokamak are described. In this application, the effects of material anisotropy, poloidal field and spring constant value were studied, and also the influence of toroidal coil failure on the peak stress. The following were revealed. The effect of anisotropy on the peak stress in reinforcement must be considered. The effect of poloidal field on the peak stress is small compared with that of toroidal field. The spring constant value between coil and support does not much influence the peak stress value, The peak stress in reinforcement rises with increasing number of failed coils. In the case of 2000 nodes on the structure, CPU time with the program is about 40 min. (auth.)

  7. Development of a Three-Dimensional Spectral Element Model for NWP: Idealized Simulations on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, K.; Reinecke, P. A.; Gabersek, S.; Flagg, D. D.; Doyle, J. D.; Martini, M.; Ryglicki, D.; Michalakes, J.; Giraldo, F.

    2016-12-01

    NEPTUNE: the Navy Environmental Prediction sysTem Using the NUMA*corE, is a 3D spectral element atmospheric model composed of a full suite of physics parameterizations and pre- and post-processing infrastructure with plans for data assimilation and coupling components to a variety of Earth-system models. This talk will focus on the initial struggles and solutions in adapting NUMA for stable and accurate integration on the sphere using both the deep atmosphere equations and a newly developed shallow-atmosphere approximation, as demonstrated through idealized test cases. In addition, details of the physics-dynamics coupling methodology will be discussed. NEPTUNE results for test cases from the 2016 Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP-2016) will be shown and discussed. *NUMA: Nonhydrostatic Unified Model of the Atmosphere; Kelly and Giraldo 2012, JCP

  8. Spatio-temporal dimension of lightning flashes based on three-dimensional Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jesús A.; Pineda, Nicolau; Montanyà, Joan; Velde, Oscar van der; Fabró, Ferran; Romero, David

    2017-11-01

    3D mapping system like the LMA - Lightning Mapping Array - are a leap forward in lightning observation. LMA measurements has lead to an improvement on the analysis of the fine structure of lightning, allowing to characterize the duration and maximum extension of the cloud fraction of a lightning flash. During several years of operation, the first LMA deployed in Europe has been providing a large amount of data which now allows a statistical approach to compute the full duration and horizontal extension of the in-cloud phase of a lightning flash. The "Ebro Lightning Mapping Array" (ELMA) is used in the present study. Summer and winter lighting were analyzed for seasonal periods (Dec-Feb and Jun-Aug). A simple method based on an ellipse fitting technique (EFT) has been used to characterize the spatio-temporal dimensions from a set of about 29,000 lightning flashes including both summer and winter events. Results show an average lightning flash duration of 440 ms (450 ms in winter) and a horizontal maximum length of 15.0 km (18.4 km in winter). The uncertainties for summer lightning lengths were about ± 1.2 km and ± 0.7 km for the mean and median values respectively. In case of winter lightning, the level of uncertainty reaches up to 1 km and 0.7 km of mean and median value. The results of the successful correlation of CG discharges with the EFT method, represent 6.9% and 35.5% of the total LMA flashes detected in summer and winter respectively. Additionally, the median value of lightning lengths calculated through this correlative method was approximately 17 km for both seasons. On the other hand, the highest median ratios of lightning length to CG discharges in both summer and winter were reported for positive CG discharges.

  9. Three dimensional orbital magnetic resonance T2-mapping in the evaluation of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kai; Ai, Tao; Hu, Wei-Kun; Luo, Ban; Wu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Rong

    2017-12-01

    The clinical application of orbital magnetic resonance (MR) T2-mapping imaging in detecting the disease activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and the predictive values of therapy response to intravenous glucocorticoid (ivGC) were investigated. Approved by the local institutional review board (IRB), 106 consecutive patients with GO were included in this prospective study. All subjects were divided into two groups according to the patients' clinical activity score (CAS): the CAS positive group (CAS ≥3) or the CAS negative group (CAS T2 relaxation time of extraocular muscles (T2RT; ms) and the areas of four extra-ocular muscles (AEOMs; mm 2 ) were measured by 3D T2-mapping MR sequence before and after methylprednisolone treatment, so as the CAS and some ophthalmic examinations including visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, eyeball movement, diplopia and proptosis. In addition, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The mean T2RT and AEOMs in CAS positive group were higher than those in CAS negative group. Both CAS positive and negative groups had significantly higher mean T2RT and AEOMs than the control group (Pevaluate the activity of GO, CAS was mostly related to inflammation symptoms of ocular surface, more than that, T2RT and AEOMs were also related to abnormal findings of the ophthalmic examinations including high ocular pressure, impaired eyeball movement, diplopia and proptosis. T2RT and AEOMs can reflex the inflammation state of ocular muscles better. CAS combined with 3D T2-mapping MR imaging could improve the sensitivity of detection of active GO so as the prediction and evaluation of the response to methylprednisolone treatment.

  10. Three-dimensional finite element magnetic simulation of an innovative multi-coiled magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah; Permata, A. N. S.; Mazlan, S. A.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.; Widodo, P. J.

    2017-10-01

    This research delivers a finite element magnetic simulation of a novel disk type multi-coil magnetorheological brake (MR brake). The MR brake axial design had more than one coil located outside of the casing. This design could simplify the maintenance process of brakes. One pair of coils was used as the representative of the entire coil in the simulation process, and it could distribute magnetic flux in all parts of the electromagnetic. The objective of this simulation was to produce magnetic flux on the surface of the disc brake rotor. The value of the MR brake magnetic flux was higher than that of the current MR brake having one coil with a larger size. The result of the simulation would be used to identify the effect of different fluids on each variation. The Magneto-rheological fluid MRF-132DG and MRF-140CG were injected in each gap as much as 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50 mm, respectively. On the simulation process, the coils were energized at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 A, respectively. The magnetic flux produced by MRF-140CG was 336 m Tesla on the gap of 0.5 mm. The result of the simulation shows that the smaller the gap variation was, the higher the magnetic value was.

  11. A comparison of two three-dimensional shell-element transient electromagnetics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugo, J.J.; Williamson, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic forces due to eddy currents strongly influence the design of components for the next generation of fusion devices. An effort has been made to benchmark two computer programs used to generate transient electromagnetic loads: SPARK and EddyCuFF. Two simple transient field problems were analyzed, both of which had been previously analyzed by the SPARK code with results recorded in the literature. A third problem that uses an ITER inboard blanket benchmark model was analyzed as well. This problem was driven with a self-consistent, distributed multifilament plasma model generated by an axisymmetric physics code. The benchmark problems showed good agreement between the two shell-element codes. Variations in calculated eddy currents of 1--3% have been found for similar, finely meshed models. A difference of 8% was found in induced current and 20% in force for a coarse mesh and complex, multifilament field driver. Because comparisons were made to results obtained from literature, model preparation and code execution times were not evaluated

  12. Anisotropic three-dimensional inversion of CSEM data using finite-element techniques on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feiyan; Morten, Jan Petter; Spitzer, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a recently developed anisotropic 3-D inversion framework for interpreting controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data in the frequency domain. The framework integrates a high-order finite-element forward operator and a Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Conductivity constraints are applied using a parameter transformation. We discretize the continuous forward and inverse problems on unstructured grids for a flexible treatment of arbitrarily complex geometries. Moreover, an unstructured mesh is more desirable in comparison to a single rectilinear mesh for multisource problems because local grid refinement will not significantly influence the mesh density outside the region of interest. The non-uniform spatial discretization facilitates parametrization of the inversion domain at a suitable scale. For a rapid simulation of multisource EM data, we opt to use a parallel direct solver. We further accelerate the inversion process by decomposing the entire data set into subsets with respect to frequencies (and transmitters if memory requirement is affordable). The computational tasks associated with each data subset are distributed to different processes and run in parallel. We validate the scheme using a synthetic marine CSEM model with rough bathymetry, and finally, apply it to an industrial-size 3-D data set from the Troll field oil province in the North Sea acquired in 2008 to examine its robustness and practical applicability.

  13. Development of a three-dimensional neutron transport code DFEM based on the double finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional neutron transport code DFEM has been developed by the double finite element method to analyze reactor cores with complex geometry as large fast reactors. Solution algorithm is based on the double finite element method in which the space and angle finite elements are employed. A reactor core system can be divided into some triangular and/or quadrangular prism elements, and the spatial distribution of neutron flux in each element is approximated with linear basis functions. As for the angular variables, various basis functions are applied, and their characteristics were clarified by comparison. In order to enhance the accuracy, a general method is derived to remedy the truncation errors at reflective boundaries, which are inherent in the conventional FEM. An adaptive acceleration method and the source extrapolation method were applied to accelerate the convergence of the iterations. The code structure is outlined and explanations are given on how to prepare input data. A sample input list is shown for reference. The eigenvalue and flux distribution for real scale fast reactors and the NEA benchmark problems were presented and discussed in comparison with the results of other transport codes. (author)

  14. Photographic Atlas and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of the Holotype Skull of Euhelopus zdanskyi with Description of Additional Cranial Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poropat, Stephen F.; Kear, Benjamin P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Euhelopus zdanskyi is one of relatively few sauropod taxa known from an almost complete skull and mandible. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that Euhelopus is a somphospondylan titanosauriform, and that it is a member of the clade (Euhelopodidae) which is the sister taxon to the hugely successful, dominantly Cretaceous sauropod group Titanosauria. Methodology/Principal Findings The skull elements of Euhelopus were CT scanned at Uppsala Akademiska Sjukhuset. Three-dimensional models of the elements were constructed from the DICOM data using Mimics 14.0, InVesalius 3.0, and GeoMagic Studio 2012, the skull was rearticulated in Rhinoceros 4.0, and the final version was rendered in GeoMagic Studio 2012. Conclusions/Significance The fact that relatively complete sauropod skulls are so rare in the fossil record, particularly among titanosauriforms, means that the skulls that are known should be as thoroughly described and well-illustrated as possible. This contribution supplements previous descriptions of the cranial elements of Euhelopus, one of the few euhelopodid taxa for which cranial material is known, by presenting a comprehensive photographic atlas of the skull elements to facilitate a better understanding of their morphology. We describe several elements which have been overlooked in past studies of Euhelopus, and also provide as accurate a reconstruction of the skull as possible (in the absence of the braincase), the most significant components of which are the articulations of the palate and the mandible. PMID:24278222

  15. The Importance of a Conchal Bowl Element in the Fabrication of a Three-Dimensional Framework in Total Auricular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo construct a sophisticated three-dimensional framework, numerous modifications have been reported in the literature. However, most surgeons have paid little attention to the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness, leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.MethodsFor a configuration of the concha that is definitely anatomical, the author further developed and employed the conchal bowl element, which has been used by several surgeons although the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchal bowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: one block, two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricular reconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliest reconstructions were performed without a conchal bowl element and the latter 12 with a conchal bowl element. The patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic results were scored by evaluating characteristics involving the stability of the crus helicis, the conchal definition, and the smoothness of the helical curve.ResultsThe ears reconstructed early without a conchal bowl element showed a shallow and one or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. They also did not have a realistic or smooth curve of the helix because of an unstable crus helicis. However, ears reconstructed later with the concha bowl element showed a definite crus helicis, deep cymba conchal space, and smooth helical curve.ConclusionsThe construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consuming procedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attached to the main framework for natural configuration of the reconstructed ear.

  16. Real-time three-dimensional temperature mapping in photothermal therapy with optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaga Landa, Francisco Javier; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís.; Sroka, Ronald; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Ablation and photothermal therapy are widely employed medical protocols where the selective destruction of tissue is a necessity as in cancerous tissue removal or vascular and brain abnormalities. Tissue denaturation takes place when the temperature reaches a threshold value while the time of exposure determines the lesion size. Therefore, the spatio-temporal distribution of temperature plays a crucial role in the outcome of these clinical interventions. We demonstrate fast volumetric temperature mapping with optoacoustic tomography based on real-time optoacoustic readings from the treated region. The performance of the method was investigated in tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. The new ability to non-invasively measure temperature volumetrically in an entire treated region with high spatial and temporal resolutions holds potential for improving safety and efficacy of thermal ablation and to advance the general applicability of laser-based therapy.

  17. AN INVESTIGATION OF TIME LAG MAPS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF HIGHLY STRATIFIED HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Mikić, Zoran; Linker, Jon [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Rd., Ste. 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The location and frequency of coronal energy release provide a significant constraint on the coronal heating mechanism. The evolution of the intensity observed in coronal structures found from time lag analysis of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data has been used to argue that heating must occur sporadically. Recently, we have demonstrated that quasi-steady, highly stratified (footpoint) heating can produce results qualitatively consistent with the evolution of observed coronal structures. The goals of this paper are to demonstrate that time lag analysis of 3D simulations of footpoint heating are qualitatively consistent with time lag analysis of observations and to use the 3D simulations to further understand whether time lag analysis is a useful tool in defining the evolution of coronal structures. We find the time lag maps generated from simulated data are consistent with the observed time lag maps. We next investigate several example points. In some cases, the calculated time lag reflects the evolution of a unique loop along the line of sight, though there may be additional evolving structures along the line of sight. We confirm that using the multi-peak AIA channels can produce time lags that are difficult to interpret. We suggest using a different high temperature channel, such as an X-ray channel. Finally, we find that multiple evolving structures along the line of sight can produce time lags that do not represent the physical properties of any structure along the line of sight, although the cross-correlation coefficient of the lightcurves is high. Considering the projected geometry of the loops may reduce some of the line-of-sight confusion.

  18. In situ thermal imaging and three-dimensional finite element modeling of tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yuhong; Hofmeister, William H.; Cheng Zhao; Smugeresky, John E.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    Laser deposition is being used for the fabrication of net shapes from a broad range of materials, including tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) cermets (composites composed of a metallic phase and a hard refractory phase). During deposition, an unusual thermal condition is created for cermets, resulting in rather complex microstructures. To provide a fundamental insight into the evolution of such microstructures, we studied the thermal behavior of WC-Co cermets during laser deposition involving complementary results from in situ high-speed thermal imaging and three-dimensional finite element modeling. The former allowed for the characterization of temperature gradients and cooling rates in the vicinity of the molten pool, whereas the latter allowed for simulation of the entire sample. By combining the two methods, a more robust analysis of the thermal behavior was achieved. The model and the imaging results correlate well with each other and with the alternating sublayers observed in the microstructure.

  19. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.

  20. [Three dimensional finite element analysis of maxillary anterior teeth retraction with micro-implant anchorage and sliding mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Yu-bo; Song, Jin-lin; Deng, Feng

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the biomechanical effects of micro-implant anchorage technique with sliding mechanics on maxillary anterior teeth retraction under different implant insertion heights and different retraction hook heights. The three dimensional finite element model of maxillary anterior teeth retraction force system was constructed with CT scanning and MIMICS software and the relationships between brackets, teeth, wire and micro-implant were simulating the clinical factions. Then the initial tooth displacement was calculated when the insertion heights were 4 mm and 8 mm and the retraction hook heights were 1, 4, 7, 10 mm respectively. With retraction hook height added, the anterior teeth movement changed from lingual crown tipping to labial crown tipping and the intrusion movement was more apparent when the micro-implant was inserted in a higher location. The ideal teeth movement control could be achieved by different insertion heights of micro-implant and different retraction hook heights in straight wire retraction force system.

  1. Towards large-scale mapping of urban three-dimensional structure using Landsat imagery and global elevation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of buildings and infrastructures is fundamental to understanding and modelling of the impacts and challenges of urbanization in terms of energy use, carbon emissions, and earthquake vulnerabilities. However, spatially detailed maps of urban 3D structure have been scarce, particularly in fast-changing developing countries. We present here a novel methodology to map the volume of buildings and infrastructures at 30 meter resolution using a synergy of Landsat imagery and openly available global digital surface models (DSMs), including the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map (GDEM), ALOS World 3D - 30m (AW3D30), and the recently released global DSM from the TanDEM-X mission. Our method builds on the concept of object-based height profile to extract height metrics from the DSMs and use a machine learning algorithm to predict height and volume from the height metrics. We have tested this algorithm in the entire England and assessed our result using Lidar measurements in 25 England cities. Our initial assessments achieved a RMSE of 1.4 m (R2 = 0.72) for building height and a RMSE of 1208.7 m3 (R2 = 0.69) for building volume, demonstrating the potential of large-scale applications and fully automated mapping of urban structure.

  2. Three-dimensional minority carrier lifetime mapping of thin film semiconductors for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Brian [PLANT PV, Inc., Belmont, CA (United States); Peters, Craig [PLANT PV, Inc., Belmont, CA (United States); Barnard, Edward [PLANT PV, Inc., Belmont, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project addresses the difficulty of accurately measuring charge carrier dynamics in novel semiconductor materials for thin film photovoltaic cells. We have developed a two- photon lifetime tomography technique to separate bulk minority carrier lifetime from surface recombination effects and effects of recombination at sub-surface defects. This technique also enables us to characterize how local defects such as grain boundaries– buried below the surface of a sample–affect carrier lifetimes in the active layer, dynamics that have been previously inaccessible. We have applied this newly developed technique to illuminate how CdCl2 treatment improves CdTe PV efficiency. From striking 3D lifetime tomography maps, a clear, sub- surface understanding emerges of the photophysical changes that occur in CdTe active medium following exposure to CdCl2, a standard step in the fabrication of high-efficiency CdTe-based solar cells. This work demonstrates a well-defined method to quantify grain-boundary, interface, and bulk recombination in CdTe and other optically-active polycrystalline semiconductor materials; information that can provide critical information to the development of next- generation photovoltaics and many other semiconductor technologies.

  3. Three dimensional mapping of Fe dopants in ceria nanocrystals using direct spectroscopic electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, Bart; Meledina, Maria; Turner, Stuart [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Zhong, Zhichao [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Batenburg, K. Joost [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 1, 2333CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-12-15

    Electron tomography is a powerful technique for the 3D characterization of the morphology of nanostructures. Nevertheless, resolving the chemical composition of complex nanostructures in 3D remains challenging and the number of studies in which electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is combined with tomography is limited. During the last decade, dedicated reconstruction algorithms have been developed for HAADF-STEM tomography using prior knowledge about the investigated sample. Here, we will use the prior knowledge that the experimental spectrum of each reconstructed voxel is a linear combination of a well-known set of references spectra in a so-called direct spectroscopic tomography technique. Based on a simulation experiment, it is shown that this technique provides superior results in comparison to conventional reconstruction methods for spectroscopic data, especially for spectrum images containing a relatively low signal to noise ratio. Next, this technique is used to investigate the spatial distribution of Fe dopants in Fe:Ceria nanoparticles in 3D. It is shown that the presence of the Fe{sup 2+} dopants is correlated with a reduction of the Ce atoms from Ce{sup 4+} towards Ce{sup 3+}. In addition, it is demonstrated that most of the Fe dopants are located near the voids inside the nanoparticle. - Highlights: • A direct tomographic reconstruction technique is proposed for spectroscopic data. • Spectrum fitting is combined with a tomography reconstruction in a single step. • The technique yields superior results for data with a low signal to noise ratio. • The technique is applied to map Fe dopants in ceria nanoparticles.

  4. Three-dimensional mapping of peripapillary retinal layers using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashmani N

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nauman Hashmani, Sharif Hashmani Department of Ophthalmology, Hashmanis Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Purpose: To map and view the effects of age, gender, and axial length on seven individual retinal layers around the optic nerve head (ONH.Methods: We scanned 242 healthy patients using the Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography in an outpatient setting. The layers were observed on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study sectors using the standard Spectralis Family Acquisition Module 6.0.11.0. The center was the ONH, the inner circle (IC was 1–3 mm away, and the outer circle (OC was 3–6 mm away. The seven layers were retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL, inner plexiform layer (IPL, inner nuclear layer (INL, outer plexiform layer (OPL, outer nuclear layer (ONL, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Additionally, we calculated the mean thickness of two combined layers: inner retinal layer (IRL and photoreceptor layer (PL. Finally, we measured the mean of the total retinal thickness (TRT.Results: The TRT was highest at the inferior end in the IC and at the nasal end in the OC. The RPE (p<0.001 and PL (p<0.001 were thicker in males; however, the IRL (p=0.015 was thicker in females. We found that the RNFL (p<0.001, r=0.139, GCL (p<0.001, r=0.116, IPL (p=0.016, r=0.059, INL (p<0.001, r=0.104, OPL (p=0.009, r=0.064, ONL (p<0.001, r=0.157, RPE (p=0.001, r=0.079, IRL (p<0.001, r=0.190, PL (p=0.030, r=0.053, and TRT (p<0.001, r=0.191 correlated negatively with age. The axial length significantly and negatively correlated at the GCL (p=0.003, r=0.093, IPL (p=0.020, r=0.072, INL (p=0.018, r=0.073, ONL (p<0.001, r=0.110, IRL (p=0.003, r=0.092, and TRT (p=0.003, r=0.094. We found poor reproducibility in the IC; however, this was excellent in the OC.Conclusion: We found significant differences in layers according to age, gender, and axial length. Additionally, reproducibility can be improved by altering the

  5. Three-dimensional deformation mapping of Mode I interlaminar crack extension in particle-toughened interlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borstnar, G.; Gillard, F.; Mavrogordato, M.N.; Sinclair, I.; Spearing, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first use of Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) on Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs) to quantify the strain fields ahead of a Mode I delamination. DVC is a relatively novel tool that can be used to measure displacements and strains occurring inside materials under load. In conjunction with Computed Tomography (CT), the technique has been applied to porous materials, with results providing strain data for validation of Finite Element (FE) models. However, the application of the technique to laminated materials has been limited, with studies often requiring fiducial markings required for volume correlation. In this work, crack propagation steps were captured at a 325 nm voxel resolution using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT). The material systems investigated featured different crack bridging mechanisms such as; particle-bridges, resin ligaments, and fibre-bridges. An assessment of noise and sub-volume size on the strain measurement determined that the optimal sub-volume size was 150 voxels with 50% overlap. This provided a spatial resolution of 48.8 μm for strain and a corresponding strain resolution ranging between 220 and 690 με for the repeated reference scans. A rigid body translation study confirmed that specimen movements perpendicular to the fibre orientation support the ‘real’ physical displacements. However, along the fibre direction, the correlation was poor, with correct displacements being detected only within the particle-toughened interlayers. The study demonstrates that strain measurements can be made perpendicular to the fibre direction across the interlayer, which could be used to validate future FE models of these poorly understood particle-toughened interlayers.

  6. Using DNase Hi-C techniques to map global and local three-dimensional genome architecture at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, ZhiJun

    2018-06-01

    The folding and three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromatin in the nucleus critically impacts genome function. The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in genomic tools for delineating 3D genome architecture. Among them, chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods such as Hi-C are the most widely used techniques for mapping chromatin interactions. However, traditional Hi-C protocols rely on restriction enzymes (REs) to fragment chromatin and are therefore limited in resolution. We recently developed DNase Hi-C for mapping 3D genome organization, which uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation. DNase Hi-C overcomes RE-related limitations associated with traditional Hi-C methods, leading to improved methodological resolution. Furthermore, combining this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach (targeted DNase Hi-C) that allows for mapping fine-scale chromatin architecture at exceptionally high resolution. Hence, targeted DNase Hi-C will be valuable for delineating the physical landscapes of cis-regulatory networks that control gene expression and for characterizing phenotype-associated chromatin 3D signatures. Here, we provide a detailed description of method design and step-by-step working protocols for these two methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress distribution in delayed replanted teeth splinted with different orthodontic wires: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernando Isquierdo; Poi, Wilson Roberto; da Silva, Vanessa Ferreira; Martini, Ana Paula; Melo, Regis Alexandre da Cunha; Panzarini, Sonia Regina; Rocha, Eduardo Passos

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the supporting bony structures of replanted teeth and the periodontal ligament (PDL) of adjacent teeth when orthodontic wires with different mechanical properties are applied, with three-dimensional finite element analysis. Based on tomographic and microtomographic data, a three-dimensional model of the anterior maxilla with the corresponding teeth (tooth 13-tooth 23) was generated to simulate avulsion and replantation of the tooth 21. The teeth were splinted with orthodontic wire (Ø 0.8 mm) and composite resin. The elastic modulus of the three orthodontic wires used, that is, steel wire (FA), titanium-molybdenum wire (FTM), and nitinol wire (FN) were 200 GPa, 84 GPa, and 52 GPa, respectively. An oblique load (100 N) was applied at an angle of 45° on the incisal edge of the replanted tooth and was analyzed using Ansys Workbench software. The maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stresses generated in the PDL, cortical and alveolar bones, and the modified von Mises (σvM) values for the orthodontic wires were obtained. With regard to the cortical bone and PDL, the highest σmin and σmax values for FTM, FN, and FA were checked. With regard to the alveolar bone, σmax and σmin values were highest for FA, followed by FTM and FN. The σvM values of the orthodontic wires followed the order of rigidity of the alloys, that is, FA > FTM > FN. The biomechanical behavior of the analyzed structures with regard to all the three patterns of flexibility was similar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Remodeling simulation of human femur under bed rest and spaceflight circumstances based on three dimensional finite element analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenting; Wang, Dongmei; Lei, Zhoujixin; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Shanguang

    2017-12-01

    Astronauts who are exposed to weightless environment in long-term spaceflight might encounter bone density and mass loss for the mechanical stimulus is smaller than normal value. This study built a three dimensional model of human femur to simulate the remodeling process of human femur during bed rest experiment based on finite element analysis (FEA). The remodeling parameters of this finite element model was validated after comparing experimental and numerical results. Then, the remodeling process of human femur in weightless environment was simulated, and the remodeling function of time was derived. The loading magnitude and loading cycle on human femur during weightless environment were increased to simulate the exercise against bone loss. Simulation results showed that increasing loading magnitude is more effective in diminishing bone loss than increasing loading cycles, which demonstrated that exercise of certain intensity could help resist bone loss during long-term spaceflight. At the end, this study simulated the bone recovery process after spaceflight. It was found that the bone absorption rate is larger than bone formation rate. We advise that astronauts should take exercise during spaceflight to resist bone loss.

  9. Application of space-and-angle finite element method to the three-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, T.; Nakahara, Y.; Matsumura, M.

    1983-01-01

    A double finite element method (DFEM), in which both the space-and-angle finite elements are employed, has been formulated and computer codes have been developed to solve the static multigroup neutron transport problems in the three-dimensional geometry. Two methods, Galerkin's weighted residual and variational are used to apply the DFEM to the transport equation. The variational principle requires complicated formulation than the Galerkin method, but the boundary conditions can be automatically incorporated and each plane equation becomes symmetric. The system equations are solved over the planar layers which we call plane iteration. The coarse mesh rebalancing technique is used for the inner iteration and the outer iteration is accelerated by extra-polation. Numerical studies of these two DFEM algorithms have been done in comparison between them and also with THe CITATION and TWOTRAN-II results. It has been confirmed that in the case of variational formulation an adaptive acceleration method of the SSOR iteration works effectively and the ray effects are mitigated in both DFEM algorithms. (author)

  10. Stress Distribution in Single Dental Implant System: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Based on an In Vitro Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; Chase-Diaz, Melody; Costa, Max Doria; Albarracin, Max Laurent; Paschoeto, Gabriela; Sousa, Edson Antonio Capello; Rubo, José Henrique; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the stress distribution in single implant system and to evaluate the compatibility of an in vitro model with finite element (FE) model. The in vitro model consisted of Brånemark implant; multiunit set abutment of 5 mm height; metal-ceramic screw-retained crown, and polyurethane simulating the bone. Deformations were recorded in the peri-implant region in the mesial and distal aspects, after an axial 300 N load application at the center of the occlusal aspect of the crown, using strain gauges. This in vitro model was scanned with micro CT to design a three-dimensional FE model and the strains in the peri-implant bone region were registered to check the compatibility between both models. The FE model was used to evaluate stress distribution in different parts of the system. The values obtained from the in vitro model (20-587 με) and the finite element analysis (81-588 με) showed agreement among them. The highest stresses because of axial and oblique load, respectively were 5.83 and 40 MPa for the cortical bone, 55 and 1200 MPa for the implant, and 80 and 470 MPa for the abutment screw. The FE method proved to be effective for evaluating the deformation around single implant. Oblique loads lead to higher stress concentrations.

  11. Dynamic analysis of a needle insertion for soft materials: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian-based three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Kihei; Satake, Koji; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Shirai, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hiromi T

    2014-10-01

    Our goal was to develop a three-dimensional finite element model that enables dynamic analysis of needle insertion for soft materials. To demonstrate large deformation and fracture, we used the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method for fluid analysis. We performed ALE-based finite element analysis for 3% agar gel and three types of copper needle with bevel tips. To evaluate simulation results, we compared the needle deflection and insertion force with corresponding experimental results acquired with a uniaxial manipulator. We studied the shear stress distribution of agar gel on various time scales. For 30°, 45°, and 60°, differences in deflections of each needle between both sets of results were 2.424, 2.981, and 3.737mm, respectively. For the insertion force, there was no significant difference for mismatching area error (p<0.05) between simulation and experimental results. Our results have the potential to be a stepping stone to develop pre-operative surgical planning to estimate an optimal needle insertion path for MR image-guided microwave coagulation therapy and for analyzing large deformation and fracture in biological tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düring Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography and invasive techniques (histology and micro-dissection to construct the annotated high-resolution three-dimensional dataset, or morphome, of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata syrinx. We identified and annotated syringeal cartilage, bone and musculature in situ in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological constraints on song production. The present refinement of muscle organization and identity elucidates how apposed muscles actuate different syringeal elements. Our dataset allows for more precise predictions about muscle co-activation and synergies and has important implications for muscle activity and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency and amplitude control, which permits a novel explanation of the evolutionary success of songbirds.

  13. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations

  14. First results from the characterization of a three-dimensional deep N-well MAPS prototype for vertexing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manazza, A.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2013-01-01

    The prototype of a three-dimensional (3D) monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) has been characterized. The device, featuring a 20μm pitch, was designed based on the same approach that was adopted in developing the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous tiers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Different kinds of test structures, including single pixels, 3×3 arrays and 8×8 and 16×16 matrices were tested. Functionality of the collecting deep N-well electrode, the analog front-end and the digital readout electronics has been demonstrated. Inter-tier communication was found to work properly in the case of redundant interconnection and could be exploited for the test of the analog pixel section. On the other hand, inter-tier interconnections based on individual bond pads were proven ineffective likely due to wafer misalignment. -- Highlights: ► First results on the characterization of 3D DNW monolithic sensor. ► Functionality of the analog and digital sections is demonstrated. ► DNW collecting electrode is tested by means of a laser source. ► A non-linear model for charge preamplifier response is discussed. ► Redundant vertical interconnection is shown to work properly.

  15. First results from the characterization of a three-dimensional deep N-well MAPS prototype for vertexing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.it [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manazza, A. [Università di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Università di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2013-01-21

    The prototype of a three-dimensional (3D) monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) has been characterized. The device, featuring a 20μm pitch, was designed based on the same approach that was adopted in developing the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous tiers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Different kinds of test structures, including single pixels, 3×3 arrays and 8×8 and 16×16 matrices were tested. Functionality of the collecting deep N-well electrode, the analog front-end and the digital readout electronics has been demonstrated. Inter-tier communication was found to work properly in the case of redundant interconnection and could be exploited for the test of the analog pixel section. On the other hand, inter-tier interconnections based on individual bond pads were proven ineffective likely due to wafer misalignment. -- Highlights: ► First results on the characterization of 3D DNW monolithic sensor. ► Functionality of the analog and digital sections is demonstrated. ► DNW collecting electrode is tested by means of a laser source. ► A non-linear model for charge preamplifier response is discussed. ► Redundant vertical interconnection is shown to work properly.

  16. Efficacy of transpalatal arch as an anchorage reinforcing unit during orthodontic space closure: A three-dimensional finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Shrishail Kudagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Connecting the contralateral upper molars by means of a transpalatal arch (TPA is thought to decrease the tendency of the molars to move mesially in response to orthodontic force (i.e., provide orthodontic anchorage. This study was hence conducted to investigate the effects of the TPA on the displacement of the molars and stresses generated in the periodontium during orthodontic tooth movement using the finite element method (FEM. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D model was generated using medical modeling software (Mimics using the computed tomography slice images of the skull which were obtained at a slice thickness of 1 mm. From this, the finite element model was built using HyperMesh and analysis was performed using PATRAN software (MSC Software Corporation, 4675 MacArthur Court, Newport Beach, California 92660. The 3D finite element models were fabricated in two versions such as maxillary first molars including their associated periodontal ligament and alveolar bone one with TPA and another without TPA. Both were subjected to orthodontic forces, and the resultant stress patterns and displacements between the models with and without TPA were determined. Results: The stress and displacement plots in this study failed to show any significant differences in stress and displacement within the periodontium of molars, between the two models – one with TPA and the other without, in response to the orthodontic force. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of the current finite element analysis, therefore, suggest that the presence of a TPA brings about no change in the initial dental and periodontal stress distribution and displacement.

  17. Investigation of deformation of elements of three-dimensional reinforced concrete structures located in the soil, interacting with each other through rubber gaskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnoi, D. V.; Balafendieva, I. S.; Sachenkov, A. A.; Sekaeva, L. R.

    2017-06-01

    In work the technique of calculation of elements of three-dimensional reinforced concrete substructures located in a soil, interacting with each other through rubber linings is realized. To describe the interaction of deformable structures with the ground, special “semi-infinite” finite elements are used. A technique has been implemented that allows one to describe the contact interaction of three-dimensional structures by means of a special contact finite element with specific properties. The obtained numerical results are compared with the experimental data, their good agreement is noted.

  18. Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography: model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map, reconstruction algorithm and angular sampling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebi, Marianne; Georgiadis, Marios; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Holler, Mirko; Raabe, Jörg; Usov, Ivan; Menzel, Andreas; Schneider, Philipp; Bunk, Oliver; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography, which allows reconstruction of the local three-dimensional reciprocal-space map within a three-dimensional sample as introduced by Liebi et al. [Nature (2015), 527, 349-352], is described in more detail with regard to the mathematical framework and the optimization algorithm. For the case of trabecular bone samples from vertebrae it is shown that the model of the three-dimensional reciprocal-space map using spherical harmonics can adequately describe the measured data. The method enables the determination of nanostructure orientation and degree of orientation as demonstrated previously in a single momentum transfer q range. This article presents a reconstruction of the complete reciprocal-space map for the case of bone over extended ranges of q. In addition, it is shown that uniform angular sampling and advanced regularization strategies help to reduce the amount of data required.

  19. Effect of Oval Posts on Stress Distribution in Endodontically Treated Teeth: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mahmoodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In post-core crown restorations, the use of prefabricated composite posts concentrate stress at the cervical region and the use of metal posts (prefabricated and customized posts concentrates stress at the interfaces. Fiber reinforced composite posts (FRCs with oval cross-section (oval posts were proposed for post-core crown restorations to reduce the stress levels at the cervical region. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of oval cross-section composite posts on stress distribution of premolar with oval-shaped canal by using three-dimensional (3D finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: An extracted premolar tooth was mounted, sectioned, and photographed to create a 3D model. The surrounding tissues of the tooth, periodontal ligament, as well as cortical and trabecular bones were modeled. Seven taper posts with two different cross-section geometries (circular and oval shapes were modeled, as well. Then, the effect of post geometry, post material (carbon fiber and fiberglass, and cement material were investigated by 3D finite element analysis and the stress distribution results were compared. Results: In all the models, the highest stress levels of the dentin were accumulated at the coronal third of the root, and the highest stress levels at the bonding layers were accumulated at the cervical margin. Narrow circular posts induced the highest stress levels, whereas the stress levels were reduced by using thick oval posts. Application of elastic cement reduces the stress at the bonding layers but increases stress at the dentin. Conclusion: Finite element analysis showed that prefabricated oval posts are superior to traditional circular ones. The use of cement with low elastic modulus reduces the risk of debonding but raises the risk of root fracture.

  20. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAP OF THE HINDLIMB MOTOR REPRESENTATION IN THE LUMBAR SPINAL CORD IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Jordan A.; Frost, Shawn; Peterson, Jeremy; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological trauma with a prevalence of about 282,000 people living with an SCI in the United States in 2016. Advances in neuromodulatory devices hold promise for restoring function by incorporating the delivery of electrical current directly into the spinal cord grey matter via intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). In such designs, detailed topographic maps of spinal cord outputs are needed to determine ISMS locations for eliciting hindlimb movements. The primary goal of the present study was to derive a topographic map of functional motor outputs in the lumbar spinal cord to hindlimb skeletal muscles as defined by ISMS in a rat model. Approach Experiments were carried out in nine healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats. After a laminectomy of the T13-L1 vertebrae and removal of the dura mater, a four-shank, 16-channel microelectrode array was inserted along a three-dimensional (200 µm) stimulation grid. Trains of three biphasic current pulses were used to determine evoked movements and EMG activity. Via fine wire electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, Stimulus-Triggered Averaging (StTA) was used on rectified EMG data to determine response latency. Main results Hindlimb movements were elicited at a median current intensity of 6 µA, and thresholds were significantly lower in ventrolateral sites. Movements typically consisted of whole leg, hip, knee, ankle, toe, and trunk movements. Hip movements dominated rostral to the T13 vertebral segment, knee movements were evoked at the T13-L1 vertebral junction, while ankle and digit movements were found near the rostral L1 vertebra. Whole leg movements spanned the entire rostrocaudal region explored, while trunk movements dominated medially. StTAs of EMG activity demonstrated a latency of ~4 ms. Significance The derived motor map provides insight into the parameters needed for future neuromodulatory devices. PMID:27934789

  1. A three-dimensional cellular automata model coupled with finite element method and thermodynamic database for alloy solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Qin, R. S.; Chen, D. F.

    2013-08-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for the simulation of microstructure evolution in alloy solidification. The governing rule for the CA model is associated with the phase transition driving force which is obtained via a thermodynamic database. This determines the migration rate of the non-equilibrium solid-liquid (SL) interface and is calculated according to the local temperature and chemical composition. The curvature of the interface and the anisotropic property of the surface energy are taken into consideration. A 3D finite element (FE) method is applied for the calculation of transient heat and mass transfer. Numerical calculations for the solidification of Fe-1.5 wt% C alloy have been performed. The morphological evolution of dendrites, carbon segregation and temperature distribution in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are studied. The parameters affecting the growth of equiaxed and columnar dendrites are discussed. The calculated results are verified using the analytical model and previous experiments. The method provides a sophisticated approach to the solidification of multi-phase and multi-component systems.

  2. Three-Dimensional Analysis of dike/fault interaction at Mono Basin (California) using the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, D.; Battaglia, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin is a north-trending graben that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley caldera towards the Bodie Hills and is bounded by the Cowtrack Mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada on the west. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a north-trending zone of volcanic vents extending from the west moat of the Long Valley caldera to Mono Lake. The Hartley Springs fault transects the southern Mono Craters-Inyo Domes area between the western part of the Long Valley caldera and June Lake. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D. The spatial and temporal proximity between Hartley Springs Fault motion and the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence suggests a possible relation between seismic events and eruptions. We investigate the interactions between slip along the Hartley Springs fault and dike intrusion beneath the Mono-Inyo craters using a three-dimensional finite element model of the Mono Basin. We employ a realistic representation of the Basin that includes topography, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, contact relations between fault planes, and a physical model of the pressure required to propagate the dike. We estimate (a) the distribution of Coulomb stress changes to study the influence of dike intrusion on Hartley Springs fault, and (b) the local stress and volumetric dilatation changes to understand how fault slip may influence the propagation of a dike towards the surface.

  3. Composite resin reinforced with pre-tensioned fibers: a three-dimensional finite element study on stress distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Lin; Shinya, Akikazu; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2013-01-01

    Pre-tensioned construction material is utilized in engineering applications of high strength demands. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pre-tensioning fibers of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) using three-dimensional finite element (FE) analysis. The 3D FE models of particulate composite resin (CR), FRC and composite resin reinforced with pre-tensioned fibers (PRE-T-FRC) were constructed. The uniaxial three-point bending test was simulated using FE analysis to calculate the principal stress distribution. In the FRC and PRE-T-FRC, stresses were higher than CR, and they were located in the fiber. However, the maximum principal stress value at the composite of PRE-T-FRC was lower than the FRC and CR. Composite resin reinforced with pre-tensioned fibers was advantageous for stress distribution and lowering the stress at the composite itself. Experimental studies on physical properties of pre-tensioned FRC are encouraged to be conducted.

  4. Three-dimensional finite element analysis on canine teeth distalization by different accessories of bracket-free invisible orthodontics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nuo; Lei, Xue; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Xinhui; Ge, Zhenlin

    2018-04-01

    Objective: to compare canine tooth stress distribution condition during maxillary canine tooth distalization by different accessories of bracket-free invisible orthodontics technology after removal of maxillary first premolar, and provide basis for clinical design of invisible orthodontics technology. Method: CBCT scanning image of a patient with individual normal occlusion was adopted, Mimics, Geomagic and ProlE software were used for establishing three-dimensional models of maxilla, maxillary dentition, parodontium, invisible orthodontics appliance and accessories, ANSYS WORKBENCH was utilized as finite element analysis tools for analyzing stress distribution and movement pattern of canine tooth and parodontium when canine tooth was equipped with power arm and vertical rectangle accessory. Meanwhile, canine tooth none-accessory design group was regarded as a control. Result: teeth had even bistal surface stress distribution in the power arm group; stress was concentrated on distal tooth neck, and the stress was gradually deviated to mesial-labial side and distal lingual side in vertical rectangle group and none-accessory group. Conclusion: teeth tend to move as a whole in the Power arm group, vertical rectangle group has lower tooth gradient compared with the none-accessory group, teeth are inclined for movement in the none-accessory group, and canine teeth tend to rotate to the distal lingual side.

  5. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of zirconia all-ceramic cantilevered fixed partial dentures with different framework designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shoko; Kasahara, Shin; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study were: to perform stress analyses using three-dimensional finite element analysis methods; to analyze the mechanical stress of different framework designs; and to investigate framework designs that will provide for the long-term stability of both cantilevered fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and abutment teeth. An analysis model was prepared for three units of cantilevered FPDs that assume a missing mandibular first molar. Four types of framework design (Design 1, basic type; Design 2, framework width expanded buccolingually by 2 mm; Design 3, framework height expanded by 0.5 mm to the occlusal surface side from the end abutment to the connector area; and Design 4, a combination of Designs 2 and 3) were created. Two types of framework material (yttrium-oxide partially stabilized zirconia and a high precious noble metal gold alloy) and two types of abutment material (dentin and brass) were used. In the framework designs, Design 1 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for both zirconia and gold alloy. In the abutment tooth, Design 3 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for all abutment teeth. In the present study, Design 4 (the design with expanded framework height and framework width) could contribute to preventing the concentration of stress and protecting abutment teeth. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. Behavior and Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Circular Concrete Columns Partially Wrapped with FRP Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jacketing/wrapping has become an attractive strengthening technique for concrete columns. Wrapping an existing concrete column with continuous FRP jackets with the fiber in the jacket being oriented in the hoop direction is referred to as FRP full wrapping strengthening technique. In practice, however, strengthening concrete columns with vertically discontinuous FRP strips is also favored and this technique is referred to as FRP partial wrapping strengthening technique. Existing research has demonstrated that FRP partial wrapping strengthening technique is a promising and economical alternative to the FRP full wrapping strengthening technique. Although extensive experimental investigations have hitherto been conducted on partially FRP-confined concrete columns, the confinement mechanics of confined concrete in partially FRP-confined circular columns remains unclear. In this paper, an experimental program consisting of fifteen column specimens was conducted and the test results were presented. A reliable three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE approach for modeling of partially FRP-confined circular columns was established. In the proposed FE approach, an accurate plastic-damage model for concrete under multiaxial compression is employed. The accuracy of the proposed FE approach was verified by comparisons between the numerical results and the test results. Numerical results from the verified FE approach were then presented to gain an improved understanding of the behavior of confined concrete in partially FRP-confined concrete columns.

  7. Mapping the three-dimensional dust extinction towards the supernova remnant S147 - the S147 dust cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.-Q.; Liu, X.-W.; Ren, J.-J.; Yuan, H.-B.; Huang, Y.; Yu, B.; Xiang, M.-S.; Wang, C.; Tian, Z.-J.; Zhang, H.-W.

    2017-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) extinction analysis in the region towards the supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7) using multiband photometric data from the Xuyi Schmidt Telescope Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (XSTPS-GAC), 2MASS and WISE. We isolate a previously unrecognized dust structure likely to be associated with SNR S147. The structure, which we term as 'S147 dust cloud', is estimated to have a distance d = 1.22 ± 0.21 kpc, consistent with the conjecture that S147 is associated with pulsar PSR J0538 + 2817. The cloud includes several dense clumps of relatively high extinction that locate on the radio shell of S147 and coincide spatially with the CO and gamma-ray emission features. We conclude that the usage of CO measurements to trace the SNR associated MCs is unavoidably limited by the detection threshold, dust depletion and the difficulty of distance estimates in the outer Galaxy. 3D dust extinction mapping may provide a better way to identify and study SNR-MC interactions.

  8. Three-dimensional mapping of local cerebral perfusion in alcoholic encephalopathy with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, T.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen severe chronic alcoholic patients with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) were examined prospectively after being treated by withdrawal from alcohol. The WKS patients also received thiamine supplements. Three-dimensional measurements of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local partition coefficients (L lambda) were made utilizing xenon contrast computed tomography (Xe CT-CBF). Results were displayed as color-coded brain maps before and after treatment and these were correlated with neurological and cognitive examinations. Before treatment chronic alcoholics without WKS (n = 10) showed diffuse reductions of LCBF values throughout all gray matter including hypothalamus, vicinity of nucleus basalis of Meynert, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Similar, but more severe, reductions were seen in patients with WKS (n = 7), however, white matter perfusion was also reduced. In WKS, most prominent reductions of LCBF were also seen in hypothalamus and basal forebrain nuclei but thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic systems were severely reduced. After treatment, both groups with alcoholic encephalopathy showed marked clinical improvement and cerebral perfusion was restored toward normal. Chronic alcohol abuse, in the absence of thiamine deficiency, reduces CBF by direct neurotoxic effects. If thiamine deficiency is also present, more severe and localized hemodynamic reductions are superimposed

  9. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Walters, Deron; Walters, Deron; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika

    2014-08-22

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic - yet decisive - question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid-liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface.

  10. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika; Walters, Deron; Cleveland, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)

  11. Plantar pressure relief under the metatarsal heads: therapeutic insole design using three-dimensional finite element model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Sung-Jae; Lee, Peter Vee Sin

    2015-02-26

    Therapeutic footwear with specially-made insoles is often used in people with diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to relieve ulcer risks and pain due to high pressures from areas beneath bony prominences of the foot, in particular to the metatarsal heads (MTHs). In a three-dimensional finite element study of the foot and footwear with sensitivity analysis, effects of geometrical variations of a therapeutic insole, in terms of insole thicknesses and metatarsal pad (MP) placements, on local peak plantar pressure under MTHs and stress/strain states within various forefoot tissues, were determined. A validated musculoskeletal finite element model of the human foot was employed. Analyses were performed in a simulated muscle-demanding instant in gait. For many design combinations, increasing insole thicknesses consistently reduce peak pressures and internal tissue strain under MTHs, but the effects reach a plateau when insole becomes very thick (e.g., a value of 12.7mm or greater). Altering MP placements, however, showed a proximally- and a distally-placed MP could result in reverse effects on MTH pressure-relief. The unsuccessful outcome due to a distally-placed MP may attribute to the way it interacts with plantar tissue (e.g., plantar fascia) adjacent to the MTH. A uniform pattern of tissue compression under metatarsal shaft is necessary for a most favorable pressure-relief under MTHs. The designated functions of an insole design can best be achieved when the insole is very thick, and when the MP can achieve a uniform tissue compression pattern adjacent to the MTH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of structural attachments of a pool type LMFBR vessel through seismic analysis of a simplified three dimensional finite element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified three dimensional finite element model of a pool type LMFBR in conjunction with the computer program ANSYS is developed and scoping results of seismic analysis are produced. Through this study various structural attachments of a pool type LMFBR like the reactor vessel skirt support, the pump support and reactor shell-support structure interfaces are studied. This study also provides some useful results on equivalent viscous damping approach and some improvements to the treatment of equivalent viscous damping are recommended. This study also sets forth pertinent guidelines for detailed three dimensional finite element seismic analysis of pool type LMFBR

  13. A three-dimensional finite element study on the stress distribution pattern of two prosthetic abutments for external hexagon implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Wagner; Hermann, Caio; Pereira, Jucélio Tomás; Balbinoti, Jean Anacleto; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of two different straight prosthetic abutments (one- and two-piece) for external hex butt-joint connection implants using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Two 3D-FEA models were designed, one for the two-piece prosthetic abutment (2 mm in height, two-piece mini-conical abutment, Neodent) and another one for the one-piece abutment (2 mm in height, Slim Fit one-piece mini-conical abutment, Neodent), with their corresponding screws and implants (Titamax Ti, 3.75 diameter by 13 mm in length, Neodent). The model simulated the single restoration of a lower premolar using data from a computerized tomography of a mandible. The preload (20 N) after torque application for installation of the abutment and an occlusal loading were simulated. The occlusal load was simulated using average physiological bite force and direction (114.6 N in the axial direction, 17.1 N in the lingual direction and 23.4 N toward the mesial at an angle of 75° to the occlusal plan). The regions with the highest von Mises stress results were at the bottom of the initial two threads of both prosthetic abutments that were tested. The one-piece prosthetic abutment presented a more homogeneous behavior of stress distribution when compared with the two-piece abutment. Under the simulated chewing loads, the von Mises stresses for both tested prosthetic-abutments were within the tensile strength values of the materials analyzed which thus supports the clinical use of both prosthetic abutments.

  14. Finite element study of three dimensional radiative nano-plasma flow subject to Hall and ion slip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohm’s law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search ηmax and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8. Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu and Silver (Ag. Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid. Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field. Keywords: Nanofluid, Grid independent study, Convergence, Error analysis, Skin friction, Joule heating, Viscous dissipation, Hall and ion currents

  15. Three-dimensional mapping of salt load in the Murray-Darling Basin, 1 Steps in calibration of airborne electromagnetic surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cresswell, R.G.; Dent, D.L.; Jones, G.; Galloway, D.

    2004-01-01

    An airborne electromagnetic survey yields a three-dimensional map of ground electrical conductivity. The remotely sensed data are translated into salt load by field and laboratory calibration: drilling, measurement of borehole conductivity, electrical conductivity of 1 : 5 soil¿water extracts

  16. High spatial resolution three-dimensional mapping of vegetation spectral dynamics using computer vision and hobbyist unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandois, J. P.; Ellis, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    High spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) measurements of vegetation by remote sensing are advancing ecological research and environmental management. However, substantial economic and logistical costs limit this application, especially for observing phenological dynamics in ecosystem structure and spectral traits. Here we demonstrate a new aerial remote sensing system enabling routine and inexpensive aerial 3D measurements of canopy structure and spectral attributes, with properties similar to those of LIDAR, but with RGB (red-green-blue) spectral attributes for each point, enabling high frequency observations within a single growing season. This 'Ecosynth' methodology applies photogrammetric ''Structure from Motion'' computer vision algorithms to large sets of highly overlapping low altitude (USA. Ecosynth canopy height maps (CHMs) were strong predictors of field-measured tree heights (R2 0.63 to 0.84) and were highly correlated with a LIDAR CHM (R 0.87) acquired 4 days earlier, though Ecosynth-based estimates of aboveground biomass densities included significant errors (31 - 36% of field-based estimates). Repeated scanning of a 0.25 ha forested area at six different times across a 16 month period revealed ecologically significant dynamics in canopy color at different heights and a structural shift upward in canopy density, as demonstrated by changes in vertical height profiles of point density and relative RGB brightness. Changes in canopy relative greenness were highly correlated (R2 = 0.88) with MODIS NDVI time series for the same area and vertical differences in canopy color revealed the early green up of the dominant canopy species, Liriodendron tulipifera, strong evidence that Ecosynth time series measurements capture vegetation structural and spectral dynamics at the spatial scale of individual trees. Observing canopy phenology in 3D at high temporal resolutions represents a breakthrough in forest ecology. Inexpensive user-deployed technologies for

  17. Three-dimensional quantification of vorticity and helicity from 3D cine PC-MRI using finite-element interpolations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Julio; Urbina, Jesús; Valverde, Israel; Mura, Joaquín; Tejos, Cristián; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Andia, Marcelo E; Hurtado, Daniel E; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    We propose a 3D finite-element method for the quantification of vorticity and helicity density from 3D cine phase-contrast (PC) MRI. By using a 3D finite-element method, we seamlessly estimate velocity gradients in 3D. The robustness and convergence were analyzed using a combined Poiseuille and Lamb-Ossen equation. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was used to compared our method with others available in the literature. Additionally, we computed 3D maps for different 3D cine PC-MRI data sets: phantom without and with coarctation (18 healthy volunteers and 3 patients). We found a good agreement between our method and both the analytical solution of the combined Poiseuille and Lamb-Ossen. The computational fluid dynamics results showed that our method outperforms current approaches to estimate vorticity and helicity values. In the in silico model, we observed that for a tetrahedral element of 2 mm of characteristic length, we underestimated the vorticity in less than 5% with respect to the analytical solution. In patients, we found higher values of helicity density in comparison to healthy volunteers, associated with vortices in the lumen of the vessels. We proposed a novel method that provides entire 3D vorticity and helicity density maps, avoiding the used of reformatted 2D planes from 3D cine PC-MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:541-553, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Report on 1981 research result on the R and D of three-dimensional circuit element; 1981 nendo sanjigen kairo soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the efficient R and D of three-dimensional circuit element technologies (laminated high density integrated element technology, laminated high-speed multi-functional integrated element technology, and laminated large capacity multi-functional integrated element technology), conducted were the survey of domestic and overseas technological trend, investigation of progress status of R and D, and extraction and analysis of problems concerning R and D. In the technological trend survey, the technologies that could sprout in the future were investigated and examined. In addition, examined as much as possible at the present time were the appearance as a device imaginable at the time of the development of the three-dimensional circuit element technology, the point at issue, essential technologies for the development of the element, etc., with the results reported. A report was made on the technology of obtaining a silicon crystal layer on an insulating object. The status quo of a technology for forming an insulated film suitable for a silicon multi-layer structure and of a technology for forming an electrode material was explained, as was a layer forming technology for an insulating object and a metallic material concerning a compound semiconductor layer technology. With the present status summarized on an image sensor in two dimensions, the transmission electron microscope method was introduced. Last of all, investigation results were compiled on the state of progress of each research for the three-dimensional circuit element technology. (NEDO)

  19. Three-dimensional cellular automaton-finite element modeling of solidification grain structures for arc-welding processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shijia; Guillemot, Gildas; Gandin, Charles-André

    2016-01-01

    Solidification grain structure has significant impact on the final properties of welded parts using fusion welding processes. Direct simulation of grain structure at industrial scale is yet rarely reported in the literature and remains a challenge. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled Cellular Automaton (CA) – Finite Element (FE) model is presented that predicts the grain structure formation during multiple passes Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The FE model is established in a level set (LS) approach that tracks the evolution of the metal-shielding gas interface due to the addition of metal. The FE method solves the mass, energy and momentum conservation equations for the metal plus shielding gas system based on an adaptive mesh (FE mesh). Fields are projected in a second FE mesh, named CA mesh. A CA grid made of a regular lattice of cubic cells is created to overlay the fixed CA mesh. The CA model based on the CA grid simulates the melting and growth of the grain boundaries in the liquid pool. In order to handle large computational domains while keeping reasonable computational costs, parallel computations and dynamic strategies for the allocation/deallocation of the CA grid are introduced. These strategies correspond to significant optimizations of the computer memories that are demonstrated. The 3D CAFE model is first applied to the simple configuration of single linear passes by GTAW of a duplex stainless steel URANUS 2202. It is then applied to a more persuasive example considering GMAW in spray transfer mode during multiple passes to fill a V-groove chamfer. Simulations reveal the possibility to handle domains with millions of grains in representative domain sizes while following the formation of textures that result from the growth competition among columnar grains. -- Graphical abstract: Simulated 3D grain structure (3D CAFE model) for GTAW multiple linear passes at the surface of a duplex stainless steel (URANUS 22002

  20. Three-Dimensional Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated

  1. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect:stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional finite element simulation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-dong Piao; Kun Yang; Peng Li; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the mag-nitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain; however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. There-fore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional ifnite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 ifnite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These ifndings indicate that three-dimensional ifnite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anas-tomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  2. Autologous nerve graft repair of different degrees of sciatic nerve defect: stress and displacement at the anastomosis in a three-dimensional fnite element simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-dong Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.

  3. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  4. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Chaitanya Kanneganti; Dileep Nag Vinnakota; Srinivas Rao Pottem; Mahesh Pulagam

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled t...

  5. Study on prestressed concrete reactor vessel structures. II-5: Crack analysis by three dimensional finite elements method of 1/20 multicavity type PCRV subjected to internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite elements analysis is reported of the nonlinear behavior of PCRV subjected to internal pressure by comparing calculated results with test results. As the first stage, an analysis considering the nonlinearity of cracking in concrete was attempted. As a result, it is found possible to make an analysis up to three times the design pressure (50 kg/sqcm), and calculated results agree well with test results.

  6. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During, D. N.; Ziegler, A.; Thompson, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions: Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological...... and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency...

  7. Three-dimensional investigation of the texture and microstructure below a nanoindent in a Cu single crystal using 3D EBSD and crystal plasticity finite element simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaafarani, N.; Raabe, D.; Singh, R.N.; Roters, F.; Zaefferer, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a three-dimensional (3D) study of the microstructure and texture below a conical nanoindent in a (111) Cu single crystal at nanometer-scale resolution. The experiments are conducted using a joint high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy/electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) set-up coupled with serial sectioning in a focused ion beam system in the form of a cross-beam 3D crystal orientation microscope (3D EBSD). The experiments (conducted in sets of subsequent (112-bar ) cross-section planes) reveal a pronounced deformation-induced 3D patterning of the lattice rotations below the indent. In the cross-section planes perpendicular to the (111) surface plane below the indenter tip the observed deformation-induced rotation pattern is characterized by an outer tangent zone with large absolute values of the rotations and an inner zone closer to the indenter axis with small rotations. The mapping of the rotation directions reveals multiple transition regimes with steep orientation gradients and frequent changes in sign. The experiments are compared to 3D elastic-viscoplastic crystal plasticity finite element simulations adopting the geometry and boundary conditions of the experiments. The simulations show a similar pattern for the absolute orientation changes but they fail to predict the fine details of the patterning of the rotation directions with the frequent changes in sign observed in the experiment. Also the simulations overemphasize the magnitude of the rotation field tangent to the indenter relative to that directly below the indenter tip

  8. Experiment of flow regime map and local condensing heat transfer coefficients inside three dimensional inner microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Xin, Ming Dao

    1999-03-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube. The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper. The flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow, stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically carried out. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out. As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes, those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region, 38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75% for the intermittent flow, respectively. The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1.8-6.9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  9. ACCEPT: a three-dimensional finite element program for large deformation elastic-plastic-creep analysis of pressurized tubes (LWBR/AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutula, D.N.; Wiancko, B.E.

    1980-03-01

    ACCEPT is a three-dimensional finite element computer program for analysis of large-deformation elastic-plastic-creep response of Zircaloy tubes subjected to temperature, surface pressures, and axial force. A twenty-mode, tri-quadratic, isoparametric element is used along with a Zircaloy materials model. A linear time-incremental procedure with residual force correction is used to solve for the time-dependent response. The program features an algorithm which automatically chooses the time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution. A contact-separation capability allows modeling of interaction of reactor fuel rod cladding with fuel pellets or external supports

  10. Study of a method to solve the one speed, three dimensional transport equation using the finite element method and the associated Legendre function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.

    1991-01-01

    A method to solve three dimensional neutron transport equation and it is based on the original work suggested by J.K. Fletcher (42, 43). The angular dependence of the flux is approximated by associated Legendre functions and the finite element method is applied to the space components is presented. When the angular flux, the scattering cross section and the neutrons source are expanded in associated Legendre functions, the first order neutron transport equation is reduced to a coupled set of second order diffusion like equations. These equations are solved in an iterative way by the finite element method to the moments. (author)

  11. The analysis of three-dimensional effects of nitanium palatal expander 2 and hyrax maxillary expansion appliances on craniofacial structures: A finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze three-dimensional effects of stress distribution and displacement on the craniofacial structures, following the application of forces from Nitanium Palatal Expander 2 (NPE2 and Hyrax appliance in early mixed dentition period using finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of the young dried human skull, NPE2 and Hyrax were constructed, and the initial activation of the expanders was simulated to carry out the analysis and to evaluate the von misses stresses and displacement on the craniofacial structures. Results: Both the models demonstrated the highest stresses at the mid-palatal suture, with maximum posterior dislocation. The inferior nasal floor showed highest downward displacement and point A showed outward, backward, and upward displacement in both the models. The pattern of stress distribution was almost similar in both the groups, but NPE2 revealed lower magnitude stresses than Hyrax. The cusp of the erupting canine and the mesiobuccal cusp of the second molar showed outward, backward, and downward displacement signifying eruption pattern following maxillary expansion. Conclusions: Nickel titanium palatal expander-2 and Hyrax produced similar stress pattern in early mixed dentition period finite element model. We conclude from this finite element method study that NPE2 is equally effective as Hyrax when used in early mixed dentition period as it exhibits orthopedic nature of expansion with minimal residual stresses in the craniofacial structures.

  12. A Dataset for Three-Dimensional Distribution of 39 Elements Including Plant Nutrients and Other Metals and Metalloids in the Soils of a Forested Headwater Catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Wiekenkamp, I; Sun, Y; Fisher, A S; Clough, R; Gottselig, N; Bogena, H; Pütz, T; Brüggemann, N; Vereecken, H; Bol, R

    2017-11-01

    Quantification and evaluation of elemental distribution in forested ecosystems are key requirements to understand element fluxes and their relationship with hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the system. However, datasets supporting such a study on the catchment scale are still limited. Here we provide a dataset comprising spatially highly resolved distributions of 39 elements in soil profiles of a small forested headwater catchment in western Germany () to gain a holistic picture of the state and fluxes of elements in the catchment. The elements include both plant nutrients and other metals and metalloids that were predominately derived from lithospheric or anthropogenic inputs, thereby allowing us to not only capture the nutrient status of the catchment but to also estimate the functional development of the ecosystem. Soil samples were collected at high lateral resolution (≤60 m), and element concentrations were determined vertically for four soil horizons (L/Of, Oh, A, B). From this, a three-dimensional view of the distribution of these elements could be established with high spatial resolution on the catchment scale in a temperate natural forested ecosystem. The dataset can be combined with other datasets and studies of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) Data Discovery Portal () to reveal elemental fluxes, establish relations between elements and other soil properties, and/or as input for modeling elemental cycling in temperate forested ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  14. Test Functions for Three-Dimensional Control-Volume Mixed Finite-Element Methods on Irregular Grids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naff, R. L; Russell, T. F; Wilson, J. D

    2000-01-01

    .... For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error...

  15. The Importance of a Conchal Bowl Element in the Fabrication of a Three-Dimensional Framework in Total Auricular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background  To construct a sophisticated three-dimensionalframework, numerousmodifications have been reported in the literature. However, mostsurgeons have paid little attentionto the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness,leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.Methods  For a configuration ofthe concha thatis definitely anatomical,the authorfurtherdeveloped and employed the conchal bowl element,which has been used by severalsurgeonsalthough the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchalbowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: oneblock,two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricularreconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliestreconstructionswere performedwithout a conchal bowl element and the latter 12with a conchalbowl element. The patientswere followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic resultswerescored by evaluating characteristicsinvolving the stability ofthe crus helicis,the conchal definition, and the smoothness ofthe helical curve.Results  The earsreconstructed earlywithout a conchal bowl elementshowed a shallowandone or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. Theyalso did not have a realistic orsmooth curve ofthe helix because of an unstable crus helicis.However, earsreconstructed laterwith the concha bowl elementshowed a definite crus helicis,deep cymba conchalspace, and smooth helical curve.Conclusions  The construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consumingprocedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attachedto themain framework for natural configuration ofthe reconstructed ear.

  16. A combined application of boundary-element and Runge-Kutta methods in three-dimensional elasticity and poroelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igumnov Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.

  17. [Three-dimensional finite element modeling and biomechanical simulation for evaluating and improving postoperative internal instrumentation of neck-thoracic vertebral tumor en bloc resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinghua, Zhao; Jipeng, Li; Yongxing, Zhang; He, Liang; Xuepeng, Wang; Peng, Yan; Xiaofeng, Wu

    2015-04-07

    To employ three-dimensional finite element modeling and biomechanical simulation for evaluating the stability and stress conduction of two postoperative internal fixed modeling-multilevel posterior instrumentation ( MPI) and MPI with anterior instrumentation (MPAI) with neck-thoracic vertebral tumor en bloc resection. Mimics software and computed tomography (CT) images were used to establish the three-dimensional (3D) model of vertebrae C5-T2 and simulated the C7 en bloc vertebral resection for MPI and MPAI modeling. Then the statistics and images were transmitted into the ANSYS finite element system and 20N distribution load (simulating body weight) and applied 1 N · m torque on neutral point for simulating vertebral displacement and stress conduction and distribution of motion mode, i. e. flexion, extension, bending and rotating. With a better stability, the displacement of two adjacent vertebral bodies of MPI and MPAI modeling was less than that of complete vertebral modeling. No significant differences existed between each other. But as for stress shielding effect reduction, MPI was slightly better than MPAI. From biomechanical point of view, two internal instrumentations with neck-thoracic tumor en bloc resection may achieve an excellent stability with no significant differences. But with better stress conduction, MPI is more advantageous in postoperative reconstruction.

  18. A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comet, Itys; Schuettengruber, Bernd; Sexton, Tom

    2011-01-01

    to insulate genes from regulatory elements or to take part in long-distance interactions. Using a high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (H3C) method, we show that the Drosophila gypsy insulator behaves as a conformational chromatin border that is able to prohibit contacts between a Polycomb response...... element (PRE) and a distal promoter. On the other hand, two spaced gypsy elements form a chromatin loop that is able to bring an upstream PRE in contact with a downstream gene to mediate its repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) profiles of the Polycomb protein and its associated H3K27me3...... histone mark reflect this insulator-dependent chromatin conformation, suggesting that Polycomb action at a distance can be organized by local chromatin topology....

  19. Time-resolved three-dimensional magnetic resonance velocity mapping of chronic thoracic aortic dissection. A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Sekine, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Keiji; Takagi, Ryo; Kumita, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2011-01-01

    The blood flow patterns of chronic thoracic aortic dissection are complicated, and their clinical significance remains unknown. We evaluated the technical and clinical potentials of time-resolved 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping for assessing these patterns. We used data collected from time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MR imaging of 16 patients with chronic thoracic aortic dissection to generate time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping that included 3D streamline and path line. We investigated blood flow patterns of this disease in the mapping and compared them with the morphological changes of the patent false lumen. Time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping visualized rapid flow at the entry and in the true lumen immediately distal to the entry. We observed slower helical or laminar flow in the patent false lumen. In patients with disease progression, slower helical flow following rapid entry jet collided with the outer wall of the false lumen and was also observed in a growing ulcer-like projection. We showed the potential of time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping for visualizing pathologic flow patterns related to chronic thoracic aortic dissection. (author)

  20. A three-dimensional thermal finite element analysis of AISI 304 stainless steel and copper dissimilar weldment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Saxena, Ravindra K.; Pandey, Sunil

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study to developed a 3-D thermal finite element model for dissimilar material welding of AISI-304 stainless steel and copper. Welding of similar material is widely studied using experimental and numerical methods but the problem becomes trivial for the welding of dissimilar materials especially in ferrous and nonferrous materials. Finite element analysis of dissimilar material welding is a cost-effective method for the understanding and analysis of the process. The finite element analysis has been performed to predict the heat affected zone and temperature distribution in AISI-304 stainless steel and copper dissimilar weldment using MSC Marc 2017®. Due to the difference in physical properties of these materials the behavior of heat affected zone and temperature distribution are perceived to be different. To verify the accuracy of the thermal finite element model, the welding process was simulated with butt-welded joints having same dimensions and parameters from Attarha and Far [1]. It is found from the study that the heat affected zone is larger in copper weld pads than in AISI 304 stainless steel due to large difference in thermal conductivity of these two weld pads.

  1. Finite-element formulations for the thermal stress analysis of two- and three-dimensional thin ractor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Kennedy, J.M.; Belytschko, T.B.; Schoeberle, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes finite-element formulations for the thermal stress analysis of LMFBR structures. The first formulation is applicable to large displacement rotation problems in which the strains are small. For this formulation, a general temperature-dependent constituent relationship is derived from a Gibbs potential function and a temperature dependent yield surface. The temperature dependency of the yield surface is based upon a temperature-dependent, material-hardening model. The model uses a temperature-equivalent stress-plastic strain diagram which is generated from isothermal uniaxial stress-strain data. A second formulation is presented for problems characterized by both large displacement-rotations and large strains. Here a set of large strain hypoelastic-plastic relationships are developed to linearly relate the rate of stress to the rate of deformation. The temperature field is described through time-dependent values at mesh node points; the temperature fields in each element are then obtained by interpolation formulas. Hence, problems with both spatial and temporal dependent temperature fields can easily be treated. The above developments were incorporated into two ANL developed finite-element computer codes: the implicit version of STRAW and the 3D Implicit Structural Analysis Code. STRAW is a two-dimensional code with a plane stress/plane strain beam element. The 3D Implicit code has a triangular flat plate element which is capable of sustaining both membrane and bending loads. To insure numerical stability both codes are based on an iterative-incremental solution procedure with equilibrium checks based on an error in energy

  2. A homologous mapping method for three-dimensional reconstruction of protein networks reveals disease-associated mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sing-Han; Lo, Yu-Shu; Luo, Yong-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Yao; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2018-03-19

    One of the crucial steps toward understanding the associations among molecular interactions, pathways, and diseases in a cell is to investigate detailed atomic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in the structural interactome. Despite the availability of large-scale methods for analyzing PPI networks, these methods often focused on PPI networks using genome-scale data and/or known experimental PPIs. However, these methods are unable to provide structurally resolved interaction residues and their conservations in PPI networks. Here, we reconstructed a human three-dimensional (3D) structural PPI network (hDiSNet) with the detailed atomic binding models and disease-associated mutations by enhancing our PPI families and 3D-domain interologs from 60,618 structural complexes and complete genome database with 6,352,363 protein sequences across 2274 species. hDiSNet is a scale-free network (γ = 2.05), which consists of 5177 proteins and 19,239 PPIs with 5843 mutations. These 19,239 structurally resolved PPIs not only expanded the number of PPIs compared to present structural PPI network, but also achieved higher agreement with gene ontology similarities and higher co-expression correlation than the ones of 181,868 experimental PPIs recorded in public databases. Among 5843 mutations, 1653 and 790 mutations involved in interacting domains and contacting residues, respectively, are highly related to diseases. Our hDiSNet can provide detailed atomic interactions of human disease and their associated proteins with mutations. Our results show that the disease-related mutations are often located at the contacting residues forming the hydrogen bonds or conserved in the PPI family. In addition, hDiSNet provides the insights of the FGFR (EGFR)-MAPK pathway for interpreting the mechanisms of breast cancer and ErbB signaling pathway in brain cancer. Our results demonstrate that hDiSNet can explore structural-based interactions insights for understanding the mechanisms of disease

  3. Finite-element formulations for the thermal stress analysis of two- and three-dimensional thin reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Kennedy, J.M.; Belytschko, T.B.; Schoeberle, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes finite-element formulations for the thermal stress analysis of LMFBR structures. The first formulation is applicable to large displacement rotation problems in which the strains are small. For this formulation, a general temperature-dependent constituent relationship is derived from a Gibbs potential and a temperature dependent surface. A second formulation is presented for problems characterized by both large displacement-rotations and large strains. Here a set of large strain hypoelastic-plastic relationships are developed to linearly relate the rate of stress to the rate of deformation. These developments were incorporated into two ANL developed finite-element computer codes: the implicit version of STRAW and the 3D Implicit Structural Analaysis code. A set of problems is presented to validate both the 3D and 2D programs and to illustrate their applicability to a variety of problems. (Auth.)

  4. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation with Optimal Positioning of a Bone Graft Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schuller-Götzburg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the computational 3D-finite element study is to evaluate the influence of an augmented sinus lift with additional inserted bone grafting. The bone graft block stabilizes the implant in conjunction with conventional bone augmentation. Two finite element models were applied: the real geometry based bone models and the simplified geometry models. The bone graft block was placed in three different positions. The implants were loaded first with an axial force and then with forces simulating laterotrusion and protrusion. This study examines whether the calculated stress behavior is symmetrical for both models. Having established a symmetry between the primary axis, the laterotrusion and protrusion behavior reduces calculation efforts, by simplifying the model. Material and Methods: a simplified U-shaped 3D finite element model of the molar region of the upper jaw and a more complex anatomical model of the left maxilla with less cortical bone were created. The bone graft block was placed in the maxillary sinus. Then the von Mises stress distribution was calculated and analyzed at three block positions: at contact with the sinus floor, in the middle of the implant helix and in the upper third of the implant. The two finite element models were then compared to simplify the modelling. Results: the position of the bone graft block significantly influences the magnitude of stress distribution. A bone graft block positioned in the upper third or middle of the implant reduces the quantity of stress compared to the reference model without a bone graft block. The low bone graft block position is clearly associated with lower stress distribution in compact bone. We registered no significant differences in stress in compact bone with regard to laterotrusion or protrusion. Conclusions: maximum values of von Mises stresses in compact bone can be reduced significantly by using a bone graft block. The reduction of stress is nearly the same for

  5. Automatic Mapping of Forest Stands Based on Three-Dimensional Point Clouds Derived from Terrestrial Laser-Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ritter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of exact tree positions can be regarded as a crucial task of field work associated with forest monitoring, especially on intensive research plots. We propose a two-stage density clustering approach for the automatic mapping of tree positions, and an algorithm for automatic tree diameter estimates based on terrestrial laser-scanning (TLS point cloud data sampled under limited sighting conditions. We show that our novel approach is able to detect tree positions in a mixed and vertically structured stand with an overall accuracy of 91.6%, and with omission- and commission error of only 5.7% and 2.7% respectively. Moreover, we were able to reproduce the stand’s diameter in breast height (DBH distribution, and to estimate single trees DBH with a mean average deviation of ±2.90 cm compared with tape measurements as reference.

  6. A grid-doubling finite-element technique for calculating dynamic three-dimensional spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We present a new finite-element technique for calculating dynamic 3-D spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault, which can reduce the required computational resources by a factor of six or more, without loss of accuracy. The grid-doubling technique employs small cells in a thin layer surrounding the fault. The remainder of the modelling volume is filled with larger cells, typically two or four times as large as the small cells. In the resulting non-conforming mesh, an interpolation method is used to join the thin layer of smaller cells to the volume of larger cells. Grid-doubling is effective because spontaneous rupture calculations typically require higher spatial resolution on and near the fault than elsewhere in the model volume. The technique can be applied to non-planar faults by morphing, or smoothly distorting, the entire mesh to produce the desired 3-D fault geometry. Using our FaultMod finite-element software, we have tested grid-doubling with both slip-weakening and rate-and-state friction laws, by running the SCEC/USGS 3-D dynamic rupture benchmark problems. We have also applied it to a model of the Hayward fault, Northern California, which uses realistic fault geometry and rock properties. FaultMod implements fault slip using common nodes, which represent motion common to both sides of the fault, and differential nodes, which represent motion of one side of the fault relative to the other side. We describe how to modify the traction-at-split-nodes method to work with common and differential nodes, using an implicit time stepping algorithm.

  7. Three-dimensional optical micro-angiography maps directional blood perfusion deep within microcirculation tissue beds in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruikang K [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97237 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    Optical micro-angiography (OMAG) is a recently developed method of imaging localized blood perfusion at capillary level resolution within microcirculatory beds. This paper reports that the OMAG is capable of directional blood perfusion mapping in vivo. This is achieved simply by translating the mirror located in the reference arm back and forth while 3D imaging is performed. The mirror which moves toward the incident beam gives the blood perfusion that flows away from the beam direction and vice versa. The approach is experimentally demonstrated by imaging of a flow phantom and then cerebro-vascular perfusion of a live mouse with cranium intact.

  8. Three-dimensional trend mapping using gamma-ray well logs: Simpson Group, south-central Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doveton, J.H.; Davis, J.C.; Zhu Ke-an

    1984-01-01

    Gamma-ray logs are useful indicators of shale content as a function of depth. When several gamma-ray logs are drawn from an area, they may be interpreted in terms of shale variation in the 3 dimensions of geographic space and depth. (For several years, statistical moments of logs have been mapped as an expression of major trends of depth variation in lithologic development across an area. Moments have the additional valuable property that they also define unique polynomial trends as a function of depth. This property allows the interpolation of moments between well control to generate a 3-dimensional grid of shale referenced to any location and depth. The method was applied to the Simpson Group (Ordovician) of southcentral Kansas. Graphic results of the study outline the shapes of major sandstone and shale bodies in a series of cross sections.) The areal disposition of the initial transgressive sandstone is revealed on a basal slice map. The method is general and can be used in conjunction with other logs. As an example, use of either a neutron, density, or sonic log could be applied to 3-dimensional trend representations of porosity variation in reservoir units

  9. Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Distal Abutment Stresses of Removable Partial Dentures with Different Retainer Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrati, Simindokht; Heidari, Fatemeh; Kashani, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated). Materials and Methods: A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated); 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software. Results: In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate. Conclusion: We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis. PMID:26884772

  10. Three-dimensional finite element nonlinear dynamic analysis of pile groups for lateral transient and seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, B.K.; Truman, K.Z.; El Naggar, M.H.; Gould, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of material nonlinearity of soil and separation at the soil-pile interface on the dynamic behaviour of a single pile and pile groups are investigated. An advanced plasticity-based soil model, hierarchical single surface (HiSS), is incorporated in the finite element formulation. To simulate radiation effects, proper boundary conditions are used. The model and algorithm are verified with analytical results that are available for elastic and elastoplastic soil models. Analyses are performed for seismic excitation and for the load applied on the pile cap. For seismic analysis, both harmonic and transient excitations are considered. For loading on the pile cap, dynamic stiffness of the soil-pile system is derived and the effect of nonlinearity is investigated. The effects of spacing between piles are investigated, and it was found that the effect of soil nonlinearity on the seismic response is very much dependent on the frequency of excitation. For the loading on a pile cap, the nonlinearity increases the response for most of the frequencies of excitation while decreasing the dynamic stiffness of the soil-pile system. (author)

  11. Comparative three-dimensional finite element analysis of implant-supported fixed complete arch mandibular prostheses in two materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; de Morais, Dayana Campanelli; Alonso, Alexandre Abhdala; Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal; Borges, Alexandre Luis Souto

    2017-01-01

    The increase of requests for implant-supported prosthesis (ISP) with zirconia as infrastructure has attracted a lot of attention due to its esthetics, biocompatibility, and survival rate similar to metallic infrastructure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different framework materials on stress distribution over a bone tissue-simulating material. Two ISP were modeled and divided into two infrastructure materials: titanium (Ti) and zirconia. Then, these bars were attached to a modeled jaw with polyurethane properties to simulate bone tissue. An axial load of 200 N was applied on a standardized area for both systems. Maximum principal stress (MPS) on solids and microstrain (MS) generated through the jaw were analyzed by finite element analysis. According to MS, both models showed strains on peri-implant region of the penultimate (same side of the load application) and central implants. For MPS, more stress concentration was slightly higher in the left posterior region for Ti's bar. In prosthetic fixation screws, the MPS prevailed strongly in Ti protocol, while for zirconia's bar, the cervical of the penultimate implant was the one that highlighted larger areas of possible damages. The stress generated in all constituents of the system was not significantly influenced by the framework's material. This allows suggesting that in cases without components, the use of a framework in zirconia has biomechanical behavior similar to that of a Ti bar.

  12. Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Distal Abutment Stresses of Removable Partial Dentures with Different Retainer Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrati, Simindokht; Bahrami, Mehran; Heidari, Fatemeh; Kashani, Jamal

    2015-06-01

    This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated). A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated); 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software. In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate. We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis.

  13. Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Distal Abutment Stresses of Removable Partial Dentures with Different Retainer Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simindokht Zarrati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated.Materials and Methods: A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated; 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software.Results: In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate.Conclusion: We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis.      

  14. No-load loss calculation of distribution transformers supplied by nonsinusoidal voltage using three-dimensional finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani-Asrami, Mohammad; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Shayegani Akmal, Amir Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Transformers are basically designed to operate under nominal voltage, rated frequency and also, pure sinusoidal load current. In recent decade, change in the type of loads and increasing use of power electronic devices with their nonsinusoidal current waveform has distorted the system voltage waveform as well. The losses of transformers include load and no-load losses. No-load loss continuously led to loss of energy in transformers that are connected to the network in all 24 h. With respect to high significance of energy and undesirable impacts of losses on the aging of transformers, the no-load loss is considered as a critical factor. Nowadays, it is necessary to apply a suitable method for calculation of no-load loss in presence of the voltage harmonics and over-excite conditions, especially for distribution transformers, as a result of harmonic increase in the voltage and current in the network and particular applications. In this paper, Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used to simulate nonsinusoidal voltage effects on no-load loss of transformers. Such simulation enables the software to simulate and analyze different electromagnetic parameters such as flux lines, flux density, losses, and etc under different input sources and with high accuracy. In addition, effect of nonsinusoidal voltages on no-load loss has been investigated by a typical experimental transformer using several practical tests. - Highlights: ► FEM has been employed to loss calculation of distribution transformer under distorted voltages. ► This method gives accurate results in comparison with standard or circuit based methods. ► A new version of 3D FEM has been used, this approach is electromagnetic based. ► In literature, FEM always used for study of transformer load loss and most of them based on magneto-static FEM. ► FEM results are validated by experiment for small test transformer

  15. A three-dimensional finite element analysis for overdenture attachments supported by teeth and/or mini dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Du, Tianfeng; Cao, Yingguang

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the optimum design and attachment combination to support an overdenture with minimal stress and flexing produced in the alveolar bone surrounding any natural teeth and/or mini dental implants. Twelve models were included in the study: the six main models (A, B, C, D, E, and F) were categorized according to the support designs of the overdenture prosthesis, and each model was further subdivided according to the attachment combinations into model 1: with Dalbo elliptic and/or O-ring attachments only and model 2: with flexible acrylic attachments. Vertical loads (35 N) and 17.5 N lateral loads under static conditions were applied to the models to simulate the occlusal forces following the concept of lingualized occlusion. All conditions were created using a finite element software program. Maximum von Mises stress at the level of the attachments and at the bone support foundation interfaces were compared in all 12 models. The flexing of the mandible and the attachments were also compared qualitatively. Stress on these models was analyzed after the given loading condition. The results showed that the model with three freestanding mini dental implants and flexible acrylic attachments showed the lowest von Mises stress and flexing, while the models with four freestanding mini dental implants and O-ring attachments showed the highest von Mises stress. Three freestanding mini dental implants with flexible acrylic attachment systems supporting an overdenture were better choices than four mini dental implants with O-ring attachment systems, which showed the maximum flexing and stress values in this qualitative comparison. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Three-Dimensional Electroanatomic Mapping System-Enhanced Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Device Implantation: Results From a Multicenter Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Greco, Maurizio; Maines, Massimiliano; Marini, Massimiliano; Colella, Andrea; Zecchin, Massimo; Vitali-Serdoz, Laura; Blandino, Alessandro; Barbonaglia, Lorella; Allocca, Giuseppe; Mureddu, Roberto; Marenna, Biondino; Rossi, Paolo; Vaccari, Diego; Chianca, Roberto; Indiani, Stefano; DI Matteo, Irene; Angheben, Carlo; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation guided by an electroanatomic mapping system (EAMS) is an emerging technique that may reduce fluoroscopy and angiography use and provide information on coronary sinus (CS) electrical activation. We evaluated the outcome of the EAMS-guided CRT implantation technique in a multicenter registry. During the period 2011-2014 we enrolled 125 patients (80% males, age 74 [71-77] years) who underwent CRT implantation by using the EnSite system to create geometric models of the patient's cardiac chambers, build activation mapping of the CS, and guide leads positioning. Two hundred and fifty patients undergoing traditional CRT implantation served as controls. Success and complication rates, fluoroscopy and total procedure times in the overall study population and according to center experience were collected. Centers that performed ≥10 were defined as highly experienced. Left ventricular lead implantation was successful in 122 (98%) cases and 242 (97%) controls (P = 0.76). Median fluoroscopy time was 4.1 (0.3-10.4) minutes in cases versus 16 (11-26) minutes in controls (P < 0.001). Coronary sinus angiography was performed in 33 (26%) cases and 208 (83%) controls (P < 0.001). Complications occurred in 5 (4%) cases and 17 (7%) controls (P = 0.28). Median fluoroscopy time (median 11 minutes vs. 3 minutes, P < 0.001) and CS angiography rate (55% vs. 21%, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in low experienced centers, while success rate and complications rate were similar. EAMS-guided CRT implantation proved safe and effective in both high- and low-experienced centers and allowed to reduce fluoroscopy use by ≈75% and angiography rate by ≈70%. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Human vocal tract resonances and the corresponding mode shapes investigated by three-dimensional finite-element modelling based on CT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampola, Tomáš; Horáček, Jaromír; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Švec, Jan G

    2015-04-01

    Resonance frequencies of the vocal tract have traditionally been modelled using one-dimensional models. These cannot accurately represent the events in the frequency region of the formant cluster around 2.5-4.5 kHz, however. Here, the vocal tract resonance frequencies and their mode shapes are studied using a three-dimensional finite element model obtained from computed tomography measurements of a subject phonating on vowel [a:]. Instead of the traditional five, up to eight resonance frequencies of the vocal tract were found below the prominent antiresonance around 4.7 kHz. The three extra resonances were found to correspond to modes which were axially asymmetric and involved the piriform sinuses, valleculae, and transverse vibrations in the oral cavity. The results therefore suggest that the phenomenon of speaker's and singer's formant clustering may be more complex than originally thought.

  18. Comparison of finite element and influence function methods for three-dimensional elastic analysis of boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle cracks. Phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Caughey, W.R.

    1976-11-01

    The finite element (FE) and influence function (IF) methods are compared for a three-dimensional elastic analysis of postulated circular-shaped surface cracks in the feedwater nozzle of a typical boiling water reactor (BWR). These are two of the possible methods for determining stress intensity factors for nozzle corner cracks. The FE method is incorporated in a direct manner. The IF method is used to compute stress intensity factors only when the uncracked stress field (i.e., the stress in the uncracked solid at the locus of the crack to be eventually considered) has been computed previously. Both the IF and FE methods are described in detail and are applied to several test cases chosen for their similarity to the nozzle crack problem and for the availablility of an accurate published result obtained from some recognized third method of solution

  19. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis of the cellular convection phenomena in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant prototype pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.H.; Lee, J.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Cellular convection was studied rigorously during the development of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Program Pumps. This paper presents the development of a three-dimensional finite-element heat transfer model which accounts for the cellular convection phenomena. A buoyancy driven cellular convection flow pattern is introduced in the annulus region between the upper inner structure and the pump tank. Steady-state thermal data were obtained for several test conditions for argon gas pressures up to 93 psig (741 kPa) and sodium operating temperatures to 1000 0 F (811 0 K). Test temperature distributions on the pump tank and inner structure were correlated with numerical results and excellent agreement was obtained

  20. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-05-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper 300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest ( 0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  1. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-01-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper ~300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest (~0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  2. Size-dependent endocytosis of gold nanoparticles studied by three-dimensional mapping of plasmonic scattering images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chia-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the endocytosis process of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs is important for the drug delivery and photodynamic therapy applications. The endocytosis in living cells is usually studied by fluorescent microscopy. The fluorescent labeling suffers from photobleaching. Besides, quantitative estimation of the cellular uptake is not easy. In this paper, the size-dependent endocytosis of AuNPs was investigated by using plasmonic scattering images without any labeling. Results The scattering images of AuNPs and the vesicles were mapped by using an optical sectioning microscopy with dark-field illumination. AuNPs have large optical scatterings at 550-600 nm wavelengths due to localized surface plasmon resonances. Using an enhanced contrast between yellow and blue CCD images, AuNPs can be well distinguished from cellular organelles. The tracking of AuNPs coated with aptamers for surface mucin glycoprotein shows that AuNPs attached to extracellular matrix and moved towards center of the cell. Most 75-nm-AuNPs moved to the top of cells, while many 45-nm-AuNPs entered cells through endocytosis and accumulated in endocytic vesicles. The amounts of cellular uptake decreased with the increase of particle size. Conclusions We quantitatively studied the endocytosis of AuNPs with different sizes in various cancer cells. The plasmonic scattering images confirm the size-dependent endocytosis of AuNPs. The 45-nm-AuNP is better for drug delivery due to its higher uptake rate. On the other hand, large AuNPs are immobilized on the cell membrane. They can be used to reconstruct the cell morphology.

  3. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  4. Three-dimensional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toga, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on new neuroimaging technologies that are revolutionizing the study of the brain be enabling investigators to visualize its structure and entire pattern of functional activity in three dimensions. The book provides a theoretical and practical explanation of the new science of creating three-dimensional computer images of the brain. The coverage includes a review of the technology and methodology of neuroimaging, the instrumentation and procedures, issues of quantification, analytic protocols, and descriptions of neuroimaging systems. Examples are given to illustrate the use of three-dimensional enuroimaging to quantitate spatial measurements, perform analysis of autoradiographic and histological studies, and study the relationship between brain structure and function

  5. Catheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias under the guidance of the Carto 3 three-dimensional mapping system in an operating room without digital subtraction angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingfu; Chen, Yanjia; Huang, Zheng; He, Liwei; Liu, Shenrong; Deng, Xiaojiang; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Rucheng; Xu, Dingli; Peng, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have reported the efficacy of a zero-fluoroscopy approach for catheter radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias in a digital subtraction angiography (DSA) room. However, no reports are available on the ablation of arrhythmias in the absence of DSA in the operating room. To investigate the efficacy and safety of catheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias under the guidance of a Carto 3 three-dimensional (3D) mapping system in an operating room without DSA. Patients were enrolled according to the type of arrhythmia. The Carto 3 mapping system was used to reconstruct heart models and guide the electrophysiologic examination, mapping, and ablation. The total procedure, reconstruction, electrophysiologic examination, and mapping times were recorded. Furthermore, immediate success rates and complications were also recorded. A total of 20 patients were enrolled, including 12 males. The average age was 51.3 ± 17.2 (19-76) years. Nine cases of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia, 7 cases of frequent ventricular premature contractions, 3 cases of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and 1 case of typical atrial flutter were included. All arrhythmias were successfully ablated. The procedure time was 127.0 ± 21.0 (99-177) minutes, the reconstruction time was 6.5 ± 2.9 (3-14) minutes, the electrophysiologic study time was 10.4 ± 3.4 (6-20) minutes, and the mapping time was 11.7 ± 8.3 (3-36) minutes. No complications occurred. Radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmias without DSA is effective and feasible under the guidance of the Carto 3 mapping system. However, the electrophysiology physician must have sufficient experience, and related emergency measures must be present to ensure safety.

  6. PLOT3D (version-5): a computer code for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps and histograms, in single or multiple colours, for mono or stereoscopic viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, Balhans

    1987-01-01

    PLOT3D series of graphic codes (version 1 to 5) have been developed for drawing three dimensional graphs, maps, histograms and simple layout diagrams on monochrome or colour raster graphic terminal and plotter. Of these, PLOT3D Version-5 is an advanced code, equipped with several features that make it specially suitable for drawing 3D maps, multicolour 3D and contour graphs, and 3D layout diagrams, in axonometric or perspective projection. Prior to drawing, graphic parameters that define orientation, magnification, smoothening, shading, colour-map, etc. of the figure can be selected interactively by means of simple commands on the user terminal, or by reading those commands from an input data file. This code requires linking with any one of three supporting libraries: PLOT 10 TCS, PLOT 10 IGL, and CALCOMP, and the figure can be plotted in single colour, or displayed in single or multiple colours depending upon the type of library support and output device. Furthermore, this code can also be used to plot left and right eye view projections of 3D figure for composing a stereoscopic image from them with the aid of a viewer. 14 figures. (author)

  7. Evaluation of stress patterns on maxillary posterior segment when intruded with mini implant anchorage: A three-dimensional finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Pekhale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate stress and displacement effects of maxillary posterior intrusion mechanics with mini-implant anchorage by using finite element method. Materials and Methods: A computer stimulation of three-dimensional model maxilla with all teeth, PDL, bone, mini-implants, brackets, arch wire, force element, and transpalatal arch was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology. Finite element analysis was done to evaluate the amount of stress and its distribution during orthodontic intrusive force. Results: Increased Von Mises stress values were observed in mesio-cervical region of first molar. The middle third of second premolar and second molar and regions adjacent to force application sites also showed relatively high stress values. Minimum stress values were observed in apical region of first premolar as it is away from force application. Conclusion: Using three mini-implant and transpalatal arches, this study demonstrates that significant amount of true intrusion of maxillary molars could be obtained with lesser concentration of stresses in the apical area recorded.

  8. Influence of three-dimensional reconstruction method for building a model of the cervical spine on its biomechanical responses: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zafarparandeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In some finite element analysis studies of models of sections of the spine, the three-dimensional solid model is built by assuming symmetry about the mid-sagittal plane of the section, whereas in other studies, the model is built from the exact geometry of the section. The influence of the method used to build the solid model on model parameters, in the case of the cervical spine, has not been reported in the literature. This issue is the subject of this study, with the section being C2–C7, the applied loadings being extension, flexion, left lateral bending, and right axial rotation (each of magnitude 1 Nm, and the model parameters determined being rotation, intradiskal pressure, and facet load at each of the segments. When all the parameter results were considered, it was found that, by and large, the influence of solid model construction method used (exact geometry vs assumption of symmetry about the mid-sagittal plane of the section was marginal. As construction of a symmetric finite element model requires less time and effort, construction of an asymmetric model may be justified in special cases only.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of sagittal maxillary internal distraction osteogenesis in unilateral cleft lip and palate patient and noncleft patients: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez, Sultan; Dogan, Servet; Pekedis, Mahmut; Yildiz, Hasan

    2014-09-01

    To compare the pattern and amount of stress and displacement during maxillary sagittal distraction osteogenesis (DO) between a patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and a noncleft patient. Three-dimensional finite element models for both skulls were constructed. Displacements of the surface landmarks and stress distributions in the circummaxillary sutures were analyzed after an anterior displacement of 6 mm was loaded to the elements where the inferior plates of the distractor were assumed to be fixed and were below the Le Fort I osteotomy line. In sagittal plane, more forward movement was found on the noncleft side in the UCLP model (-6.401 mm on cleft side and -6.651 mm on noncleft side for the central incisor region). However, similar amounts of forward movement were seen in the control model. In the vertical plane, a clockwise rotation occurred in the UCLP model, whereas a counterclockwise rotation was seen in the control model. The mathematical UCLP model also showed higher stress values on the sutura nasomaxillaris, frontonasalis, and zygomatiomaxillaris on the cleft side than on the normal side. Not only did the sagittal distraction forces produce advancement forces at the intermaxillary sutures, but more stress was also present on the sutura nasomaxillaris, sutura frontonasalis, and sutura zygomaticomaxillaris on the cleft side than on the noncleft side.

  10. Three dimensional stress analysis of nozzle-to-shell intersections by the finite element method and a auto-mesh generation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Hirohiko; Ueda, Masahiro

    1975-01-01

    In the design of chemical reactors or nuclear pressure vessels it is often important to evaluate the stress distribution in nozzle-to-shell intersections. The finite element method is a powerful tool for stress analysis, but it has a defects to require troublesome work in preparing input data. Specially, the mesh data of oblique nozzles and tangential nozzles, in which stress concentration is very high, are very difficult to be prepared. The authors made a mesh generation program which can be used to any nozzle-to-shell intersections, and combining this program with a three dimensional stress analysis program by the finite element method they made the stress analysis of nozzle-to-shell intersections under internal pressure. Consequently, stresses, strains and deformations of nozzles nonsymmetrical to spherical shells and nozzles tangential to cylindrical shells were made clear and it was shown that the curvature of the inner surface of the nozzle corner was a controlling factor in reducing stress concentration. (auth.)

  11. Comparing the influence of crestal cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone in posterior maxilla bi-cortical dental implantation: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Zhang, Xinwen; Chi, Weichao; Ai, Hongjun; Wu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the influence of alveolar ridge cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone in sinus areabi-cortical dental implantation by means of 3D finite element analysis. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models in a posterior maxillary region with sinus membrane and the same height of alveolar ridge of 10 mm were generated according to the anatomical data of the sinus area. They were either with fixed thickness of crestal cortical bone and variable thickness of sinus floor cortical bone or vice versa. Ten models were assumed to be under immediate loading or conventional loading. The standard implant model based on the Nobel Biocare implant system was created via computer-aided design software. All materials were assumed to be isotropic and linearly elastic. An inclined force of 129 N was applied. Von Mises stress mainly concentrated on the surface of crestal cortical bone around the implant neck. For all the models, both the axial and buccolingual resonance frequencies of conventional loading were higher than those of immediate loading; however, the difference is less than 5%. The results showed that bi-cortical implant in sinus area increased the stability of the implant, especially for immediately loading implantation. The thickness of both crestal cortical bone and sinus floor cortical bone influenced implant micromotion and stress distribution; however, crestal cortical bone may be more important than sinus floor cortical bone.

  12. Accelerated time-resolved three-dimensional MR velocity mapping of blood flow patterns in the aorta using SENSE and k-t BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Riet, Wilma van der; Crelier, Gerard; Salomonowitz, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and potential limitations of the acceleration techniques SENSE and k-t BLAST for time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) velocity mapping of aortic blood flow. Furthermore, to quantify differences in peak velocity versus heart phase curves. Materials and methods: Time-resolved 3D blood flow patterns were investigated in eleven volunteers and two patients suffering from aortic diseases with accelerated PC-MR sequences either in combination with SENSE (R = 2) or k-t BLAST (6-fold). Both sequences showed similar data acquisition times and hence acceleration efficiency. Flow-field streamlines were calculated and visualized using the GTFlow software tool in order to reconstruct 3D aortic blood flow patterns. Differences between the peak velocities from single-slice PC-MRI experiments using SENSE 2 and k-t BLAST 6 were calculated for the whole cardiac cycle and averaged for all volunteers. Results: Reconstruction of 3D flow patterns in volunteers revealed attenuations in blood flow dynamics for k-t BLAST 6 compared to SENSE 2 in terms of 3D streamlines showing fewer and less distinct vortices and reduction in peak velocity, which is caused by temporal blurring. Solely by time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping in combination with SENSE detected pathologic blood flow patterns in patients with aortic diseases. For volunteers, we found a broadening and flattering of the peak velocity versus heart phase diagram between the two acceleration techniques, which is an evidence for the temporal blurring of the k-t BLAST approach. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of SENSE and detected potential limitations of k-t BLAST when used for time-resolved 3D velocity mapping. The effects of higher k-t BLAST acceleration factors have to be considered for application in 3D velocity mapping.

  13. Morphological changes of the internal structure of maxillae with tooth loss. Three-dimensional and mechanical analysis using micro-CT and finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Akinobu; Hara, Toshihiro; Ide, Yoshinobu

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological and mechanical properties of the internal structures of maxillae at the molar region using a micro-CT system. Ten dentulous and edentulous maxillae were employed in this study. Images and angle information from all materials were taken by a micro-CT and 100 x 100 x 100 voxels were extracted from the fixed buccal and palatal molar regions in each material for three-dimensional morphological analysis of the internal structure. The bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation and trabecular number were calculated. To analyze mechanical properties all voxels were converted to micro finite element models with element size of 33 x 33 x 33 μm 3 and maximal stiffness, axial stiffness and angle between the stiffest direction of trabecular and the axial loading direction (angleα) were determined using micro finite element method. In the result, the morphological changes including decrease of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and increase of trabecular separation were evident with tooth loss, although trabecular number was not changed. Mechanically, maximal stiffness was decreased with tooth loss at buccal region. However, the axial stiffness at buccal region was larger and the angleα was distributed widely in each edentulous maxilla, comparing to the same region of dentulous maxilla. These findings suggest that trabecular bone become thinner in both buccal and palatal regions, consequently maximal stiffness at buccal region become smaller with tooth loss. On the other hand, axial stiffness at the buccal region in edentulous was larger than one in dentulous. It seems to be caused by the change of the angleα. (author)

  14. Trabecular bone strains around a dental implant and associated micromotions--a micro-CT-based three-dimensional finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbert, Georges; van Lierde, Carl; Muraru, O Luiza; Walboomers, X Frank; Frank, Milan; Hansson, Stig; Middleton, John; Jaecques, Siegfried

    2010-05-07

    The first objective of this computational study was to assess the strain magnitude and distribution within the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone structure around an osseointegrated dental implant loaded axially. The second objective was to investigate the relative micromotions between the implant and the surrounding bone. The work hypothesis adopted was that these virtual measurements would be a useful indicator of bone adaptation (resorption, homeostasis, formation). In order to reach these objectives, a microCT-based finite element model of an oral implant implanted into a Berkshire pig mandible was developed along with a robust software methodology. The finite element mesh of the 3D trabecular bone architecture was generated from the segmentation of microCT scans. The implant was meshed independently from its CAD file obtained from the manufacturer. The meshes of the implant and the bone sample were registered together in an integrated software environment. A series of non-linear contact finite element (FE) analyses considering an axial load applied to the top of the implant in combination with three sets of mechanical properties for the trabecular bone tissue was devised. Complex strain distribution patterns are reported and discussed. It was found that considering the Young's modulus of the trabecular bone tissue to be 5, 10 and 15GPa resulted in maximum peri-implant bone microstrains of about 3000, 2100 and 1400. These results indicate that, for the three sets of mechanical properties considered, the magnitude of maximum strain lies within an homeostatic range known to be sufficient to maintain/form bone. The corresponding micro-motions of the implant with respect to the bone microstructure were shown to be sufficiently low to prevent fibrous tissue formation and to favour long-term osseointegration. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  16. Comparison of finite element and influence function methods for three-dimensional elastic analysis of boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Caughey, W.R.

    1976-11-01

    The paper compares the finite element (FE) and influence function (IF) methods for a three-dimensional elastic analysis of postulated circular-shaped surface cracks in the feedwater nozzle of a typical boiling water reactor (BWR). The FE method is incorporated in a direct manner. The nozzle and crack geometry and the complex loading are all included in the model which simulates the structural crack problem. The IF method is used to compute stress intensity factors only when the uncracked stress field (that is, the stress in the uncracked solid at the locus of the crack to be eventually considered) has been computed previously. The IF method evaluates correctly the disturbance of this uncracked stress field caused by the crack by utilizing a method of elastic superposition. Both the IF and FE methods are described in detail in the paper and are applied to several test cases chosen for their similarity to the nozzle crack problem and for the availability of an accurate published result obtained from some recognized third method of solution. Results are given which summarize both the accuracy and the direct computer costs of the two methods

  17. A three-dimensional finite element analysis of molar distalization with a palatal plate, pendulum, and headgear according to molar eruption stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Man; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Oh, Moonbee; Park, Chong Ook; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of maxillary second and third molar eruption status on the distalization of first molars with a modified palatal anchorage plate (MPAP), and (2) compare the results to the outcomes of the use of a pendulum and that of a headgear using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Methods Three eruption stages were established: an erupting second molar at the cervical one-third of the first molar root (Stage 1), a fully erupted second molar (Stage 2), and an erupting third molar at the cervical one-third of the second molar root (Stage 3). Retraction forces were applied via three anchorage appliance models: an MPAP with bracket and archwire, a bone-anchored pendulum appliance, and cervical-pull headgear. Results An MPAP showed greater root movement of the first molar than crown movement, and this was more noticeable in Stages 2 and 3. With the other devices, the first molar showed distal tipping. Transversely, the first molar had mesial-out rotation with headgear and mesial-in rotation with the other devices. Vertically, the first molar was intruded with an MPAP, and extruded with the other appliances. Conclusions The second molar eruption stage had an effect on molar distalization, but the third molar follicle had no effect. The application of an MPAP may be an effective treatment option for maxillary molar distalization. PMID:27668192

  18. Stress and displacement pattern evaluation using two different palatal expanders in unilateral cleft lip and palate: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anoop; Nagachandran, K S; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki

    2016-12-01

    In this finite element (FE) study, the stress distribution and displacement pattern was evaluated in the mid-palatal area and around circum-maxillary sutures exerted by bone-borne palatal expander (BBPE) in comparison with conventional HYRAX rapid palatal expander in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Computed tomography scan images of a patient with unilateral cleft palate was used to create a FE model of the maxillary bone along with circum-maxillary sutures. A three-dimensional model of the conventional HYRAX (Hygienic Rapid Expander) expander and custom-made BBPE was created by laser scanning and programmed into the FE model. With the BBPE, the maximum stress was observed at the implant insertion site, whereas with the conventional HYRAX expander, it was at the dentition level. Among the circum-maxillary sutures, the zygomaticomaxillary suture experienced maximum stress followed by the zygomaticotemporal and nasomaxillary sutures. Displacement in the X-axis (transverse) was highest on the cleft side, and in the Y-axis (antero-posterior), it was highest in the posterior region in the BBPE. The total displacement was observed maximum in the mid-palatal cleft area in the BBPE, and it produced true skeletal expansion at the alveolar level without any dental tipping when compared with the conventional HYRAX expander.

  19. Determining the Critical Slip Surface of Three-Dimensional Soil Slopes from the Stress Fields Solved Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-chuan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The slope stability problem is an important issue for the safety of human beings and structures. The stability analysis of the three-dimensional (3D slope is essential to prevent landslides, but the most important and difficult problem is how to determine the 3D critical slip surface with the minimum factor of safety in earth slopes. Basing on the slope stress field with the finite element method, a stability analysis method is proposed to determine the critical slip surface and the corresponding safety factor of 3D soil slopes. Spherical and ellipsoidal slip surfaces are considered through the analysis. The moment equilibrium is used to compute the safety factor combined with the Mohr-Coulomb criteria and the limit equilibrium principle. Some assumptions are introduced to reduce the search range of center points and the radius of spheres or ellipsoids. The proposed method is validated by a classical 3D benchmark soil slope. Simulated results indicate that the safety factor of the benchmark slope is 2.14 using the spherical slip surface and 2.19 using the ellipsoidal slip surface, which is close to the results of previous methods. The simulated results indicate that the proposed method can be used for the stability analysis of a 3D soil slope.

  20. Comparative effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on preloaded abutment screw using three-dimensional finite element analysis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Krishna Chaitanya; Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Pottem, Srinivas Rao; Pulagam, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of implant-abutment connections, abutment angulations, and screw lengths on screw loosening (SL) of preloaded abutment using three dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. 3D models of implants (conical connection with hex/trilobed connections), abutments (straight/angulated), abutment screws (short/long), and crown and bone were designed using software Parametric Technology Corporation Creo and assembled to form 8 simulations. After discretization, the contact stresses developed for 150 N vertical and 100 N oblique load applications were analyzed, using ABAQUS. By assessing damage initiation and shortest fatigue load on screw threads, the SL for 2.5, 5, and 10 lakh cyclic loads were estimated, using fe-safe program. The obtained values were compared for influence of connection design, abutment angulation, and screw length. In straight abutment models, conical connection showed more damage (14.3%-72.3%) when compared to trilobe (10.1%-65.73%) at 2.5, 5, and 10 lakh cycles for both vertical and oblique loads, whereas in angulated abutments, trilobe (16.1%-76.9%) demonstrated more damage compared to conical (13.5%-70%). Irrespective of the connection type and abutment angulation, short screws showed more percentage of damage compared to long screws. The present study suggests selecting appropriate implant-abutment connection based on the abutment angulation, as well as preferring long screws with more number of threads for effective preload retention by the screws.

  1. Stress and displacement pattern evaluation using two different palatal expanders in unilateral cleft lip and palate: a three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Mathew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this finite element (FE study, the stress distribution and displacement pattern was evaluated in the mid-palatal area and around circum-maxillary sutures exerted by bone-borne palatal expander (BBPE in comparison with conventional HYRAX rapid palatal expander in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Methods Computed tomography scan images of a patient with unilateral cleft palate was used to create a FE model of the maxillary bone along with circum-maxillary sutures. A three-dimensional model of the conventional HYRAX (Hygienic Rapid Expander expander and custom-made BBPE was created by laser scanning and programmed into the FE model. Results With the BBPE, the maximum stress was observed at the implant insertion site, whereas with the conventional HYRAX expander, it was at the dentition level. Among the circum-maxillary sutures, the zygomaticomaxillary suture experienced maximum stress followed by the zygomaticotemporal and nasomaxillary sutures. Displacement in the X-axis (transverse was highest on the cleft side, and in the Y-axis (antero-posterior, it was highest in the posterior region in the BBPE. Conclusions The total displacement was observed maximum in the mid-palatal cleft area in the BBPE, and it produced true skeletal expansion at the alveolar level without any dental tipping when compared with the conventional HYRAX expander.

  2. Numerical study of effects of the beam tube on laser fields with a three-dimensional simulation code using the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sobajima, M; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Ohnishi, M; Toku, H; Masuda, K; Kitagaki, J; Nakamura, T

    1999-01-01

    In January 1997, the Beijing FEL observed large laser amplification at 8-18 mu m. However, through the collaborative work, it was found from both experiments and numerical simulations that the laser loss on the beam tube wall was not negligible, and that the saturation was not seen in the relatively long wavelength range because of this loss. This calls for further investigation on the effects of the beam tube of finite size. In order to include such effects self-consistently, we have developed a new three-dimensional code that can solve equations with the boundary conditions of the beam tube by using the Finite Element Method. Results show that the beam tube effects are dominant in deriving higher laser modes in the tube, compared with the optical guiding effects, and consequently reduced gain especially in the longer wavelength range, where the beam tube effects are greatly emphasized. It is also found that TEM sub 0 sub 2 mode is the most dominant higher mode in the beam tube, and is also the main cause of...

  3. Prospective randomized comparison of rotational angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction and computed tomography merged with electro-anatomical mapping: a two center atrial fibrillation ablation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rishi; Gorev, Maxim V; Poghosyan, Hermine; Pothier, Lindsay; Matkins, John; Kotler, Gregory; Moroz, Sarah; Armstrong, James; Nemtsov, Sergei V; Orlov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and accuracy of rotational angiography with three-dimensional reconstruction (3DATG) image merged with electro-anatomical mapping (EAM) vs. CT-EAM. A prospective, randomized, parallel, two-center study conducted in 36 patients (25 men, age 65 ± 10 years) undergoing AF ablation (33 % paroxysmal, 67 % persistent) guided by 3DATG (group 1) vs. CT (group 2) image fusion with EAM. 3DATG was performed on the Philips Allura Xper FD 10 system. Procedural characteristics including time, radiation exposure, outcome, and navigation accuracy were compared between two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in total procedure duration or time spent for various procedural steps. Minor differences in procedural characteristics were present between two centers. Segmentation and fusion time for 3DATG or CT-EAM was short and similar between both centers. Accuracy of navigation guided by either method was high and did not depend on left atrial size. Maintenance of sinus rhythm between the two groups was no different up to 24 months of follow-up. This study did not find superiority of 3DATG-EAM image merge to guide AF ablation when compared to CT-EAM fusion. Both merging techniques result in similar navigation accuracy.

  4. Nonuniform multiview color texture mapping of image sequence and three-dimensional model for faded cultural relics with sift feature points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Gong, Xingyu; Li, Hongan; Jia, Pengtao

    2018-01-01

    For faded relics, such as Terracotta Army, the 2D-3D registration between an optical camera and point cloud model is an important part for color texture reconstruction and further applications. This paper proposes a nonuniform multiview color texture mapping for the image sequence and the three-dimensional (3D) model of point cloud collected by Handyscan3D. We first introduce nonuniform multiview calibration, including the explanation of its algorithm principle and the analysis of its advantages. We then establish transformation equations based on sift feature points for the multiview image sequence. At the same time, the selection of nonuniform multiview sift feature points is introduced in detail. Finally, the solving process of the collinear equations based on multiview perspective projection is given with three steps and the flowchart. In the experiment, this method is applied to the color reconstruction of the kneeling figurine, Tangsancai lady, and general figurine. These results demonstrate that the proposed method provides an effective support for the color reconstruction of the faded cultural relics and be able to improve the accuracy of 2D-3D registration between the image sequence and the point cloud model.

  5. Heat Transfer and Thermal Stress Analysis of a Mandibular Molar Tooth Restored by Different Indirect Restorations Using a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Köycü, Berrak; İmirzalıoğlu, Pervin

    2017-07-01

    Daily consumption of food and drink creates rapid temperature changes in the oral cavity. Heat transfer and thermal stress caused by temperature changes in restored teeth may damage the hard and soft tissue components, resulting in restoration failure. This study evaluates the temperature distribution and related thermal stress on mandibular molar teeth restored via three indirect restorations using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). A 3D finite element model was constructed of a mandibular first molar and included enamel, dentin, pulp, surrounding bone, and indirect class 2 restorations of type 2 dental gold alloy, ceramic, and composite resin. A transient thermal FEA was performed to investigate the temperature distribution and the resulting thermal stress after simulated temperature changes from 36°C to 4 or 60°C for a 2-second time period. The restoration models had similar temperature distributions at 2 seconds in both the thermal conditions. Compared with 60°C exposure, the 4°C condition resulted in thermal stress values of higher magnitudes. At 4ºC, the highest stress value observed was tensile stress (56 to 57 MPa), whereas at 60°C, the highest stress value observed was compressive stress (42 to 43 MPa). These stresses appeared at the cervical region of the lingual enamel. The thermal stress at the restoration surface and resin cement showed decreasing order of magnitude as follows: composite > gold > ceramic, in both thermal conditions. The properties of the restorative materials do not affect temperature distribution at 2 seconds in restored teeth. The pulpal temperature is below the threshold for vital pulp tissue (42ºC). Temperature changes generate maximum thermal stress at the cervical region of the enamel. With the highest thermal expansion coefficient, composite resin restorations exhibit higher stress patterns than ceramic and gold restorations. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. [Three-dimensional finite element analysis on mechanical behavior of the bone remodeling and bone integration between the bone-implant interface after hip replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Jiang; Zhang, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Mei-Chao; Yang, Guo-Jing; Lin, Rui-Xin; Cai, Chun-Yuan; Zhong, Shi-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    To discuss the primary stability of the fixed interface between the cementless prosthesis and femur, and its influence on bone ingrowth and secondary stability under the roughened surface and press fit of different prostheses by finite element analysis. :A three-dimensional finite element module of total hip arthroplasty (THA) was developed with Mimics software. There was a collection of data when simulating hip arthroplasty. The frictional coefficient between the fixed interface was 0,0.15,0.40 and 1.00 representing the roughness of prosthesis surface. The press fit was 0, 0.01,0.05 and 0.10 mm according to the operation. The Vion Mises stress distribution and the contact pressure,friction stress and relative sliding displacement between the interface were analysed and compared when simulating the maneuver of climbing stairs. At a fixed press fit of 0.05 mm,the contact pressure between the interface was 230 , 231, 222 and 275 MN under four different frictional coefficient (0,0. 15,0.40 and 1.00) with little change; the relative sliding displacement was 0.529, 0.129, 0.107 and 0.087 mm with a consistent and obvious decline. As the fixed frictional coefficient was 0.40,the contact pressure between the interface were 56.0,67.7 ,60.4 and 49.6 MN under four different press fit (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 mm) with a reduction; the relative sliding displacement was 0.064,0.062,0.043 and 0.042 mm with an obvious decline, and there was a maximal friction stress when press fit of 0.01 mm. There is a dynamic process of the bone remodeling and bone integration between the interface after hip replacement, determining the long-term outcome. The interface clearance and the frictional coefficient are the key factors of the bone integration.

  7. Influence of implant number on the biomechanical behaviour of mandibular implant-retained/supported overdentures: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyin; Pan, Shaoxia; Dong, Jing; Mo, Zhongjun; Fan, Yubo; Feng, Hailan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate strain distribution in peri-implant bone, stress in the abutments and denture stability of mandibular overdentures anchored by different numbers of implants under different loading conditions, through three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA). Four 3D finite element models of mandibular overdentures were established, using between one and four Straumann implants with Locator attachments. Three types of load were applied to the overdenture in each model: 100N vertical and inclined loads on the left first molar and a 100N vertical load on the lower incisors. The biomechanical behaviours of peri-implant bone, implants, abutments and overdentures were recorded. Under vertical load on the lower incisors, the single-implant overdenture rotated over the implant from side to side, and no obvious increase of strain was found in peri-implant bone. Under the same loading conditions, the two-implant-retained overdenture showed more apparent rotation around the fulcrum line passing through the two implants, and the maximum equivalent stress in the abutments was higher than in the other models. In the three-implant-supported overdenture, no strain concentration was found in cortical bone around the middle implant under three loading conditions. Single-implant-retained mandibular overdentures do not show damaging strain concentration in the bone around the only implant and may be a cost-effective treatment option for edentulous patients. A third implant can be placed between the original two when patients rehabilitated by two-implant overdentures report constant and obvious denture rotation around the fulcrum line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Three dimensional system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Papanikolaou, Antonis; Radojcic, Riko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) stacking is the next big step in electronic system integration. It enables packing more functionality, as well as integration of heterogeneous materials, devices, and signals, in the same space (volume). This results in consumer electronics (e.g., mobile, handheld devices) which can run more powerful applications, such as full-length movies and 3D games, with longer battery life. This technology is so promising that it is expected to be a mainstream technology a few years from now, less than 10-15 years from its original conception. To achieve thi

  9. Research and development of basic technologies for the next generation industries, 'three-dimensional circuit elements'. Evaluation on the research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 'sanjigen kairo soshi'. Kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Research, development and evaluation were performed with an objective of establishing the basic technology related to three-dimensional circuit elements that integrate functions at ultra-high density. For the basic technology of lamination, the SOI technology suitable for the three-dimensional circuit elements was developed, and it has become possible to manufacture high-quality multi-layered crystalline structure by means of annealing that uses laser and electron beam. In addition, a lateral epitaxial technology for solid phase was developed, and the base to be applied to the three-dimensional circuit elements was established. Furthermore, the technology to put thin film circuits together would be useful for high-density integration in the future. The three-dimensional circuit makes parallel processing in each segment possible, whereas a possibility was shown that the processing can be performed at much higher speed than before. Actually a prototype three-dimensional circuit equipped with functions for parallel processing and judgment processing was fabricated. The image pre-processing which has been impossible on the real time basis in the conventional two-dimensional integrated circuit was realized in a speed as fast as milli-second order. These achievements lead to a belief that the targets for the present research and development have been achieved. (NEDO)

  10. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Estimation Method Using a Deformation Field Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Lei; Chetty, Indrin J.; Zhang Junan; Jin Jianyue; Wu, Q. Jackie; Yan Hui; Brizel, David M.; Lee, W. Robert; Movsas, Benjamin; Yin Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) estimation method using a deformation field map, and to evaluate and optimize the efficiency and accuracy of the method for use in the clinical setting. Methods and Materials: We propose a method to estimate patient CBCT images using prior information and a deformation model. Patients’ previous CBCT data are used as the prior information, and the new CBCT volume to be estimated is considered as a deformation of the prior image volume. The deformation field map is solved by minimizing deformation energy and maintaining new projection data fidelity using a nonlinear conjugate gradient method. This method was implemented in 3D form using hardware acceleration and multi-resolution scheme, and it was evaluated for different scan angles, projection numbers, and scan directions using liver, lung, and prostate cancer patient data. The accuracy of the estimation was evaluated by comparing the organ volume difference and the similarity between estimated CBCT and the CBCT reconstructed from fully sampled projections. Results: Results showed that scan direction and number of projections do not have significant effects on the CBCT estimation accuracy. The total scan angle is the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the CBCT estimation algorithm. Larger scan angles yield better estimation accuracy than smaller scan angles. Lung cancer patient data showed that the estimation error of the 3D lung tumor volume was reduced from 13.3% to 4.3% when the scan angle was increased from 60° to 360° using 57 projections. Conclusions: The proposed estimation method is applicable for 3D DTS, 3D CBCT, four-dimensional CBCT, and four-dimensional DTS image estimation. This method has the potential for significantly reducing the imaging dose and improving the image quality by removing the organ distortion artifacts and streak artifacts shown in images reconstructed by the conventional Feldkamp

  11. Three-dimensional vascular mapping of the breast by using contrast-enhanced MRI: association of unilateral increased vascularity with ipsilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgüç, Şebnem; Başara, Işıl; Coşkun, Teoman; Pekindil, Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to retrospectively compare three-dimensional vascular maps of both breasts obtained by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determine the association of one-sided vascular prominence with ipsilateral breast cancer. MRI was performed using gadolinium in 194 cases. Two readers scored vascular density using maximum intensity projections (MIPs). Dynamic fat-saturated T1-weighted gradientecho MIPs were acquired. Two readers evaluated the MIPs, and vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter and longer than 3 cm were counted. The difference in vessel numbers detected in the two breasts determined the score. A total of 54 patients had malignant lesions (prevalence, 28%), including invasive ductal carcinoma (n=40), invasive mixed ductal-lobular carcinoma (n=5), invasive lobular carcinoma (n=3), ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3), mucinous carcinoma (n=1), medullary carcinoma (n=1), and leukemic metastasis (n=1). In 62 patients, there were benign lesions (fibroadenomas, fibrocysts), and four patients had inflammation (granulomatous mastitis in two patients, breast tuberculosis in two patients). There were 78 normal cases. When a difference of at least two vessels was scored as vascular asymmetry, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), and negative (-LR) of unilaterally increased vascularity associated with ipsilateral malignancy were 69%, 92%, 8.72, and 0.34, respectively. When four infection and three post-operative cases with vascular asymmetry were excluded; prevalence, specificity, and +LR increased to 29%, 97%, and 22.8, respectively, with the same sensitivity and -LR. Differences in mean vascularity scores were evaluated with regard to tumor size. T1 and T2 tumors were not significantly different from each other. The mean score of T3 tumors differed significantly from T1 and T2 tumors. MRI vascular mapping is an effective method for determining breast tissue vascularization. Ipsilateral increased vascularity was commonly associated with

  12. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  13. Feasibility of in vivo three-dimensional T 2* mapping using dicarboxy-PROXYL and CW-EPR-based single-point imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Harue; Komarov, Denis A; Yasui, Hironobu; Matsumoto, Shingo; Inanami, Osamu; Kirilyuk, Igor A; Khramtsov, Valery V; Hirata, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo three-dimensional (3D) relaxation time T 2 * mapping of a dicarboxy-PROXYL radical using continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging. Isotopically substituted dicarboxy-PROXYL radicals, 3,4-dicarboxy-2,2,5,5-tetra( 2 H 3 )methylpyrrolidin-(3,4- 2 H 2 )-(1- 15 N)-1-oxyl ( 2 H, 15 N-DCP) and 3,4-dicarboxy-2,2,5,5-tetra( 2 H 3 )methylpyrrolidin-(3,4- 2 H 2 )-1-oxyl ( 2 H-DCP), were used in the study. A clonogenic cell survival assay was performed with the 2 H-DCP radical using squamous cell carcinoma (SCC VII) cells. The time course of EPR signal intensities of intravenously injected 2 H, 15 N-DCP and 2 H-DCP radicals were determined in tumor-bearing hind legs of mice (C3H/HeJ, male, n = 5). CW-EPR-based single-point imaging (SPI) was performed for 3D T 2 * mapping. 2 H-DCP radical did not exhibit cytotoxicity at concentrations below 10 mM. The in vivo half-life of 2 H, 15 N-DCP in tumor tissues was 24.7 ± 2.9 min (mean ± standard deviation [SD], n = 5). The in vivo time course of the EPR signal intensity of the 2 H, 15 N-DCP radical showed a plateau of 10.2 ± 1.2 min (mean ± SD) where the EPR signal intensity remained at more than 90% of the maximum intensity. During the plateau, in vivo 3D T 2 * maps with 2 H, 15 N-DCP were obtained from tumor-bearing hind legs, with a total acquisition time of 7.5 min. EPR signals of 2 H, 15 N-DCP persisted long enough after bolus intravenous injection to conduct in vivo 3D T 2 * mapping with CW-EPR-based SPI.

  14. Advanced Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of a Slow Landslide through the Exploitation of DInSAR Measurements and in Situ Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Novellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an advanced methodology to perform three-dimensional (3D Finite Element (FE modeling to investigate the kinematical evolution of a slow landslide phenomenon. Our approach benefits from the effective integration of the available geological, geotechnical and satellite datasets to perform an accurate simulation of the landslide process. More specifically, we fully exploit the capability of the advanced Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS approach to provide spatially dense surface displacement information. Subsequently, we analyze the physical behavior characterizing the observed landslide phenomenon by means of an inverse analysis based on an optimization procedure. We focus on the Ivancich landslide phenomenon, which affects a residential area outside the historical center of the town of Assisi (Central Italy. Thanks to the large amount of available information, we have selected this area as a representative case study highlighting the capability of advanced 3D FE modeling to perform effective risk analyses of slow landslide processes and accurate urban development planning. In particular, the FE modeling is constrained by using the data from 7 litho-stratigraphic cross-sections and 62 stratigraphic boreholes; and the optimization procedure is carried out using the SBAS-DInSAR retrieved results by processing 39 SAR images collected by the Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK constellation in the 2009–2012 time span. The achieved results allow us to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of the slow-moving phenomenon and via comparison with the geomorphological data, to derive a synoptic view of the kinematical activity of the urban area affected by the Ivancich landslide.

  15. Biomechanical Influence of Implant Neck Designs on Stress Distribution over Adjacent Bone: A Three-Dimensional Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikman Ishak, Muhammad; Shafi, Aisyah Ahmad; Mohamad, Su Natasha; Jizat, Noorlindawaty Md

    2018-03-01

    The design of dental implant body has a major influence on the stress dissipation over adjacent bone as numbers of implant failure cases reported in past clinical studies. Besides, the inappropriate implant features may cause excessive high or low stresses which could possibly contribute to pathologic bone resorption or atrophy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different configurations of implant neck on stress dispersion within the adjacent bone via three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). A set of computed tomography (CT) images of craniofacial was used to reconstruct a 3-D model of mandible using an image-processing software. The selected region of interest was the left side covering the second premolar, first molar and second molar regions. The bone model consisted of both compact (cortical) and porous (cancellous) structures. Three dental implant sets (crown, implant body, and abutment) with different designs of implant neck – straight, tapered with 15°, and tapered with 30° were modelled using a computer-aided design (CAD) software and all models were then analysed via 3-D FEA software. Top surface of first molar crown was subjected to occlusal forces of 114.6 N, 17.2 N, and 23.4 N in the axial, lingual, and mesio-distal directions, respectively. All planes of the mandible model were rigidly constrained in all directions. The result has demonstrated that the straight implant body neck is superior in attributing to high stress generation over adjacent bone as compared to others. This may associate with lower frictional resistance produced than those of tapered designs to withstand the applied loads.

  16. Effects of the implant design on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement: three-dimensional finite element analysis of original computer-aided design models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Yasufumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imazato, Satoshi; Nakano, Tamaki; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-09-01

    Occlusal overloading causes peri-implant bone resorption. Previous studies examined stress distribution in alveolar bone around commercial implants using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. However, the commercial implants contained some different designs. The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of the target design on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement. Six 3D implant models were created for different implant-abutment joints: 1) internal joint model (IM); 2) external joint model (EM); 3) straight abutment (SA) shape; 4) tapered abutment (TA) shapes; 5) platform switching (PS) in the IM; and 6) modified TA neck design (reverse conical neck [RN]). A static load of 100 N was applied to the basal ridge surface of the abutment at a 45-degree oblique angle to the long axis of the implant. Both stress distribution in peri-implant bone and abutment micromovement in the SA and TA models were analyzed. Compressive stress concentrated on labial cortical bone and tensile stress on the palatal side in the EM and on the labial side in the IM. There was no difference in maximum principal stress distribution for SA and TA models. Tensile stress concentration was not apparent on labial cortical bone in the PS model (versus IM). Maximum principal stress concentrated more on peri-implant bone in the RN than in the TA model. The TA model exhibited less abutment micromovement than the SA model. This study reveals the effects of the design of specific components on peri-implant bone stress and abutment displacement after implant-supported single restoration in the anterior maxilla.

  17. Influence of different abutment diameter of implants on the peri-implant stress in the crestal bone: A three-dimensional finite element analysis--In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradya, Anupama; Kumar, U Krishna; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate and compare stress distribution in transcortical section of bone with normal abutment and platform switched abutment under vertical and oblique forces in posterior mandible region. A three-dimensional finite element model was designed using ANSYS 13.0 software. The type of bone selection for the model was made of type II mandibular bone, having cortical bone thickness ranging from 0.595 mm to 1.515 mm with the crestal region measuring 1.5 mm surrounding dense trabecular bone. The implant will be modulated at 5 mm restorative platform and tapering down to 4.5 mm wide at the threads, 13 mm long with an abutment 3 mm in height. The models will be designed for two situations: (1) An implant with a 5 mm diameter abutment representing a standard platform in the posterior mandible region. (2) An implant with a 4.5 mm diameter abutment representing platform switching in the posterior mandible region. Force application was performed in both oblique and vertical conditions using 100 N as a representative masticatory force. For oblique loading, a force of 100 N was applied at 15° from the vertical axis. von Mises stress analysis was evaluated. The results of the study showed cortical stress in the conventional and platform switching model under oblique forces were 59.329 MPa and 39.952 MPa, respectively. Cortical stress in the conventional and platform switching model under vertical forces was 13.914 MPa and 12.793 MPa, respectively. Results from this study showed the platform switched abutment led to relative decrease in von Mises stress in transcortical section of bone compared to normal abutment under vertical and oblique forces in posterior mandible region.

  18. Biomechanical evaluation of one-piece and two-piece small-diameter dental implants: In-vitro experimental and three-dimensional finite element analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chee, Winston; Lin, Yun-Te; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Heng-Li

    2016-09-01

    Small-diameter dental implants are associated with a higher risk of implant failure. This study used both three-dimensional finite-element (FE) simulations and in-vitro experimental tests to analyze the stresses and strains in both the implant and the surrounding bone when using one-piece (NobelDirect) and two-piece (NobelReplace) small-diameter implants, with the aim of understanding the underlying biomechanical mechanisms. Six experimental artificial jawbone models and two FE models were prepared for one-piece and two-piece 3.5-mm diameter implants. Rosette strain gauges were used for in-vitro tests, with peak values of the principal bone strain recorded with a data acquisition system. Implant stability as quantified by Periotest values (PTV) were also recorded for both types of implants. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. In FE simulations, the peak value and distribution of von-Mises stresses in the implant and bone were selected for evaluation. In in-vitro tests, the peak bone strain was 42% lower for two-piece implants than for one-piece implants. The PTV was slightly lower for one-piece implants (PTV = -6) than for two-piece implants (PTV = -5). In FE simulations, the stresses in the bone and implant were about 23% higher and 12% lower, respectively, for one-piece implants than those for two-piece implants. Due to the higher peri-implant bone stresses and strains, one-piece implants (NobelDirect) might be not suitable for use as small-diameter implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. IPS-Empress II inlay-retained fixed partial denture reinforced with zirconia bar: three-dimensional finite element and in-vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanshah, Hamid; Geramy, Allahyar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Bitaraf, Tahereh

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated von Mises stress distribution, flexural strength and interface micrographs of IPS-Empress II (IPS) inlay-retained fixed partial dentures (IRFPD) reinforced with Zirconia bars (Zb). In the Finite element analysis, six three-dimensional models of IRFPD were designed using Solid Works 2006. Five models were reinforced with different Zb and a model without Zb was considered as a control. The bridges were loaded by 200 and 500 N forces at the middle of the pontic on the occlusal surface. Subsequently, von Mises stress and displacement of the models were evaluated along a defined path. In the experimental part, 21 bar shape specimens were fabricated from lithium disilicate and zirconia ceramic in three different designs. The zirconia-IPS interfaces and the fractured surfaces of flexural test were observed using SEM. In the connector area, von Mises stress and displacement of the models with Zb under a load of 500 N were decreased compared to the model without the Zb; however, this difference was not considerable at a load of 200 N. In the mesial connector, Von Mises stress and displacement was decreased from 12.5 Mpa for the control model tested at 500 N to 7.0 Mpa for the model with Zb and from 0.0050-0.0041 mm, respectively. SEM analyses showed that, before fracture, interfacial gaps were not observed along the interfaces, but initiated cracks propagated along the interfaces after flexural loading. IPS IRFPD reinforced by Zb can tolerate higher stresses while still functioning effectively and the interfaces may have desirable adaption.

  20. Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and Microcomputed Tomography Evaluation of Microgap Formation in a Dental Implant Under Oblique Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörn, Daniela; Kohorst, Philipp; Besdo, Silke; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike

    2016-01-01

    Since bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface may be responsible for peri-implant infections, a realistic estimation of the interface gap width during function is important for risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for investigating microgap formation in a loaded dental implant, namely, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA); additionally, stresses to be expected during loading were also evaluated by FEA. An implant-abutment complex was inspected for microgaps between the abutment and implant in a micro-CT scanner under an oblique load of 200 N. A numerical model of the situation was constructed; boundary conditions and external load were defined according to the experiment. The model was refined stepwise until its load-displacement behavior corresponded sufficiently to data from previous load experiments. FEA of the final, validated model was used to determine microgap widths. These were compared with the widths as measured in micro-CT inspection. Finally, stress distributions were evaluated in selected regions. No microgaps wider than 13 μm could be detected by micro-CT for the loaded implant. FEA revealed gap widths up to 10 μm between the implant and abutment at the side of load application. Furthermore, FEA predicted plastic deformation in a limited area at the implant collar. FEA proved to be an adequate method for studying microgap formation in dental implant-abutment complexes. FEA is not limited in gap width resolution as are radiologic techniques and can also provide insight into stress distributions within the loaded complex.

  1. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  2. Effects of labial and lingual retraction and intrusion force on maxillary central incisor with varying collum angles: A three-dimensional finite elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh S Pai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to analyze the effects of intrusive force, retraction force, and torque control on the maxillary central incisors with varying degrees of collum angle in labial and lingual orthodontic treatment procedures using finite element analysis. Subjects and Methods: Four pairs of three-dimensional finite element models (FEMs representative of maxillary central incisor with periodontal ligament (PDL and alveolar bone were constructed using ANSYS software (version 5.4, ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA. The models with 0°, 5°, 10°, and 15° were created based on crown root angulation. Four models for labial and four models for lingual orthodontic procedure were constructed. Each model was subjected to three forces, i.e., retraction force of 1 N, lingual root torque of −5 × 10−3 N and intrusive force of 0.64 N on crown with labially and lingually positioned brackets. Principal stress and strain, center of rotation and root apex displacement were monitored. Statistical Analysis Used: Not required (FEM study. Results: With the increase in collum angle, the stress-strain distribution in PDL was increased in both labial orthodontics (LaO and lingual orthodontics (LiO. Stress-strain distribution in the PDL with LiO was more in all the models as compared to LaO. There was more of tipping movement as collum angle increased from 0° to 15° in both LaO and LiO. The amount of intrusion reduced as the collum angle increased in both the systems. However, more of intrusion was seen in LaO. With increase in collum angle, the center of rotation moved cervically in both the systems. Conclusions: From the present study, we conclude that as the collum angle increased, the stress-strain distribution increased in LaO and LiO. The center of rotation shifted cervically, and the intrusion decreased when collum angle increased. The values were more marked in LiO.

  3. Source of errors and accuracy of a two-dimensional/three-dimensional fusion road map for endovascular aneurysm repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Claude; Douane, Frédéric; Therasse, Eric; Lessard, Simon; Elkouri, Stephane; Gilbert, Patrick; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Pfister, Marcus; Blair, Jean François; Soulez, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and source of errors using a two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) fusion road map for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm. A rigid 2D/3D road map was tested in 16 patients undergoing EVAR. After 3D/3D manual registration of preoperative multidetector computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, abdominal aortic aneurysm outlines were overlaid on live fluoroscopy/digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Patient motion was evaluated using bone landmarks. The misregistration of renal and internal iliac arteries were estimated by 3 readers along head-feet and right-left coordinates (z-axis and x-axis, respectively) before and after bone and DSA corrections centered on the lowest renal artery. Iliac deformation was evaluated by comparing centerlines before and during intervention. A score of clinical added value was estimated as high (z-axis 5 mm). Interobserver reproducibility was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The lowest renal artery misregistration was estimated at x-axis = 10.6 mm ± 11.1 and z-axis = 7.4 mm ± 5.3 before correction and at x-axis = 3.5 mm ± 2.5 and z-axis = 4.6 mm ± 3.7 after bone correction (P = .08), and at 0 after DSA correction (P artery was estimated at x-axis = 2.4 mm ± 2.0 and z-axis = 2.2 mm ± 2.0. Score of clinical added value was low (n = 11), good (n= 0), and high (n= 5) before correction and low (n = 5), good (n = 4), and high (n = 7) after bone correction. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for misregistration measurements was estimated at 0.99. Patient motion before stent graft delivery was estimated at x-axis = 8 mm ± 5.8 and z-axis = 3.0 mm ± 2.7. The internal iliac artery misregistration measurements were estimated at x-axis = 6.1 mm ± 3.5 and z-axis = 5.6 mm ± 4.0, and iliac centerline deformation was estimated at 38.3 mm ± 15.6. Rigid registration is feasible and fairly accurate. Only a partial reduction of vascular

  4. Three-dimensional T1 and T2* mapping of human lung parenchyma using interleaved saturation recovery with dual echo ultrashort echo time imaging (ITSR-DUTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Neville D; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Bluemke, David A

    2017-04-01

    To develop and assess a new technique for three-dimensional (3D) full lung T1 and T2* mapping using a single free breathing scan during a clinically feasible time. A 3D stack of dual-echo ultrashort echo time (UTE) radial acquisition interleaved with and without a WET (water suppression enhanced through T1 effects) saturation pulse was used to map T1 and T2* simultaneously in a single scan. Correction for modulation due to multiple views per segment was derived. Bloch simulations were performed to study saturation pulse excitation profile on lung tissue. Optimization of the saturation delay time (for T1 mapping) and echo time (for T2* mapping) was performed. Monte Carlo simulation was done to predict accuracy and precision of the sequence with signal-to-noise ratio of in vivo images used in the simulation. A phantom study was carried out using the 3D interleaved saturation recovery with dual echo ultrashort echo time imaging (ITSR-DUTE) sequence and reference standard inversion recovery spin echo sequence (IR-SE) to compare accuracy of the sequence. Nine healthy volunteers were imaged and mean (SD) of T1 and T2* in lung parenchyma at 3T were estimated through manually assisted segmentation. 3D lung coverage with a resolution of 2.5 × 2.5 × 6 mm 3 was performed and nominal scan time was recorded for the scans. Repeatability was assessed in three of the volunteers. Regional differences in T1/T2* values were also assessed. The phantom study showed accuracy of T1 values to be within 2.3% of values obtained from IR-SE. Mean T1 value in lung parenchyma was 1002 ± 82 ms while T2* was 0.85 ± 0.1 ms. Scan time was ∼10 min for volunteer scans. Mean coefficient of variation (CV) across slices was 0.057 and 0.09, respectively. Regional variation along the gravitational direction and between right and left lung were not significant (P = 0.25 and P = 0.06, respectively) for T1. T2* showed significant variation (P = 0.03) along the

  5. Trabecular bone strains around a dental implant and associated micromotions--a micro-CT-based three-dimensional finite element study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limbert, G.; Lierde, C. van; Muraru, O.L.; Walboomers, X.F.; Frank, M.; Hansson, S.; Middleton, J.; Jaecques, S.

    2010-01-01

    The first objective of this computational study was to assess the strain magnitude and distribution within the three-dimensional (3D) trabecular bone structure around an osseointegrated dental implant loaded axially. The second objective was to investigate the relative micromotions between the

  6. Indirect boundary element method for three dimensional problems. Analytical solution for contribution to wave field by triangular element; Sanjigen kansetsu kyokai yosoho. Sankakukei yoso no kiyo no kaisekikai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, T [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria

    1997-05-27

    Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.

  7. Three-dimensional visualization and analysis of a dual-disk resonator with dielectric misalignment and surface anomaly using edge finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalva, Gustavo Jose

    The search for life in other planets and solar systems by scientists and engineers brings about an effort to design and develop equipment of high standards which extend the capability to listen for signals which have been traveling in space many light years. In this study the purpose was to provide a more realistic and illustrative scientific understanding of one such piece of precision equipment, the dielectric resonator, which designers seek to extend its frequency stability below 10-15. At such tolerances special cryogenic cooling procedures are required. Due to its accuracy it can be used to set short term time and frequency standards to correct the atomic clock. A theoretical means of studying this type of resonant device is necessary. One contribution made in extending the current understanding of such a device is the scientific tool developed specifically for this dissertation. It applies the Minimum Theorem from variational calculus using edge finite elements for numerical modeling. The use of quasi-linear vector basis functions allowed an implementation of Helmholtz's three-dimensional equation without a penalty term. Furthermore, the intermixing of spurious solutions with the true ones due to a nodal basis was eliminated. Calculation of the average edge electric fields was made possible by applying the Rayleigh-Ritz criterion. Model enclosure was provided by a cylindrical metal shield situated in a rectangular coordinate system. Linear, homogeneous, nonmagnetic, lossless, uniaxial, and anisotropic media were considered. Integration of NASA's Unix Lanczos eigensolver permitted the accurate estimation of the smaller eigenvalues and associated vectors for large matrices on workstations and personal computers in relatively short computational times. Calculation of the lower frequency modes demonstrated the ability to address device imperfections for two selected cases. Both were influenced by problems encountered in the use of crystals constrained by cost, or

  8. Three dimensional visualization of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasuzo

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional visualization is a stereoscopic technique that allows the diagnosis and treatment of complicated anatomy site of the bone and organ. In this article, the current status and technical application of three dimensional visualization are introduced with special reference to X-ray CT and MRI. The surface display technique is the most common for three dimensional visualization, consisting of geometric model, voxel element, and stereographic composition techniques. Recent attention has been paid to display method of the content of the subject called as volume rendering, whereby information on the living body is provided accurately. The application of three dimensional visualization is described in terms of diagnostic imaging and surgical simulation. (N.K.)

  9. Three dimensional energy profile:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  10. Three-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Presents tips and tricks for beginners and experts Provides educational material for 3D training courses Features comprehensively illustrated cases Includes an accompanying DVD with video clips of all sample cases Three-dimensional echocardiography is the most recent fundamental advancement in echocardiography. Since real-time 3D echocardiography became commercially available in 2002, it has rapidly been accepted in echo labs worldwide. This book covers all clinically relevant aspects of this fascinating new technology, including a comprehensive explanation of its basic principles, practical aspects of clinical application, and detailed descriptions of specific uses in the broad spectrum of clinically important heart disease. The book was written by a group of well-recognized international experts in the field, who have not only been involved in the scientific and clinical evolution of 3D echocardiography since its inception but are also intensively involved in expert training courses. As a result, the clear focus of this book is on the practical application of 3D echocardiography in daily clinical routine with tips and tricks for both beginners and experts, accompanied by more than 150 case examples comprehensively illustrated in more than 800 images and more than 500 videos provided on a DVD. In addition to an in-depth review of the most recent literature on real-time 3D echocardiography, this book represents an invaluable reference work for beginners and expert users of 3D echocardiography. - Tips and tricks for beginners and experts - Educational material for 3D training courses - Comprehensively illustrated cases - DVD with video clips of all sample cases.

  11. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  12. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  13. JAC3D -- A three-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  14. Three dimensional field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, C.W.

    1981-06-01

    Recent research work carried out at Rutherford and Appleton Laboratories into the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields is summarised. The topics covered include algorithms for integral and differential methods for the solution of 3D magnetostatic fields, comparison of results with experiment and an investigation into the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for an analytic problem. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the work in progress on the solution of 3D eddy currents using differential finite elements. (author)

  15. Three dimensional MEMS supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of this research is to achieve compact supercapacitors with high capacitance, large power density, and long cycle life for using as micro power sources to drive low power devices and sensors. The main shortcoming of supercapacitors as a power source is that its energy density typically is about 1/10 of that of batteries. To achieve compact supercapacitors of large energy density, supercapacitors must be developed with high capacitance and power density which are mainly depended on the effective surface area of the electrodes of the supercapacitors. Many studies have been done to increase the effective surface area by modifying the electrode materials, however, much less investigations are focus on machining the electrodes. In my thesis work, micro- and nano-technologies are applied as technology approaches for machining the electrodes with three dimensional (3D) microstructures. More specific, Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication process flow, which integrates the key process such as LIGA-like (German acronym for Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung, which mean Lithography, Electroplating and Molding) technology or DRIE (deep reactive ion etching), has been developed to enable innovative designs of 3D MEMS supercapacitors which own the electrodes of significantly increased geometric area. Two types of 3D MEMS supercapcitors, based on LIGA-like and DRIE technology respectively, were designed and successfully created. The LIGA-like based 3D MEMS supercapacitor is with an interdigital 3D structure, and consists of silicon substrate, two electroplated nickel current collectors, two PPy (poly pyrrole) electrodes, and solid state electrolyte. The fabrication process flow developed includes the flowing key processes, SU-8 lithography, nickel electroplating, PPy polymerization and solid state electrolyte coating. Electrochemical tests showed that the single electrode of the supercapacitor has the specific capacitance of 0.058 F cm-2

  16. Finite element modeling of indentation-induced superelastic effect using a three-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory materials with plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Grummon, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Indentation-induced shape memory and superelastic effects are recently discovered thermo-mechanical behaviors that may find important applications in many areas of science and engineering. Theoretical understanding of these phenomena is challenging because both martensitic phase transformation and slip plasticity exist under complex contact loading conditions. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional constitutive model of shape memory alloys with plasticity. Spherical indentation-induced superelasticity in a NiTi shape memory alloy was simulated and compared to experimental results on load-displacement curves and recovery ratios. We show that shallow indents have complete recovery upon unloading, where the size of the phase transformation region is about two times the contact radius. Deep indents have only partial recovery when plastic deformation becomes more prevalent in the indent-affected zone

  17. Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gánóczy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.

  18. Effect of strong disorder on three-dimensional chiral topological insulators: Phase diagrams, maps of the bulk invariant, and existence of topological extended bulk states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juntao; Fine, Carolyn; Prodan, Emil

    2014-11-01

    The effect of strong disorder on chiral-symmetric three-dimensional lattice models is investigated via analytical and numerical methods. The phase diagrams of the models are computed using the noncommutative winding number, as functions of disorder strength and model's parameters. The localized/delocalized characteristic of the quantum states is probed with level statistics analysis. Our study reconfirms the accurate quantization of the noncommutative winding number in the presence of strong disorder, and its effectiveness as a numerical tool. Extended bulk states are detected above and below the Fermi level, which are observed to undergo the so-called "levitation and pair annihilation" process when the system is driven through a topological transition. This suggests that the bulk invariant is carried by these extended states, in stark contrast with the one-dimensional case where the extended states are completely absent and the bulk invariant is carried by the localized states.

  19. Two-dimensional mapping of three-dimensional SPECT data: a preliminary step to the quantitation of thallium myocardial perfusion single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goris, M.L.; Boudier, S.; Briandet, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented by which tomographic myocardial perfusion data are prepared for quantitative analysis. The method is characterized by an interrogation of the original data, which results in a size and shape normalization. The method is analogous to the circumferential profile methods used in planar scintigraphy but requires a polar-to-cartesian transformation from three to two dimensions. As was the case in the planar situation, centering and reorientation are explicit. The degree of data reduction is evaluated by reconstructing idealized three-dimensional data from the two-dimensional sampling vectors. The method differs from previously described approaches by the absence in the resulting vector of a coordinate reflecting cartesian coordinate in the original data (slice number)

  20. A comprehensive study of MPI parallelism in three-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) simulation of complex-shaped granular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beichuan; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2018-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) DEM code for simulating complex-shaped granular particles is parallelized using message-passing interface (MPI). The concepts of link-block, ghost/border layer, and migration layer are put forward for design of the parallel algorithm, and theoretical scalability function of 3-D DEM scalability and memory usage is derived. Many performance-critical implementation details are managed optimally to achieve high performance and scalability, such as: minimizing communication overhead, maintaining dynamic load balance, handling particle migrations across block borders, transmitting C++ dynamic objects of particles between MPI processes efficiently, eliminating redundant contact information between adjacent MPI processes. The code executes on multiple US Department of Defense (DoD) supercomputers and tests up to 2048 compute nodes for simulating 10 million three-axis ellipsoidal particles. Performance analyses of the code including speedup, efficiency, scalability, and granularity across five orders of magnitude of simulation scale (number of particles) are provided, and they demonstrate high speedup and excellent scalability. It is also discovered that communication time is a decreasing function of the number of compute nodes in strong scaling measurements. The code's capability of simulating a large number of complex-shaped particles on modern supercomputers will be of value in both laboratory studies on micromechanical properties of granular materials and many realistic engineering applications involving granular materials.

  1. Finite-element design and optimization of a three-dimensional tetrahedral porous titanium scaffold for the reconstruction of mandibular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Danmei; Rong, Qiguo; Chen, Quan

    2017-09-01

    Reconstruction of segmental defects in the mandible remains a challenge for maxillofacial surgery. The use of porous scaffolds is a potential method for repairing these defects. Now, additive manufacturing techniques provide a solution for the fabrication of porous scaffolds with specific geometrical shapes and complex structures. The goal of this study was to design and optimize a three-dimensional tetrahedral titanium scaffold for the reconstruction of mandibular defects. With a fixed strut diameter of 0.45mm and a mean cell size of 2.2mm, a tetrahedral structural porous scaffold was designed for a simulated anatomical defect derived from computed tomography (CT) data of a human mandible. An optimization method based on the concept of uniform stress was performed on the initial scaffold to realize a minimal-weight design. Geometric and mechanical comparisons between the initial and optimized scaffold show that the optimized scaffold exhibits a larger porosity, 81.90%, as well as a more homogeneous stress distribution. These results demonstrate that tetrahedral structural titanium scaffolds are feasible structures for repairing mandibular defects, and that the proposed optimization scheme has the ability to produce superior scaffolds for mandibular reconstruction with better stability, higher porosity, and less weight. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Entrainment and high-density three-dimensional mapping in right atrial macroreentry provide critical complementary information: Entrainment may unmask "visual reentry" as passive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Lee, Geoffrey; Nalliah, Chrishan; Joseph, Stephen; Morton, Joseph B; Sparks, Paul B; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2017-10-01

    With the recent advent of high-density (HD) 3-dimensional (3D) mapping, the utility of entrainment is uncertain. However, the limitations of visual representation and interpretation of these high-resolution 3D maps are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the strengths and limitations of both HD 3D mapping and entrainment mapping during mapping of right atrial macroreentry. Fifteen patients were studied. The number and type of circuits accounting for ≥90% of the tachycardia cycle length using HD 3D mapping were verified using systematic entrainment mapping. Entrainment sites with an unexpectedly long postpacing interval despite proximity to the active circuit were evaluated. Based on HD 3D mapping, 27 circuits were observed: 12 peritricuspid, 2 upper loop reentry, 10 lower loop reentry, and 3 lateral wall circuits. With entrainment, 17 of the 27 circuits were active: all 12 peritricuspid and 2 upper loop reentry. However, lower loop reentry was confirmed in only 3 of 10, and none of the 3 lateral wall circuits were present. Mean percentage of tachycardia cycle length covered by active circuits was 98% ± 1% vs 97% ± 2% for passive circuits (P = .09). None of the 345 entrainment runs terminated tachycardia or changed tachycardia mechanism. In 8 of 15 patients, 13 examples of unexpectedly long postpacing interval were observed at entrainment sites located distal to localized zones of slow conduction seen on HD 3D mapping. Using HD 3D mapping, "visual reentry" may be due to passive circuitous propagation rather than a critical reentrant circuit. HD 3D mapping provides new insights into regional conduction and helps explain unusual entrainment phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-throughput flow injection analysis mass spectroscopy with networked delivery of color-rendered results. 2. Three-dimensional spectral mapping of 96-well combinatorial chemistry racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, E; Richmond, R; Lewis, I

    1998-08-01

    For the last two years, the mass spectroscopy section of the Novartis Pharma Research Core Technology group has analyzed tens of thousands of multiple parallel synthesis samples from the Novartis Pharma Combinatorial Chemistry program, using an in-house developed automated high-throughput flow injection analysis electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy system. The electrospray spectra of these samples reflect the many structures present after the cleavage step from the solid support. The overall success of the sequential synthesis is mirrored in the purity of the expected end product, but the partial success of individual synthesis steps is evident in the impurities in the mass spectrum. However this latter reaction information, which is of considerable utility to the combinatorial chemist, is effectively hidden from view by the very large number of analyzed samples. This information is now revealed at the workbench of the combinatorial chemist by a novel three-dimensional display of each rack's complete mass spectral ion current using the in-house RackViewer Visual Basic application. Colorization of "forbidden loss" and "forbidden gas-adduct" zones, normalization to expected monoisotopic molecular weight, colorization of ionization intensity, and sorting by row or column were used in combination to highlight systematic patterns in the mass spectroscopy data.

  4. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional glacier surface motion maps at the Gjalp eruption site, Iceland, inferred from combining InSAR and other ice-displacement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Bjornsson, H.

    2002-01-01

    be assumed. The 3-D motion maps are created by an optimization process that combines the complementary datasets. The optimization is based on a Markov random-field regularization and a simulated annealing algorithm. The 3-D motion maps show the pattern of gradually diminishing ice flow into the depression...

  6. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Scientists in biomedical imaging provide researchers, physicians, and academicians with an understanding of the fundamental theories and practical applications of three-dimensional biomedical imaging methodologies. Succinct descriptions of each imaging modality are supported by numerous diagrams and illustrations which clarify important concepts and demonstrate system performance in a variety of applications. Comparison of the different functional attributes, relative advantages and limitations, complementary capabilities, and future directions of three-dimensional biomedical imaging modalities are given. Volume 1: Introductions to Three-Dimensional Biomedical Imaging Photoelectronic-Digital Imaging for Diagnostic Radiology. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Basic Principles. X-Ray Computed Tomography - Implementation and Applications. X-Ray Computed Tomography: Advanced Systems and Applications in Biomedical Research and Diagnosis. Volume II: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Position Emission Tomography (PET). Computerized Ultrasound Tomography. Fundamentals of NMR Imaging. Display of Multi-Dimensional Biomedical Image Information. Summary and Prognostications

  7. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Seshadri, Srivatsan; Havrilla, George J.; Yuan, Xiaoli; Feser, Michael; Patterson, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  8. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L., E-mail: ncordes@lanl.gov [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Seshadri, Srivatsan, E-mail: srivatsan.seshadri@zeiss.com [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Havrilla, George J. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yuan, Xiaoli [Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, QLD 4068 (Australia); Feser, Michael [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  9. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation by combining multiple-aperture interferometry and conventional interferometry: Application to the June 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.-S.; Lu, Z.; Won, J.-S.; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the volcano, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation.

  10. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  11. New method for solving three-dimensional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The method derived recently for solving a multidimensional scattering problem is applied to a three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. As compared with direct three-dimensional calculations of finite elements and finite differences, this approach gives sufficiently accurate upper and lower approximations to the helium-atom binding energy, which demonstrates its efficiency. 15 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  12. A feasibility study on the use of the MOOSE computational framework to simulate three-dimensional deformation of CANDU reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A., E-mail: Kyle.Gamble@inl.gov [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Williams, Anthony F., E-mail: Tony.Williams@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Chan, Paul K., E-mail: Paul.Chan@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada); Wowk, Diane, E-mail: Diane.Wowk@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 13 General Crerar Crescent, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • This is the first demonstration of using the MOOSE framework for modeling CANDU fuel. • Glued and frictionless contact algorithms behave as expected for 2D and 3D cases. • MOOSE accepts and correctly interprets functions of arbitrary form. • 3D deformation calculations accurately compare against analytical solutions. • MOOSE is a viable simulation tool for modeling accident reactor conditions. - Abstract: Horizontally oriented fuel bundles, such as those in CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors present unique modeling challenges. After long irradiation times or during severe transients the fuel elements can laterally deform out of plane due to processes known as bow and sag. Bowing is a thermally driven process that causes the fuel elements to laterally deform when a temperature gradient develops across the diameter of the element. Sagging is a coupled mechanical and thermal process caused by deformation of the fuel pin due to creep mechanisms of the sheathing after long irradiation times and or high temperatures. These out-of-plane deformations can lead to reduced coolant flow and a reduction in coolability of the fuel bundle. In extreme cases element-to-element or element-to-pressure tube contact could occur leading to reduced coolant flow in the subchannels or pressure tube rupture leading to a loss of coolant accident. This paper evaluates the capability of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to model these deformation mechanisms. The material model capabilities of MOOSE and its ability to simulate contact are also investigated.

  13. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  14. Solutions of transport equation in (X-Y-Z) three-dimensional geometry by finite element method and spherical harmonic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This work presents a method to solve the neutron transport equation in thre space dimensions. The angular flux is aproximated by spherical harmonics and the finite element method is applied to the space component. The program originated by the analytical development is being tested and some results are presented. (author) [pt

  15. Three-dimensional grain mapping by x-ray diffraction contrast tomography and the use of Friedel pairs in diffraction data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; Reischig, P.; King, A.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) is a technique for mapping grain shape and orientation in plastically undeformed polycrystals. In this paper, we describe a modified DCT data acquisition strategy which permits the incorporation of an innovative Friedel pair method for analyzing...

  16. Analysis of trace element compositions in adhesive cloth tapes using high-energy x-ray fluorescence spectrometer with three-dimensional polarization optics for forensic discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Akiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    The forensic discrimination of adhesive cloth tapes often used in crimes was developed using a high-energy energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with 3-dimensional polarization optics. The best measurement condition for discrimination of the tape was as follows: secondary targets, Rh and Al 2 O 3 ; measurement time, 300 s for Rh and 600 s for Al 2 O 3 ; 14 elements (Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba and Pb) were used for discrimination. It is found that the combined information of yarn density and the XRF peak intensity of the 14 elements successfully discriminated 29 out of 31 samples, of which 2 probably had the same origin. This technique is useful for forensic analysis, because it is nondestructive, rapid and easy. Therefore, it can be applied to actual forensic identification. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric inversion including topography using deformed hexahedral edge finite elements, direct solvers and data space Gauss-Newton, parallelized on SMP computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, M. A.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an algorithm for 3D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permits incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used for the forward solution, parameter jacobians, and model update. The forward simulator, jacobians calculations, as well as synthetic and real data inversion are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequency or small material admittivity, the E-field requires divergence correction. Using Hodge decomposition, correction may be applied after the forward solution is calculated. It allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization is computed using the MUMPS library, which shows moderately good scalability through 12 processor cores but limited gains beyond that. The factored matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the jacobians of field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure and several topographic models. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of electromagnetic waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run time tests indicate that for meshes as large as 150x150x60 elements, MT forward response and jacobians can be calculated in ~2.5 hours per frequency. For inversion, we implemented data space Gauss-Newton method, which offers reduction in memory requirement and a significant speedup of the parameter step versus model space approach. For dense matrix operations we use tiling approach of PLASMA library, which shows very good scalability. In synthetic

  18. Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)

  19. A three-dimensional finite element study on the effect of hydroxyapatite coating thickness on the stress distribution of the surrounding dental implant-bone interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Hydroxyapatite coating has allocated a special place in dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between the hydroxyapatite thickness and stress distribution by using finite element method.   Materials and Methods: In this paper, the effect of hydroxyapatite coating thickness on dental implants was studied using finite element method in the range between 0 to 200 microns. A 3D model including one section of mandible bone was modeled by a thick layer of cortical surrounding dense cancellous and a Nobel Biocare commercial brand dental implant was simulated and analyzed under static load in the Abaqus software.   Results The diagram of maximum von Mises stress versus coating thickness was plotted for the cancellous and cortical bones in the range between 0 to 200 microns. The obtained results showed that the magnitude of maximum von Mises stress of bone decreased as the hydroxyapatite coating thickness increased. Also, the thickness of coating exhibited smoother stress distribution and milder variations of maximum von Mises stress in a range between 60 to 120 microns.   Conclusion: In present study, the stress was decreased in the mandible bone where hydroxyapatite coating was used. This stress reduction leads to a faster stabilization and fixation of implant in the mandible bone. Using hydroxyapatite coating as a biocompatible and bioactive material could play an important role in bone formation of implant- bone interface.

  20. Stress distribution in the temporo-mandibular joint discs during jaw closing: a high-resolution three-dimensional finite-element model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoldelli, Charles; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Loudad, Raounak; Baque, Patrick; Tillier, Yannick

    2012-07-01

    This study aims at analysing the stresses distribution in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using a complete high-resolution finite element model (FE Model). This model is used here to analyse the stresses distribution in the discs during a closing jaw cycle. In the end, this model enables the prediction of the stress evolution in the TMJ disc submitted to various loadings induced by mandibular trauma, surgery or parafunction. The geometric data for the model were obtained from MRI and CT scans images of a healthy male patient. Surface and volume meshes were successively obtained using a 3D image segmentation software (AMIRA(®)). Bone components of skull and mandible, both of joint discs, temporomandibular capsules and ligaments and dental arches were meshed as separate bodies. The volume meshes were transferred to the FE analysis software (FORGE(®)). Material properties were assigned for each region. Boundary conditions for closing jaw simulations were represented by different load directions of jaws muscles. The von Mises stresses distribution in both joint discs during closing conditions was analyzed. The pattern of von Mises stresses in the TMJ discs is non-symmetric and changed continuously during jaw movement. Maximal stress is reached on the surface disc in areas in contact with others bodies. The three-dimension finite element model of masticatory system will make it possible to simulate different conditions that appear to be important in the cascade of events leading to joint damage.

  1. Three-dimensional geometric model of the middle segment of the thoracic spine based on graphical images for finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilene Maria Cota Aroeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Biomedical studies involve complex anatomical structures, which require specific methodology to generate their geometric models. The middle segment of the thoracic spine (T5-T10 is the site of the highest incidence of vertebral deformity in adolescents. Traditionally, its geometries are derived from computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data. However, this approach may restrict certain studies. The study aimed to generate two 3D geometric model of the T5-T10 thoracic spine segment, obtained from graphical images, and to create mesh for finite element studies. Methods A 3D geometric model of T5-T10 was generated using two anatomical images of T6 vertebra (side and top. The geometric model was created in Autodesk® Maya® 3D 2013, and the mesh process in HiperMesh and MeshMixer (v11.0.544 Autodesk. Results The T5-T10 thoracic segment model is presented with its passive components, bones, intervertebral discs and flavum, intertransverse and supraspinous ligaments, in different views, as well as the volumetric mesh. Conclusion The 3D geometric model generated from graphical images is suitable for application in non-patient-specific finite element model studies or, with restrictions, in the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. This model may be useful for biomechanical studies related to the middle thoracic spine, the most vulnerable site for vertebral deformations.

  2. Artificial Neural Network-Based Three-dimensional Continuous Response Relationship Construction of 3Cr20Ni10W2 Heat-Resisting Alloy and Its Application in Finite Element Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Wang, Li-yong

    2018-04-01

    The application of accurate constitutive relationship in finite element simulation would significantly contribute to accurate simulation results, which plays a critical role in process design and optimization. In this investigation, the true stress-strain data of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resisting alloy were obtained from a series of isothermal compression tests conducted in a wide temperature range of 1203-1403 K and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1 on a Gleeble 1500 testing machine. Then the constitutive relationship was modeled by an optimally constructed and well-trained back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN). The evaluation of the BP-ANN model revealed that it has admirable performance in characterizing and predicting the flow behaviors of 3Cr20Ni10W2 heat-resisting alloy. Meanwhile, a comparison between improved Arrhenius-type constitutive equation and BP-ANN model shows that the latter has higher accuracy. Consequently, the developed BP-ANN model was used to predict abundant stress-strain data beyond the limited experimental conditions and construct the three-dimensional continuous response relationship for temperature, strain rate, strain, and stress. Finally, the three-dimensional continuous response relationship was applied to the numerical simulation of isothermal compression tests. The results show that such constitutive relationship can significantly promote the accuracy improvement of numerical simulation for hot forming processes.

  3. Three dimensional magnetic fields in extra high speed modified Lundell alternators computed by a combined vector-scalar magnetic potential finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Wang, R.; Secunde, R.

    1992-01-01

    A 3D finite element (FE) approach was developed and implemented for computation of global magnetic fields in a 14.3 kVA modified Lundell alternator. The essence of the new method is the combined use of magnetic vector and scalar potential formulations in 3D FEs. This approach makes it practical, using state of the art supercomputer resources, to globally analyze magnetic fields and operating performances of rotating machines which have truly 3D magnetic flux patterns. The 3D FE-computed fields and machine inductances as well as various machine performance simulations of the 14.3 kVA machine are presented in this paper and its two companion papers.

  4. A three-dimensional, iterative mapping procedure for the implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition in global magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Goodman

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical formulation of an iterative procedure for the numerical implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere (IM anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition is presented. The procedure may be used in global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. The basic form of the boundary condition is well known, but a well-defined, simple, explicit method for implementing it in an MHD code has not been presented previously. The boundary condition relates the ionospheric electric field to the magnetic field-aligned current density driven through the ionosphere by the magnetospheric convection electric field, which is orthogonal to the magnetic field B, and maps down into the ionosphere along equipotential magnetic field lines. The source of this electric field is the flow of the solar wind orthogonal to B. The electric field and current density in the ionosphere are connected through an anisotropic conductivity tensor which involves the Hall, Pedersen, and parallel conductivities. Only the height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities (conductances appear in the final form of the boundary condition, and are assumed to be known functions of position on the spherical surface R=R1 representing the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The implementation presented consists of an iterative mapping of the electrostatic potential ψ the gradient of which gives the electric field, and the field-aligned current density between the IM boundary at R=R1 and the inner boundary of an MHD code which is taken to be at R2>R1. Given the field-aligned current density on R=R2, as computed by the MHD simulation, it is mapped down to R=R1 where it is used to compute ψ by solving the equation that is the IM Ohm's law boundary condition. Then ψ is mapped out to R=R2, where it is used to update the electric field and the component of velocity perpendicular to B. The updated electric field and perpendicular velocity serve as new boundary

  5. (Weakly) three-dimensional caseology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional mapping of the martensite microstructure of lithium by 3DXRD high-energy X-ray diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichl, W.; Krystian, M.; Prem, M.; Krexner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Metallic lithium undergoes a partial martensitic phase transition from bcc to a complex combination of close-pacKEXd structures below 80 K. On cooling, a rhombohedral 9R structure and a one-dimensionally disordered polytype phase coexist with the bcc matrix, whereas on heating an additional fcc phase appears. Up to now very little is known about the microstructure of this phase mixture. In the present investigation the 3DXRD method was applied in order to map the individual phases. This technique has been developed at the Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark) and is implemented at the Beamline ID11 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). It uses a micro-focussed synchrotron radiation beam and a conical slit cell for depth resolution. The method has been used successfully for the mapping of grains in single-phase, polycrystalline materials in the past. In the present work it was for the first time applied to the study of a phase transition. A lithium single crystal was cooled to 80 K. After the first transformation a gage volume of 200x200x200 μm was scanned two times with the conical slit cell in position for the bcc and for the 9R structure, respectively. The presence or absence of reflections within the different rings of the slit cell allows to distinguish between the two structures. In addition, diffuse streaks corresponding to the disordered polytype phase could be identified. (author)

  7. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter considers toroidal MHD configurations that are inherently three-dimensional. The motivation for investigation such complicated equilibria is that they possess the potential for providing toroidal confinement without the need of a net toroidal current. This leads to a number of advantages with respect to fusion power generation. First, the attractive feature of steady-state operation becomes more feasible since such configurations no longer require a toroidal current transformer. Second, with zero net current, one potentially dangerous class of MHD instabilities, the current-driven kink modes, is eliminated. Finally, three-dimensional configurations possess nondegenerate flux surfaces even in the absence of plasma pressure and plasma current. Although there is an enormous range of possible three-dimensional equilibria, the configurations of interest are accurately described as axisymmetric tori with superimposed helical fields; furthermore, they possess no net toroidal current. Instead, two different and less obvious restoring forces are developed: the helical sideband force and the toroidal dipole current force. Each is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. A detailed discussion of the parallel current constraint, including its physical significance, is given in section 7.2. A general analysis of helical sideband equilibria, along with a detailed description of the Elmo bumpy torus, is presented in sections 7.3 and 7.4. A general description of toroidal dipole-current equilibria, including a detailed discussion of stellarators, heliotrons, and torsatrons, is given in sections 7.5 and 7.6

  8. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  9. Evaluation of Stress Distribution of Mini Dental Implant-Supported Overdentures in Complete Cleft Palate Models: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soğancı, Gökçe; Yazıcıoğlu, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Mini dental implants could be an alternative treatment method for prosthetic treatment of edentulous cleft palate. The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution around the cortical bone and different plans using a varied number of mini dental implants in edentulous unilateral complete cleft palates. Three edentulous maxillary models were modified to create unilateral complete cleft palates. Mini dental implants (2.4 × 15 mm) were located as two mini implants at the premolar region, four mini implants at the premolar and molar region, and six mini implants at the first premolar, second premolar, and first molar regions in the models, respectively. Mucosa, o-ring/ball attachments, and overdentures were simulated. Vertical and horizontal loads of 100 N were applied on both the right and left molar teeth of the overdenture for each model. Maximum and minimum principal stress values and the distribution at cortical bone around the implants and cleft palates were evaluated by finite element analysis. Stress values under vertical loads were lower than values under horizontal loadings for all models. Stress values were found to be lower in the first model than in the second and third models. The highest stress values were found around implants in the second model. The unilateral feature of a complete cleft pattern affected the stress distribution. Stresses occured mostly around implants when the overdenture was supported by six implants; however, the stress distribution around implants was low with two implants because of tissue support.

  10. Three dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling of Al-SiC nanolaminates using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Carl R. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Molina-Aladareguia, Jon [IMDEA Materials Institute, c/Eric Kandel 2, Getafe, Madrid 28906 (Spain); Chawla, Nikhilesh, E-mail: nchawla@asu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Al-SiC nanolaminate composites show promise as high performance coating materials due to their combination of strength and toughness. Although a significant amount of modeling effort has been focused on materials with an idealized flat nanostructure, experimentally these materials exhibit complex undulating layer geometries. This work utilizes FIB tomography to characterize this nanostructure in 3D and finite element modeling to determine the effect that this complex structure has on the mechanical behavior of these materials. A sufficiently large volume was characterized such that a 1 × 2 μm micropillar could be generated from the dataset and compared directly to experimental results. The mechanical response from this nanostructure was then compared to pillar models using simplified structures with perfectly flat layers, layers with sinusoidal waviness, and layers with arc segment waviness. The arc segment based layer geometry showed the best agreement with the experimentally determined structure, indicating it would be the most appropriate geometry for future modeling efforts. - Highlights: •FIB tomography was used to determine the structure of an Al-SiC nanolaminate in 3D. •FEM was used to compare the deformation of the nanostructure to experimental results. •Idealized structures from literature were compared to the FIB determined structure. •Arc segment based structures approximated the FIB determined structure most closely.

  11. Impact of the lower third molar presence and position on the fragility of mandibular angle and condyle: A Three-dimensional finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antic, Svetlana; Vukicevic, Arso M; Milasinovic, Marko; Saveljic, Igor; Jovicic, Gordana; Filipovic, Nenad; Rakocevic, Zoran; Djuric, Marija

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influences of the presence and position of a lower third molar (M3) on the fragility of mandibular angle and condyle, using finite element analysis. From computed tomographic scans of a human mandible with normally erupted M3, two additional virtual models were generated: a mandibular model with partially impacted M3 and a model without M3. Two cases of impact were considered: a frontal and a lateral blow. The results are based on the chromatic analysis of the distributed von Mises and principal stresses, and calculation of their failure indices. In the frontal blow, the angle region showed the highest stress in the case with partially impacted M3, and the condylar region in the case without M3. Compressive stresses were dominant but caused no failure. Tensile stresses were recorded in the retromolar areas, but caused failure only in the case with partially impacted M3. In the lateral blow, the stress concentrated at the point of impact, in the ipsilateral and contralateral angle and condylar regions. The highest stresses were recorded in the case with partially impacted M3. Tensile stresses caused the failure on the ipsilateral side, whereas compressive stresses on the contralateral side. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress Distribution Evaluation of the Periodontal Ligament in the Maxillary Canine for Retraction by Different Alveolar Corticotomy Techniques: A Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Saga, Armando Yukio; de Lima, Key Fonseca; Paese, Victor Nissen; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2016-01-01

    By using the finite element method (FEM), this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different corticotomy formats on the distribution and magnitude of stress on the periodontal ligament (PDL) during retraction of the maxillary canine. A geometric model of the left hemi-jaw was created from computed tomography scan images of a dry human skull and loads were administered during distalization movement of the canine. Three trials were performed: (1) without corticotomy, (2) box-shaped corticotomy and perforations in the cortical bone of the canine (CVC) and (3) CVC and circular-shaped corticotomy in the cortical bone of the edentulous space of the first premolar. There was no difference in stress distribution among the different corticotomy formats. Different corticotomy formats used to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement did not affect stress distribution in the PDL during canine retraction. From a mechanical perspective, the present study showed that the stress distribution on the PDL during canine retraction was similar in all the corticotomy formats. When using the Andrews T2 bracket, the PDL presented the highest levels of stress in the middle third of the PDL, suggesting that the force was near the center of resistance. Also, as bone weakening by corticotomies did not influence stress distribution, the surgical procedure could be simplified to a less aggressive one, focusing more on inflammatory cellular stimulation than on bone resistance. A simpler surgical act could also be performed by most orthodontists in their practices, enhancing postoperative response and reducing patient costs.

  13. A three-dimensional, iterative mapping procedure for the implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition in global magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Goodman

    Full Text Available The mathematical formulation of an iterative procedure for the numerical implementation of an ionosphere-magnetosphere (IM anisotropic Ohm's law boundary condition is presented. The procedure may be used in global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulations of the magnetosphere. The basic form of the boundary condition is well known, but a well-defined, simple, explicit method for implementing it in an MHD code has not been presented previously. The boundary condition relates the ionospheric electric field to the magnetic field-aligned current density driven through the ionosphere by the magnetospheric convection electric field, which is orthogonal to the magnetic field B, and maps down into the ionosphere along equipotential magnetic field lines. The source of this electric field is the flow of the solar wind orthogonal to B. The electric field and current density in the ionosphere are connected through an anisotropic conductivity tensor which involves the Hall, Pedersen, and parallel conductivities. Only the height-integrated Hall and Pedersen conductivities (conductances appear in the final form of the boundary condition, and are assumed to be known functions of position on the spherical surface R=R1 representing the boundary between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The implementation presented consists of an iterative mapping of the electrostatic potential ψ the gradient of which gives the electric field, and the field-aligned current density between the IM boundary at R=R1 and the inner boundary of an MHD code which is taken to be at R2>R1. Given the field-aligned current density on R=R2, as computed by the MHD simulation, it is mapped down to R=R1 where it is used to compute ψ by solving the equation that is the IM Ohm's law boundary condition. Then ψ is mapped out

  14. Biomechanical comparison of a new stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion cage with established fixation techniques – a three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Pang-Hsing

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initial promise of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage to treat chronic back pain and restore disc height has not been realized. In some instances, a posterior spinal fixation has been used to enhance stability and increase fusion rate. In this manuscript, a new stand-alone cage is compared with conventional fixation methods based on the finite element analysis, with a focus on investigating cage-bone interface mechanics and stress distribution on the adjacent tissues. Methods Three trapezoid 8° interbody fusion cage models (dual paralleled cages, a single large cage, or a two-part cage consisting of a trapezoid box and threaded cylinder were created with or without pedicle screws fixation to investigate the relative importance of the screws on the spinal segmental response. The contact stress on the facet joint, slip displacement of the cage on the endplate, and rotational angle of the upper vertebra were measured under different loading conditions. Results Simulation results demonstrated less facet stress and slip displacement with the maximal contact on the cage-bone interface. A stand-alone two-part cage had good slip behavior under compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending and torsion, as compared with the other two interbody cages, even with the additional posterior fixation. However, the two-part cage had the lowest rotational angles under flexion and torsion, but had no differences under extension and lateral bending. Conclusion The biomechanical benefit of a stand-alone two-part fusion cage can be justified. This device provided the stability required for interbody fusion, which supports clinical trials of the cage as an alternative to circumferential fixations.

  15. A comparison of stress distribution and flexion among various designs of bar attachments for implant overdentures: A three dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bar overdentures are popular choices among clinicians worldwide but configurations that provide an optimal biomechanical distribution of stress are still debatable. Aims: To compare the stresses and elastic flexion between implant supported bar overdentures in various configurations using finite element analysis. Settings and Design: A CAT scan of a human mandible was used to generate an anatomically accurate mechanical model. Materials and Methods: Three models with bars and clips in three different configurations were constructed. Model 1 had a single bar connecting two implants, Model 2 had three bars connecting all the four implants, and Model 3 had two bars connecting the medial and distal implants on the sides only. The models were loaded under static conditions with 100N load distributed at the approximate position of the clip. The mandibular boundary conditions were modeled considering the real geometry of its muscle supporting system. Maximum von Mises stress at the level of the bar and at the bone implant interface were compared in all three models. The flexion of mandible and the bar was also compared qualitatively. Statistical Analysis Used: The analyses were accomplished using the ANSYS software program and were processed by a personal computer. Stress on these models was analyzed after loading conditions. Results: Qualitative comparisons showed that stress at the level of the bar and at the bone implant interface were in the following order: Model 1> Model 3> Model 2. The flexion of the mandible and the bar were in the following order: Model 2 > Model 1 > Model 3. Conclusions: Four implant bar systems connected by bars on the sides only is a better choice than two implant bar systems and four implant bar systems with bars connecting all four implants.

  16. Estimation of the Thickness and the Material Combination of the Thermal Stress Control Layer (TSCL) for the Stellite21 Hardfaced STD61 Hot Working Tool Steel Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Na-Ra; Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The research on a thermal stress control layer (TSCL) begins to undertake to reduce residual stress and strain in the vicinity of the joined region between the hardfacing layer and the base part. The goal of this paper is to estimate the material combination and the thickness of TSCL for the Stellite21 hardfaced STD61 hot working tool steel via three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). TSCL is created by the combination of Stellite21 and STD61. The thickness of TSCL ranges from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm. The influence of the material combination and the thickness of TSCL on temperature, thermal stress and thermal strain distributions of the hardfaced part have been investigated. The results of the investigation have been revealed that a proper material combination of TSCL is Stellite21 of 50 % and STD61 of 50 %, and its appropriate thickness is 1.0 mm

  17. Three-dimensional (3D) coseismic deformation map produced by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake estimated and modeled by SAR and GPS data integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing

  18. SNP2Structure: A Public and Versatile Resource for Mapping and Three-Dimensional Modeling of Missense SNPs on Human Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Difei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-standing challenges in biology is to understand how non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs change protein structure and further affect their function. While it is impractical to solve all the mutated protein structures experimentally, it is quite feasible to model the mutated structures in silico. Toward this goal, we built a publicly available structure database resource (SNP2Structure, https://apps.icbi.georgetown.edu/snp2structure focusing on missense mutations, msSNP. Compared with web portals with similar aims, SNP2Structure has the following major advantages. First, our portal offers direct comparison of two related 3D structures. Second, the protein models include all interacting molecules in the original PDB structures, so users are able to determine regions of potential interaction changes when a protein mutation occurs. Third, the mutated structures are available to download locally for further structural and functional analysis. Fourth, we used Jsmol package to display the protein structure that has no system compatibility issue. SNP2Structure provides reliable, high quality mapping of nsSNPs to 3D protein structures enabling researchers to explore the likely functional impact of human disease-causing mutations.

  19. Three-dimensional visualization maps of suspended-sediment concentrations during placement of dredged material in 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Duluth, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Ellison, Christopher A.; Mahoney, Mollie H.

    2016-06-30

    Excess sediment in rivers and estuaries poses serious environmental and economic challenges. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) routinely dredges sediment in Federal navigation channels to maintain commercial shipping operations. The USACE initiated a 3-year pilot project in 2013 to use navigation channel dredged material to aid in restoration of shoreline habitat in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. Placing dredged material in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment supports the restoration of shallow bay aquatic habitat aiding in the delisting of the St. Louis River Estuary Area of Concern.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, collected turbidity and suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) in 2014 and 2015 to measure the horizontal and vertical distribution of SSCs during placement operations of dredged materials. These data were collected to help the USACE evaluate the use of several best management practices, including various dredge material placement techniques and a silt curtain, to mitigate the dispersion of suspended sediment.Three-dimensional visualization maps are a valuable tool for assessing the spatial displacement of SSCs. Data collection was designed to coincide with four dredged placement configurations that included periods with and without a silt curtain as well as before and after placement of dredged materials. Approximately 230 SSC samples and corresponding turbidity values collected in 2014 and 2015 were used to develop a simple linear regression model between SSC and turbidity. Using the simple linear regression model, SSCs were estimated for approximately 3,000 turbidity values at approximately 100 sampling sites in the 21st Avenue West Channel Embayment of the Duluth-Superior Harbor. The estimated SSCs served as input for development of 12 three-dimensional visualization maps.

  20. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  1. Three-dimensional maps for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to

  2. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy

  3. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  4. Three dimensional imaging of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.; David, B.

    2008-01-01

    Otoliths are small structures in fish ears made of calcium carbonate which carry a record of the environment in which the fish live. Traditionally, in order to study their microchemistry by a scanning technique such as PIXE the otoliths have been either ground down by hand or thin sectioned to expose the otolith core. However this technique is subject to human error in judging the core position. In this study we have scanned successive layers of otoliths 50 and 100 μm apart by removing the otolith material in a lapping machine which can be set to a few μm precision. In one study by comparing data from otoliths from the two ears of a freshwater species we found that polishing by hand could miss the core and thus give misleading results as to the life cycle of the fish. In another example we showed detail in a marine species which could be used to build a three dimensional picture of the Sr distribution. (author)

  5. Three-Dimensional Rebar Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Salvatierra, Rodrigo V; Dong, Pei; Li, Yilun; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Wang, Tuo; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Ji, Yongsung; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-01

    Free-standing robust three-dimensional (3D) rebar graphene foams (GFs) were developed by a powder metallurgy template method with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a reinforcing bar, sintered Ni skeletons as a template and catalyst, and sucrose as a solid carbon source. As a reinforcement and bridge between different graphene sheets and carbon shells, MWCNTs improved the thermostability, storage modulus (290.1 kPa) and conductivity (21.82 S cm -1 ) of 3D GF resulting in a high porosity and structurally stable 3D rebar GF. The 3D rebar GF can support >3150× the foam's weight with no irreversible height change, and shows only a ∼25% irreversible height change after loading >8500× the foam's weight. The 3D rebar GF also shows stable performance as a highly porous electrode in lithium ion capacitors (LICs) with an energy density of 32 Wh kg -1 . After 500 cycles of testing at a high current density of 6.50 mA cm -2 , the LIC shows 78% energy density retention. These properties indicate promising applications with 3D rebar GFs in devices requiring stable mechanical and electrochemical properties.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of a Four-Implant-Supported Polyetherketoneketone Framework Prosthesis: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Computer-Aided Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Sun; Shin, Sang-Wan; Lee, Sang-Pyo; Kim, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-Yol

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and compare polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) with different framework materials for implant-supported prostheses by means of a three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA) based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and computer-aided design (CAD) data. A geometric model that consisted of four maxillary implants supporting a prosthesis framework was constructed from CBCT and CAD data of a treated patient. Three different materials (zirconia, titanium, and PEKK) were selected, and their material properties were simulated using FEA software in the generated geometric model. In the PEKK framework (ie, low elastic modulus) group, the stress transferred to the implant and simulated adjacent tissue was reduced when compressive stress was dominant, but increased when tensile stress was dominant. This study suggests that the shock-absorbing effects of a resilient implant-supported framework are limited in some areas and that rigid framework material shows a favorable stress distribution and safety of overall components of the prosthesis.

  7. Influence of cup-center-edge angle on micro-motion at the interface between the cup and host bone in cementless total hip arthroplasty: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We verified the index cup position required for bulk bone grafting instead of morcellized grafting immediately after cementless total hip arthroplasty. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to evaluate changes in the volume of the slippage of the cup-host bone interface as micro-motion of the cup at the acetabular bone defect site depending on the cup-center-edge (CE) angle. The conditions of bulk bone grafts were similar to those of cortical bone. Slippage increased with decreasing cup-CE angle. A bulk bone graft tightly fixed to the host bone prevented considerably larger slippage between the cup and host bone. A smaller cup-CE angle increased the impact of the bulk bone graft on slippage. When the cup-CE angle was 0° or -10°, the criterion for slippage in favorable initial fixation in all conditions was cup and bone graft, it is impossible to obtain reliable fixation of the cup with a cup-CE angle cup-host bone fixation, especially when the cup-CE angle is small, such as cups, and sufficient fixation between the host bone and cup or bulk bone graft using a screw is effective when the cup-CE angle is extremely small.

  8. Full three-dimensional isotropic transformation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Meca, C; Martí, J; Martínez, A; Ortuño, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a method that enables the implementation of full three-dimensional (3D) transformation media with minimized anisotropy. It is based on a special kind of shape-preserving mapping and a subsequent optimization process. For sufficiently smooth transformations, the resulting anisotropy can be neglected, paving the way for practically realizable 3D devices. The method is independent of the considered wave phenomenon and can thus be applied to any field for which a transformational technique exists, such as acoustics or thermodynamics. Full 3D isotropy has an additional important implication for optical transformation media, as it eliminates the need for magnetic materials in many situations. To illustrate the potential of the method, we design 3D counterparts of transformation-based electromagnetic squeezers and bends. (paper)

  9. Influence of heart rhythm, breathing and arm position during computed tomography scanning on the registration accuracy of electro anatomical map (EAM) images, left atrium three-dimensional computed tomography angiography images, and fluoroscopy time during ablation to treat atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chono, Taiki; Shimoshige, Shinya; Yoshikawa, Kenta; Mizonobe, Kazuhusa; Ogura, Keishi

    2013-01-01

    In CARTOMERGE for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) by ablation, by integrating electro anatomical map (EAM) and left atrium three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) images, identification of the ablation points is simplified and the procedure can be made carried out more rapidly. However, the influence that heart rhythm, breathing and arm position during CT scanning have on registration accuracy and fluoroscopy time is not clear. To clarify the influence on registration accuracy and fluoroscopy time of heart rhythm, breathing and arm position during CT scanning. The patients were CT-scanned during both sinus rhythm (SR) and AF in each study subject. We evaluated the registration accuracy of images reconstructed between the cardiac cycle and assessed the registration accuracy and fluoroscopy time of images obtained during inspiratory breath-hold, expiratory breath-hold and up and down position of the arm. Although the registration accuracy of the EAM image and left atrium 3D-CTA image showed a significant difference during SR, no significant difference was seen during AF. Expiratory breath-hold and down position of the arm resulted in the highest registration accuracy and the shortest fluoroscopy time. However, arm position had no significant effect on registration accuracy. Heart rhythm and breathing during CT scanning have a significant effect on the registration accuracy of EAM images, left atrium 3D-CTA images, and fluoroscopy time. (author)

  10. Using the Normalized Differential Wetness Index to Scale Leaf Area Index, Create Three-Dimensional Classification Maps, and Scale Seasonal Evapotranspiration Depletions in Canopies Along the Middle Rio Grande Riparian CorridorCorridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, D. E.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.; Coonrod, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    This research creates temporally and spatially explicit data layers of vegetation, leaf area index (LAI), three dimensional (3D) vegetation classification maps, and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) depletions along the middle Rio Grande riparian corridor. The first part of this work produces two dimensional (2D) classification maps of native and non-native canopy vegetation using temporal patterns and the decision tree classifier in ENVI 4.0 (Research Systems Inc. Boulder, Colorado). The second part of this work correlates the normalized differential wetness index (NDWI) with field measurements of plant area index (PAI), stem area index (SAI), and leaf area index (LAI) using the LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) (LICOR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska). SAI is measured in winter to capture only branches and stems. PAI is measured during the growing season. Field measurements taken within 10 days of image capture dates provide adequate correlations though the closer the dates the better the correlation. LAI represents the surface area of active green leafy vegetation. NDWI correlates with both PAI and estimated LAI in both Tamarisk chinensis and Populus deltoides ssp. Wislizeni sites better than the more traditional normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). This study also suggests that winter PCA measurements approximate SAI which should be subtracted from PAI in woody vegetation like T. chinensis and Salix exigua stands. The results show that correcting for leaf geometry by multiplying T. chinensis areas with cylindrical cladophylls by pi and the remaining flat leaf vegetation by two yields the best relationship between NDWI and total LAI. The 2Dclassification maps can be placed on top of relief maps of LAI to produce 3D classification maps. The final part of this research scales ET from four 3D eddy covariance towers located in two T. chinensis and two P. deltoides study sites. ET is regressed with LAI, percent daylight (PD), and average hourly incoming net

  11. Research and development of basic technologies for the next generation industries, 'three-dimensional circuit elements'. Evaluation on the research and development; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu 'sanjigen kairo soshi'. Kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Research, development and evaluation were performed with an objective of establishing the basic technology related to three-dimensional circuit elements that integrate functions at ultra-high density. For the basic technology of lamination, the SOI technology suitable for the three-dimensional circuit elements was developed, and it has become possible to manufacture high-quality multi-layered crystalline structure by means of annealing that uses laser and electron beam. In addition, a lateral epitaxial technology for solid phase was developed, and the base to be applied to the three-dimensional circuit elements was established. Furthermore, the technology to put thin film circuits together would be useful for high-density integration in the future. The three-dimensional circuit makes parallel processing in each segment possible, whereas a possibility was shown that the processing can be performed at much higher speed than before. Actually a prototype three-dimensional circuit equipped with functions for parallel processing and judgment processing was fabricated. The image pre-processing which has been impossible on the real time basis in the conventional two-dimensional integrated circuit was realized in a speed as fast as milli-second order. These achievements lead to a belief that the targets for the present research and development have been achieved. (NEDO)

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of functional brain images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Masato; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayoshi; Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Honjo, Iwao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    We consider PET (positron emission tomography) measurement with SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) analysis to be one of the most useful methods to identify activated areas of the brain involved in language processing. SPM is an effective analytical method that detects markedly activated areas over the whole brain. However, with the conventional presentations of these functional brain images, such as horizontal slices, three directional projection, or brain surface coloring, makes understanding and interpreting the positional relationships among various brain areas difficult. Therefore, we developed three-dimensionally reconstructed images from these functional brain images to improve the interpretation. The subjects were 12 normal volunteers. The following three types of images were constructed: routine images by SPM, three-dimensional static images, and three-dimensional dynamic images, after PET images were analyzed by SPM during daily dialog listening. The creation of images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types employed the volume rendering method by VTK (The Visualization Toolkit). Since the functional brain images did not include original brain images, we synthesized SPM and MRI brain images by self-made C++ programs. The three-dimensional dynamic images were made by sequencing static images with available software. Images of both the three-dimensional static and dynamic types were processed by a personal computer system. Our newly created images showed clearer positional relationships among activated brain areas compared to the conventional method. To date, functional brain images have been employed in fields such as neurology or neurosurgery, however, these images may be useful even in the field of otorhinolaryngology, to assess hearing and speech. Exact three-dimensional images based on functional brain images are important for exact and intuitive interpretation, and may lead to new developments in brain science. Currently, the surface

  14. Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    , causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011.......This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the other...

  15. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Yeast Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, William; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Andronescu, Mirela; Schutz, Kevin; McIlwain, Sean; Kim, Yoo Jung; Lee, Choli; Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley; Blau, C. Anthony

    Layered on top of information conveyed by DNA sequence and chromatin are higher order structures that encompass portions of chromosomes, entire chromosomes, and even whole genomes. Interphase chromosomes are not positioned randomly within the nucleus, but instead adopt preferred conformations. Disparate DNA elements co-localize into functionally defined aggregates or factories for transcription and DNA replication. In budding yeast, Drosophila and many other eukaryotes, chromosomes adopt a Rabl configuration, with arms extending from centromeres adjacent to the spindle pole body to telomeres that abut the nuclear envelope. Nonetheless, the topologies and spatial relationships of chromosomes remain poorly understood. Here we developed a method to globally capture intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions, and applied it to generate a map at kilobase resolution of the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The map recapitulates known features of genome organization, thereby validating the method, and identifies new features. Extensive regional and higher order folding of individual chromosomes is observed. Chromosome XII exhibits a striking conformation that implicates the nucleolus as a formidable barrier to interaction between DNA sequences at either end. Inter-chromosomal contacts are anchored by centromeres and include interactions among transfer RNA genes, among origins of early DNA replication and among sites where chromosomal breakpoints occur. Finally, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the yeast genome. Our findings provide a glimpse of the interface between the form and function of a eukaryotic genome.

  16. Polycrystal model of the mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC30vol.% metal–ceramic composite using a three-dimensional microstructure map obtained by dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cédat, D.; Fandeur, O.; Rey, C.; Raabe, D.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a Mo–TiC 30vol.% ceramic–metal composite was investigated over a wide temperature range (25–700 °C). High-energy X-ray tomography was used to reveal percolation of the hard titanium carbide phase through the composite. Using a polycrystal approach for a two-phase material, finite-element simulations were performed on a real three-dimensional (3-D) aggregate of the material. The 3-D microstructure, used as the starting configuration for the predictions, was obtained by serial sectioning in a dual beam focused ion beam scanning electron microscope coupled to an electron backscattered diffraction system. The 3-D aggregate consists of a molybdenum matrix and a percolating TiC skeleton. As for most body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, the molybdenum matrix phase is characterized by a change in plasticity mechanism with temperature. We used a polycrystal model for bcc materials which was extended to two phases (TiC and Mo). The model parameters of the matrix were determined from experiments on pure molydenum. For all temperatures investigated the TiC particles were considered to be brittle. Gradual damage to the TiC particles was treated, based on an accumulative failure law that is approximated by evolution of the apparent particle elastic stiffness. The model enabled us to determine the evolution of the local mechanical fields with deformation and temperature. We showed that a 3-D aggregate representing the actual microstructure of the composite is required to understand the local and global mechanical properties of the composite studied.

  17. Study on three dimensional seismic isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Kitamura, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) launched joint research programs on structural design and three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, as part of the supporting R and D activities for the feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor cycle systems. A research project by JAPC under the auspices of the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) with technical support by JNC is included in this joint study. This report contains the results of the research on the three-dimensional seismic isolation technologies, and the results of this year's study are summarized in the following five aspects. (1) Study on Earthquake Condition for Developing 3-dimensional Base Isolation System. The case study S2 is one of the maximum ground motions, of which the records were investigated up to this time. But a few observed near the fault exceed the case study S2 in the long period domain, depending on the fault length and conditions. Generally it is appropriate that the response spectra ratio (vertical/horizontal) is 0.6. (2) Performance Requirement for 3-dimensional Base Isolation System and Devices. Although the integrity map of main equipment/piping dominate the design criteria for the 3-dimensional base isolation system, the combined integrity map is the same as those of FY 2000, which are under fv=1Hz and over hv=20%. (3) Developing Targets and Schedule for 3-dimensional Isolation Technology. The target items for 3-dimensional base isolation system were rearranged into a table, and developing items to be examined concerning the device were also adjusted. A development plan until FY 2009 was made from the viewpoint of realization and establishment of a design guideline on 3-dimensional base isolation system. (4) Study on 3-dimensional Entire Building Base Isolation System. Three ideas among six ideas that had been proposed in FY2001, i.e., '3-dimensional base isolation system incorporating hydraulic

  18. Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since

  19. Elemental mapping in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L J; D'Alfonso, A J; Lugg, N R; Findlay, S D; LeBeau, J M; Stemmer, S

    2010-01-01

    We discuss atomic resolution chemical mapping in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) based on core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and also on energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) imaging. Chemical mapping using EELS can yield counterintuitive results which, however, can be understood using first principles calculations. Experimental chemical maps based on EDX bear out the thesis that such maps are always likely to be directly interpretable. This can be explained in terms of the local nature of the effective optical potential for ionization under those imaging conditions. This is followed by an excursion into the complementary technique of elemental mapping using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in a conventional transmission electron microscope. We will then consider the widely used technique of Z-contrast or high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, which is based on phonon excitation, where it has recently been shown that intensity variations can be placed on an absolute scale by normalizing the measured intensities to the incident beam. Results, showing excellent agreement between theory and experiment to within a few percent, are shown for Z-contrast imaging from a sample of PbWO 4 .

  20. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D ampersand D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. Chemical analysis plays a vital role throughout the process of decontamination. Before clean-up operations can begin the site must be characterized with respect to the type and concentration of contaminants, and detailed site mapping must clarify areas of both high and low risk. During remediation activities chemical analysis provides a means to measure progress and to adjust clean-up strategy. Once the clean-up process has been completed the results of chemical analysis will verify that the site is in compliance with federal and local regulations

  1. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D and D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. Real-time remotely operable characterization instrumentation will significantly advance the analysis capabilities beyond those currently employed. Chemical analysis is a primary area where the characterization process will be improved. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled using coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The CLR also provides 3D facility maps which establish a 3D world view within which the robotic sensor system can operate

  2. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance spot welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Perret, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws from the fundamentals of electro-thermo-mechanical coupling to the main aspects of finite element implementation and three-dimensional modelling of resistance welding. A new simulation environment is proposed in order to perform three-dimensional simulations and optimization...... of resistance welding together with the simulations of conventional and special-purpose quasi-static mechanical tests. Three-dimensional simulations of resistance welding consider the electrical, thermal, mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of the material as well as the operating conditions...... of the welding machines. Simulations of the mechanical tests take into account material softening due to the accumulation of ductile damage and cover conventional tests, such as tensile–shear tests, cross-tension test and peel tests, as well as the possibility of special-purpose tests designed by the users...

  3. A three-dimensional field solutions of Halbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jizhong; Xiao Jijun; Zhang Yiming; Xu Chunyan

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional field solutions are presented for Halback cylinder magnet. Based on Ampere equivalent current methods, the permanent magnets are taken as distributing of current density. For getting the three-dimensional field solution of ideal polarized permanent magnets, the solution method entails the use of the vector potential and involves the closed-form integration of the free-space Green's function. The programmed field solution are ideal for performing rapid parametric studies of the dipole Halback cylinder magnets made from rare earth materials. The field solutions are verified by both an analytical two-dimensional algorithm and three-dimensional finite element software. A rapid method is presented for extensive analyzing and optimizing Halbach cylinder magnet. (authors)

  4. The architecture of cartilage: Elemental maps and scanning transmission ion microscopy/tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinert, Tilo; Reibetanz, Uta; Schwertner, Michael; Vogt, Juergen; Butz, Tilman; Sakellariou, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Articular cartilage is not just a jelly-like cover of the bone within the joints but a highly sophisticated architecture of hydrated macromolecules, collagen fibrils and cartilage cells. Influences on the physiological balance due to age-related or pathological changes can lead to malfunction and subsequently to degradation of the cartilage. Many activities in cartilage research are dealing with the architecture of joint cartilage but have limited access to elemental distributions. Nuclear microscopy is able to yield spatially resolved elemental concentrations, provides density information and can visualise the arrangement of the collagen fibres. The distribution of the cartilage matrix can be deduced from the elemental and density maps. The findings showed a varying content of collagen and proteoglycan between zones of different cell maturation. Zones of higher collagen content are characterised by aligned collagen fibres that can form tubular structures. Recently we focused on STIM tomography to investigate the three dimensional arrangement of the collagen structures

  5. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  6. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspo, N.

    1981-07-01

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  7. Three-dimensional effects in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    An overall view of the pioneering theories and works, which enlighten the three-dimensional nature of fracture mechanics during the last years is given. the main aim is not an exhaustive reviewing but the displaying of the last developments on this scientific field in a natural way. This work attempts to envisage the limits of disregarding the three-dimensional behaviour in theories, analyses and experiments. Moreover, it tries to draw attention on the scant fervour, although increasing, this three-dimensional nature of fracture has among the scientific community. Finally, a constructive discussion is presented on the use of two-dimensional solutions in the analysis of geometries which bear a three-dimensional configuration. the static two-dimensional solutions and its applications fields are reviewed. also, the static three-dimensional solutions, wherein a comparative analysis with elastoplastic and elastostatic solutions are presented. to end up, the dynamic three-dimensional solutions are compared to the asymptotic two-dimensional ones under the practical applications point of view. (author)

  8. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  9. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  10. Simulating Photons and Plasmons in a Three-dimensional Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Shvets, G.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional metallic photonic structures are studied using a newly developed mixed finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) code, Curly3d. The code solves the vector Helmholtz equation as an eigenvalue problem in the unit cell of a triply periodic lattice composed of conductors and/or dielectrics. The mixed FE-FD discretization scheme ensures rapid numerical convergence of the eigenvalue and allows the code to run at low resolution. Plasmon and photonic band structure calculations are presented

  11. Analysis of the three dimensional flow in a turbine scroll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.

    1979-01-01

    The present analysis describes the three-dimensional compressible inviscid flow in the scroll and the vaneless nozzle of a radial inflow turbine. The solution to this flow field, which is further complicated by the geometrical shape of the boundaries, is obtained using the finite element method. Symmetric and nonsymmetric scroll cross sectional geometries are investigated to determine their effect on the general flow field and on the exit flow conditions.

  12. Towards three-dimensional optical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterials have opened up the possibility of unprecedented and fascinating concepts and applications in optics and photonics. Examples include negative refraction, perfect lenses, cloaking, perfect absorbers, and so on. Since these metamaterials are man-made materials composed of sub-wavelength structures, their development strongly depends on the advancement of micro- and nano-fabrication technologies. In particular, the realization of three-dimensional metamaterials is one of the big challenges in this research field. In this review, we describe recent progress in the fabrication technologies for three-dimensional metamaterials, as well as proposed applications.

  13. Development of three dimensional solid modeler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, R.M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is aimed at developing a three dimensional solid modeler employing computer graphics techniques using C-Language. Primitives have been generated, by combination of plane surfaces, for various basic geometrical shapes including cylinder, cube and cone. Back face removal technique for hidden surface removal has also been incorporated. Various transformation techniques such as scaling, translation, and rotation have been included for the object animation. Three dimensional solid modeler has been created by the union of two primitives to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed program. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-05-25

    Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.

  15. Three-dimensional imaging utilizing energy discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, D.L.; Hoffman, K.R.; Beck, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed for three-dimensional image reconstruction in nuclear medicine which uses scattered radiation rather than multiple projected images to determine the source depth within the body. Images taken from numerous energy windows are combined to construct the source distribution in the body. The gamma-ray camera is not moved during the imaging process. Experiments with both Tc-99m and Ga-67 demonstrate that two channels of depth information can be extracted from the low energy images produced by scattered radiation. By combining this technique with standard SPECT reconstruction using multiple projections the authors anticipate much improved spatial resolution in the overall three-dimensional reconstruction

  16. A retrospective and prospective survey of three-dimensional transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective survey is made on the three-dimensional radiation transport calculations. Introduction is given to computer codes based on the distinctive numerical methods such as the Monte Carlo, Direct Integration, Ssub(n) and Finite Element Methods to solve the three-dimensional transport equations. Prospective discussions are made on pros and cons of these methods. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg

    2008-01-01

    We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... to a dressed state picture, where the light modes are solutions to the diffraction problem, and develop a perturbative expansion in the fluctuations. The fluctuations are due to quantum fluctuations as well as the random positions of the atoms. In this perturbative expansion we show how the quantum...... fluctuations are mapped between atoms and light while the random positioning of the atoms give rise to decay due to spontaneous emission. Furthermore we identify limits, where the full three dimensional theory reduce to the one dimensional theory typically used to describe the interaction....

  18. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  19. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAli, Ahmad B; Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice.

  20. Electron crystallography of three dimensional protein crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgieva, Dilyana

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of the potential of electron diffraction for studying three dimensional sub-micro-crystals of proteins and pharmaceuticals. A prerequisite for using electron diffraction for structural studies is the predictable availability of tiny crystals. A method for

  1. Three dimensional electrochemical system for neurobiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report a novel three dimensional electrode array for electrochemical measurements in neuronal studies. The main advantage of working with these out-of-plane structures is the enhanced sensitivity of the system in terms of measuring electrochemical changes in the environment...

  2. Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...

  3. Computerized three-dimensional normal atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Isamu; Suto, Yasuzo; Suzuki, Masataka; Iio, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents our ongoing project in which normal human anatomy and its quantitative data are systematically arranged in a computer. The final product, the Computerized Three-Dimensional Normal Atlas, will be able to supply tomographic images in any direction, 3-D images, and coded information on organs, e.g., anatomical names, CT numbers, and T 1 and T 2 values. (author)

  4. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation ...by the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  5. Informatics solutions for Three-dimensional visualization in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Montoto, Jose Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    The advances reached in the development of the hardware and in the methods of acquisition of data like tomographic scanners and systems of analysis of images, have allowed obtaining geometric models of biomedical elements with the property of being manipulated through the three-dimensional visualization (3D). Nowadays, this visualization embraces from biological applications, including analysis of structures and its functional relationships, until medical applications that include anatomical accuracies and the planning or the training for complex surgical operations. This work proposes computer solutions to satisfy visualization requirements in real time. The developed algorithms are contained in a graphic library that will facilitate the development of future works. The obtained results allow facing current problems of three-dimensional representation of complex surfaces, realism is reached in the images and they have possible application in bioinformatics and medicine

  6. Three-dimensional Modeling of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlov, Alexei

    2001-06-01

    A deflagration explosion of a Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) is studied using three-dimensional, high-resolution, adaptive mesh refinement fluid dynamic calculations. Deflagration speed in an exploding Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD) grows exponentially, reaches approximately 30the speed of sound, and then declines due to a WD expansion. Outermost layers of the WD remain unburned. The explosion energy is comparable to that of a Type Ia supernova. The freezing of turbulent motions by expansion appears to be a crucial physical mechanism regulating the strength of a supernova explosion. In contrast to one-dimensional models, three-dimensional calculations predict the formation of Si-group elements and pockets of unburned CO in the middle and in central regions of a supernova ejecta. This, and the presence of unburned outer layer of carbon-oxygen may pose problems for SNIa spectra. Explosion sensitivity to initial conditions and its relation to a diversity of SNIa is discussed.

  7. Automated Defect Recognition as a Critical Element of a Three Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Smart Non-Destructive Testing Technique in Additive Manufacturing of Near Net-Shape Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Szabo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a state of the art automated defect recognition (ADR system is presented that was developed specifically for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT of powder metallurgy (PM parts using three dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography (CT imaging, towards enabling online quality assurance and enhanced integrity confidence. PM parts exhibit typical defects such as microscopic cracks, porosity, and voids, internal to components that without an effective detection system, limit the growth of industrial applications. Compared to typical testing methods (e.g., destructive such as metallography that is based on sampling, cutting, and polishing of parts, CT provides full coverage of defect detection. This paper establishes the importance and advantages of an automated NDT system for the PM industry applications with particular emphasis on image processing procedures for defect recognition. Moreover, the article describes how to establish a reference library based on real 3D X-ray CT images of net-shape parts. The paper follows the development of the ADR system from processing 2D image slices of a measured 3D X-ray image to processing the complete 3D X-ray image as a whole. The introduced technique is successfully integrated into an automated in-line quality control system highly sought by major industry sectors in Oil and Gas, Automotive, and Aerospace.

  8. Arching in three-dimensional clogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, János; Lévay, Sára; Szabó, Balázs; Somfai, Ellák; Wegner, Sandra; Stannarius, Ralf; Börzsönyi, Tamás

    2017-06-01

    Arching in dry granular material is a long established concept, however it remains still an open question how three-dimensional orifices clog. We investigate by means of numerical simulations and experimental data how the outflow creates a blocked configuration of particles. We define the concave surface of the clogged dome by two independent methods (geometric and density based). The average shape of the cupola for spheres is almost a hemisphere but individual samples have large holes in the structure indicating a blocked state composed of two-dimensional force chains rather than three-dimensional objects. The force chain structure justifies this assumption. For long particles the clogged configurations display large variations, and in certain cases the empty region reaches a height of 5 hole diameters. These structures involve vertical walls consisting of horizontally placed stable stacking of particles.

  9. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing.

  10. Three dimensional imaging in cardiac nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ishii, Yasushi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Tamaki, Takeyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Methods to obtain three dimensional images of the heart were reviewed. Gated three dimensional display reconstructed from images using bidirectional collimator, was a useful method to detect akinesis of the heart wall. Tomographic observation of the heart can be carried out by a pinhole collimator to image ischemia with high sensitivity. However the focusing plane must be carefully selected to prevent false positives. In the case of emission CT (ECT), utilization of positron emitters gave a quantitative image without correction, whereas single photon ECT needed the correction due to the absorption of γ-ray. Though the reliability of the images by ECT was high, the time required for data acquisition was much longer than that by a 7 pinhole or bidirectional collimator. (Nakanishi, T.)

  11. Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhauer, C.

    1980-12-01

    A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory

  12. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  13. SNAP - a three dimensional neutron diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallien, C.W.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes a one- two- three-dimensional multi-group diffusion code, SNAP, which is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations but can also carry out gamma calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods. The one-dimensional slab, cylindrical and spherical geometries and the two-dimensional case are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. (Author)

  14. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  15. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  16. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna [Dept. of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha University, Chennai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  17. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome

  18. THREE DIMENSIONAL GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V. Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality is an important aspect for every firm in modern era of competition. Every product has tough competition in terms of market reach. The factor, which actually makes any product long run in market, is quality and hence quality is the stepping-stone for success of any firm. For everyone meaning of quality is different. We have seen several economists who have defined quality by considering different factors, but what all of them have common in them is Customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is the ultimate result of quality. In three-dimensional graphical representation of quality, optimum quality is obtained by using three-dimensional graph by considering some important factors governing quality of any product, limiting factor, and customer satisfaction.

  19. Three dimensional contact/impact methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The simulation of three-dimensional interface mechanics between reactor components and structures during static contact or dynamic impact is necessary to realistically evaluate their structural integrity to off-normal loads. In our studies of postulated core energy release events, we have found that significant structure-structure interactions occur in some reactor vessel head closure designs and that fluid-structure interactions occur within the reactor vessel. Other examples in which three-dimensional interface mechanics play an important role are: (1) impact response of shipping casks containing spent fuel, (2) whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels or pipe-to-pipe impact after a pipe break, (3) aircraft crash on secondary containment structures, (4) missiles generated by turbine failures or tornados, and (5) drops of heavy components due to lifting accidents. The above is a partial list of reactor safety problems that require adequate treatment of interface mechanics and are discussed in this paper

  20. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  1. Impermeability effects in three-dimensional vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscari, P; Canevese, S M; Napoli, G

    2004-01-01

    We analyse the effects of the impermeability constraint on the equilibrium shapes of a three-dimensional vesicle hosting a rigid inclusion. A given alteration of the inclusion and/or vesicle parameters leads to shape modifications of different orders of magnitude, when applied to permeable or impermeable vesicles. Moreover, the enclosed-volume constraint wrecks the uniqueness of stationary equilibrium shapes, and gives rise to pear-shaped or stomatocyte-like vesicles

  2. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  3. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Sandpile Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    The granular bed, or sandpile, has become one of the condensed matter physicist's favorite systems. In addition to conceptual appeal, the simplest sandpile of monodisperse hard spheres is a valuable model system for understanding powders, liquids, and metallic glasses. Any fundamental approach to the transport and mechanical properties of three-dimensional mesoscale disordered materials must follow from a thorough understanding of their structure. However, in the overwhelming majority of cases, structure measurements have been limited to the mean filling fraction and the structural autocorrelation function. This is particularly unfortunate in the ongoing sandpile renaissance, where some of the most interesting questions concern structure and the relationship between structure and dynamics. I will discuss the combination of synchrotron x-ray microtomography and computer vision algorithms to perform three-dimensional virtual reconstructions of real sandpiles. This technique is rapid and noninvasive, and is applicable to samples large enough to separate bulk and boundary properties. The resulting complete knowledge of structure can be used to calculate otherwise inaccessible correlation functions. I will present results for several measures of the bond-orientational order in three-dimensional sandpiles, including fabric tensors and nematic order parameters.

  4. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  5. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  6. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu

    1989-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.)

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial bones using three-dimensional computer tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Ichiro; Ohura, Takehiko; Kimura, Chu (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-08-01

    Three-dimensional computer tomography (3DCT) was performed in patients with various diseases to visualize stereoscopically the deformity of the craniofacial bones. The data obtained were analyzed by the 3DCT analyzing system. A new coordinate system was established using the median sagittal plane of the face (a plane passing through sella, nasion and basion) on the three-dimensional image. Three-dimensional profilograms were prepared for detailed analysis of the deformation of craniofacial bones for cleft lip and palate, mandibular prognathia and hemifacial microsomia. For patients, asymmetry in the frontal view and twist-formed complicated deformities were observed, as well as deformity of profiles in the anteroposterior and up-and-down directions. A newly developed technique allows three-dimensional visualization of changes in craniofacial deformity. It would aid in determining surgical strategy, including crani-facial surgery and maxillo-facial surgery, and in evaluating surgical outcome. (N.K.).

  9. Photogrammetry: applications of a three-dimensional remote measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, K.

    1988-01-01

    Photogrammetry is defined as the precise art of abstracting measurements from photographic images. Used for many years as a means to produce the world's maps, it has, in recent years, been applied in many engineering environments. The nuclear industry has, in particular, benefitted from the close range applications of photogrammetry. This paper sets out to describe the techniques involved, from the site photography through to the analytical data extraction. It will include a number of examples of where photogrammetry has been used in the nuclear industry as a remote measurement technique, from simple monitoring exercises to the compilation of complex three-dimensional as-built computer models. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional, subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussally, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this applied research and devolpment project is to develop a system known as 3-D SISAR. This sytem consists of a gound penetrating radar with software algorithms designed for detection, location, and identification of buried objects in the underground hazardous waste environments found at US DOE storage sites. Three-dimensional maps can assist the development of remdiation strategies and characterization of the digface during remediation. The system should also be useful for monitoring hydrocarbon-based contaminant migration after remediation. 5 figs

  11. VIBA-LAB2: a virtual ion beam analysis laboratory software package incorporating elemental map simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, S.J.; Orlic, I.; Sanchez, J.L.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The software package VIBA-lab1, which incorporates PIXE and RBS energy spectra simulation has now been extended to include the simulation of elemental maps from 3D structures. VIBA-lab1 allows the user to define a wide variety of experimental parameters, e.g. energy and species of incident ions, excitation and detection geometry, etc. When the relevant experimental parameters as well as target composition are defined, the program can then simulate the corresponding PIXE and RBS spectra. VIBA-LAB2 has been written with applications in nuclear microscopy in mind. A set of drag-and-drop tools has been incorporated to allow the user to define a three-dimensional sample object of mixed elemental composition. PIXE energy spectra simulations are then carried out on pixel-by-pixel basis and the corresponding intensity distributions or elemental maps can be computed. Several simulated intensity distributions for some 3D objects are demonstrated, and simulations obtained from a simple IC are compared with experimental results

  12. Field theoretical finite element method to provide theoretical calibration curves for the electrical direct-current potential crack-monitoring system as applied to a three-dimensional fracture mechanics specimen with surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1984-01-01

    The basic concepts of the finite element method are explained. The results are compared to existing calibration curves for such test piece geometries derived using experimental procedures. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Three-dimensional CT of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinreich, S.J.; Price, J.C.; Wang, H.; Ahn, H.S.; Kashima, H.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients with mandibular oblation for facial neoplasia, primary neoplasm, and trauma were evaluated with CT and three-dimensional CT. In eight of these patients, a computerized acrylic model was generated for preoperative planning and postoperative reconstruction. The ramus and body of the mandible were reconstructed with mirror image and fusion techniques. Reconstructions of the anterior mandible were generated from models including the midface, skull based, and residual mandibular fragments. The results are preliminary; however, the authors believe that these represent a powerful new tool and a significant advance in mandibular reconstructive technique, reduced anesthesia time, and the optimized restoration of dental alignment and facial contour

  14. Three-dimensional interpretation of TEM soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsukov, P. O.; Fainberg, E. B.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the approach to the interpretation of electromagnetic (EM) sounding data which iteratively adjusts the three-dimensional (3D) model of the environment by local one-dimensional (1D) transformations and inversions and reconstructs the geometrical skeleton of the model. The final 3D inversion is carried out with the minimal number of the sought parameters. At each step of the interpretation, the model of the medium is corrected according to the geological information. The practical examples of the suggested method are presented.

  15. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  16. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  17. Three-dimensional teletherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panthaleon van Eck, R.B. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with physical/mathematical backgrounds of computerized teletherapy treatment planning. The subjects discussed in this thesis can be subdivided into three main categories: a) Three-dimensional treatment planning. A method is evaluated which can be used for the purpose of simulation and optimization of dose distributions in three dimensions. b) The use of Computed Tomography. The use of patient information obtained from Computed Tomography for the purpose of dose computations is evaluated. c) Dose computational models for photon- and electron beams. Models are evaluated which provide information regarding the way in which the radiation dose is distributed in the patient (viz. is absorbed and/or dispersed). (Auth.)

  18. Three-dimensional cooling of muons

    CERN Document Server

    Vsevolozhskaya, T A

    2000-01-01

    The simultaneous ionization cooling of muon beams in all three - the longitudinal and two transverse - directions is considered in a scheme, based on bent lithium lenses with dipole constituent of magnetic field in them, created by a special configuration of current-carrying rod. An analysis of three-dimensional cooling is performed with the use of kinetic equation method. Results of numerical calculation for a specific beam line configuration are presented together with results of computer simulation using the Moliere distribution to describe the Coulomb scattering and the Vavilov distribution used to describe the ionization loss of energy.

  19. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, Agus; Fachruddin, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  20. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, Agus, E-mail: agus.salam@sci.ui.ac.id; Fachruddin, Imam [Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum’s magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  1. Three-dimensional radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.

    1989-01-01

    A major aim of radiation therapy is to deliver sufficient dose to the tumour volume to kill the cancer cells while sparing the nearby health organs to prevent complications. With the introduction of devices such as CT and MR scanners, radiation therapy treatment planners have access to full three-dimensional anatomical information to define, simulate, and evaluate treatments. There are a limited number of prototype software systems that allow 3D treatment planning currently in use. In addition, there are more advanced tools under development or still in the planning stages. They require sophisticated graphics and computation equipment, complex physical and mathematical algorithms, and new radiation treatment machines that deliver dose very precisely under computer control. Components of these systems include programs for the identification and delineation of the anatomy and tumour, the definition of radiation beams, the calculation of dose distribution patterns, the display of dose on 2D images and as three dimensional surfaces, and the generation of computer images to verify proper patient positioning in treatment. Some of these functions can be performed more quickly and accurately if artificial intelligence or expert systems techniques are employed. 28 refs., figs

  2. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  3. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  4. Three dimensional animated images of anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Shigeru; Yanagimachi, Noriharu; Muro, Isao; Komiya, Taizo; Yokoyama, Seishichi; Hirakawa, Hitoshi; Tajima, Tomoo; Mitomi, Toshio; Suto, Yasuzo.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the pelvic structures is a most important factor in obtaining a desirable result after anorectoplasty for a patient with anorectal malformation. Preoperative evaluation of the anatomy is indispensable for choosing an appropriate operative method in each case. To facilitate preoperative evaluation, three dimensional animated images of the pelvic structure of patients with anorectal malformations were constructed by computer graphics based upon tomographic images obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. Axial 1-mm thick images of the pelvic portion were generated with spoiling pulse gradient echo sequences using short repetition times (13 msec TR) and short echo times (6 msec TE) with a flip angle of 25 degrees with the patient in the jack-knife position. Graphic data from MR images were transferred to a graphic work station and processed on it. The skin surface, the ano-rectum, the lower urinary tract and the sphincter musculature were segmented by thresholding images by the signal intensity. Three dimensional images were displayed by surface rendering method using the segmented data of each organ and then animation images of these organs were obtained. The anatomy of each type of anomaly was easily recognized by 3-D visualization, and animation of the pelvic viscera and the sphincter musculature made the images more realistic. Animated images of the musculature were especially useful for simulating surgical procedures and could be helpful for reviewing surgical results. (author)

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of antenna sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J.R.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Ho, Y.L.

    1996-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the importance of r.f. sheaths in determining the antenna-plasma interaction and the sensitivity of the sheaths to the complicated three-dimensional structure of modern ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) antennas. To analyze r.f. sheaths on the plasma facing regions of the launcher, we first calculate the contact points of the tokamak magnetic field lines on the surface of the antenna Faraday screen and nearby limiters for realistic three-dimensional magnetic flux surface and antenna geometries. Next, the r.f. voltage that can drive sheaths at the contact points is determined and used to assess the resulting sheath power dissipation, r.f.-driven sputtering, and r.f.-induced convective cells (which produce edge profile modification). The calculations are embodied in a computer code, ANSAT (antenna sheath analysis tool), and sample ANSAT runs are shown to highlight the physics- and geometry-dependent characteristics of the r.f. sheaths and their relationship to the antenna design. One use of ANSAT is therefore as a design tool, to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a given design with respect to critical voltage handling and edge plasma interaction issues. Additionally, examples are presented where ANSAT has been useful in the analysis and interpretation of ICRF experiments (orig.)

  6. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H. R.; Dinapoli, Roberto; Müller, Elisabeth; Bunk, Oliver; Raabe, Jörg; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Modern nanoelectronics has advanced to a point at which it is impossible to image entire devices and their interconnections non-destructively because of their small feature sizes and the complex three-dimensional structures resulting from their integration on a chip. This metrology gap implies a lack of direct feedback between design and manufacturing processes, and hampers quality control during production, shipment and use. Here we demonstrate that X-ray ptychography—a high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging technique—can create three-dimensional images of integrated circuits of known and unknown designs with a lateral resolution in all directions down to 14.6 nanometres. We obtained detailed device geometries and corresponding elemental maps, and show how the devices are integrated with each other to form the chip. Our experiments represent a major advance in chip inspection and reverse engineering over the traditional destructive electron microscopy and ion milling techniques. Foreseeable developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors, as well as adoption of an instrument geometry optimized for planar rather than cylindrical samples, could lead to a thousand-fold increase in efficiency, with concomitant reductions in scan times and voxel sizes.

  7. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H R; Dinapoli, Roberto; Müller, Elisabeth; Bunk, Oliver; Raabe, Jörg; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-03-15

    Modern nanoelectronics has advanced to a point at which it is impossible to image entire devices and their interconnections non-destructively because of their small feature sizes and the complex three-dimensional structures resulting from their integration on a chip. This metrology gap implies a lack of direct feedback between design and manufacturing processes, and hampers quality control during production, shipment and use. Here we demonstrate that X-ray ptychography-a high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging technique-can create three-dimensional images of integrated circuits of known and unknown designs with a lateral resolution in all directions down to 14.6 nanometres. We obtained detailed device geometries and corresponding elemental maps, and show how the devices are integrated with each other to form the chip. Our experiments represent a major advance in chip inspection and reverse engineering over the traditional destructive electron microscopy and ion milling techniques. Foreseeable developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors, as well as adoption of an instrument geometry optimized for planar rather than cylindrical samples, could lead to a thousand-fold increase in efficiency, with concomitant reductions in scan times and voxel sizes.

  8. Interface fracture in laminates at three-dimensional corners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre Jensen, H.; Veluri, B. [Aarhus Univ.. Aarhus School of Engineering, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    Interface failure close to corners has been observed in laminated layered structures. A fracture mechanics based approach focused on modelling the shape of such interface cracks and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation has been developed. The crack propagation is investigated by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters including the energy release rate and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the crack front allowing determining the shape of the crack front profiles. A numerical approach is applied for coupling the far field solutions utilizing the capability of the Finite Element Method to the near field solutions at the crack front based on the J-integral. The developed two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties has been validated with three-dimensional models for varying crack front shapes. In this study, a quantitative approach was formulated based on the finite element method with iterative adjustment of the crack front to estimate the critical delamination stress as a function of the fracture criterion and corner angles. The implication of the results on the delamination is discussed in terms of crack front profiles and the critical stresses. (Author)

  9. Three-dimensional shear transformation zone dynamics model for amorphous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Eric R; Schuh, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale modeling framework for the mechanical behavior of amorphous metals is proposed. The model considers the coarse-grained action of shear transformation zones (STZs) as the fundamental deformation event. The simulations are controlled through the kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm and the mechanical response of the system is captured through finite-element analysis, where STZs are mapped onto a 3D finite-element mesh and are allowed to shear in any direction in three dimensions. Implementation of the technique in uniaxial creep tests over a wide range of conditions validates the model's ability to capture the expected behaviors of an amorphous metal, including high temperature flow conforming to the expected constitutive law and low temperature localization in the form of a nascent shear band. The simulation results are combined to construct a deformation map that is comparable to experimental deformation maps. The flexibility of the modeling framework is illustrated by performing a contact test (simulated nanoindentation) in which the model deforms through STZ activity in the region experiencing the highest shear stress

  10. Steady, three-dimensional, internally heated convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, G.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Travis, B.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been carried out of steady, symmetric, three-dimensional modes of convection in internally heated, infinite Prandtl number, Boussinesq fluids at a Rayleigh number of 1.4x10 4 in a spherical shell with inner/outer radius of 0.55 and in a 3x3x1 rectangular box. Multiple patterns of convection occur in both geometries. In the Cartesian geometry the patterns are dominated by cylindrical cold downflows and a broad hot upwelling. In the spherical geometry the patterns consist of cylindrical cold downwellings centered either at the vertices of a tetrahedron or the centers of the faces of a cube. The cold downflow cylinders are immersed in a background of upwelling within which there are cylindrical hot concentrations (plumes) and hot halos around the downflows. The forced hot upflow return plumes of internally heated spherical convection are fundamentally different from the buoyancy-driven plumes of heated from below convection

  11. Exact solutions in three-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Diaz, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    A self-contained text, systematically presenting the determination and classification of exact solutions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity. This book explores the theoretical framework and general physical and geometrical characteristics of each class of solutions, and includes information on the researchers responsible for their discovery. Beginning with the physical character of the solutions, these are identified and ordered on the basis of their geometrical invariant properties, symmetries, and algebraic classifications, or from the standpoint of their physical nature, for example electrodynamic fields, fluid, scalar field, or dilaton. Consequently, this text serves as a thorough catalogue on 2+1 exact solutions to the Einstein equations coupled to matter and fields, and on vacuum solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant. The solutions are also examined from different perspectives, enabling a conceptual bridge between exact solutions of three- and four-dimensional gravit...

  12. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories.

  13. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics. (paper)

  14. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  15. Three-dimensional echocardiography in valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Fiorentini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the role of three-dimensional (3D echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart valve disease. Several factors have contributed to the evolution of this technique, which is currently a simple and routine method: rapid evolution in probe and computer technologies, demonstration that 3D data sets allowed more complete and accurate evaluation of cardiac structures, emerging clinical experience indicating the strong potential particularly in valve diseases, volume and function of the two ventricle measurements and several other fields. This report will review current and future applications of 3D echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve diseases underlying both qualitative (morphologic and quantitative advantages of this technique. (Heart International 2007; 3: 35-41

  16. Towards microscale electrohydrodynamic three-dimensional printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankang; Xu, Fangyuan; Cao, Yi; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging for the existing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques to fabricate high-resolution 3D microstructures with low costs and high efficiency. In this work we present a solvent-based electrohydrodynamic 3D printing technique that allows fabrication of microscale structures like single walls, crossed walls, lattice and concentric circles. Process parameters were optimized to deposit tiny 3D patterns with a wall width smaller than 10 μm and a high aspect ratio of about 60. Tight bonding among neighbour layers could be achieved with a smooth lateral surface. In comparison with the existing microscale 3D printing techniques, the presented method is low-cost, highly efficient and applicable to multiple polymers. It is envisioned that this simple microscale 3D printing strategy might provide an alternative and innovative way for application in MEMS, biosensor and flexible electronics.

  17. An Introduction of Three-dimensional Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces some key points of Three-dimensional Grammar. As for the structure, it can be distinguished into syntactic structure, semantic structure and pragmatic structure from the perspectives of syntax, semantics and pragmatics. And the same is true with the followings, such as grammatical constituents, grammatical functions, grammatical meanings, grammatical focuses. Sentence types which is called sentence pattern, sentence model and sentence types respectively, and analysis methods. This paper proposes that grammatical researches should be done in accordance with the four principles, that is form and meaning co-verified, static and dynamic co-referenced, structure and function co-testified and description and interpretation co-promoted.

  18. Three-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the properties of the photonic band gaps (PBGs) of three-dimensional (3D) function photonic crystals (PCs) are theoretically investigated by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, whose equations for computations are deduced. The configuration of 3D function PCs is the dielectric spheres inserted in the air background with simple-cubic (SC) lattices whose dielectric constants are the functions of space coordinates, which can be realized by the electro-optical or optical Kerr effect in the practice. The influences of the parameter for 3D function PCs on the PBGs also are discussed. The calculated results show that the bandwidths and number of PBGs can be tuned with different distributions of function dielectrics. Compared with the conventional 3D dielectric PCs with SC lattices, the larger and more PBGs can be obtained in the 3D function PCs. Those results provide a new way to design the novel practical devices.

  19. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction of CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kattoh, Keiichi; Kawakami, Genichiroh; Igami, Isao; Mariya, Yasushi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Saitoh, Yohko; Tamura, Koreroku; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo

    1986-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has the ability to provide sensitive visualization of organs and lesions. Owing to the nature of CT to be transaxial images, a structure which is greater than a certain size appears as several serial CT images. Consequently each observer must reconstruct those images into a three-dimensional (3-D) form mentally. It has been supposed to be of great use if such a 3-D form can be described as a definite figure. A new computer program has been developed which can produce 3-D figures from the profiles of organs and lesions on CT images using spline curves. The figures obtained through this method are regarded to have practical applications.

  1. The Three-Dimensional EIT Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gilbert, H. R.; Lawrence, G. R.; Ofman, L.; Wu, S. T.; Warmuth, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An EIT wave is an impulsive disturbance which has been observed in the EUV, Soft X-ray and white light corona, with corresponding observations in the chromosphere. The effects of these disturbances can be observed across the entire solar disk of the Sun, and throughout the inner heliosphere as well. However, the picture is not complete; observations alone do not establish a complete understanding of the nature of this three-dimensional phenomenon. A number of associated phenomena have been documented, though in most cases causality has not determined. Additionally, it is unclear which factors govern the impulse's ability to affect regions of the corona and heliosphere. We discuss the various observations and the models which provided links between the associated phenomena.

  2. A greedy method for reconstructing polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulshreshth, Arun Kumar; Alpers, Andreas; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    An iterative search method is proposed for obtaining orientation maps inside polycrystals from three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) data. In each step, detector pixel intensities are calculated by a forward model based on the current estimate of the orientation map. The pixel at which...

  3. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the temporomandibular joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitai, N.; Kreiborg, S.; Murakami, S.

    Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint......Symposium Orthodontics 2001: Where are We Now? Where are We Going?, three-dimensional analysis, temporomandibular joint...

  4. A three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code for insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, O.; Elleaume, P.; Chavanne, J.

    1998-01-01

    RADIA is a three-dimensional magnetostatics computer code optimized for the design of undulators and wigglers. It solves boundary magnetostatics problems with magnetized and current-carrying volumes using the boundary integral approach. The magnetized volumes can be arbitrary polyhedrons with non-linear (iron) or linear anisotropic (permanent magnet) characteristics. The current-carrying elements can be straight or curved blocks with rectangular cross sections. Boundary conditions are simulated by the technique of mirroring. Analytical formulae used for the computation of the field produced by a magnetized volume of a polyhedron shape are detailed. The RADIA code is written in object-oriented C++ and interfaced to Mathematica (Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc.). The code outperforms currently available finite-element packages with respect to the CPU time of the solver and accuracy of the field integral estimations. An application of the code to the case of a wedge-pole undulator is presented

  5. Three-dimensional modeling in the electromagnetic/magnetotelluric methods. Accuracy of various finite-element and finite difference methods; Denjiho MT ho ni okeru sanjigen modeling. Shushu no yugen yosoho to sabunho no seido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    To enhance the reliability of electromagnetic/magnetotelluric (MT) survey, calculation results of finite-element methods (FEMs) and finite difference methods (FDMs) were compared. Accuracy of individual methods and convergence of repitition solution were examined. As a result of the investigation, it was found that appropriate accuracy can be obtained from the edge FEM and FDM for the example of vertical magnetic dipole, and that the best accuracy can be obtained from the FDM among four methods for the example of MT survey. It was revealed that the ICBCG (incomplete Cholesky bi-conjugate gradient) method is an excellent method as a solution method of simultaneous equations from the viewpoint of accuracy and calculation time. For the joint FEM, solutions of SOR method converged for both the examples. It was concluded that the cause of error is not due to the error of numerical calculation, but due to the consideration without discontinuity of electric field. The conditions of coefficient matrix increased with decreasing the frequency, which resulted in the unstable numerical calculation. It would be required to incorporate the constraint in a certain form. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Three dimensional multi perspective imaging with randomly distributed sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahrain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a three dimensional (3D) passive imaging system that exploits the visual information captured from the scene from multiple perspectives to reconstruct the scene voxel by voxel in 3D space. The primary contribution of this work is to provide a computational reconstruction scheme based on randomly distributed sensor locations in space. In virtually all of multi perspective techniques (e.g. integral imaging, synthetic aperture integral imaging, etc), there is an implicit assumption that the sensors lie on a simple, regular pickup grid. Here, we relax this assumption and suggest a computational reconstruction framework that unifies the available methods as its special cases. The importance of this work is that it enables three dimensional imaging technology to be implemented in a multitude of novel application domains such as 3D aerial imaging, collaborative imaging, long range 3D imaging and etc, where sustaining a regular pickup grid is not possible and/or the parallax requirements call for a irregular or sparse synthetic aperture mode. Although the sensors can be distributed in any random arrangement, we assume that the pickup position is measured at the time of capture of each elemental image. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results.

  7. Development of a Three-Dimensional Hand Model Using Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetry: Assessment of Image Reproducibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge A Hoevenaren

    Full Text Available Using three-dimensional (3D stereophotogrammetry precise images and reconstructions of the human body can be produced. Over the last few years, this technique is mainly being developed in the field of maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, creating fusion images with computed tomography (CT data for precise planning and prediction of treatment outcome. Though, in hand surgery 3D stereophotogrammetry is not yet being used in clinical settings.A total of 34 three-dimensional hand photographs were analyzed to investigate the reproducibility. For every individual, 3D photographs were captured at two different time points (baseline T0 and one week later T1. Using two different registration methods, the reproducibility of the methods was analyzed. Furthermore, the differences between 3D photos of men and women were compared in a distance map as a first clinical pilot testing our registration method.The absolute mean registration error for the complete hand was 1.46 mm. This reduced to an error of 0.56 mm isolating the region to the palm of the hand. When comparing hands of both sexes, it was seen that the male hand was larger (broader base and longer fingers than the female hand.This study shows that 3D stereophotogrammetry can produce reproducible images of the hand without harmful side effects for the patient, so proving to be a reliable method for soft tissue analysis. Its potential use in everyday practice of hand surgery needs to be further explored.

  8. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  9. Clinical significance of three-dimensional sonohysterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Mi Hwa; Lee, Chan; Kim, Jong Wook; Shin, Myung Choel [Pochon Cha University College of Medicine, Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of three dimensional sonohysterography (3D SHG) in the evaluation of uterine endometrial and submucosal lesions in comparison with conventional two-dimensional sonohysterography (2D SHG). Our series consisted of 26 patients (mean aged 41 years) who complained of uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, or dysmenorrhea. 2D SHG was performed, and then 3D SHG was done after the volume mode was switched on. Simultaneous display of three perpendicular two-dimensional planes and surface rendering of findings on particular section were obtained. We analyzed whether the endometrium was thickened or not, and the location, size, shape, echogenicity, posterior shadowing, and echogenic rim of the focal lesion. The results were compared with the pathologic findings or MRI. There were submucosal myomas (n=12), intramural myomas (n=2), endometrial polyps (n=7), placental polyp (n=1), and normal endometrial cavities (n=4) on SHG. Nineteen cases were confirmed by pathologic findings or MRI. The results were correlated in 89% (17/19) of the cases. We misdiagnosed 2 cases: focal endometrial hyperplasia and choriocarcinoma were misdiagnosed as endometrial polyp and placental polyp, respectively. Imaging diagnoses were same in the techniques. Comparing with 2D SHG, 3D SHG provided a subjective display of pathologic findings and an additional information about spatial relationship between focal lesion and surroundings.

  10. Bifurcation analysis of a three dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwen WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to enrich the stability and bifurcation theory of the three dimensional chaotic systems, taking a quadratic truncate unfolding system with the triple singularity equilibrium as the research subject, the existence of the equilibrium, the stability and the bifurcation of the system near the equilibrium under different parametric conditions are studied. Using the method of mathematical analysis, the existence of the real roots of the corresponding characteristic equation under the different parametric conditions is analyzed, and the local manifolds of the equilibrium are gotten, then the possible bifurcations are guessed. The parametric conditions under which the equilibrium is saddle-focus are analyzed carefully by the Cardan formula. Moreover, the conditions of codimension-one Hopf bifucation and the prerequisites of the supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcation are found by computation. The results show that the system has abundant stability and bifurcation, and can also supply theorical support for the proof of the existence of the homoclinic or heteroclinic loop connecting saddle-focus and the Silnikov's chaos. This method can be extended to study the other higher nonlinear systems.

  11. Three-dimensional dynamics of protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.L.

    1977-06-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference numerical methodology was developed for self-gravitating, rotating gaseous systems. The fully nonlinear equations for time-varying fluid dynamics are solved by high speed computer in a cylindrical coordinate system rotating with an instantaneous angular velocity, selected such that the net angular momentum relative to the rotating frame is zero. The time-dependent adiabatic collapse of gravitationally bound, rotating, protostellar clouds is studied for specified uniform and nonuniform initial conditions. Uniform clouds can form axisymmetric, rotating toroidal configurations. If the thermal pressure is high, nonuniform clouds can also collapse to axisymmetric toroids. For low thermal pressures, however, the collapsing cloud is unstable to initial perturbations. The fragmentation of protostellar clouds is investigated by studying the response of rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium toroids to non-axisymmetric perturbations. The detailed evolution of the fragmenting toroid depends upon a non-dimensional function of the initial entropy, the total mass in the toroid, the angular velocity of rotation, and the number of perturbation wavelengths around the circumference of the toroid. For low and intermediate entropies, the configuration develops into co-rotating components with spiral streamers. In the spiral regions retrograde vortices are observed in some examples. For high levels of entropy, barred spirals can exist as intermediate states of the fragmentation

  12. Three-dimensional dynamics of protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.L.; Harlow, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite difference numerical methodology has been developed for self-gravitating, rotating gaseous systems. The fully nonlinear equations for time-varying fluid dynamics are solved by high-speed computer in a cylindrical coordinate system rotating with an instantaneous angular velocity. The time-dependent adiabatic collapse of gravitationally bound, rotating, protostellar clouds is studied for specified uniform and nonuniform initial conditions. Uniform clouds can form axisymmetric, rotating toroidal configurations. If the thermal pressure is high, nonuniform clouds can also collapse to axisymmetric ellipsoids. For low thermal pressures, however, the collapsing cloud is unstable to perturbations. The resulting fragmentation of unstable protostellar clouds is investigated by studying the response of rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium toroids to nonaxisymmetric perturbations. The detailed evolution of the fragmentation toroid depends upon a nondimensional function of the initial entropy, the total mass in the toroid, the angular velocity of rotation, and the number of perturbation wave-lengths around the circumference of the toroid. For low and intermediate entropies, the configuration develops into corotating components with spiral streamers. In the spiral regions retrograde vortices are observed in some examples. For high levels of entropy, barred spirals can exist as intermediate states of the fragmentation

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTIONS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL WAVEFRONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Serra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the analysis of three-dimensional binary objects whose structure is not obvious nor generally clearly visible. Our approach is illustrated through three examples taken from biological microscopy. In one of our examples, we need to extract the osteocytes contained in sixty confocal sections. The cells are not numerous, but are characterized by long branches, hence they will be separated using a directional wavefront The two other objects are more complex and will be analysed by means of a spherical wavefront In the first case, a kidney of a rat embryo, the tissue grows like a tree, where we want to detect the branches, their extremities,and their spatial arrangement. The wavefront method enables us to define precisely branches and extremities, and gives flexible algorithms. The last example deals with the embryonic growth of the chicken shinbone. The central part of the bone (or shaft is structured as a series of nested cylinders following the same axis, and connected by more or less long bridges. Using wavefronts, we show that it is possible to separate the cylinders,and to extract and count the bridges that connect them.

  14. Multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury E. Kozlov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliable authentication in mobile applications is among the most important information security challenges. Today, we can hardly imagine a person who would not own a mobile device that connects to the Internet. Mobile devices are being used to store large amounts of confidential information, ranging from personal photos to electronic banking tools. In 2009, colleagues from Rice University together with their collaborators from Motorola, proposed an authentication through in-air gestures. This and subsequent work contributing to the development of the method are reviewed in our introduction. At the moment, there exists a version of the gesture-based authentication software available for Android mobile devices. This software has not become widespread yet. One of likely reasons for that is the insufficient reliability of the method, which involves similar to its earlier analogs the use of only one device. Here we discuss the authentication based on the multimodal three-dimensional dynamic signature (MTDS performed by two independent mobile devices. The MTDS-based authentication technique is an advanced version of in-air gesture authentication. We describe the operation of a prototype of MTDS-based authentication, including the main implemented algorithms, as well as some preliminary results of testing the software. We expect that our method can be used in any mobile application, provided a number of additional improvements discussed in the conclusion are made.

  15. Three dimensional image alignment, registration and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.T.; Mitchell, K.D.; Habboush, I.H.

    1998-01-01

    Combined assessment of three dimensional anatomical and functional images (SPECT, PET, MRI, CT) is useful to determine the nature and extent of lesions in many parts of the body. Physicians principally rely on their spatial sense of mentally re-orient and overlap images obtained with different imaging modalities. Objective methods that enable easy and intuitive image registration can help the physician arrive at more optimal diagnoses and better treatment decisions. This review describes a simple, intuitive and robust image registration approach developed in our laboratory. It differs from most other registration techniques in that it allows the user to incorporate all of the available information within the images in the registration process. This method takes full advantage of the ability of knowledgeable operators to achieve image registration and fusion using an intuitive interactive visual approach. It can register images accurately and quickly without the use of elaborate mathematical modeling or optimization techniques. The method provides the operator with tools to manipulate images in three dimensions, including visual feedback techniques to assess the accuracy of registration (grids, overlays, masks, and fusion of images in different colors). Its application is not limited to brain imaging and can be applied to images from any region in the body. The overall effect is a registration algorithm that is easy to implement and can achieve accuracy on the order of one pixel

  16. Three-Dimensional Printed Thermal Regulation Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Fu, Kun; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Emily M; Xie, Hua; Liu, Boyang; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-11-28

    Space cooling is a predominant part of energy consumption in people's daily life. Although cooling the whole building is an effective way to provide personal comfort in hot weather, it is energy-consuming and high-cost. Personal cooling technology, being able to provide personal thermal comfort by directing local heat to the thermally regulated environment, has been regarded as one of the most promising technologies for cooling energy and cost savings. Here, we demonstrate a personal thermal regulated textile using thermally conductive and highly aligned boron nitride (BN)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite (denoted as a-BN/PVA) fibers to improve the thermal transport properties of textiles for personal cooling. The a-BN/PVA composite fibers are fabricated through a fast and scalable three-dimensional (3D) printing method. Uniform dispersion and high alignment of BN nanosheets (BNNSs) can be achieved during the processing of fiber fabrication, leading to a combination of high mechanical strength (355 MPa) and favorable heat dispersion. Due to the improved thermal transport property imparted by the thermally conductive and highly aligned BNNSs, better cooling effect (55% improvement over the commercial cotton fiber) can be realized in the a-BN/PVA textile. The wearable a-BN/PVA textiles containing the 3D-printed a-BN/PVA fibers offer a promising selection for meeting the personal cooling requirement, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption and cost for cooling the whole building.

  17. Three-dimensional printing for craniomaxillofacial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Laura; Pearson, Joseph J; Montelongo, Sergio A; Guda, Teja; Ong, Joo L

    2017-10-01

    Craniomaxillofacial injuries produce complex wound environments involving various tissue types and treatment strategies. In a clinical setting, care is taken to properly irrigate and stabilize the injury, while grafts are molded in an attempt to maintain physiological functionality and cosmesis. This often requires multiple surgeries and grafts leading to added discomfort, pain and financial burden. Many of these injuries can lead to disfigurement and resultant loss of system function including mastication, respiration, and articulation, and these can lead to acute and long-term psychological impact on the patient. A main causality of these issues is the lack of an ability to spatially control pre-injury morphology while maintaining shape and function. With the advent of additive manufacturing (three-dimensional printing) and its use in conjunction with biomaterial regenerative strategies and stem cell research, there is an increased potential capacity to alleviate such limitations. This review focuses on the current capabilities of additive manufacturing platforms, completed research and potential for future uses in the treatment of craniomaxillofacial injuries, with an in-depth discussion of regeneration of the periodontal complex and teeth.

  18. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  19. Three-dimensional laparoscopy: Principles and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Y Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest challenge for laparoscopic surgeons is the eye–hand coordination within a three-dimensional (3D scene observed on a 2D display. The 2D view on flat screen laparoscopy is cerebrally intensive. The loss of binocular vision on a 2D display causes visual misperceptions, mainly loss of depth perception and adds to the surgeon's fatigue. This compromises the safety of laparoscopy. The 3D high-definition view with great depth perception and tactile feedback makes laparoscopic surgery more acceptable, safe and cost-effective. It improves surgical precision and hand–eye coordination, conventional and all straight stick instruments can be used, capital expenditure is less and recurring cost and annual maintenance cost are less. In this article, we have discussed the physics of 3D laparoscopy, principles of depth perception, and the different kinds of 3D systems available for laparoscopy. We have also discussed our experience of using 3D laparoscopy in over 2000 surgeries in the last 4 years.

  20. Three dimensional characterization and archiving system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.; Gallman, P. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Three Dimensional Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. Coleman Research and its subcontractors, Thermedics Detection, Inc. (TD) and the University of Idaho (UI) are in the second phase of a three phase program to develop 3D-ICAS to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and the radioactive and organic is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of potentially dangerous inorganic materials, such as asbestos and transite. The 3D-ICAS system robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surface to be inspected. The sensor position and orientation are monitored and controlled by Coherent laser radar (CLR) tracking. The ICAS fills the need for high speed automated organic analysis by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry sensors, and also by radionuclide sensors which combines alpha, beta, and gamma counting.

  1. Three-dimensional RAMA fluence methodology benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S. P.; Carter, R. G.; Watkins, K. E.; Jones, D. B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the benchmarking of the RAMA Fluence Methodology software, that has been performed in accordance with U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.190. The RAMA Fluence Methodology has been developed by TransWare Enterprises Inc. through funding provided by the Electric Power Research Inst., Inc. (EPRI) and the Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP). The purpose of the software is to provide an accurate method for calculating neutron fluence in BWR pressure vessels and internal components. The Methodology incorporates a three-dimensional deterministic transport solution with flexible arbitrary geometry representation of reactor system components, previously available only with Monte Carlo solution techniques. Benchmarking was performed on measurements obtained from three standard benchmark problems which include the Pool Criticality Assembly (PCA), VENUS-3, and H. B. Robinson Unit 2 benchmarks, and on flux wire measurements obtained from two BWR nuclear plants. The calculated to measured (C/M) ratios range from 0.93 to 1.04 demonstrating the accuracy of the RAMA Fluence Methodology in predicting neutron flux, fluence, and dosimetry activation. (authors)

  2. Three-Dimensional Printed Graphene Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Junwei; Li, Yilun; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Wang, Tuo; Dong, Pei; Ji, Yongsung; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Zhang, Chenhao; Zhang, Jibo; Smith, Robert H; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-07-25

    An automated metal powder three-dimensional (3D) printing method for in situ synthesis of free-standing 3D graphene foams (GFs) was successfully modeled by manually placing a mixture of Ni and sucrose onto a platform and then using a commercial CO 2 laser to convert the Ni/sucrose mixture into 3D GFs. The sucrose acted as the solid carbon source for graphene, and the sintered Ni metal acted as the catalyst and template for graphene growth. This simple and efficient method combines powder metallurgy templating with 3D printing techniques and enables direct in situ 3D printing of GFs with no high-temperature furnace or lengthy growth process required. The 3D printed GFs show high-porosity (∼99.3%), low-density (∼0.015g cm -3 ), high-quality, and multilayered graphene features. The GFs have an electrical conductivity of ∼8.7 S cm -1 , a remarkable storage modulus of ∼11 kPa, and a high damping capacity of ∼0.06. These excellent physical properties of 3D printed GFs indicate potential applications in fields requiring rapid design and manufacturing of 3D carbon materials, for example, energy storage devices, damping materials, and sound absorption.

  3. Three-dimensional magnetic field computation on a distributed memory parallel processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barion, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of three-dimensional magnetic fields by finite element methods frequently proves too onerous a task for the computing resource on which it is attempted. When non-linear and transient effects are included, it may become impossible to calculate the field distribution to sufficient resolution. One approach to this problem is to exploit the natural parallelism in the finite element method via parallel processing. This paper reports on an implementation of a finite element code for non-linear three-dimensional low-frequency magnetic field calculation on Intel's iPSC/2

  4. Three-dimensional morphology of the human embryonic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shiraishi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphogenesis of the cerebral vesicles and ventricles was visualized in 3D movies using images derived from human embryo specimens between Carnegie stage 13 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection. These images were acquired with a magnetic resonance microscope equipped with a 2.35-T superconducting magnet. Three-dimensional images using the same scale demonstrated brain development and growth effectively. The non-uniform thickness of the brain tissue, which may indicate brain differentiation, was visualized with thickness-based surface color mapping. A closer view was obtained of the unique and complicated differentiation of the rhombencephalon, especially with regard to the internal view and thickening of the brain tissue. The present data contribute to a better understanding of brain and cerebral ventricle development.

  5. The three-dimensional origin of the classifying algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Juergen; Schweigert, Christoph; Stigner, Carl

    2010-01-01

    It is known that reflection coefficients for bulk fields of a rational conformal field theory in the presence of an elementary boundary condition can be obtained as representation matrices of irreducible representations of the classifying algebra, a semisimple commutative associative complex algebra. We show how this algebra arises naturally from the three-dimensional geometry of factorization of correlators of bulk fields on the disk. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for the structure constants of the classifying algebra as invariants of ribbon graphs in the three-manifold S 2 xS 1 . Our result unravels a precise relation between intertwiners of the action of the mapping class group on spaces of conformal blocks and boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories.

  6. Continuum modeling of three-dimensional truss-like space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical and computational analysis capability has been developed for calculating the effective mechanical properties of three-dimensional periodic truss-like structures. Two models are studied in detail. The first, called the octetruss model, is a three-dimensional extension of a two-dimensional model, and the second is a cubic model. Symmetry considerations are employed as a first step to show that the specific octetruss model has four independent constants and that the cubic model has two. The actual values of these constants are determined by averaging the contributions of each rod element to the overall structure stiffness. The individual rod member contribution to the overall stiffness is obtained by a three-dimensional coordinate transformation. The analysis shows that the effective three-dimensional elastic properties of both models are relatively close to each other.

  7. Chandra Maps Vital Elements From Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    A team of astronomers led by Dr. John Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, NJ has used observations from NASA's orbital Chandra X-ray Observatory to make an important new discovery that sheds light on how silicon, iron, and other elements were produced in supernova explosions. An X-ray image of Cassiopeia A (Cas A), the remnant of an exploded star, reveals gaseous clumps of silicon, sulfur, and iron expelled from deep in the interior of the star. The findings appear online in the Astrophysical Journal Letters at http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ and are slated for print publication on Jan. 10, 2000. Authors of the paper, "Nucleosynthesis and Mixing in Cassiopeia A", are Hughes, Rutgers graduate student Cara Rakowski, Dr. David Burrows of the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA and Dr. Patrick Slane of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA. According to Hughes, one of the most profound accomplishments of twentieth century astronomy is the realization that nearly all of the elements other than hydrogen and helium were created in the interiors of stars. "During their lives, stars are factories that take the simplest element, hydrogen, and convert it into heavier ones," he said. "After consuming all the hydrogen in their cores, stars begin to evolve rapidly, until they finally run out of fuel and begin to collapse. In stars ten times or so more massive than our Sun, the central parts of the collapsing star may form a neutron star or a black hole, while the rest of the star is blown apart in a tremendous supernova explosion." Supernovae are rare, occurring only once every 50 years or so in a galaxy like our own. "When I first looked at the Chandra image of Cas A, I was amazed by the clarity and definition," said Hughes. "The image was much sharper than any previous one and I could immediately see lots of new details." Equal in significance to the image clarity is the potential the Chandra data held for measuring the

  8. Parallel Simulation of Three-Dimensional Free Surface Fluid Flow Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAER, THOMAS A.; SACKINGER, PHILIP A.; SUBIA, SAMUEL R.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of viscous three-dimensional fluid flow typically involves a large number of unknowns. When free surfaces are included, the number of unknowns increases dramatically. Consequently, this class of problem is an obvious application of parallel high performance computing. We describe parallel computation of viscous, incompressible, free surface, Newtonian fluid flow problems that include dynamic contact fines. The Galerkin finite element method was used to discretize the fully-coupled governing conservation equations and a ''pseudo-solid'' mesh mapping approach was used to determine the shape of the free surface. In this approach, the finite element mesh is allowed to deform to satisfy quasi-static solid mechanics equations subject to geometric or kinematic constraints on the boundaries. As a result, nodal displacements must be included in the set of unknowns. Other issues discussed are the proper constraints appearing along the dynamic contact line in three dimensions. Issues affecting efficient parallel simulations include problem decomposition to equally distribute computational work among a SPMD computer and determination of robust, scalable preconditioners for the distributed matrix systems that must be solved. Solution continuation strategies important for serial simulations have an enhanced relevance in a parallel coquting environment due to the difficulty of solving large scale systems. Parallel computations will be demonstrated on an example taken from the coating flow industry: flow in the vicinity of a slot coater edge. This is a three dimensional free surface problem possessing a contact line that advances at the web speed in one region but transitions to static behavior in another region. As such, a significant fraction of the computational time is devoted to processing boundary data. Discussion focuses on parallel speed ups for fixed problem size, a class of problems of immediate practical importance

  9. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang [Dept. of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Yensei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-15

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  10. Application of Simulated Three Dimensional CT Image in Orthognathic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Don; Park, Chang Seo; Yoo, Sun Kook; Lee, Kyoung Sang

    1998-01-01

    In orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, cephalogram has been routine practice in diagnosis and treatment evaluation of craniofacial deformity. But its inherent distortion of actual length and angles during projecting three dimensional object to two dimensional plane might cause errors in quantitative analysis of shape and size. Therefore, it is desirable that three dimensional object is diagnosed and evaluated three dimensionally and three dimensional CT image is best for three dimensional analysis. Development of clinic necessitates evaluation of result of treatment and comparison before and after surgery. It is desirable that patient that was diagnosed and planned by three dimensional computed tomography before surgery is evaluated by three dimensional computed tomography after surgery, too. But Because there is no standardized normal values in three dimension now and three dimensional Computed Tomography needs expensive equipment and because of its expenses and amount of exposure to radiation, limitations still remain to be solved in its application to routine practice. If postoperative three dimensional image is constructed by pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms and preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram, pre and postoperative image will be compared and evaluated three dimensionally without three dimensional computed tomography after surgery and that will contribute to standardize normal values in three dimension. This study introduced new method that computer-simulated three dimensional image was constructed by preoperative three dimensional computed tomogram and pre and postoperative lateral and postero-anterior cephalograms, and for validation of new method, in four cases of dry skull that position of mandible was displaced and four patients of orthognathic surgery, computer-simulated three dimensional image and actual postoperative three dimensional image were compared. The results were as follows. 1. In four cases of

  11. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  12. On a novel matrix method for three-dimensional photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theocaris, P.S.; Gdoutos, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A non-destructive method for the photoelastic determination of three-dimensional stress distributions, based on the Mueller and Jones calculi, is developed. The differential equations satisfied by the Stokes and Jones vectors, when a polarized light beam passes through a photoelastic model, presenting rotation of the secondary principal stress directions, are established in matrix form. The Peano-Baker method is used for the solution of these differential equations in a matrix series form, establishing the elements of the Mueller and Jones matrices of the photoelastic model. These matrices are experimentally determined by using different wavelengths in conjunction with Jones' 'equivalence theorem'. The Neumann equations are immediately deduced from the above-mentioned differential equations. (orig.) [de

  13. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  14. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: ryuta@tokai-u.jp [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  15. Spin wave steering in three-dimensional magnonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginin, E. N.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Sharaevskaya, A. Yu.; Stognij, A. I.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    We report the concept of three-dimensional (3D) magnonic structures which are especially promising for controlling and manipulating magnon currents. The approach for fabrication of 3D magnonic crystals (MCs) and 3D magnonic networks is presented. A meander type ferromagnetic film grown at the top of the initially structured substrate can be a candidate for such 3D crystals. Using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, and micromagnetic simulations, we study spin-wave propagation in both isolated and coupled 3D MCs and reconstruct spin-wave dispersion and transmission response to elucidate the mechanism of magnonic bandgap formation. Our results show the possibility of the utilization of proposed structures for fabrication of a 3D magnonic network.

  16. A three-dimensional computerized isometric strength measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nancy L; Das, Biman

    2007-05-01

    The three-dimensional Computerized Isometric Strength Measurement System (CISMS) reliably and accurately measures isometric pull and push strengths in work spaces of paraplegic populations while anticipating comparative studies with other populations. The main elements of the system were: an extendable arm, a vertical supporting track, a rotating platform, a force transducer, stability sensors and a computerized data collection interface. The CISMS with minor modification was successfully used to measure isometric push-up and pull-down strengths of paraplegics and isometric push, pull, push-up and pull-down strength in work spaces for seated and standing able-bodied populations. The instrument has satisfied criteria of versatility, safety and comfort, ease of operation, and durability. Results are accurate within 2N for aligned forces. Costing approximately $1,500 (US) including computer, the system is affordable and accurate for aligned isometric strength measurements.

  17. Creating physically-based three-dimensional microstructures: Bridging phase-field and crystal plasticity models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hojun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Owen, Steven J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdeljawad, Fadi F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanks, Byron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Battaile, Corbett Chandler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.

  18. Splinkerette PCR for mapping transposable elements in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Potter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (such as the P-element and piggyBac have been used to introduce thousands of transgenic constructs into the Drosophila genome. These transgenic constructs serve many roles, from assaying gene/cell function, to controlling chromosome arm rearrangement. Knowing the precise genomic insertion site for the transposable element is often desired. This enables identification of genomic enhancer regions trapped by an enhancer trap, identification of the gene mutated by a transposon insertion, or simplifying recombination experiments. The most commonly used transgene mapping method is inverse PCR (iPCR. Although usually effective, limitations with iPCR hinder its ability to isolate flanking genomic DNA in complex genomic loci, such as those that contain natural transposons. Here we report the adaptation of the splinkerette PCR (spPCR method for the isolation of flanking genomic DNA of any P-element or piggyBac. We report a simple and detailed protocol for spPCR. We use spPCR to 1 map a GAL4 enhancer trap located inside a natural transposon, pinpointing a master regulatory region for olfactory neuron expression in the brain; and 2 map all commonly used centromeric FRT insertion sites. The ease, efficiency, and efficacy of spPCR could make it a favored choice for the mapping of transposable element in Drosophila.

  19. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  20. [Precision of three-dimensional printed brackets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Wang, L C; Zhou, Y H; Liu, X M; Li, J

    2017-08-18

    This study was based on digital orthodontic diagnosis work flow for indirect bonding transfer tray model design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, and the aim of this paper was to inspect the dimensional accuracyof 3D printed brackets, which is the foundation of the follow up work and hoped that will illuminate the clinical application of the digital orthodontics work flow. The samples which consisted of 14 cases of patients with malocclusion from Department of Orthodontics Peking University were selected, including 8 cases with tooth extraction and 6 cases without tooth extraction. All the 14 patients were taken intra-oral scan (Trios 3Shape, Denmark) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, NewTom 3G volumetric scanner, Aperio Service,Italy)shooting after periodontal treatment. STL data and DICOM data were obtained from intraoral scans and CBCT images.Data segmentation, registration, fusion, automatic tooth arrangement, virtual positioning of orthodontic appliance and conversion the coordinates of malocclusion model were all done with self-programming software. The data of 3D printing model with brackets on it were output finally and printed out with EDEN260V (Objet Geometries, Israel) to make indirect bonding transfer tray. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure the length and width of upper and lower left brackets and buccal tubes on those 3D models after removal of surrounding supporting material by ultrasonic vibration and water-spray. Intra-examiner reliability was assessed by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and one-sample T test was used to compare the measurements with the standard dimensional data of the brackets. There were significant differences which range in 0.04-0.17 mm between the 13 items out of the 19 measurement items. Except for the length of the lower left premolars'brackets, mean values of the other items were greater than the test value. Although the measurement results in the width of brackets and the width and

  1. Stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Shibata, Katsuyuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Tagata, Kazunori.

    1983-11-01

    The stress intensity factor analyses of surface cracks in various three-dimensional structures were performed using the finite element computer program EPAS-J1. The results obtained by EPAS-J1 were compared with other finite element solutions or results obtained by the simplified estimation methods. Among the simplified estimation methods, the equations proposed by Newman and Raju give the distributions of the stress intensity factor along a crack front, which were compared with the result obtained by EPAS-J1. It was confirmed by comparing the results that EPAS-J1 gives reasonable stress intensity factors of surface cracks in three-dimensional structures. (author)

  2. Three dimensional non-linear cracking analysis of prestressed concrete containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaid, Y.F.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives full development of three-dimensional cracking matrices. These matrices are simulated in three-dimensional non-linear finite element analysis adopted for concrete containment vessels. The analysis includes a combination of conventional steel, the steel line r and prestressing tendons and the anisotropic stress-relations for concrete and concrete aggregate interlocking. The analysis is then extended and is linked to cracking analysis within the global finite element program OBAID. The analytical results compare well with those available from a model test. (author)

  3. The Three-dimensional Digital Factory for Shipbuilding Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional digital factory technology research is the hotspot in shipbuilding recently. The three-dimensional digital factory technology not only focus on design the components of the product, but also discuss on the simulation and analyses of the production process.Based on the three-dimensional model, the basic data layer, application control layer and the presentation layer of hierarchical structure are established in the three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding in this paper. And the key technologies of three-dimensional digital factory of shipbuilding are analysed. Finally, a case study is applied and the results show that the three-dimensional digital factory will play an important role in the future.

  4. Mapping three-dimensional temperature in microfluidic chip.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo; Kwok, Tsz Yan; Li, Xiaolin; Cao, Wenbin; Wang, Yu; Huang, Junying; Hong, Yaying; Zhang, Dongen; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    and 2 ~ 6 °C temperature resolution depending the capture parameters. This method is successfully applied to monitor the local temperature variation throughout micro-droplet heat transfer process and further reveal exothermic nanoliter droplet reactions

  5. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual ...

  6. On the Zeeman Effect in highly excited atoms: 2. Three-dimensional case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseia, B.; Medeiros e Silva Filho, J.

    1984-01-01

    A previous result, found in two-dimensional hydrogen-atoms, is extended to the three-dimensional case. A mapping of a four-dimensional space R 4 onto R 3 , that establishes an equivalence between Coulomb and harmonic potentials, is used to show that the exact solution of the Zeeman effect in highly excited atoms, cannot be reached. (Author) [pt

  7. Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow instabilities in a rotating lid-driven cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2006-01-01

    liquid. For the first time the onset of three-dimensionality and transition are analysed by combining the high spatial resolution of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and the temporal accuracy of Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). A detailed mapping of the transition from steady and axisymmetric flow...

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the biliary tract using spiral computed tomography. Three-dimensional cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon, Masanori; Ogura, Norihiro; Uetsuji, Shouji; Ueyama, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    In this study, 310 patients with benign biliary diseases, 20 with gallbladder cancer, and 8 with biliary tract carcinoma underwent spiral CT (SCT) scanning at cholangiography. Depiction rate of the shape of the conjunction site of the gallbladder and biliary tract was 27.5% by conventional intravenous cholangiography (DIC), 92.5% by ERC, and 90.0% by DIC-SCT. Abnormal cystic duct course was admitted in 14.1%. Multiplanar reconstruction by DIC-SCT enabled identification of the common bile duct and intrahepatic bile duct stone. Three-dimensional reconstruction of DIC-SCT was effective in evaluating obstruction of the anastomosis or passing condition of after hepatico-jejunostomy. Two-dimensional SCT images through PTCD tube enabled degree of hepatic invasion in bile duct cancer, and three-dimensional images were useful in grasping the morphology of the bile duct branches near the obstruction site. DIC-SCT is therefore considered a useful procedure as non-invasive examination of bile duct lesions. (S.Y.)

  9. Three-dimensional display of magnetic source imaging (MSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Takato; Yamamoto, Tomoya; Nishio, Shunji; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Fukui, Masashi; Nitta, Koichi.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic source imaging (MSI) is a relatively new, noninvasive technique for defining the relationship between brain structure and function of individual patients, and to establish comparisons from one patient to another. This is achieved by combining detailed neurophysiological data derived via magnetoencephalography (MEG) with neuroimaging data such as computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The noninvasive presurgical mapping of cortical functional somatosensory activity and the direct mapping of epilepsy-associated activity are among the neurosurgical uses that are emerging for MSI. Although the procedure provides clinically useful data, there are still limitations to two-dimensional MSI. We employ three-dimensional (3-D) MSI, superimposing MSI localizations on 3-D volumetric reconstruction of MRI. 3-D MSI enhances the visualization of the entire sensory homunculus and clearly demonstrates the spatial relationship with structural lesions. The functional localization of the epileptic focus in spatial relation to the lesion provides important clues for preoperative planning and on the epileptogenicity of the lesion. 3-D MSI improves localization of the sensory cortex and generator areas of epileptic activity. (author)

  10. Superconvergence phenomena on three-dimensional meshes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 43-56 ISSN 1705-5105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/04/1503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear and quadratic tetrahedral elements * acute partitions * Poisson equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. Full three-dimensional isotropic carpet cloak designed by quasi-conformal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniely G; Teixeira, Poliane A; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2017-09-18

    A fully three-dimensional carpet cloak presenting invisibility in all viewing angles is theoretically demonstrated. The design is developed using transformation optics and three-dimensional quasi-conformal mapping. Parametrization strategy and numerical optimization of the coordinate transformation deploying a quasi-Newton method is applied. A discussion about the minimum achievable anisotropy in the 3D transformation optics is presented. The method allows to reduce the anisotropy in the cloak and an isotropic medium could be considered. Numerical simulations confirm the strategy employed enabling the design of an isotropic reflectionless broadband carpet cloak independently of the incident light direction and polarization.

  12. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 "3 voxels was obtained.

  13. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: y-hayashi@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Nagakute Aichi 480-1192 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 {sup 3} voxels was obtained.

  14. Implicit Three-Dimensional Geo-Modelling Based on HRBF Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Zhou, W.; Wu, L.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological models are important representations of the results of regional geological surveys. However, the process of constructing 3D geological models from two-dimensional (2D) geological elements remains difficult and time-consuming. This paper proposes a method of migrating from 2D elements to 3D models. First, the geological interfaces were constructed using the Hermite Radial Basis Function (HRBF) to interpolate the boundaries and attitude data. Then, the subsurface geological bodies were extracted from the spatial map area using the Boolean method between the HRBF surface and the fundamental body. Finally, the top surfaces of the geological bodies were constructed by coupling the geological boundaries to digital elevation models. Based on this workflow, a prototype system was developed, and typical geological structures (e.g., folds, faults, and strata) were simulated. Geological modes were constructed through this workflow based on realistic regional geological survey data. For extended applications in 3D modelling of other kinds of geo-objects, mining ore body models and urban geotechnical engineering stratum models were constructed by this method from drill-hole data. The model construction process was rapid, and the resulting models accorded with the constraints of the original data.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Gregory A.; Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hoversten, G. Michael [Chevron Energy Technology Company, Seismic Analysis and Property Estimation, San Ramon, CA 94583 (United States); Wannamaker, Philip E. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    A dense grid of 125 magnetotelluric (MT) stations plus a single line of contiguous bipole array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at Parkfield, CA was used as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. These data have been inverted to a fully three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. This model shows the controlling geological structures possibly influencing well production at Coso and correlations with mapped surface features such as faults and the regional geoelectric strike. The 3D model also illustrates the refinement in positioning of resistivity contacts when compared to isolated 2D inversion transects. The resistivity model has also been correlated with micro-earthquake locations, reservoir fluid production intervals and most importantly with an acoustic and shear velocity model derived by Wu and Lees [Wu, H., Lees, J.M., 1999. Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of the Coso Geothermal Area, California, from microseismic travel time data. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (B6), 13217-13233]. This later correlation shows that the near-vertical low-resistivity structure on the eastern flank of the producing field is also a zone of increased acoustic velocity and increased V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio bounded by mapped fault traces. Over of the Devils' Kitchen is an area of large geothermal well density, where highly conductive near surface material is interpreted as a smectite clay cap alteration zone manifested from the subsurface geothermal fluids and related geochemistry. Enhanced resistivity beneath this cap and within the reservoir is diagnostic of propylitic alteration causing the formation of illite clays, which is typically observed in high-temperature reservoirs (>230 C). In the southwest flank of the field the V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio is enhanced over the production intervals, but the

  16. QUALITY INSPECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION MODEL BASED ON OBLIQUE PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  17. Quality Inspection and Analysis of Three-Dimensional Geographic Information Model Based on Oblique Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Yan, Q.; Xu, Y.; Bai, J.

    2018-04-01

    In order to promote the construction of digital geo-spatial framework in China and accelerate the construction of informatization mapping system, three-dimensional geographic information model emerged. The three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology has higher accuracy, shorter period and lower cost than traditional methods, and can more directly reflect the elevation, position and appearance of the features. At this stage, the technology of producing three-dimensional geographic information models based on oblique photogrammetry technology is rapidly developing. The market demand and model results have been emerged in a large amount, and the related quality inspection needs are also getting larger and larger. Through the study of relevant literature, it is found that there are a lot of researches on the basic principles and technical characteristics of this technology, and relatively few studies on quality inspection and analysis. On the basis of summarizing the basic principle and technical characteristics of oblique photogrammetry technology, this paper introduces the inspection contents and inspection methods of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology. Combined with the actual inspection work, this paper summarizes the quality problems of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology, analyzes the causes of the problems and puts forward the quality control measures. It provides technical guidance for the quality inspection of three-dimensional geographic information model data products based on oblique photogrammetry technology in China and provides technical support for the vigorous development of three-dimensional geographic information model based on oblique photogrammetry technology.

  18. Three-dimensional low-energy topological invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalarska, M.; Broda, B.

    2000-01-01

    A description of the one-loop approximation formula for the partition function of a three-dimensional abelian version of the Donaldson-Witten theory is proposed. The one-loop expression is shown to contain such topological invariants of a three-dimensional manifold M like the Reidemeister-Ray-Singer torsion τ R and Betti numbers. (orig.)

  19. Collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lushnikov, P.M.; Saffman, M.

    2000-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation.......We derive sufficient conditions for the occurrence of collapse in a forced three-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation without dissipation. Numerical studies continue the results to the case of finite dissipation....

  20. Three-dimensional plasma equilibrium near a separatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Boozer, A.H.

    1988-08-01

    The limiting behavior of a general three-dimensional MHD equilibrium near a separatrix is calculated explicitly. No expansions in β or assumptions about island widths are made. Implications of the results for the numerical calculation of such equilibria, are discussed, as well as for issues concerning the existence of three-dimensional MHD equilibria. 16 refs., 2 figs