The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
Weiss, Robert S; Bass, Scott A; Heimovitz, Harley K; Oka, Masato
Japan's Silver Human Resource Center (SHRC) program provides part-time, paid employment to retirement-aged men and women. We studied 393 new program participants and examined whether part-time work influenced their well-being or "ikigai." The participants were divided into those who had worked in SHRC-provided jobs in the preceding year, and those who had not. Gender-stratified regression models were fitted to determine whether SHRC employment was associated with increased well-being. For men, actively working at a SHRC job was associated with greater well-being, compared to inactive members. And men with SHRC jobs and previous volunteering experience had the greatest increase in well-being. Women SHRC job holders did not experience increased well-being at the year's end. The study concludes that there is justification for exploring the usefulness of a similar program for American retirees who desire post-retirement part-time work.
IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Eggen, J.H.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Midden, C.J.H.
In this short paper we aim to give a brief introduction to persuasive technology, especially as it pertains to human well-being. We discuss a number of current research opportunities in areas of healthcare, environmental conservation, and education. We conclude by highlighting what we regard as the
Baker, Kate C; Dettmer, Amanda M
The well-being of non-human primates in captivity is of joint concern to scientists, veterinarians, colony managers, caretakers, and researchers working with non-human primates in biomedical research. With increased regulatory, accreditation, and research focus on optimizing the use of social housing for laboratory primates, as well as the advent of techniques to assess indices of chronic stress and related measures of well-being, there is no better time to present the most current advances in the field of non-human primate behavioral management. The collective body of research presented here was inspired in part by a 2014 symposium entitled, "Chronic Hormones and Demographic Variables: Center-Wide Studies on Non-Human Primate Well-Being" held at the American Society of Primatologists' 37th Annual Meeting in Decatur, GA. By aiming to target readership with scientific and/or management oversight of captive primate behavioral management programs, this special issue provides badly-needed guidance for implementing social housing programs in a research environment and leverages collaboration across multiple facilities to address key components of behavioral management, explore refinements in how well-being can be measured, and identify the interrelationships between varying indices. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22520, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie
in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...
Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel
Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available What does make the ground of the authentic works of music art crossing the centuries and what does move the human soul any time and anywhere? Which is the support of music art – generally speaking – beyond its aesthetic dimension? How could we explain and understand, in a better and in a more efficient way, the powerful influence of musical artistic creation upon the human well-being? These are merely part of the interrogations challenging our interest in finding and revealing the profound link between ethical values, music art and human health (in its integrality. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize the foundation of human equilibrium considering the offer of the harmony carried by music art, exploring the significance of a nucleus-concept of the Greek philosophers that has been acknowledged as kalokagatheia – the self-fulfilled cultivation of body and soul, as a micro-cosmos living within the macro-cosmos. In terms of a philosophical hermeneutics of art, we reach to disclose part of the salutogenic function of music art concerning the human well-being in nowadays.
Full Text Available In 2018, the editors of the Portuguese Journal of Behavioral and Social Research (PJBSR continue to favor the publication of original articles of investigation and revision in the areas of social and behavioral sciences. The PJBSR continues to promote thinking, questioning the changes in society, their realities, and rethinking their problems, encouraging a reflection among their readers. The number 1 of the fourth volume of the PJBSR adds four original articles and one review article. Although this issue of the PJBSR addresses different contents, there is evidence of a focus on the study of positive psychological variables and their relation to human well-being, whether it is operationalized as physical or mental health, studied in the context of institutionalization or in the context of the work, evaluated at the level of the subjective perception of well-being or the level of the conception of death with dignity.
Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Mockałło, Zofia
Most research on the negative impact of restructuring on employees' health considers restructuring involving personnel reduction. The aim of this study was to explore the assumption that the type of restructuring, business expansion versus restructuring not involving expansion (only reductions and/or change of ownership), influences its psychological responses: appraisal of the change, psychosocial working conditions and well-being after the change. The study was carried out among 857 employees that experienced restructuring in 2009 and/or 2010 and 538 employees from companies not restructured at that time. The main variables, i.e., assessment of change in terms of personal benefits and losses, psychosocial job characteristics and well-being were measured using a questionnaire developed in "The psychological health and well-being in restructuring: key effects and mechanisms" project (PSYRES). It was found that the employees who experienced business expansion in comparison to those who experienced exclusively change of ownership had a higher appraisal of change, while those who experienced restructuring not involving business expansion did not differ from those who experienced change of ownership. As far as psychosocial working conditions are concerned, those employees who experienced exclusively business expansion did not differ from those in the not restructured companies (except for quantitative demands that were higher), while most psychosocial working conditions of the employees who experienced restructuring not involving expansion were poorer than in the not restructured companies. Also, well-being measures of the employees who experienced exclusively business expansion did not differ from those in the not restructured companies (except for innovative behavior that was even higher), while well-being measure of those who experienced restructuring not involving expansion was poorer than of those in the not restructured companies. Restructuring involving
Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun
Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.
Ecosystems provide services to humans that support our well-being. Well-being is not only our health but also our quality of life. We rely upon the services provided by nature to help maintain good health and a high quality of life, including clean water, clean air, food and recr...
Milner-Gulland, E J; McGregor, J A; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, J M; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D
Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.T.
In this multi-source study, we examined the link between ethical leadership, human resource management (HRM), employee well-being, and helping. Based on the Conservation of Resources Theory, we proposed a mediated moderation model linking ethical leadership to helping, which includes well-being as
A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably and without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Human well-being is described by four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-bein...
B. Gyawali; R. Fraser; J. Schelhas; Y. Wang; W. Tadesse; J. Bukenya
The west-central region of Alabama is rich in natural resources.Â Yet changes in land use seem unrelated to improvements in human well-being.Â Satellite imagery and U.S. census data for 1980 and 2000 were analyzed to test whether changes in land cover were related to changes in a human well-being index-of income, employment and education at the Cenus Block Group (CBG)...
Ahmad, Sohail; Mathai, Manu V.; Parayil, Govindan
According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated
Full Text Available We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems, while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems. However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Hamann, Maike; Biggs, Reinette; Reyers, Belinda
We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems), while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems). However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
This article is a selective review of quantitative research, historical and prospective, that is needed to inform sustainable development policy. I start with a simple framework to highlight how demography and productivity shape human well-being. I use that to discuss three sets of issues and corresponding challenges to modeling: first, population prehistory and early human development and their implications for the future; second, the multiple distinct dimensions of human and environmental well-being and the meaning of sustainability; and, third, inequality as a phenomenon triggered by development and models to examine changing inequality and its consequences. I conclude with a few words about other important factors: political, institutional, and cultural.
Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.
As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work environment, where additional pressures can be imposed on the employee from fluctuating work-loads, uncertain requirements, and multiple role demands. These pressures can create issues for employee well-be...
Ryff, Carol D
This essay examines core contributions of a model of psychological well-being that has had widespread scientific impact. It drew on distant formulations to identify new dimensions and measures for assessing what it means to be well. Key themes among the more than 750 studies using the model are sketched, followed by reflections about why there has been so much interest in this eudaimonic approach to well-being. A final section looks to the future, proposing new directions to illuminate the forces that work against the realization of human potential as well as those that nurture human flourishing and self-realization.
Allison L Mayberry
Full Text Available High densities of wild African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana combined with widespread human land-use have increased human-elephant conflict in northern Botswana. Visible impacts (e.g. crop/property damage, injury/fatality of elephants on human well-being are well documented in scholarly literature while hidden impacts (e.g. emotional stress, restricted mobility are less so. This research uses qualitative methods to explore human experiences with elephants and perceived impacts of elephants on human well-being. Findings reveal participants are concerned about food insecurity and associated visible impacts of elephant crop raids. Findings also reveal participants are concerned about reduced safety and restricted mobility as hidden impacts threatening livelihoods and everyday life. Both visible and hidden impacts of elephants contribute to people's negative feelings towards elephants, as does the broader political context. This research emphasises the importance of investigating both visible and hidden impacts of elephants on human well-being to foster holistic understanding of human-elephant conflict scenarios and to inform future mitigation strategies.
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Luck, Gary W; Davidson, Penny; Boxall, Dianne; Smallbone, Lisa
By 2050, 70% of the world's population will live in urban areas. In many cases urbanization reduces the richness and abundance of native species. Living in highly modified environments with fewer opportunities to interact directly with a diversity of native species may adversely affect residents' personal well-being and emotional connection to nature. We assessed the personal well-being, neighborhood well-being (a measure of a person's satisfaction with their neighborhood), and level of connection to nature of over 1000 residents in 36 residential neighborhoods in southeastern Australia. We modeled these response variables as a function of natural features of each neighborhood (e.g., species richness and abundance of birds, density of plants, and amount of vegetation cover) and demographic characteristics of surveyed residents. Vegetation cover had the strongest positive relations with personal well-being, whereas residents' level of connection to nature was weakly related to variation in species richness and abundance of birds and density of plants. Demographic characteristics such as age and level of activity explained the greatest proportion of variance in well-being and connection to nature. Nevertheless, when controlling for variation in demographic characteristics (examples were provided above), neighborhood well-being was positively related to a range of natural features, including species richness and abundance of birds, and vegetation cover. Demographic characteristics and how well-being was quantified strongly influenced our results, and we suggest demography and metrics of well-being must be considered when attempting to determine relations between the urban environment and human well-being. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.
Turner, R.; Huemann, M.; Keegan, A.
As part of a wider study into human resource management (HRM) practices in project-oriented organizations, we investigated the issue of employee well-being. Project-oriented organizations adopt temporary work processes to deliver products and services to clients. This creates a dynamic work
Finlayson, M.; Cruz, R.D.; Davidson, N.; Alder, J.; Cork, S.; Groot, de R.S.; Lévêque, C.; Milton, G.R.; Peterson, G.; Pritchard, D.; Ratner, B.D.; Reid, W.V.; Revenga, C.; Rivera, M.; Schutyser, F.; Siebentritt, M.; Stuip, M.; Tharme, R.; Butchard, S.; Dieme-Amting, E.; Gitay, H.; Raaymakers, S.; Taylor, D.
The Wetlands and Water synthesis was designed for the Ramsar Convention to meet the need for information about the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and sought to strengthen the link between scientific knowledge and decision-making for the conservation and wise use of wetlands.
Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin
Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...
Woodhouse, Emily; Homewood, Katherine M; Beauchamp, Emilie; Clements, Tom; McCabe, J Terrence; Wilkie, David; Milner-Gulland, E J
Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on how to operationalize the concept is limited. We present nine guiding principles based around a well-being framework incorporating material, relational and subjective components, and focused on gaining knowledge needed for decision-making. The principles relate to four key components of an impact evaluation: (i) defining well-being indicators, giving primacy to the perceptions of those most impacted by interventions through qualitative research, and considering subjective well-being, which can affect engagement with conservation; (ii) attributing impacts to interventions through quasi-experimental designs, or alternative methods such as theory-based, case study and participatory approaches, depending on the setting and evidence required; (iii) understanding the processes of change including evidence of causal linkages, and consideration of trajectories of change and institutional processes; and (iv) data collection with methods selected and applied with sensitivity to research context, consideration of heterogeneity of impacts along relevant societal divisions, and conducted by evaluators with local expertise and independence from the intervention. © 2015 The Authors.
Wang, C. Y.; Ho, C. C.; Chang, L. C.
There are no large hydraulic structures in Qishan River cause the less human interference than other major river in Taiwan. However, the aquatic habitats still suffer disturbance from the discharge changes greatly between wet and drought season, and Jiaxian Weir and Yuemei Weir draw surplus water from Qishan River to Nanhua Reservoir and Agongdian Reservoir respectively. The weir operation rule doesn't clear define how much environmental flow should be preserved for maintaining downstream ecological environment. Hence, the study proposes a process for evaluating environmental flow under considering impact on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. Empirical formula, hydrological, hydraulic and habitat methodologies were used to propose the environmental flow alternatives. Next, water allocation model and Habitat model were used to analysis the impact of environment flow alternatives on human well-being and ecosystems sustainability. The results show the suggested environmental flow in Qishan River is estimated by MAF10%. The environmental flow is between 8.03 10.83 cms during wet season and is between 1.07 1.44cms during wet season. The simulation results also provide the evidence from diverse aspect to help different authorities realized what they get and lose. The information can advance to reach a consensus during negotiations with different authorities and help decision maker make decisions.
Milner-Gulland, EJ; Mcgregor, JA; Agarwala, M; Atkinson, G; Bevan, P; Clements, T; Daw, T; Homewood, K; Kumpel, N; Lewis, J; Mourato, S; Palmer Fry, B; Redshaw, M; Rowcliffe, JM; Suon, S; Wallace, G; Washington, H; Wilkie, D
Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being. Consideración del Impacto de la Conservación sobre el Bienestar Humano Resumen
Panagopoulos, Thomas; González Duque, José Antonio; Bostenaru Dan, Maria
The cities of today present requirements that are dissimilar to those of the past. There are cities where the industrial and service sectors are in decline, and there are other cities that are just beginning their journey into the technological and industrial sectors. In general, the political and social realms have been restructured in terms of economics, which has resulted in an entirely different shape to the primitive structures of civilization. As people begin to understand the dynamic nature of landscapes, they stop seeing landscapes as a static scene. Sustainable cities must be simultaneously economically viable, socially just, politically well managed and ecologically sustainable to maximize human comfort. The present research suggests a multi-disciplinary approach for attaining a holistic understanding of urban environmental quality and human well-being in relation to sustainable urban development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeanguenat, Amy M; Dror, Itiel E
Over the past decade, there has been a growing openness about the importance of human factors in forensic work. However, most of it focused on cognitive bias, and neglected issues of workplace wellness and stress. Forensic scientists work in a dynamic environment that includes common workplace pressures such as workload volume, tight deadlines, lack of advancement, number of working hours, low salary, technology distractions, and fluctuating priorities. However, in addition, forensic scientists also encounter a number of industry-specific pressures, such as technique criticism, repeated exposure to crime scenes or horrific case details, access to funding, working in an adversarial legal system, and zero tolerance for "errors". Thus, stress is an important human factor to mitigate for overall error management, productivity and decision quality (not to mention the well-being of the examiners themselves). Techniques such as mindfulness can become powerful tools to enhance work and decision quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Mutter, John C.
Poverty is not solely a social or political matter, nor is it caused simply by population pressures as Thomas Malthus postulated in 1798. A new understanding of poverty is emerging in which natural and environmental drivers, together with social, political, and demographic causes, underpin livelihoods. The Earth sciences, therefore, play a critical role in identifying the deep causes of human suffering and in identifying solutions. The State of the Planet: Why Are So Many So Poor? For far too many, the state of human well-being is bleak. Around one in six human beings-1 billion people-live in extreme poverty, struggling to survive on less than $1 a day; another one sixth of humanity ekes out existence on $2 per day (U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2004; http://hdr.undp.org/2004/). The extreme poor lack all normal attributes of a decent, dignified life: adequate food, housing, sanitation, health care, education, and employment. Some 800 million people lack sufficient nourishment almost every day. It stunts their mental and physical development and shortens their lives, making them susceptible to common illnesses that attack their hunger-weakened bodies. Poor nutrition in mothers and infants is the leading cause of reduced disability-adjusted life years in poor countries [ Economist, 2004].
Full Text Available The recently endorsed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs agenda unanimously agrees on the need to focus on inclusive development, the importance of eradicating extreme poverty and managing often complex human well-being impacts of rapid urban growth. Sustainable and inclusive urbanisation will accelerate progress towards the SDGs and contribute to eradicating extreme poverty. In tropical delta regions, such as the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna delta region, urban growth and resulting intra-urban inequalities are accelerated by the impact of environmental and climate change. In this context, the present study uses the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey to analyse the extent of wealth-based inequalities in human well-being in the urban delta region and the determinants of selected welfare measures. The results suggest that the extent of intra-urban inequalities is greatest in educational attainment and access to postnatal healthcare and relatively low in the occurrence of gastric disease. The paper concludes by providing policy recommendations to reduce increasing wealth inequalities in urban areas, thus contributing to sustainable development of the region.
Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something intrinsically regrettable about medicalizing love. It is argued here that the medicalization of love can be seen as an "evaluative category mistake": it treats a core human value (love) as if it were mainly a means to other ends (viz. physical health and hedonic well-being). It is also argued that Earp et al's closing argument (that a scientific perspective on love actually adds more value to love) can be seen as involving another evaluative category mistake: it treats an object of desire and practical interest (namely, love) as if it mainly were an object of scientific contemplation and theoretical interest. It is concluded that, to relate love to health and well-being in a more satisfying way, we should construe the latter two in broader ways, whereby love is itself a component or element of human flourishing.
Heyden, E L; Wimalawansa, S J
Pregnancy places exceptional demands on vitamin D and calcium availability; thus, their deficiencies during pregnancy threaten the woman and her fetus. Globally, vitamin D and other micronutrient deficiencies are common during pregnancy, especially in developing countries where pregnant women have less access to nutritional supplements. Vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be as high as 40% among pregnant women. As a pregnancy progresses, the requirements for vitamin D increase and thus, can worsen preexisting hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, hypovitaminosis D is increasingly associated with a higher incidence of fetal miscarriage, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, bacterial vaginosis, and impaired fetal and childhood growth and development. This review explores the recent advances in the understanding of vitamin D and the pivotal role it plays in human reproduction, with an emphasis on pregnancy and its outcomes. Given the seriousness of the issue, there is a pressing need for clinicians to become aware of the risks associated with not identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency. Identifying and correcting vitamin D deficiency, including safe exposure to sunlight, is particularly relevant for those who seek assistance with fertility issues or prenatal counseling, and those in the beginning of their pregnancy. The data point to a significant protective effects of vitamin D during pregnancy when the 25(OH)D serum level exceeds 30 ng/mL before pregnancy and during the first trimester and, sufficient levels are maintained throughout the pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres.While there has been great progress in the treatment of individual diseases, human pathology continues to increase. Sicknesses are not decreasing in number, they are only changing in type.The primary diseases of poverty like TB, malaria, and HIV/AIDS-and the often co-morbid and ubiquitous malnutrition-take their toll on helpless populations in developing countries. Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation and optimism deprivation as well.While life expectancy may have increased in the haves, and infant and maternal mortality reduced, these gains have not necessarily ensured that well-being results. There are ever-multiplying numbers of individuals whose well-being is compromised due to lifestyle diseases. These diseases are the result of faulty lifestyles and the consequent crippling stress. But it serves no one's purpose to understand them as such. So, the prescription pad continues to prevail over lifestyle-change counselling or research.The struggle to achieve well-being and positive health, to ensure longevity, to combat lifestyle stress and professional burnout, and to reduce psychosomatic ailments continues unabated, with hardly an end in sight.WE THUS REALISE THAT MORBIDITY, DISABILITY, AND DEATH ASSAIL ALL THREE SOCIETIES: the ones with infectious diseases, the ones with diseases of poverty, and the ones with lifestyle diseases. If it is bacteria in their various forms that are the culprit in
Raymond, Christopher; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Rodela, Romina
On the 25thJanuary, 25 researchers, social entrepreneurs and policy makers attended a MOVIUM and SLU Urban Futures funded workshop on “Rethinking urban nature to promote human well-being and livelihoods”. The objectives of the workshop wereto identify and discuss integrated digital, social...... of urbannature in Malmö. Each group was asked to present their presentation to the wider group, what inspired them the most from the workshop activity and how their understanding of integrated solutions in urban nature changed over the day.This report presents a summary of each group’screations and findings...... and nature solutions for the use, management and governance of urban nature in the City of Malmö;and to provide a platform for knowledge sharing and networking between researchers and practitioners.Multiple enlightening presentations on how to plan, design and manage urban nature were provided by the cities...
Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni
Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns....... In a national-scale analysis in Madagascar that carefully considers these rival explanations, we estimate CFM impacts on household living standards, as measured by per capita consumption expenditures. The estimated impact is positive, but small and not statistically different from zero. However, we can...... statistically reject substantial negative impacts (which others have suggested may exist). The estimated impacts vary conditional on household education and proximity to forests: they are more positive and statistically significant for households closer to forest and with more education. To help improve CFM...
Naeem, Shahid; Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris
As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity-HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. © 2016 The Authors.
Kilpatrick, A Marm; Salkeld, Daniel J; Titcomb, Georgia; Hahn, Micah B
The Earth's ecosystems have been altered by anthropogenic processes, including land use, harvesting populations, species introductions and climate change. These anthropogenic processes greatly alter plant and animal communities, thereby changing transmission of the zoonotic pathogens they carry. Biodiversity conservation may be a potential win-win strategy for maintaining ecosystem health and protecting public health, yet the causal evidence to support this strategy is limited. Evaluating conservation as a viable public health intervention requires answering four questions: (i) Is there a general and causal relationship between biodiversity and pathogen transmission, and if so, which direction is it in? (ii) Does increased pathogen diversity with increased host biodiversity result in an increase in total disease burden? (iii) Do the net benefits of biodiversity conservation to human well-being outweigh the benefits that biodiversity-degrading activities, such as agriculture and resource utilization, provide? (iv) Are biodiversity conservation interventions cost-effective when compared to other options employed in standard public health approaches? Here, we summarize current knowledge on biodiversity-zoonotic disease relationships and outline a research plan to address the gaps in our understanding for each of these four questions. Developing practical and self-sustaining biodiversity conservation interventions will require significant investment in disease ecology research to determine when and where they will be effective.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Chazdon, Robin; Duffy, J. Emmett; Prager, Case; Worm, Boris
As society strives to transition towards more sustainable development pathways, it is important to properly conceptualize the link between biodiversity (i.e. genes, traits, species and other dimensions) and human well-being (HWB; i.e. health, wealth, security and other dimensions). Here, we explore how published conceptual frameworks consider the extent to which the biodiversity–HWB links are being integrated into public discourse and scientific research and the implications of our findings for sustainable development. We find that our understanding has gradually evolved from seeing the value of biodiversity as an external commodity that may influence HWB to biodiversity as fundamental to HWB. Analysis of the literature trends indicates increasing engagement with the terms biodiversity, HWB and sustainable development in the public, science and policy spheres, but largely as independent rather than linked terms. We suggest that a consensus framework for sustainable development should include biodiversity explicitly as a suite of internal variables that both influence and are influenced by HWB. Doing so will enhance clarity and help shape coherent research and policy priorities. We further suggest that the absence of this link in development can inadvertently lead to a ratcheting down of biodiversity by otherwise well-meaning policies. Such biotic impoverishment could lock HWB at minimum levels or lead to its decline and halt or reverse progress in achieving sustainable development. PMID:27928039
Chen, Ying; Xiao, Huimin; Yang, Yanqing; Lan, Xiuyan
The aim of this study was to examine the strength of evidence regarding the effects of life review on psycho-spiritual well-being among patients with life-threatening illness. Life-threatening illness not only causes physical symptoms but also psycho-spiritual burdens. Life review has been widely implemented to assist people coping with these burdens. However, the effectiveness of life review is not clear. To date, no systematic review or meta-analysis has been published on this topic. A systematic review with meta- analysis consistent with the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration was conducted. Database searches included MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CNKI and VIP et al. up to April 2015. We also searched the grey literature, reviewed reference lists from relevant articles and book chapters and contacted experts. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The risk of bias for those studies were rated as moderate (n = 11). The meta-analyses demonstrated significant standardized mean differences or mean differences in favour of life review compared with the control for depression, quality of life and self-esteem. The findings indicate that life review can decrease depressive symptoms, improve quality of life and enhance self-esteem among patients with life-threatening illnesses. Multi-centre studies with adequate sample size and rigorous designs are needed in future research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Macpherson, Cheryl C; Akpinar-Elci, Muge
Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patients and research participants rather than these broader issues. We broaden this focus by examining awareness among health-care providers in the Caribbean region, where geographic and socioeconomic features pose particular vulnerabilities to climate change. In focus groups, Caribbean providers described rises in mosquito-borne, flood-related, heat-related, respiratory and mental illnesses, and attributed these to local impacts of climate change. Their discussions showed that the significance of these impacts differs in different Caribbean nations, raising policy and social justice questions. Bioethics and public health ethics are situated to frame, inform and initiate public and policy dialog about values and scientific evidence associated with climate change. We urge readers to initiate such dialog within their own institutions about the context-dependent nature of the burdens of climate change, and values and policies that permit it to worsen.
Macpherson, Cheryl C.; Akpinar-Elci, Muge
Climate change has substantial impacts on public health and safety, disease risks and the provision of health care, with the poor being particularly disadvantaged. Management of the associated health risks and changing health service requirements requires adequate responses at local levels. Health-care providers are central to these responses. While climate change raises ethical questions about its causes, impacts and social justice, medicine and bioethics typically focus on individual patien...
Singh, Ajai R.; Singh, Shakuntala A.
The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Individuals in developing societies have to fight mainly against infectious and communicable diseases, while in the developed world the battles are mainly against lifestyle diseases. Yet, at a very fundamental level, the problems are the same-the fight is against distress, disability, and premature death; against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; against the callousness to critical c...
Leemans, R.; Groot, de R.S.
The 245-page report lays out the approaches, assumptions, processes, and parameters scientists are using in the study. It offers decision-makers a mechanism to identify options that can better achieve core human development and sustainability goals and better understand the trade-offs in decisions
Ibrahim, W. H. W.; Marinie, E.; Yunus, J.; Asra, N.; Sukor, K. Mohd
This study aims to investigate the variation of air pollutants associated with the quarry activities prior to classified distance from quarry site. Air pollutants were monitored with the use of instruments which are Rae System Multirae Lite Pumped (PGM-6208) to measure indoor air quality while TSI 8533 Dusttrack Drx Desktop Aerosol Monitor to measure outdoor air quality. Sampling will be replicated two times. The locations of quarry are at Bandar Saujana Putra and Taman Kajang Perdana 2, Selangor. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of quarry mining by preparing the suitable Indoor Air Quality Index and to prepare preventive measure for residential that caused from quarry mining activities. Both Qualitative and Quantitative approaches will be implemented in this study, which employed case study and interview survey. Both quarries identified previously will be the main case study. The Respondent’s interviews are from Local Authority and Quarry Management Staff while questionnaire surveys from selected residences. Measurement method will be used to measure the Particle Matter (PM2.5) for indoor and outdoor in selected resident’s area. However, this paper is primed to discuss the method used in this study. It is not only presents the beneficial information for future research on methodologies employed but also it is anticipated the benefit to environment which can increased residents’ well-being in the vicinity of quarry sites.
Full Text Available As in many other continents, neotropical ecosystems are impacted by the construction of reservoirs. These artificial ecosystems change considerably the natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The multiple uses of reservoirs promote benefits for the human beings in terms of economic development, income, jobs and employment. Services of reservoirs are important assets for the regional ecosystem. Evaluation of ecosystem services produced by artificial reservoirs, are new challenges to the understanding of the cost/benefit relationships of reservoir construction in the neotropics. Regulating and other services promoted by reservoirs lead to new trends for "green technology" and the implementation of ecohydrological and ecotechnological developments. This approach can be utilized with better success as a substitute for the usual impact/benefit evaluation of the reservoirs. Better and diversified services can be achieved with "green technology" applied to the construction.
The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and securit...
Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Foulkes, Donna
This study draws on Martha Nussbaum's (2000) account of the nature of human well-being in order to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum's capabilities approach identifies the ability "to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment" (p. 80) as a necessary component for well-being.…
Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A
Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.
Reeskens, T.; Vandecasteele, Leen
While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by
Nielsen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter
that management give employees discretion in the work organization (human resources are seen as an investment), that motivate and involve employees and create well-being among employees. So, management practices commitment strategies shape well-being among employees. This idea of management challenges the ability...... of the organization to persist, especially when organizational and technical changes have to be implemented by employees. So, the question is: How do HRM strategies connect to the employee’s well-being? The analytical results presented shortly in the paper build on data from project Meadow (Employee and Employer...
Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Alekseyko, Alina; Giedraitis, Vincentas
Sustainability is fundamentally a challenge of tradeoffs. In order to improve human well-being through economic development we consume nonrenewable energy and other natural resources, relying on a broad range of ecosystem services. Enhancing sustainability requires reducing the “energy intensity of human well-being (EIWB)”: the amount of energy used per unit of human well-being. In this study we employ longitudinal analysis techniques to assess the temporally dynamic relationship between EIWB and economic development for a sample of 12 Central and Eastern European (CEE) nations for the 1992 to 2010 period. These are nations that have recently transitioned, which is still an ongoing process, from socialist command economies to market demand economies. During this ongoing transition, many of them have experienced declines in energy intensity, coupled with increased energy efficiency, while human well-being has improved considerably. The results of the analysis indicate that the relationship between EIWB and economic growth in CEE nations is complex and has changed dramatically through time. Of particular importance, the later years of the study exhibit an increasingly sustainable relationship between EIWB and economic development. The findings point to future possibilities for relatively more harmonious relationships between development, human well-being, and the natural environment. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy intensity of well-being in Central and Eastern European nations. • The effect of economic development is time-dynamic. • Other factors influence the energy intensity of well-being. • The results highlight possibilities for enhanced sustainability policies
Laura Elizabeth Pinto
Full Text Available This paper draws on Martha Nussbaum’s account of the nature of human well-being to explore the role of animals in formal education settings. Nussbaum equates well-being with human flourishing, and argues that people live well when engaged in essential functions that are particular capabilities, each a necessary but insufficient contributor to well-being. One of these capabilities is the ability to “to have concern for and live with other animals, plants and the environment.” Yet, this condition of well-being remains largely unexplored among in education. In recent years, the benefits of human-animal interaction in education settings has been researched and discussed in the social sciences, particularly the use of dogs to aid reluctant readers in literacy development, and the use of therapy dogs in universities during final examination blocks. This paper presents findings of one particular research project of the effects of a unique, Canadian school-based cooperative education program, “Under One Woof,” in which students work with animals. Based on interviews, students’ own stories of the impact of animal interaction – particularly in light of other challenges they faced academically and socially – appear to support other empirical accounts of positive effects of animals in education settings, and offer insight into the nature and effects of human-animal interaction as an element of well-being.
Alberti, M.; Graumlich, L. J.; Frumkin, H.; Friedman, D.
A sustainable human future requires both healthy ecosystems and communities in which people thrive, with opportunities for health, well-being, happiness, economic prosperity, and equity. To make progress towards this goal, two largely disparate communities of scholars and practitioners must come together: sustainability science needs to be integrated with the sciences of human health and well-being. The opportunity for such integration is particularly ripe for urbanizing regions which not only dominate energy and resource use but also increasingly represent the human habitat. We present a conceptual framework that integrates sustainability science with the sciences of human health and well-being to explicitly articulate testable hypotheses on the relationships between humans and their habitat. We are interested in human behaviors and metrics of health and well-being in relationship to the characteristics of the built environment at various scales from buildings to metro regions. Focusing on the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a testbed, we are building on our current empirical studies on urban sprawl and ecosystem function including biodiversity, air quality, hydrological, biogeochemical, and human health to develop formal hypotheses on how alternative urban design and development patterns may influence health outcomes and well-being. The PNW is an ideal setting for this work because of the connected metropolitan areas within a region characterized by a spectacular diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and deeply held cultural and political aspirations towards sustainability. The framework also highlights opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice in the design and planning of built environments. For example, understanding these associations is critical to assessing tradeoffs in design and planning strategies and exploring potential synergies that optimize both sustainability and human well-being. In complex systems such as cities, managers
Anna Jorgensen; Paul H. Gobster
In this paper we review and analyze the recent research literature on urban green space and human health and well-being, with an emphasis on studies that attempt to measure biodiversity and other green space concepts relevant to urban ecological restoration. We first conduct a broad scale assessment of the literature to identify typologies of urban green space and...
This study examined the relationship among human relations in the workplace, job involvement, affective commitment and continuance commitment with occupational and organizational commitment, and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 855 female nurses who worked in four public hospitals (mean age = 32.6 years). The results of factor analysis showed that each component of the vocational constructs was distinguishable from the others. Path analysis showed that human relations in the workplace directly influenced job involvement and affective commitment both to the occupation and to the organization. Job involvement in turn directly influenced affective commitment and continuance commitment to the occupation. Job involvement also influenced affective commitment to the organization directly, and indirectly through affective commitment to the occupation. Finally, it was found that human relations in the workplace and affective commitment to the occupation positively influenced well-being; continuance commitment to the occupation was a negative influence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala
they contain) and human well-being. However, while scientifically rigorous impact evaluation of programs is well advanced in fields such as development, health and education, it is rare in nature conservation. The rare existing studies focus mostly on protected areas and other interventions, such as CFM......, conditional on household proximity to forest and education level. In conclusion, the impacts of CFM vary with household characteristics: some may lose while others may gain. iii) The potential of the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI) for evaluating the perceived impact of conservation interventions......Protected areas and Community Forest Management (CFM) are among the most widespread interventions to conserve forests in tropical countries. In addition to their impacts on forests and the biodiversity they contain, these interventions also affect human well-being, particularly that of the local...
Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen
While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available Across scientific fields, there have been calls to improve the integration of scientific knowledge in policy making. Particularly since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, these calls increasingly refer to data on human well-being related to the natural environment. However, policy decisions involve selective uptake of information across communities with different preferences and decision-making processes. Additionally, researchers face the fact that there are important trade-offs in producing knowledge that is simultaneously credible, legitimate, socially relevant, and socially just. We present a study that developed human well-being indicators for Washington State's Puget Sound ecosystem recovery agency over 3 years. Stakeholders, decision makers, and social scientists were engaged in the identification, modification, and prioritization of well-being indicators that were adopted by the agency for tracking progress toward ecosystem recovery and strategic planning. After substantial literature review, interviews, workshops, and indicator ranking exercises, 15 indicators were broadly accepted and important to all audiences. Although the scientists, decision makers, and stakeholders used different criteria to identify and prioritize indicators, they all agreed that indicators associated with each of 6 broad domains (social, cultural, psychological, physical, economic, and governance were critical to assess the holistic concept of well-being related to ecosystem restoration. Decision makers preferred indicators that mirrored stakeholder preferences, whereas social scientists preferred only a subset. The Puget Sound indicator development process provides an example for identifying, selecting, and monitoring diverse concepts of well-being related to environmental restoration in a way that promotes recognition, participation, and a fair distribution of environmental benefits across the region.
Full Text Available Human connections are key to the promotion of health and prevention of illness; moreover, illness can cause deterioration of human connections. Healthcare professional–patient relationships are key to ensuring the preservation of adequate human connections. It is important for healthcare professionals to develop their ability to foster satisfactory human connections because: (i they represent social support for patients; and (ii they prevent work-related stress. In this study we assessed the relationship between absence (loneliness and presence (empathy of human connections with the occupational well-being of healthcare professionals. The Scale of Collateral Effects, which measures somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy; and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, were mailed to 628 healthcare professionals working in Spanish public healthcare institutions. The following explanatory variables were used to evaluate work well-being: (a empathy, as a professional competence; (b loneliness, age, and family burden, as psychological indicators; and (c professional experience, work dedication, and salary, as work indicators. Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to measure the relationships among these variables and occupational well-being. Of 628 surveys mailed, 433 (69% response rate were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed for all instruments. The entire sample was divided into four groups, based on the combined variable, “occupation by sex.” Comparative analyses demonstrated differences among “occupation by sex” groups in collateral effects (p = 0.03 and empathy (p = 0.04, but not loneliness (p = 0.84. Inverse associations between empathy and collateral effects were confirmed for somatization (r = -0.16; p < 0.001, exhaustion (r = -0.14; p = 0.003, and work alienation (r = -0.16; p < 0.001. Furthermore, loneliness was positively
Vanessa M. Adams
Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for development of natural resources, which can be accompanied by environmental degradation. Planning for multiple land uses requires navigating trade-offs between social, economic, and environmental outcomes arising from different possible futures. To explore these trade-offs, we use the Daly River catchment, in Australia's Northern Territory, as a case study. The catchment contains areas of priority for both conservation and development. In response to the challenge of navigating the required trade-offs, the Daly River Management Advisory Committee (DRMAC initiated a land-use plan for the region. Both development and conservation of natural resources in the catchment will affect human well-being and the long-term provisioning of ecosystem services in diverse ways. To understand some of these impacts, an innovative engagement process was designed to elicit the relative importance of key factors to residents' well-being. The process identified 19 well-being factors grouped into four domains: biodiversity, socio-cultural, recreational, and commercial. Overall, the highest-ranked well-being factors were in the social-cultural and biodiversity domains while commercial values were ranked the least important. Respondents reported low satisfaction with commercial factors as well, noting concerns over environmental impacts from existing developments and sustainability of future developments. We identified differences in the reported importance values for several types of stakeholders, most notably between indigenous respondents and those employed in the agricultural sectors. Indigenous respondents placed greater importance on biodiversity and socio-cultural factors. Agricultural respondents placed greater importance on commercial factors. The outcomes of our engagement were integrated into DRMAC's process of objective-setting to ensure that objectives for each domain were included in land-use planning. Our results can also
Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake
Research indicates that 58 per cent of the coral reefs of the world are threatened by human activities. Pollution and global heating represent some of the threats. Coral reefs just beneath the surface of the sea are very sensitive to temperature changes. Since 1979, mass death of coral reefs has been reported increasingly often. More than 1000 marine species live in the coral reefs, among these are one fourth of all marine species of fish. It is imperative that the coral reefs be preserved, as coastal communities all over the world depend on them as sources of food and as they are the raw materials for important medicines. The article discusses the threats to the coral reefs in general and does not single out any particular energy-related activity as the principal threat. For instance, the El-Nino phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean is probably involved in mass death of coral reefs and in the North Sea large parts of deep-water reefs have been crushed by heavy beam trawlers fishing for bottom fish
Over the past half century, the forces of national independence, population growth, technological advancement, and socioeconomic development have transformed the environments that determine human health. Whether we look at the global climate, altered regional ecosystems, patterns of urban living, the movement of ideas, or agricultural production methods, we see continuing and rapid environmental change. Many of the positive and negative health effects of these environmental changes are well known. Socioeconomic development has improved the health status of millions and extended their longevity; underdevelopment denies health to other millions. At the same time, development widens the range of health hazards, with global impacts that, if unchecked, could render the planet unable to meet the needs of the human species. These concerns for human well-being were given new prominence in the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) - the 'Earth Summit'. UNCED made it clear that our health prospects depend on whether we properly and sustainably develop our natural and social environment. Health cannot be separated from a myriad of environmental elements as diverse as air and freshwater, poverty and urban concentration, chemicals and disease vectors, overconsumption and underdevelopment, technology and trade. These conclusions, and the agreements reached at UNCED, compel new thinking, new policies, and new action programmes. Only systemic approaches can ensure that the health gains of recent decades will be retained and that good health can be attained by the billions of our contemporaries to whom decent environmental conditions are denied - or by generations to come. This document spells out the health implications of current environmental trends and of Agenda 21, UNCED's charter for action in the coming years. It is addressed not only to national and local health leaders, but also to the decision-makers in all governmental and private sectors
Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.
The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem
Graham P. von Maltitz
Full Text Available Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha's two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique. Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products that can have important effects on human well-being locally. Qualitative information is provided for other regulating and cultural ecosystem services. Although at this stage no impact is tremendously positive or negative, both projects show some signs of viability and local poverty alleviation potential. However, their long-term sustainability is not guaranteed given low yields, uncertain markets, and some prevailing management practices.
Full Text Available Research in positive psychology aims to find and develop diverse ways to improve human well-being and the psychophysical functioning (Fredrickson, 2008; Seligman, 2002; Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006. As an example, the studies regard such concepts as positive emotions, character strengths or meaning in life. One of the most frequently studied constructs is also gratitude, that is regarded as the appreciation of all what is meaningful, as well as valuable, to oneself (Sansone & Sansone, 2010. Also, the social aspect of being grateful, and the effects of gratitude on one’s health and physical functioning, are frequently emphasized (McCullough, Kimeldorf & Cohen, 2008; Fox, Kaplan, Damasio and Damasio 2015; Algoe, Haidt & Gable, 2008. Among great amount of work about general gratitude already, there is still little research about gratitude contemplation, one of the exercises that enable a person experiencing gratitude in form of meditation. In this article, first I explain the meaning of the gratitude construct and its impact on peoples psychophysical state in general. Then, I analyze one of the newest gratitude activity, that is gratitude contemplation, its definition, the way of use and the results of recent empirical studies worldwide. Finally, I critically discuss the findings and conclude with future steps for further research on gratitude contemplation. I believe that the results and analysis presented in the article create a base for further research in the area of positive psychology.
Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services have been proposed as one way of incorporating concerns about environmental change and ecosystem conditions into subnational development planning. In Thailand a policy window for such initiatives is opening because of a transition in national policy toward area-based planning combined with broader political reforms to expand public participation and encourage more evidence-based decision making. We explored three case studies in Thailand in which central and local government agencies and research organizations partnered to engage local communities and other stakeholders in assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being. The analysis focused on the role ecosystem assessments play in building and creating demand for coproductive capacity. By coproductive capacities we mean the ability to combine scientific resources and governance capabilities in ways that bring about informed social change. We found evidence that the assessments built capacities for governance actors to explore scientific and research-based evidence, to consult scientific experts, and then to evaluate existing policies and plans using this newly acquired information. At the same time, scientific experts also learned to explore public policy issues, to consult planners and decision makers in government, and based on this knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence and revise the scope and goals of their research and analytical activities to better meet policy needs and demands. Coproductive capacities were built when various stakeholders jointly engaged in compilation and interpretation of evidence. Doing so helped legitimize the assessment process with positive feedback on both governance and science capacities. We also found evidence, however, of significant cultural and institutional constraints to designing and making better use of ecosystem services assessments. These constraints included insufficient resources for both knowledge making
Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen
A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.
Sansone, Lori A.
The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529
Ecosystem-based management involves the integration of ecosystem services and their human beneficiaries into decision making. This can occur at multiple scales; addressing global issues such as climate change down to local problems such as flood protection and maintaining water q...
Natasha A. Layton
Full Text Available Contemporary discourses which challenge the notion of health as the “absence of disease” are prompting changes in health policy and practice. People with disability have been influential in progressing our understanding of the impact of contextual factors in individual and population health, highlighting the impact of environmental factors on functioning and inclusion. The World Health Organization’s (WHO more holistic definition of health as “wellbeing” is now applied in frameworks and legislation, and has long been understood in occupational therapy theory. In practice, however, occupational therapists and other professionals often address only local and individual environmental factors to promote wellbeing, within systems and societies that limit equity in population health and restrict inclusion in communities. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the supports and accommodations identified by a cohort of individuals (n-100 living with disability. A range of environmental facilitators and barriers were identified in peoples’ experience of “inclusive community environs” and found to influence inclusion and wellbeing. The roles and responsibilities of individuals, professionals, and society to enact change in environments are discussed in light of these findings. Recommendations include a focus on the subjective experience of environments, and application of theory from human rights and inclusive economics to address the multiple dimensions and levels of environments in working towards inclusion and wellbeing.
Bibi, Chan; Audi, Marc; Ali, Amjad
This study has investigated the impact of gender inequality and environmental degradation on human well-being in the case of Pakistan from 1980 to 2014. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test is used for stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL) is used for co-integration among the variables of the model. The results show that gender inequality has a negative and significant impact on human well-being in Pakistan, while gender equality encourages human well-be...
Hou, Ying; Zhou, Shudong; Burkhard, Benjamin; Müller, Felix
One focus of ecosystem service research is the connection between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being as well as the socioeconomic influences on them. Despite existing investigations, exact impacts from the human system on the dynamics of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being are still uncertain because of the insufficiency of the respective quantitative analyses. Our research aims are discerning the socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being and demonstrating mutual impacts between these items. We propose a DPSIR framework coupling ecological integrity, ecosystem services as well as human well-being and suggest DPSIR indicators for the case study area Jiangsu, China. Based on available statistical and surveying data, we revealed the factors significantly impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being in the research area through factor analysis and correlation analysis, using the 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu as samples. The results show that urbanization and industrialization in the urban areas have predominant positive influences on regional biodiversity, agricultural productivity and tourism services as well as rural residents' living standards. Additionally, the knowledge, technology and finance inputs for agriculture also have generally positive impacts on these system components. Concerning regional carbon storage, non-cropland vegetation cover obviously plays a significant positive role. Contrarily, the expansion of farming land and the increase of total food production are two important negative influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem's food provisioning service capacity, regional tourism income and the well-being of the rural population. Our study provides a promising approach based on the DPSIR model to quantitatively capture the socioeconomic influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being for human-environmental systems
environment. In video surveillance, the behavior of humans and animals is monitored based on extremes: event is present/event is not present, objects behave normally/objects behave abnormally, action 1/action 2/action 3, etc. In nature, the motion of humans and animals is continuous with transitions from one...... action to another. The second aim of this thesis is to propose a method to monitor motion as a continuous process using common classification methods....... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...
Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary
The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.
Full Text Available It is commonly acknowledged that land use changes (LUC and climate changes have exerted significant effects on ecosystem services which are essential and vital to human well-being. Among all the services provided by ecosystem, climate regulation services are relatively sensitive to LUC and climate changes. This study aims to comprehensively review studies on the complex effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services and further integrates the effects on climate regulation services into impact assessment for human well-being. In this study, we firstly introduced research efforts in which the drivers of and their corresponding effects on climate regulation services are briefly identified. Then, we explicitly reviewed the researches on the effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services, especially focused on the certain methods and models used to quantify the effects on the major drivers of climate regulation services. After that, the effects of LUC and climate changes on human well-being via climate regulation services were revisited and commented accordingly. Finally, this paper discussed the current research gaps and proposed some research prospects in future studies.
As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.
Duan, Junya; Wang, Yafei; Fan, Chen; Xia, Beicheng; de Groot, Rudolf
Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces. Descriptive statistics, a binary logistic regression model and cross-tabulation analysis were applied on the data from 396 valid questionnaires. The results show that UGI users were more concerned about poor air quality and high temperature than about flooding events. Their awareness of environmental risks was partly in accordance with official records. Regarding the perception of the impacts of environmental risks on human well-being, elderly and female respondents with higher education levels were the most sensitive to these impacts. The respondents' perceptions of these impacts differed among the different green spaces. The effects of UGIs were well perceived and directly observed by the UGI users, but were not significantly influenced by most sociodemographic variables. Moreover, tourists had a lower perception of the impacts of environmental risks and the effects of UGI than residents did. This study provides strong support for UGIs as an effective tool to mitigate environmental risks. Local governments should consider the role of UGIs in environmental risk mitigation and human well-being with regard to urban planning and policy making.
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.
Cooke, Martin; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Guimond, Eric; Beavon, Dan
Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI) to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices - life expectancy, educational attainment, and income - were combined into a single HDI measure. Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...
Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale
Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…
Ross, Misha; Mason, Georgia J
Exposure to certain natural stimuli improves people's moods, reduces stress, enhances stress resilience, and promotes mental and physical health. Laboratory studies and real estate prices also reveal that humans prefer environments containing a broad range of natural stimuli. Potential mediators of these outcomes include: 1) therapeutic effects of specific natural products; 2) positive affective responses to stimuli that signalled safety and resources to our evolutionary ancestors; 3) attraction to environments that satisfy innate needs to explore and understand; and 4) ease of sensory processing, due to the stimuli's "evolutionary familiarity" and/or their fractal, self-repeating properties. These processes, and the benefits humans gain from natural stimuli, seem to be largely innate. They thus have strong implications for other species (including laboratory, farm and zoo animals living in environments devoid of natural stimuli), suggesting that they too may have nature-related "sensory needs". By promoting positive affect and stress resilience, preferred natural stimuli (including views, sounds and odours) could therefore potentially provide effective and efficient ways to improve captive animal well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Juliana; McKeever, Margo
This paper considers the impact of aphasia on health and well-being and provides suggestions for appropriate nursing interventions. Background. Effective communication is essential to holistic care and positive outcomes for individuals affected by aphasia. When verbal communication is absent, nurses fail to adequately use alternative strategies so that the standard of nurse/patient communication is frequently poor. This is a discursive paper which reviews relevant literature and uses the Theory of Human Scale Development as a framework for discussion. The Theory of Human Scale Development is introduced. This theory emphasises that quality of life depends as much upon self-actualisation and relation building as on physical health. The theory is used within the discussion to highlight the significance of communication to quality of life and how its loss has profound psychological and social consequences. Aphasia results in 'loss of self'. The situation is exacerbated by inadequate healthcare communication strategies. Suggestions are offered regarding more appropriate strategies. Efficacy of family input is considered; nursing competence regarding language practice therapies is discussed, and the 'quest approach' is explored. Aphasia has a negative impact on relationships by denying access to support networks, which results in isolation. The individual's predicament is worsened by negative nursing responses. Positive nursing strategies, which alleviate effects of aphasia on individuals' social health, are investigated. Concept analysis and self-awareness exercises as methods of enhancing compassion skills are explored. The social model of disability is discussed to highlight the benefits to individuals of environmental adaptations. The social benefits of aphasia-group affiliation are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising that fundamental human needs involve social and psychological as well as physical aspects. Nursing interventions must address all needs to
Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke
This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to
Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.
Researchers are uncovering disturbing evidence that scientists and tourists are infecting wild primates with human pathogens. In response, ape specialists, including the American Society of Primatologists, are now calling for stricter health standards for researchers and tourists. They are also urging researchers to learn how to diagnose disease in their study animals.
Full Text Available Changes of light intensity of different colors can shift many physiological parameters and conditions like melatonin, alertness, body temperature, heart rate (HR, and heart rate variability (HRV. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate acute temperature, HR, HRV, and state of mind reactivities after illumination with red (631 nm and blue (456 nm light (illuminance 140 lux for both. Seven healthy volunteers (5 females, 2 males; mean age ± SD 34.1 ± 11.9 years were investigated at the Medical University of Graz, using new color light panels. Significant decreases were found only after 10 min blue light stimulation in nose temperature (P=0.046, HR (P<0.05, and total HRV (P=0.029, in association with a significant alteration of the emotional state (stress level score, P=0.006. However, red light stimulation of the same persons did not induce the same effects in these parameters. The effect of blue light as environmental stimulation on human health is not clarified in detail and needs further investigations.
Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas
Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and interconnected problems. On 25–31 May 2014, International Council for Science and International Social Science Council, in collaboration with the International Network of Next-Generation Ecologists and Institute for New Economic Thinking: Young Scholars Initiative, assembled a group of early career researchers with diverse backgrounds and research perspectives to reflect on and debate relevant issues around ecosystems and human wellbeing in the transition towards green economy, funded by the German Research Foundation, at Villa Vigoni, Italy. As a group of young scientists, we have come to a consensus that collaboration and communication among a diverse group of peers from different geographic regions could break down the barriers to multi-disciplinary research designed to solve complex global-scale problems. We also propose to establish a global systematic thinking to monitor global socio-ecological systems and to develop criteria for a “good” anthropocene. Finally, we aim to bridge gaps among research, the media, and education from a governance perspective linking with “sustainable development goals”.
Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention
Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.
ACTIVITIES OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMAN WELL-BEING IN KHABAROVSKY KRAI IN CONDITIONS OF THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT AND MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO PROTECT THE TERRITORY AND POPULATION THE REGION
V. A. Ott
Full Text Available The article analyzes activities of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in Khabarovsky Krai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khabarovsky Krai" in the situation related to the Fukushima accident in Japan
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insu...
Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa
Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…
Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan sumber student well-being pada remaja Jawa. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kuantitatif dan didukung dengan kualitatif. Lokasi penelitian di Banyumas dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Instrumen pengumpulan data menggunakan skala student well-being dan openquesioner sumber student well-being serta panduan wawancara. Analisis data kuantitatif menggunakan deskriptif. Hasil penelitian adalah: 1 Sumber-sumber student well-being adalah dimensi hubungan sosial, kognitif, emosi dan spiritual. 2 Faktor penghambat tercapainya student well-being adalah jika ada masalah dalam dimensi sosial, kognitif, emosi, fisik dan spiritual.
Gross domestic product has long been the chief measure of national success. But there's been a lot of talk lately about changing that, from economists and world leaders alike. GDP is under siege for three main reasons. First, it is flawed even on its own terms: It misses lots of economic activity (unpaid household work, for example) and, as a single-number representation of vast, complex systems, is inevitably skewed. Second, it fails to account for economic and environmental sustainability. And third, readily available alternative measures may reflect well-being far better, by taking into account factors such as educational achievement, health, and life expectancy. HBR's Justin Fox surveys historical and current views on how to assess national progress, from Jeremy Bentham to Robert Kennedy to Nicolas Sarkozy. He also looks at where we may be headed. The biggest success so far in the campaign to supplant or at least supplement GDP, he finds, is the UN's Human Development Index-on which the United States has never claimed the top spot.
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...
L. D'Acci (Luca)
textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes
Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.
In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of
Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the
Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.
Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,
Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping
Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support.
Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier
A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...
In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards filling this gap. I start by giving a concise account of autism, which highlights the huge heterogeneity among autistics. I discuss some basic features of autism, ask whether there are good reasons why we would need an account of well-being specifically for autistics and what philosophical well-being research could learn from being informed by autistic experiences and phenomenology. I then investigate to what extent the capability approach gives us a helpful theory of well-being for autistics, and what looking through an autism-lens can contribute to the further development of the capabilitarian well-being. In particular, I show that some capabilities that are crucially relevant for autistics are also relevant for the lives of non-autistic people. The final part of the paper looks at an important difficulty in using the capabilitarian account of well-being for autistics, namely: should the normative focus be on achievements (functionings) or real opportunities (capabilities)? Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S
BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been...
central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...
Ratner, Helene Gad; Gad, Christopher
The concept of well-being has become a key category of social and political imagination, cultivating new understandings of 'what it means to be a capable person' (Corsín Jiménez, 2008, 2). In 2015, the Danish Ministry of Education began conducting national, annual measurements of Danish pupils...... national objectives for pupils' well-being; 2) the Danish newspaper A4's interactive, online mapping of pupils' well-being at all Danish schools, developed from the same numbers (accessed through their juridical right to access government files) but using different calculative techniques and aimed...
Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.
multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression......A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued...
Chico Librán, Eliseo
This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408
Paulo Alexandre Soares Moreira
Full Text Available Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the description of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents’ composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M=15.44, SD=1.731. Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed.Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents’ wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices.
Full Text Available Persons above age 80 comprise the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and it is estimated that one in four will need long-term care due to increased disabilities and illness. A major concern for residents, families, and providers is to ensure care that “allows the resident to maintain or attain their highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being.” The challenge is measuring a subjective concept such as well-being. The Eden Alternative is a current initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being of long-term care residents. The initiative consists of providing long-term care environments that emphasize person-directed decision making and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Eden Alternative Well-Being Assessment Tool (EAWBAT. There are three assessment tools designed to measure the well-being of elders (residents, family members of residents, and employees working in the long-term care environments. The sample consisted of 237 residents, 430 employees, and 134 family members from seven Eden Alternative organizations throughout the United States. Factor analysis was completed to identify the underlying structure in these data for elders, employees, and families. Reliability statistics were computed for each scale. Reliability statistics ranged from .876 (employee assessment tool to .949 (family assessment tool, indicating the potential of the EAWBAT to measure the well-being of residents residing in long-term care environments, employees supporting them, and their family members.
Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica
In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.
Full Text Available This research aims at describing students’ well-being assessment at two private secondary schools in Sleman regency, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia. The subjects of the research were 42 secondary school students in the area. This is an evaluative research by means of quantitative approach. The data collecting technique employed a focus group discussion (FGD while the instrument used an FGD guide book based on a School Well-being Model (Konu and Rimpela, 2002. The data were analyzed quantitatively by means of thematic analysis. The research finding showed that the students’ school well-being was psychologically high at dimension of health status, but low at dimension of having, loving, and being. Another important finding is that there was a tendency of verbal, physical, as well as sexual bullying done by their classmates and teachers personally.
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin
Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it...... central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well......-being is an inclusive good, a good constituted by other things that are good in and for themselves. Then, I will put forward a case against Scanlon’s challenge by (1) showing that inclusiveness, when properly understood, does not lead to the conclusion Scanlon is led to and (2) showing that on at least the reading...
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
Cuypers, Stefaan E.; Haji, Ishtiyaque
Liberals champion the view that promoting autonomy--seeing to it that our children develop into individuals who are self-governing in the conduct of their lives--is a vital aim of education, though one generally accredited as being subsidiary to well-being. Our prime goal in this article is to provide a partial validation of this liberal ideal…
van Eerde, W.; Sirois, F.M.; Pychyl, T.A.
This chapter provides an overview of the issues that are important to procrastination and well-being at work. In comparison with academic procrastination, many more issues need to be taken into consideration. These are discussed with the help of a conceptual framework that identifies characteristics
Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.
In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real
Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P
In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA
Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán
with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families....
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; S?, Laura; Oliveira, Jo?o T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participate...
Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta
Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...
Lucas, R E; Diener, E; Suh, E
The convergent and discriminant validities of well-being concepts were examined using multitrait-multimethod matrix analyses (D. T. Campbell & D. W. Fiske, 1959) on 3 sets of data. In Study 1, participants completed measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, self-esteem, and optimism on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart and also obtained 3 informant ratings. In Study 2, participants completed each of the 5 measures on 2 occasions 2 years apart and collected informant reports at Time 2. In Study 3, participants completed 2 different scales for each of the 5 constructs. Analyses showed that (a) life satisfaction is discriminable from positive and negative affect, (b) positive affect is discriminable from negative affect, (c) life satisfaction is discriminable from optimism and self-esteem, and (d) optimism is separable from trait measures of negative affect.
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’) model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an
Kragh, Gitte; Stafford, Rick; Curtin, Susanna; Diaz, Anita
Background : Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods : Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively), to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers' perceptions of their volunteers' well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman's multidimensional PERMA ('positive emotion', 'engagement', 'positive relationship', 'meaning', 'achievement') model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, 'engagement', 'relationship' and 'meaning', as well as 'negative emotion' and 'health' as factors. Results : Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants' immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not found to have an effect on overall mean well-being generally in life
King, Ronnel B; Datu, Jesus Alfonso
Student well-being has mostly been studied as an individual phenomenon with little research investigating how the well-being of one's classmates could influence a student's well-being. The aim of the current study was to examine how the aggregate well-being of students who comprise a class could predict students' subsequent well-being (Time 2 well-being) after controlling for the effects of prior well-being (Time 1 well-being) as well as key demographic variables such as gender and age. Two studies among Filipino secondary school students were conducted. In Study 1, 788 students from 21 classes participated; in Study 2, 404 students from 10 classes participated. For Study 1, questionnaires assessing students' life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect were administered twice seven months apart. For Study 2, the well-being questionnaires were administered twice, three months apart. Hierarchical linear modeling was used with level 1 (Time 1 individual well-being, gender, and age) and level 2 (class well-being) predictors. Results across the two studies provided converging lines of evidence: students who were in classes with higher levels of life satisfaction and positive affect were also more likely to have higher life satisfaction and positive affect at Time 2. The study indicated that the well-being of a student partly depends on the well-being of their classmates providing evidence for the social contagion of well-being in the classroom context. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Past research has revealed that relative importance a person places on extrinsic life goals as oposed to intrinsic ones is related to lower well-being. But sometimes it is more important why a goal is being pursued than the content of the goal. Materialistic aspirations will not decrease people's well-being if they help them to achieve basic financial security or some intrinsic goals. On the other hand, if social comparison or seeking power drives extrinsic orientation, these aspirations may be detrimental for well-being, since they do not satisfy satisfy our basic psychological needs. Research from Croatia and other, less rich countries suggest that extrinsic aspirations are not necessarily deterimental but may even contribute to well-being. This finding suggests that various factors can moderate the relationship between aspirations and well-being. Intrinsic life goals may probably be affordable only for people who are well off enough. The meaning of financial success in transitional and poor countries may not necesseraly be associated with purchase and consumption. On the contrary, it may bring opportunities and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth. Individualistic societies allow individuals to pursue their intrinsic goals while collectivistic cultures stress extrinsic ones. Although this extrinsic orientation may detract their well-being, the sense of individual well-being may not be as important to them as the survival of the group they belong to or so called social well-being.
McNeill, Lindsey R; Bott, Rebecca C; Mastellar, Sara L; Djira, Gemechis; Carroll, Heidi K
In South Dakota, the status of equid well being is relatively unknown. This study sought to (a) gain understanding about the current perceptions of nonhuman animal well being in South Dakota, with an emphasis on horses and other equids; (b) determine the level of care equids are reportedly receiving and the perceived challenges to equine well being in South Dakota, and (c) determine if people from diverse geographical locations (east or west of the Missouri River) have similar views on the well being of equids in South Dakota. Respondents indicated the current level of equid well being in South Dakota is sufficient, but there is room for improvement. Current challenges for the equid population of South Dakota were the high annual cost of horse care, poor horsemanship, dental problems, and whether caregivers understand basic equine care. Several significant associations arose between where a respondent lives (Western or Eastern South Dakota) and their level of agreement with various statements. The results provide a benchmark to gauge well being and help give direction for future educational needs that can continue to improve equid care.
Studies of human activities in the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve, Udzungwa Mountains, were conducted in March-April and September 1997, in the western and southern parts of the forest. Different human activities, such as timber and pole cutting and withies harvesting, as well as the collection of non-timber forest ...
Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova
The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…
Ajrouch, Kristine J
This study addresses diversity of aging experiences by examining the associations among immigrant status, religious affiliation, and resources in the form of both human and social capital with the well-being of Arab-American elders. Data were drawn from a face-to-face survey of 101 Arab-American men and women aged 56 and over living in the metropolitan Detroit area. Correlations demonstrate that religious affiliation is not associated with well-being. Multiple regression analyses reveal that U.S. born Arab Americans reported less frequent feelings of depression and greater life satisfaction than did immigrants, but this variation appears to be accounted for by human capital indicators including education level and language. Social capital including perceptions of the ability to confide in child and relationship quality with spouse is significantly associated with well-being, yet does not constitute a pathway to well-being for Arab-American elders. Human and social capital represent valuable resources and their distribution within this immigrant/ethnic group is associated with noteworthy variations in well-being.
Runquist, Jennifer J; Reed, Pamela G
This study examines the relationships of spiritually and physically related variables to well-being among homeless adults. A convenience sample of 61 sheltered homeless persons completed the Spiritual Perspective Scale, the Self-Transcendence Scale, the Index of Well-Being, and items measuring fatigue and health status. The data were subjected to correlational and multiple regression analysis. Positive, significant correlations were found among spiritual perspective, self-transcendence, health status, and well-being. Fatigue was inversely correlated with health status and well-being. Self-transcendence and health status together explained 59% of the variance in well-being. The findings support Reed's theory of self-transcendence, in which there is the basic assumption that human beings have the potential to integrate difficult life situations. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that conceptualizes homeless persons as having spiritual, emotional, and physical capacities that can be used by health care professionals to promote well-being in this vulnerable population.
Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan
Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.
Anna M. Lomanowska
Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.
Diener, Ed; Seligman, Martin E P
In our 2004 "Beyond Money" article, we argued that national accounts of psychological and subjective well-being should complement the economic indicators that frequently guide policy decisions. We claimed that economic indicators fail to reflect important aspects of quality of life that well-being indicators capture. Since the time of our article, progress has been made, and scores of nations have used some forms of well-being measures. The National Academy of Sciences of the United States and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development both issued reports on accounts of well-being. Researchers have pointed to policies that are supported by the findings, such as environmental and economic policies. The emergence of "big data" has opened major new pathways for measuring well-being in inexpensive, unobtrusive, and nonreactive fashion. Psychological researchers now need to create superordinate combinations of subjective and objective measures of well-being to study the impact of the policies they advocate. The accounts can serve as a lever for convincing policymakers to enact policies that increase human flourishing.
Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas
Water is one of the most important landscape elements. In settled areas, planners rediscovered urban blue in the form of rivers as a soft location factor in post-industrial times. Although the recognition of the need for recreational or 'healthy' places like urban green or urban blue in cities is increasing, current urban planning is mostly conducted without taking beneficial health issues into account. In this paper an extended concept of therapeutic landscapes is used to analyse two promenades on the river Rhine in the centres of two German cities (Cologne and Düsseldorf). A complex of qualitative and quantitative methods from diverse disciplines is applied to obtain a multi-dimensional image of salutogenic health processes. The results show that the promenades are favourite places to spend leisure time and to engage in recreational activities, in addition to providing restoration from everyday stresses. Water is a strong predictor of preference and positive perceptive experiences in urban environments. Users of the promenades also report strong emotional attachments to the place. Urban blue space may be interpreted as a therapeutic landscape in various ways. The study forms a contribution to planning issues, particularly considering benefits for human health, and enhances current research concerning therapeutic landscapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Resilience and positive thinking, resilience and optimism, kindness as value could be the factors which could impact the future of our humanity and Earth as well as health and welfare of society. There is an active process of research in the positive psychology carried out in Latvia within the last ten years. The most important category of positive psychology is resilience and well-being. A lot of work has been done regarding adaptation of the concept of well-being and resilience in Latvia. There is a group of young researchers (master level students who have made a contribution to adaptation of the concept of resilience and well-being in the science of psychology in Latvia at Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy (RTTEMA. A group of professors have recently made a joint research, where different samples of adults are demonstrated among the Latvian population in this article. The idea of this research is to analyse the collected secondary data on different groups of adults concerning correlation between the aspects of well-being and resilience. The aim of the research is to investigate the dimension of well-being in cognitive, eudaimonistic, hedonistic, interpersonal and spiritual (transcendent relationship with resilience indicators - self-perseverance, self-reliance, acceptance of life, as well as the relevance of well-being indicators to age. One statement of this analysis was the hypothesis about the age as a factor which predetermines development of well-being and resilience. Methods- 1 Questionnaire on well-being (Majors, Majore, Svence, 2009, 2 Resilience scale, RS (Wagnild, Young, 1993, linguistically adapted by I. Bērziņa, G. Svence, 2011, 3 correlation and hierarchical regression analysis of the secondary data. Questions of the research: 1\twhat kind of correlation does exist between the indicators of well-being and resilience? 2\twhich well-being indicators predict these resilience indicators? 3\tis there any
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
Education as a phenomenon is rather complex which makes it difficult to define its quality. Definitions of quality must be open to change and evolution based on information, changing contexts, and new understandings of the nature of education's challenges. The main objective of the paper is to find out the significance of quality education for…
Campos, Donizete Aparecido Zequine
O estresse ocupacional que se cronifica e leva o professor a adoecer e contrair a Síndrome de Burnout vem crescendo assustadoramente entre os professores universitários. No presente estudo, foi investigado o fenômeno do desgaste físico e psíquico na forma do professor enfrentar o ambiente de trabalho, o que tem sido estressante, chamando a atenção para diversos problemas causados ao professor e à instituição. Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar e identificar causas e problemas provoc...
Steps towards an organizational study on human communication and relations: contributions to the ergonomic research on human well-being; Per uno studio della comunicazione e delle relazioni in un sistema organizzato: Contributo alla ricerca ergonomica del benessere dell`individuo
Salerno, Silvana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Guglielmino, Sabrina [Comune di Roma, Rome (Italy); Valerio, Camillo; Valitutti, Carlo [Centro Studi Sistemi e Relazioni, Rome (Italy)
Human relations and communication have always been studied by bio-disciplines interested in family pathology. Organized work has tied relations with family environment that is the reason why it is possible to project new work environment taking into account the theory of organizational action and the theory of human communication. This preliminary study underlines the theory linkage and show how it is possible the application of techniques used in family relations and communication to work environment. The analysis of human communication, the application of the map of the structure, the test of cohesion and adaptability examples in this direction. The results are really interesting and open new panorama on ergonomic of the human well-being in all organized context.
Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.
Fischer, Ronald; Van de Vliert, Evert
The authors test predictions from climato-economic theories of culture that climate and wealth interact in their influence on psychological processes. Demanding climates (defined as colder than temperate and hotter than temperate climates) create potential threats for humans. If these demands can be met by available economic resources, individuals experience challenging opportunities for self-expression and personal growth and consequently will report lowest levels of ill-being. If threatening climatic demands cannot be met by resources, resulting levels of reported ill-being will be highest. These predictions are confirmed in nation-level means of health complaints, burnout, anxiety, and depression across 58 societies. Climate, wealth, and their interaction together account for 35% of the variation in overall subjective ill-being, even when controlling for known predictors of subjective well-being. Further investigations of the process suggest that cultural individualism does not mediate these effects, but subjective well-being may function as a mediator of the impact of ecological variables on ill-being.
Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E
.... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...
Meulenbeek, Petrus Antonius Maria
Relapse after treatment of mental disorders is a major problem. Enhancing psychological well-being and resilience may reduce the risk of relapse in patients with mental disorders. Well-being therapy tries to address these factors. The original model of well-being therapy was developed by the Italian
Belasen, Ariel R.; Hafer, R. W.
There is ample evidence that well-being, measured in various ways for a large number of countries, is positively related to the level of general intelligence. Pesta at al. (2010a) verify this close relationship between well-being and IQ across states. There also is evidence that well-being is positively related to economic freedom across…
Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin
Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…
Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.; Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Keyes, Corey L. M., Ed.; Moore, Kristin A., Ed.
This book offers a holistic examination of well-being across the life course by experts in psychology, sociology, child development, and medicine, and describes foundational strengths for well-being from infancy through adulthood. The chapters are: (1) "A Brief History of the Study of Well-Being in Children and Adults" (Kristin A. Moore…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.
Objective: This study explored whether specific dimensions of spiritual well-being (religious well-being and existential well-being) relate to reduced suicidal ideation, and whether associations persisted after controlling for religiosity and psychosocial variables associated with suicide. Participants: Participants were 457 college students who…
Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Sipos, Jan; Brodie, Jedediah F
A crucial step in conserving biodiversity is to identify the distributions of threatened species and the factors associated with species threat status. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Himalaya, very little is known about which locations harbour the highest diversity of threatened species and whether diversity of such species is related to area, mid-domain effects (MDE), range size, or human density. In this study, we assessed the drivers of variation in richness of threatened birds, mammals, reptiles, actinopterygii, and amphibians along an elevational gradient in Nepal Himalaya. Although geometric constraints (MDE), species range size, and human population density were significantly related to threatened species richness, the interaction between range size and human population density was of greater importance. Threatened species richness was positively associated with human population density and negatively associated with range size. In areas with high richness of threatened species, species ranges tend to be small. The preponderance of species at risk of extinction at low elevations in the subtropical biodiversity hotspot could be due to the double impact of smaller range sizes and higher human density.
Schulte, Paul; Vainio, Harri
This paper provides an overview of and perspective on the concept of well-being at work. Well-being is a term that reflects not only on one's health but satisfaction with work and life. Well-being is a summative concept that characterizes the quality of working lives, including occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects, and it may be a major determinant of productivity at the individual, enterprise and societal levels. Based on a review of the literature and a recent conference, we suggest a model linking workforce well-being, productivity, and population well-being. To appraise the validity of the model, we consider five questions: (i) is there a robust and usable definition of workplace well-being? (ii) have the variables that influence well-being been aptly described and can they be measured and used in risk assessments? (iii) what is the nature of evidence that well-being is linked to productivity? (iv) what is the state of knowledge on the effectiveness of interventions to promote workplace well-being? and (v) should interventions aimed at improving well-being at work focus on more than work-related factors?
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.
The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…
Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J
The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. Copyright © 2015 Rutledge et al.
Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.
The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach–avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. PMID:26156984
Koch, Anette Boye
Child well-being is a major concern in Danish kindergartens, but well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that may be evaluated in a variety of ways. This article explores the well-being of kindergarten children from a methodological perspective. It presents results from a quantitative survey...... study and from a parallel qualitative interview study and discusses how the disparate findings communicate. The strategy of choosing a standard survey did not provide valuable data, but the meaning ascribed to well-being in the two approaches are compared and the article points to development...... of a future mixed methods study, in which child well-being is defined and evaluated with attention to play, social well-being, bodily skills and aesthetics....
Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.
Gatenio Gabel, Shirley; Zhang, Yiwei
In recent decades, measures of child well-being have evolved from single dimension to multidimensional measures. Multi-dimensional measures deepen and broaden our understanding of child well-being and inform us of areas of neglect. Child well-being in China today is measured through proxy measures of household need. This paper discusses the evolution of child well-being measures more generally, explores the benefits of positive indicators and multiple dimensions in formulating policy, and then reviews efforts to date by the Chinese government, researchers, and non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations to develop comprehensive multidimensional measures of child well-being in China. The domains and their potential interactions, as well as data sources and availability, are presented. The authors believe that child well-being in China would benefit from the development of a multidimensional index and that there is sufficient data to develop such an index.
Berlin, Martin; Fors, Filip
We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affective (emotional) well-being—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory componentof affective well-being, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reportsof both variables, including current mood-bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experie...
DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco
This article studies the link between people's subjective well-being, defined as life satisfaction, and productivity in the framework of efficiency analysis. We adopt Data Envelopment Analysis to compute productive efficiency indices using European Social Survey and AMECO data for 20 European countries. While accounting for reverse causality, we find significant efficiency gains when subjective well-being is an input to production. This supports the view that promoting subjective well-being r...
Shiau Wei Chan
Full Text Available Employees and financial well-being are two aspects that are closely related to each other, and have been deeply studied by researchers. Not only can financial well-being directly affect an individual, but it can also indirectly affect his/her organization as well as employer. Any level of financial employees’ well-being, either low or high, will change their job performance. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the level of financial well-being among manufacturing employees in Batu Pahat, as well as to test the relationships between determinants and financial well-being among manufacturing employees in Batu Pahat. In this study, seven research hypotheses were developed to examine seven determinants, including age, income, gender, education, current job position, in-come, and marital status which influence employees‘ financial well-being. In this study, 220 employees at the production level were selected randomly from a manufacturing company in Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. Then, a questionnaire was distributed to the employees. The data obtained were analyzed quantitatively using SPSS version 22.0. The results of this study revealed that the level of financial well-being was moderate and all of the determinants were positively related to financial well-being among the manufacturing employees. This quantitative study is important to the manufacturing industry in Malaysia in order to gain insight on the correlation between financial well-being and its determinants.
As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco
This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...
Rajaratnam, Augustine S; Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E
To evaluate changes in well-being, biometric, and productivity indicators after a well-being intervention. Biometric and self-reported outcomes were assessed among 677 retail distribution center employees before and after a 6-month well-being intervention. Despite lower well-being at baseline compared to an independent random sample of workers, program participants' well-being, productivity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol improved significantly after the intervention, whereas the decline in diastolic blood pressure was not significant. Moreover, participants' specific transition across well-being segments over the intervention period demonstrated more improvement than decline. There is evidence that programs designed to improve well-being within a workforce can be used to significantly and positively impact employee health and productivity, which should result in reduced health care costs, improved employee productivity, and increased overall profitability.
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed; Aurora, Raksha; Harter, James
Data from the Gallup World Poll highlighted the differential relations between perceived stress, well-being, and wealth at the individual- versus nation-level. At the nation level, stress was a distinct concept from negative affect (NA). It correlated positively with well-being (positive affect, life satisfaction, and domain satisfaction) and…
Newland, Lisa A.
Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children's subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health,…
José Mª Peiró
Full Text Available One of the main goals of work and organizational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. Nevertheless, the yoke of the current economic crisis tyrannizes this aim, mercilessly threating the sustainability of the well-being and performance achieved in previous decades. The decrease in one of these factors may hamper the other, resulting in a vicious circle. In this context, one of the biggest challenges faced by organizational psychologists is to reverse this trend in a virtuous cycle, where promoting high levels of well-being creates a performance improvement and vice-versa, in a “sustainable well-being-productivity synergy sustainable productivity and well-being synergy”. However, previous efforts have shown inconclusive results. We argue that the neglectfulness and lack of rigorousness of the most contemporaneous conceptualizations of well-being and job performance, as common praxis, are part of the reason for these disappointing results. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the contributions and efforts to the new reformulation of the concept of well-being and productivity. It also aims to integrate the most contemporaneous concepts of well-being and job performance, revisiting the “happy productive-worker thesis”, and using as framework Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, where the suitability and sustainability of the alternative models of “unhappy-productive worker” and “happy-unproductive worker” will be discussed.
The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…
Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.
This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current
Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.
Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…
Allahbakhshian, Maryam; Jafarpour, Mahshid; Parvizi, Soroor
Spiritual well-being is one of the fundamental concepts in chronic diseases which create meaning and purpose in life and is an important approach in promoting general health and quality of life. This study performed to determine the level of spiritual health and its dimensions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). 236 members of Iranian MS Society were volunteered to participate in a descriptive co-relational study. Spiritual well-being was evaluated by The Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) questionnaires in two religious and Existential dimensions. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyse the data. The majority of patients (% 97.9) showed moderate spiritual well-being (mean score = 74.3, SD= 8.90). Although Existential well-being (mean score = 40.3, SD= 5.51) was higher than religious well- being (mean score = 33.9, SD= 4.88). A significant relationship was seen between economic status and the spiritual well-being. The results emphasize on the necessity of spiritual well-being as an effective factor on different aspects of these patients' life. This key point is useful and even necessary to be considered to design programs of care and cure for these patients in a country (like Iran) with cultural and religious beliefs. On the other hand, patients' economic status should be considered.
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
Weiss, Laura Anne
In the PhD-thesis ‘Direction: Happiness. Improving well-being of vulnerable groups’, the effects of the Happiness Route, a positive psychology intervention, were examined. The intervention is directed at a vulnerable group with an accumulation of risk factors for a low well-being; lonely people with
Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.
Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…
Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.
The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…
This chapter provides a parsimonious overview of the trends in various well-being dimensions covered in the previous chapters by constructing a composite index of well-being. It discusses the crucial problem of choosing a set of weights to calculate such a composite index. Related problems include
The primary aim of this research was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being relate to the propensity to use Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in a sample of talented young athletes. A secondary aim was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being are related. This was a survey ...
This research examines local perceptions of social well - being in two forest - dependent communities near Zahamena National Park (ZNP), Madagascar. Key informant interviews were conducted to observe how local context, including community and ecological factors, influenced perceptions of social well - being. Overall ...
Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan
Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…
Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Westerberg, Kristina; Nordin, Maria
The main objective is to study the effects of job crafting activities of elder care and nursing home employees on their perceived well-being and quality of care in two European countries, Spain and Sweden. The Job Crafting, the General Health, and the Quality of Care questionnaires were administered to 530 employees. Correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Results confirm the effects of job crafting on quality of care ( r = .291, p employees' well-being ( r = .201, p well-being in Spain and Sweden and with quality of care in Spain. On the contrary, in Sweden, the relationship between job crafting and well-being was not linear. Job crafting contributes significantly to employees' and residents' well-being. Management should promote job crafting to co-create meaningful and productive work. Cultural effects are proposed to explain the differences found.
Khanna, Surbhi; Greyson, Bruce
People who have near-death experiences often report a subsequently increased sense of spirituality and a connection with their inner self and the world around them. In this study, we examined spiritual well-being, using Paloutzian and Ellison's Spiritual Well-Being Scale, among 224 persons who had come close to death. Participants who reported having near-death experiences reported greater spiritual well-being than those who did not, and depth of spiritual well-being was positively correlated with depth of near-death experience. We discussed the implications of these findings in light of other reported aftereffects of near-death experiences and of spiritual well-being among other populations.
Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect
Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective wel...
Decramer, Adelien; Audenaert, Mieke; Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Claeys, Tine; Claes, Claudia; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Crucke, Saskia
This article focuses on employee performance-management practices in the healthcare sector. We specifically aim to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of employee performance-management practices on affective well-being of nurses in hospitals. Theory suggests that the features of employee-performance management (planning and evaluation of individual performances) predict affective well-being (in this study: job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation and affective well-being were drawn from a survey of nurses at a Flemish hospital. Separate estimations were performed for different aspects of affective well-being. Performance planning has a negative effect on job satisfaction of nurses. Both vertical alignment and satisfaction with the employee performance-management system increase the affective well-being of nurses; however, the impact of vertical alignment differs for different aspects of affective well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation of nurses are associated with attitudinal outcomes. The results indicate that employee performance-management features have different impacts on different aspects of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Khayri, Freidoon; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Masoudi, Reza
Sleep disorders are considered as one of the most important problems in hemodialysis patients, making their everyday life a serious hazard. Sleep quality of hemodialysis patients and consequences of sleep disorders on other aspects of health such as spiritual well-being are important issues. This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study was a correlation research, carried out on 190 hemodialysis patients. Data collection Questionnaires included demographic forms, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Ellison and Paloutzian spiritual well-being scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) at P spiritual health conditions. Pearson correlation test showed significant relationship between the sleep quality items of Pittsburg and spiritual well-being (P spiritual health, family, education, financial status, marital status, occupation, and use of sleep medication, the predictive power of these variables was found 0.417% and prediction of spiritual well-being was more than others (ß = 0.209). Considering bed as one of the most vital physical, mental, and emotional needs, it is very important in mental and spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients as an influencing factor in mental relaxation and reducing disease tensions. Paying attention to sleep quality and spiritual well-being components of hemodialysis patients in formulating and promoting healthcare programs is recommended.
Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S
Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Panarello, Bianca; Win, Ma Thin Mar
Moral distress is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting healthcare professionals, especially nurses. If not addressed, it may create job dissatisfaction, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of patient care, or even encourage one to leave the profession. Spiritual well-being is a concept which is considered when dealing with problems and stress relating to a variety of issues. This research aimed to examine the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress among a sample of Iranian nurses and also to study the determinant factors of moral distress and spiritual well-being in nurses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed to collect data from 193 nurses using the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. Mean scores of spiritual well-being and moral distress were 94.73 ± 15.89 and 109.56 ± 58.70, respectively. There was no significant correlation between spiritual well-being and moral distress (r = -.053, p = .462). Marital status and job satisfaction were found to be independent predictors of spiritual well-being. However, gender and educational levels were found to be independent predictors for moral distress. Age, working in rotation shifts, and a tendency to leave the current job also became significant after adjusting other factors for moral distress. This study could not support the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress. However, the results showed that moral distress is related to many elements including individual ideals and differences as well as organizational factors. Informing nurses about moral distress and its consequences, establishing periodic consultations, and making some organizational arrangement may play an important role in the identification and management of moral distress and
.... Targeted support services are currently unavailable. This study tests the hypothesis that patients experience greater well-being by participating in an intervention designed for breast cancer patients experiencing a first recurrence...
impacts of corporate social responsibility on the well-being of workers in the ... policies have been the healthcare, education, security, housing, agriculture, arts and tourism, sports, charity organization, religion, social clubs, government ...
Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille
. Through a comprehensive effectiveness evaluation and a similar substantial process evaluation, this study is designed to gain knowledge on a broad variety of implementation issues and give detailed information on project delivery and challenges at the school level - among other things to better inform......Background: The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children...... and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th...
Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper
of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory......Research has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity—deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf...... and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor hearing)—were associated with levels of psychological well-being and a number of other variables. The sample was 742 adults with hearing loss in Denmark. The study found that those with a deaf, hearing or bicultural identity had significantly higher levels...
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed
Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.
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Yang Yuwen; Yang Wenya
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between environment and personal well-being using a sample of 562 urban employees from three cities in Liaoning province in the People＇s Republic of China. In contrast to previous studies, this study controlled positive affectivity （PA）, negative affectivity （NA）, job satisfaction and Big Five personality traits. In addition, the research variables of personal well-being index （PWI）, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, job satisfaction, Big Five, and environmental satisfaction are measured with multi-item scales. The research finds that environmental satisfaction is positively related to personal well-being, suggesting that improvement of the natural surroundings in the cities can improve people＇s well-being.
Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.
Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.
Cristiane Pimentel Nalin
Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.
well-being declines and wives raises the more she earns relatively to him. However, the relationships are often of an inversed u-shaped form for both sexes with men getting the highest well-being at an earlier stage than women. Within the Scandinavian welfare state regime this preferred distribution......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being.......The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...
African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Aggression and psychological well-being of adolescent taekwondo participants in comparison with hockey participants and a non sport group ... According to experts, schools in South ...
Ridner, S Lee; Newton, Karen S; Staten, Ruth R; Crawford, Timothy N; Hall, Lynne A
Identification of health-related risk behaviors associated with well-being in college students is essential to guide the development of health promotion strategies for this population. The purposes were to evaluate well-being among undergraduate students and to identify health-related risk behaviors that predict well-being in this population. A cross-sectional Web-based survey of undergraduate students was conducted at a metropolitan university in the Southeast United States. A total of 568 students responded (response rate 14.2%). Data were collected on health-related risk behaviors using the National College Health Assessment II. Controlling demographic characteristics, the best predictive model included physical activity, current tobacco user, depression, ever received mental health services, and sleep quality, which was the strongest predictor (β = .45, p college students may be most beneficial in improving well-being.
Transportation is critical to everyday activities and is also the underpinning of wellbeing. Well-beingoften related to happinesscan be defined in many ways and while : happiness is often considered an important element of well-being, it ...
verbalization among practitioners and thus a move towards shared understandings of what it means to fare well. Ideally, this should lead to timely pedagogical interventions to improve the lives of children who are not perceived to be thriving. In this manner, the tool addresses larger concerns around the role...... that simply ‘is’. This involves a focus on well-being as it is experienced, shaped, practiced, and recognized in everyday practices, always already embedded within wider contexts of institutional settings, social relationships and political agendas. In the discussion of perceptions and practices of well......-being, the paper will draw on the analytical concept of social technology (Jöhncke, Svendsen and Whyte, 2004) to explore the well-being assessment tool as not simply a solution to the problem of working pedagogically and systematically with well-being but also as a tool that activates particular perspectives...
Full Text Available The current paper presents the results from some research on the relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria, and different aspects of well-being. The information available on the Internet, which is not necessarily truthful and accurate, can unreasonably amplify users health concerns. Problematic Internet use, health anxiety aroused by online searches for health information and escalation of health concerns as an indicator of cyberchondria, are all associated with a decrease in subjective and eudaimonic well-being as well as in self-esteem. The analyses indicate positive relationships between depressive symptoms on the one hand, and Internet addiction and health anxiety, on the other. A conclusion regarding the existence of a relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria and decreased levels of well-being could be drawn from the research. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-esteem and eudaimonic well-being correlate positively with the number of people with whom users communicate online.
Full Text Available ... Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video Share: Video of Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being—Full Video Runtime: 16min 37sec The video from ...
Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Arenas, M Dolores; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, M Dolores; Albaladejo-Blázquez, Natalia; Gil, M Teresa; de la Fuente, Vanesa
Spirituality can be defined as a personal search for meaning and purpose in life that may or may not encompass religion. In this article we report on the development and testing of an instrument for measuring spiritual well-being within a sample of haemodialysis patients. The main instrument, a 21-item Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS), comprises four scales: Life Perspective, Purpose and Goals, Confusion and Lessened Meaning, Harmony and Peace, and Benefits of Spirituality. A total score for spiritual well-being is also produced. We also used the following variables: clinical (time on haemodialysis, modified Charlson comorbidity index), sociodemographic (age, gender), and self-assessments of health, quality of life (general and recent), personal happiness, religiosity, and belief in the afterlife. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 haemodialysis patients. This study demonstrates that the MiLS-Sp is a psychometrically sound measure of spiritual well-being for dialysis patients (reliability, validity) as they manage the complex demands of a chronic illness. Spiritual well-being was significantly associated with various quality of life variables, health status, personal happiness, or religiosity in patients on dialysis. There was no relationship between spirituality scores and comorbidity, HD duration, gender, or age. Spiritual well-being is relatively low in dialysis patients. Spirituality may play an important role on psychological well-being, quality of life, and self-rated health for patients on haemodialysis. Spiritual well-being in these patients is relatively low. Results suggest that assessing and addressing spiritual well-being in dialysis patients may be helpful in clinical practice.
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-be...
Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva; O Gostin, Lawrence
President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?......President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?...
Full Text Available This paper discussed the significance of well-being (WB and well-being management (WBM. As successful WBM requires the implementation of different training programs, such programs are presented in detail. The cause–effect relationship between training and individual/organizational performance is researched as well. The aim of the research to support this article was to present WBM, its training programs, as well as the determination of WBM activities concerning the mentioned programs implemented in Slovenian organizations.
Vanhala, Sinikka; Tuomi, Kaija
This paper is dealing with the relationships between HRM, company performance and employee well-being. The relationship between S/HRM and company performance has received much attention in prior literature, while the employee perspective has been widely neglected in this research tradition. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to identify and evaluate how company performance and employee well-being are related, and, secondly, to evaluate the possibilities of HR policies and practices...
Zorn, C R; Johnson, M T
Spirituality is recognized as an important component of health care practice with elderly people. Yet, discussion of the role it plays in elderly women on a day-to-day basis is minimal, and it is frequently not addressed in quality-of-life studies in this population. The purposes of this study were to describe the level of religious well-being and selected characteristics of religiosity in a sample of 114 non-institutionalized, largely rural elderly women (Mdn age = 75), as well as to identify the relationship between selected factors and the level of religious well-being. Descriptive research revealed a high level of religious well-being among the participants and significant positive correlation between religious well-being and the variables of social support and hope (p hope emerged as the single significant predictor of religious well-being (p religious activities, highly rated the value or influence of religious beliefs in their lives, and identified that religious beliefs become increasingly important with age. Conducting a comprehensive assessment and implementing focused interventions associated with religious well-being will strengthen the scope of health care practice for elderly women.
Ab-Murat, Norintan; Mason, Lydia; Kadir, Rahimah Abdul; Yusoff, Noriah
To assess Malaysian dentists' perceptions of their mental well-being. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on a conceptual framework of mental health and well-being model. Two aspects were assessed, namely the physiological (two domains) and the psychological (six domains). Participants were asked to rate their experiences of the aforementioned aspects using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from all the time to never. The response rate was 81%. Most of the dentists (61.7%) perceived having positive mental well-being. Under the physiological aspect, most respondents reported that they were 'generally happy' (93.3%), but about 30% stated they were 'stressed physically and emotionally'. Of the six domains under the psychological aspect, positive well-being was observed in the 'sense of coherence' and 'behavioural stress' domains. Participants who were above 40 years old, married and had children reported having a more positive mental well-being when compared with their counterparts. Overall, most Malaysian dentists perceived having a positive mental well-being. It is crucial, however, to closely monitor and initiate early interventions for those with negative symptoms to ensure the safe practice of dentistry.
Full Text Available Conventional welfare production is unsustainable. A societal emphasis on (green economic growth may therefore be superseded by an extended concept of well-being. Taking a transformative approach, science may take part in catalysing this challenging transformation of both the understanding and the level of well-being. Instead of economic growth at the expense of sustainability, we aim to cooperatively refocus on integrating economic, social and ecological perspectives into a more holistic, sustainable approach to individual and municipal well-being in Wuppertal (Germany. Therefore, the research team investigates and develops concepts of local sustainable well-being production, e.g., by employing a new indicator system and the real-world laboratory approach. What are the conditions and constraints of transforming well-being in Wuppertal and most particularly of the role of scientists in this endeavour? Answering this research question with a comparative case study approach, we have analysed our resources, processes, contexts and normativity. The results show that the role of ‘transformative scientists’ in Wuppertal faces constraints of timing and funding, as well as challenges from the different demands of science and practice. Hampered co-design interacts with role conflicts. Open-minded stakeholders are crucial for local well-being transformation, as is the awareness that urban residential districts have bottomed out. However, the normative sustainability claims of the transformative research project are not fully shared by all of its stakeholders, which is both necessary and challenging for transformative research.
Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.
Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance
Martínez-González, M Covadonga; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya; Guerra-Tapia, Aurora
In recent years, there has been a great development of esthetic dermatology as a subspecialty of dermatology. It is important to know to which extent the general population regard this branch of medical surgical specialty as being of interest and contributing to emotional well-being. To analyze the technical features of a questionnaire which has been designed to reflect such perception of the general population about esthetic dermatology and its contribution to emotional well-being. Production and psychometric analysis of a self-filled in questionnaire in relation to esthetic dermatology and emotional well-being (DEBIE). This questionnaire is made of 57 items and has been applied to a sample of 770 people within the general population. The drawing-up process of the questionnaire is described to provide content validity. Items analysis was carried out together with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to assess the structure and construct validity of the tool. The extent of internal consistency (reliability) and concurrent validity has also been verified. DEBIE questionnaire (Spanish acronym for Aesthetic Dermatology and Emotional Well-being) revolves around six factors explaining 53.91% of the variance; there is a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.90) and reasonable criterion validity. DEBIE questionnaire brings together adequate psychometric properties that can be applied to assess the perception that the general population have in relation to esthetic dermatology and its contribution to their emotional well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan
There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available This study examines whether religious people experience more positive affect and less negative affect in everyday life and, if they do, whether it is because of the differences in how they allocate time to different activities or because they feel differently during similar activities. Using the well-being module from the 2010–13 American Time Use Survey (ATUS, I show that churchgoers enjoy a significantly higher level of affective well-being on Sunday than non-churchgoers do. The supplementary analysis of the Gallup Daily Poll data suggests that this higher level of affective well-being among churchgoers is found throughout the rest of the week as well. Further analyses of the ATUS demonstrate that about 40 percent of the affective well-being gap between churchgoers and non-churchgoers on Sunday can be explained by how they spend their time differently. Churchgoers spend more time on Sunday participating in pleasant activities shared with family members and friends than non-churchgoers do. More than half of the gap, however, remains unexplained, implying that it has to do with how they feel during similar activities rather than the activities in which they participate. I discuss the implications of these findings on the mechanisms underlying the link between religion and subjective well-being.
Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Annamaria Di Fabio
Full Text Available Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI, assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TeiQue were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait emotional intelligence in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Grossmann, Igor; Na, Jinkyung; Varnum, Michael E.W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E.
Laypeople and many social scientists assume that superior reasoning abilities lead to greater well-being. However, previous research has been inconclusive. This may be because prior investigators used operationalizations of reasoning that favored analytic as opposed to wise thinking. We assessed wisdom in terms of the degree to which people use various pragmatic schemas to deal with social conflicts. With a random sample of Americans we found that wise reasoning is associated with greater life satisfaction, less negative affect, better social relationships, less depressive rumination, more positive vs. negative words used in speech, and greater longevity. The relationship between wise reasoning and well-being held even when controlling for socio-economic factors, verbal abilities, and several personality traits. As in prior work there was no association between intelligence and well-being. Further, wise reasoning mediated age-related differences in well-being, particularly among the middle-aged and older adults. Implications for research on reasoning, well-being and aging are discussed. PMID:22866683
Shakya, Holly B
Previous work suggests that husbands and wives are likely to share affective states so that depression or happiness in one spouse is predictive of depression or happiness in the other. Studies that have examined spousal affect similarity, however, have been concentrated in the Western world where the meaning of marriage may be different than it is in other cultural contexts. Marriage in India, unlike that in the United States, is focused on the extended family so that love and intimacy between spouses are downplayed. This study examined affect and well-being similarity between 603 older married couples in India using pilot data from the Longitudinal Aging Study of India. We ran linear regression models to assess the relationship between the well-being states of husbands and wives using dyadic observations for four different measures: depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with daily life, social isolation, and overall life satisfaction. Across all four measures, the well-being scores of one spouse were positively and significantly associated with the well-being scores of the other. These associations did not vary by marital satisfaction, but were slightly stronger for respondents reporting poor health. Our increased understanding of social connectedness has prompted a shift from the consideration of single individuals to a broader understanding of individuals in the context of their social environments. The results of this study suggest that interventions designed to foster well-being among older adults in India might benefit from a focus on couples as a unit rather than individuals.
Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services parti...... disturbances (T2) were partially mediated by individual-level AOC (T1). CONCLUSIONS: Group-level AOC is an important predictor of employee well-being in contemporary health care organizations.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...
Full Text Available The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being should as well be of principal importance. It regards users higher than infrastructure and managerial data. Taking lessons from ergonomic studies, health studies and user habits it is possible to track and monitor user daily living. Moreover, the link between user living conditions and sparse events such as illness, indispositions can be tracked to well-being data through autonomous services. Such application is detailed in the approach categorized by this article and the research presented
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461...... outpatients with diabetes who were randomly assigned to standard care or to the monitoring condition. In the latter group, the diabetes nurse specialist assessed and discussed psychological well-being with the patient (with an interval of 6 months) in addition to standard care. The computerized Well...... nurse. The two groups did not differ for HbA(1c) or in their overall evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. In the monitoring condition, significantly more subjects were referred to the psychologist. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring and discussing psychological well-being as part of routine diabetes...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between psychological well-being and empathy quotient among 200 married students, 100 female and 100 make, in city of Najafabad, Iran. The study uses a questionnaire with 84 questions for measuring psychological well-being, which consists of six parts including Autonomy, Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relation with others, Purpose in life and Self-acceptance, each with 14 questions. Cronbach alphas for these six items were calculated as 0.83, 0.86, 0.85, 0.88, 0.88 and 0.91, respectively. In order to measure empathy quotient (EQ, the study uses EQ-short form, which consists of 22 questions. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93, which is well above the minimum acceptable level of 0.70. Using stepwise regression technique, the study determines a positive and meaningful relationship between EQ and psychological well-being.
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G
Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas
The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.
Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W
Antenatal psychological well-being is multifactorially determined, including by social circumstances. Evidence suggests that workplace conditions are salient determinants of mental health, but it is not known whether employment conditions influence antenatal psychological well-being. To investigate the relationship between employment conditions and antenatal psychological well-being in Australian women. A sociodemographically diverse consecutive cohort of employed nulliparous women was recruited in late pregnancy. Data were collected by a structured interview assessing sociodemographic characteristics, employment arrangements, experience of pregnancy-related discrimination, and access to maternity leave entitlements. Participants completed two standardised psychometric measures of maternal mood: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Profile of Mood States (PoMS). Comparisons of self-reported mood were made between women by experience of workplace adversity, using a composite measure of workplace events. Of 205 eligible women, 165 agreed to participate. Of these, 114 of 165 (69%) reported at least one form of workplace adversity during pregnancy. More women without private health insurance (78%) reported workplace adversity than those who were privately insured (57%) (chi2(1)=6.95, P=0.008). Women experiencing workplace adversity had significantly worse psychological well-being as indicated by the EDS score (7.7+/-5.1) than those who were experiencing no workplace adversity (5.5+/-3.4), mean difference (95% CI)=-2.2 (-3.7 to -0.8), P=0.003. Similar results were reported for the PoMS. Workplace adversity during pregnancy is associated with poorer maternal psychological well-being. Workplace conditions and entitlements are salient factors for consideration in assessments of antenatal psychosocial well-being.
Grunseit, Anne; Richards, Justin; Merom, Dafna
Sporting or physical recreation event participation can affect different domains of mental and social well-being if sufficiently frequent, yet previous research has focused mainly on the physical health benefits of single-location or infrequent mass-participation events. We examined overall and domain specific subjective well-being of adult participants of "parkrun", a weekly, community-based, highly accessible and widespread running event. Data were from a national online survey of 865 adult Australian parkrunners. Scores on nine individual measures and the global Personal Well-being Index (PWI) were compared to national, normative data. Regression models tested associations between personal well-being and perceived benefits of parkrun (mental health and connection to community). Of 100 scores, 28% of means for parkrunners fell outside overall and age and gender subgroups normative ranges. Satisfaction with health was higher for male, those aged over 45 and overall parkrunners; only parkrunners aged 18-24 fell below their age group norm. Satisfaction with life as a whole was positively associated with perceived mental health benefits of parkrun, but not perceived community connection for women, and neither measure for men. PWI was positively associated with perceived community connection for men and with mental health benefit for women. Australian parkrunners mostly reflect the general population on personal well-being, except report superior satisfaction with physical health. Women's personal well-being may benefit from parkrun through improved mental health and men's from community connectedness. parkrun may facilitate positive expression of identity and continuation of healthy habits among athletes, and non-demanding, health enhancing activity and social interaction for non-athletes.
Anastasia Aleksandrovna Zmievskaya
Full Text Available The article investigates the reproductive normativity in the context of its relationship to person’s psychological well-being. The theoretical analysis allowed to formulate the definition of reproductive normativity (RN and its structural components. It’s considered the problem of relation between objective and subjective components of RN as the determinant of psychological well-being. It’s presented and justified one of the possible typologies of RN, reflecting the most common variants of modern Russians’ reproductive behavior: 1 high RN («The total normativity»; 2 medium-high RN («Family with deviant past»; 3 medium-low RN («Single parenthood»; 4 low RN («No family and children». The presence of different relations between objective and subjective components of RN in described types is empirically detected. The highest consistency of RN components is observed in groups with high and low RN, the lowest consistency is manifested among single parents. The mismatch between RN components is associated with lower psychological well-being. Single parents are at risk: they demonstrate the most negative evaluations of their life, self-awareness and self-attitude. Average- auspicious and almost identical indicators of psychological well-being were found among respondents with deviant past (medium-high RN and respondents with no family and children (low RN: psychological benefits of having family and children are eliminated by abnormal parenthood experience and by the mismatch between desired and actual implementation of family life. Thereby the «blocked» parent role is connected with the same level of psychological well-being as the improperly played parent role. The highest level of psychological well-being is expectedly found among respondents with high RN («The total normativity».
Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.
Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...... socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents, suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant...
Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Guidi, Jenny; Tomba, Elena
A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R
This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panahi, Soheila; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Kadir, Rusnani Abdul; Jaafar, Wan Marzuki Wan; Panahi, Mohammad Saeed
Investigations in the field of psychology have traditionally paid attention to studying mental health problems and their prevention (Kaplan, Shema, & Leite, 2008; Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyyra, & Feldt, 2012). However, a lack of psychological problems is not necessarily an indicator of the psychological well-being of individuals. Therefore,…
Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena
In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…
This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…
Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…
Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick
Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…
Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a medical condition that has broad implications for a person's physical and ... Objective: The aim of this study was to detect changes in liver enzymes and psychological well-being in response to aerobic .... of mood that can be used to calculate a Total Mood.
Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.
We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…
Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth
The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…
Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge
Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
Lever, Joaquina Palomar
There are two tendencies in the literature regarding the relationship between income and subjective well-being. The first tendency maintains that there is a strong relationship between these two variables, and that the poorer the population, the more pronounced this relationship. The second tendency downplays this relationship, arguing that a…
Nelson, Mark D.; Tarabochia, Dawn W.; Koltz, Rebecca L.
School counselors design, deliver, and evaluate comprehensive, developmental school counseling programs that are focused on enhancing student development and success. A model of student well-being, known as PACES, is defined and described that consists of five distinct and interactive domains: physical, affective, cognitive, economic, and social.…
D.R. Gasper (Des)
textabstract__Abstract__ Migration involves a search for well-being and security, but is not guaranteed to bring either. In the short run it quite often reduces both. What are the hoped for benefits for which the risks are undertaken? Insecurity can generate migration, and in the case of refugees
Quinn, Diane M.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.
Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive informati...
Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita
This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…
Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva
Roč. 44, 1-2 (2006), s. 59-61 ISSN 0960-7560 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA406/06/0747 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Well-being * social gradient * resilience factors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Šolcová, Iva; Kernová, V.
Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 414-414 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : well-being * Czech population sample * determinants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Barry, Margaret M.; Clarke, Aleisha Mary; Dowling, Katherine
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical perspective on the international evidence on promoting young people’s social and emotional well-being in schools. The challenges of integrating evidence-based interventions within schools are discussed and the need for innovative approaches
The search for balance. “Closing the mines because of their environmental impact is not an option ... As a result, local communities, governments, and mining companies are ... in mining communities would be critical to arriving at work- able solutions. ... “quality of life” instrument to assess the well-being of people in mining ...
Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn
Relations between narratives, especially the inclusion of internal state language within narratives, and well-being have been found in adults. However, research with adolescents has been sparse and the findings inconsistent. We examined gender differences in adolescents' personal autobiographical narratives as well as relations between internal…
Emotional regulation, perceived socialalienation and well-being of students in a Nigerian University: implilcations for assessment and coaching of emotional regulation. A O Ojedokun. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the psychological studies of social issue Vol. 10 (1&2) 2007: pp. 76-90. Full Text: EMAIL FULL ...
The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…
Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.
BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness or en...
Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…
The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…
Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...
In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…
Leyendecker, Birgit; Agache, Alexandru
This study examined paternal involvement in parenting, the association between parents' perception of mutual support, and the relation to their children's well-being before (t1) and after the transition to first grade (t2). Participants were first and second generation immigrant families from Turkey (n = 134). In addition, German families (n = 45) were included for the comparison of paternal involvement. The percentage of highly involved fathers was higher in the German sub-sample (54 %) than in the Turkish sub-sample (38 %), but we found no influence of parents' education, household income, employment status, or children's gender. First generation fathers were more likely to be highly involved than second generation fathers. Analyses of the longitudinal data revealed that mothers with highly involved fathers were more likely to report higher marital support. This pattern was less clear for fathers. Children with highly involved fathers reported significantly higher well-being at t1. For t2, a moderator analysis revealed a positive effect on children's well-being only for those fathers who were both highly involved and reported the highest fathering self-efficacy. Among other variables, we controlled for children's well-being at t1, their health status, fathers' work hours and mothers' marital satisfaction.
Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.
Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early…
Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.
There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently). In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument – the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD) – to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed) what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM. PMID:23691236
Griggs, Steven; Howarth, David
This paper challenges the drawing of explicit boundaries between discourse and practice. Reflecting on the intricacies of practice and meaning, it begins by recounting the "story" of the national evaluation of the Well Being Power and the myriad of ways in which local practitioners interpreted its use. It then draws on political…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung
Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…
Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter
Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.
Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee
Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…
Herbers, Daniël Johannes
The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue
Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.
The present study examined the relationship between physical and psychological well-being, personality characteristics and demographic variables related to motherhood, work and marital status in a sample of 3,723 Dutch women. Analysis revealed several interesting relationships. First, whereas
Full Text Available ... second installment in NCCIH’s video series entitled The Science of Mind and Body Therapies . The first video, Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being , was launched September 2010. Learn more about yoga Press release NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to ...
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
Effects Of Parenting Styles On Psychosocial Well-Being Of Adolescents In Selected Secondary Schools In Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. ... Based on these findings, it was recommended that the schools or teachers should learn how to satisfy the emotional needs of children, using appropriate teaching techniques in the ...
The study examined the contributions of perceived prevalence of financial crime, socioeconomic status and gender on psychological well-being among unemployed. The cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Participants were 288 unemployed graduates sampled in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria.
Drinking-related domestic violence generalizes the negative consequences of drinking, engenders and aggravates household economic and health problems, and compromises the well-being of the family. The poor socioeconomic condition of the affected family constrains their capacity to provide treatment services for the ...
The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. 30 public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and ...
This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and family well-being among couples in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State. This was against the backdrop of incessant family crises and maladjustment in contemporary society. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Three hundred and ...
Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...
De Witte, Hans
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics (i.e., the validity and the reliability of the Short Inventory on Stress and Well-being (S-ISW, in particular the part of the S-ISW that measures well-being. The S-ISW is developed by ISW Limits in both Dutch and French and measures the following well-being indicators: strain, motivation and negative acts at work, which can be considered as possible outcome variables or employees’ reactions to the perceived work situation. Four samples (N1 = 17,781; N2 = 462; N3 = 264; N4 = 3596 were used to perform analyses, with longitudinal data available for Sample 2 and 3. The results supported the three-factor structure of the S-ISW (factor validity and the invariance of this factor structure between the Dutch and the French S-ISW. Furthermore, we established the content similarity of strain and motivation with negative stress and positive stress, respectively, supporting the construct validity of the S-ISW. The predictive validity of the well-being indicators was established using measures of absenteeism and doctor consultations. Finally, the S-ISW was reliable, as the indicators of well-being showed high test-retest reliability and adequate internal consistency. The part of the S-ISW that measures well-being is thus both valid and reliable, and may be a helpful instrument in conducting research to aid organizations in the development of their well-being policy.
Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)
Until recently the quality of air did not play a major role in the planning of buildings. Quality of air was simply understood to be synonymous with pollution-free and safe air. This process omitted consideration of how to achieve the well-being of the occupants. The economic consequences of this limited approach were not apparent to investors, developers and tenants. More recently however, competition and market conditions in the commercial property market have led some investors to seek a new way forward. They have found their answer in performance-based buildings. These buildings go well beyond traditional methods of addressing the well-being of building occupants, resulting in enhanced productivity, reduced absenteeism and reduced health risks. Physiological and neurophysiological research shows that air quality, encompassing both olfactory and thermal comfort, plays an important role. The elimination of pollutants is far from being sufficient and does not significantly reduce the dissatisfaction. Today, research is focused on the occupants' perception of indoor air with the goal of increasing their satisfaction rate. It is known that people's well-being improves when the air around them is perceived as natural and fresh. This can only be the case if sufficient stimulating positive olfactory substances are found in the indoor air. It is therefore important that the hedonic value of indoor air always be taken into consideration when measuring air quality. To create an indoor environment that increases the well-being and performance of occupants, thermal and olfactory comfort have to complement one another. The performance-based building addresses the well-being of the building users in order to realize a significant increase in a building's value. (orig.)
Silverman, Arielle M; Molton, Ivan R; Smith, Amanda E; Jensen, Mark P; Cohen, Geoffrey L
To determine whether having friends who share one's disability experiences is associated with higher well-being, and whether these friendships buffer well-being from disability-related stressors. Research Method/Design: In 2 cross-sectional studies, adults with long-term physical disabilities identified close friends who shared their diagnosis. We assessed well-being as a function of the number of friends that participants identified in each group. Study 1 included 71 adults with legal blindness living in the United States, while Study 2 included 1,453 adults in the United States with either muscular dystrophy (MD), multiple sclerosis (MS), post-polio syndrome (PPS), or spinal cord injury (SCI). In Study 1, having more friends sharing a blindness diagnosis was associated with higher life satisfaction, even controlling for the number of friends who were not blind. In Study 2, Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis reported higher quality of life and satisfaction with social role participation. Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis also showed and attenuated associations between the severity of their functional impairment and their quality of life and social role satisfaction, suggesting that their friendships buffered the impact of their functional impairment on well-being. Participants reporting more friends with any physical disability showed similar benefits. Friends with disabilities can offer uniquely important informational and emotional support resources that buffer the impact of a functional impairment on well-being. Psychosocial interventions should help people with long-term disabilities build their peer support networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sankelo, Merja; Akerblad, Leena
This study describes the well-being at work of nurse entrepreneurs and owner-managers of social care companies in Finland from the vantage point of health and working capacity, general coping and job satisfaction and identifies factors associated with well-being. In recent years, increasing numbers of nurses have been starting up in business in the social care sector. As yet, there has been only limited research into their well-being at work. Survey. This study was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey among 335 social care entrepreneurs with different educational backgrounds. The sample for the study reported here consisted of those respondents who had a registered nurse degree (n = 84). The data were analysed by SPSS statistical software. Most of the respondents rated their physical, mental, financial and social situation and working capacity as good. Less than half of the respondents had experienced stress during the past year. Over half felt their coping efficacy was better than it had been shortly after starting up in business. The respondents' resources were consumed and strengthened by a range of different work-related factors. The majority were satisfied with their job as an entrepreneur. Several background factors were associated with the results. Most of the nurse entrepreneurs reported being content with their well-being at work. Nevertheless, the results also highlighted factors that could and should be addressed to improve the well-being at work of entrepreneurs who struggle to cope. The results provide useful information for the development of entrepreneurial training for nurses, for the design and provision of occupational health care services and for the enrichment of the content of the entrepreneur's job.
Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A
We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.
Martins, Conceição; Gouveia, Ana; Chaves, Melanie; Lourenço, Rafael; Marques, Sara; Santos, Telmo
Violence in dating relationships involves dimensions such as physical, psychological and sexual abuse, requiring strategies for prevention and early intervention. To identify the socio-demographic variables that influence violence in dating relationships; to identify whether having been a victim and/or witnessing violence in childhood has significant effect on violence in dating relationships; to verify the correlation between violence in dating relationships and psychological well-being. Quantitative non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. Data collection conducted by a socio-demographic characterisation questionnaire; Dating Relationship Victimization Practices and Behaviours Scale and Demonstration of Psychological Well-Being Measurement Scale. The non-probabilistic, convenience sample consisted of 203 students from the Health School of Viseu. Mostly female students gender; Mean age of 18.85 years, minimum of 18 and maximum of 34; Gender and having been a victim or witness of violence against children and sexual violence are variables that seem to intervene in dating violence and psychological well-being. Age has an influence on psychological well-being. Stalking violence and psychological violence were more prevalent in the study sample. It was found that the presence of any type of violence is associated with a decrease in student psychological well-being. By analysing the results we can infer the need to include this topic in education/training, active methodologies and effective participation of all stakeholders in the process, with a view to promoting and developing relationship and affective skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin
The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; Givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. This is a descriptive-comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann-Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year nursing course. Including spiritual care in the curriculum of
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Results: Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. Conclusions: The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year
Full Text Available Yoga has proven beneficial effects on various health domains including musculoskeletal conditions, cardiopulmonary conditions through the practice of asana and pranayamas as well as on mental health, as it is known to enhance the body-and mind coordination. There is paucity of data on the effect of yoga on functional capacity in literature using 6 min walk test. The present study aims to look at the effect of yoga on 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, recovery time following the walk and state of well being. This is a hospital-based longitudinal study where 30 physiotherapy students of the age group 18 - 22 years of either sex were enrolled. Subjects having musculoskeletal problems, cardio respiratory disease and those who were not willing to volunteer were excluded They received Yoga intervention in form of Yogic practices which included a combination of asanas, pranayamas and omkar chanting for 1 h for 30 sessions. A baseline 6-min walk test was conducted on subjects and the 6-min walked distance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE on modified Borg′s scale were recorded. The baseline state of well-being was noted using the Warwick- Edinburgh mental well-being scale and similar recording was done post intervention after 30 sessions. Of the 30 subjects, there were no drop outs as these were committed college students. Of them, 24 were females and 6 were males with a mean age of 21.5 years SD 2.38. Statistically significant improvements were observed in 6-min walk distance (P value = 0.000, RPE (P value < 0.000, recovery time (P value < 0.000 and sense of well being score (P value < 0.000. Yoga practices are beneficial in improving the functional capacity in young healthy adults. Yoga can very well be incorporated in medical practice for increasing the patient′s functional capacity, for those who have limitations in performing aerobic training due to various health reasons. The improved state of well being motivates the
Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch
Full Text Available This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument applied to 183 Mexican teachers in the pilot test. Conclusions pint out to possible uses of this validated instrument for the design of strategies that favor the integral well-being of the future generations of teachers and a substantial improvement in the quality of education.
Hammell, Karen R Whalley
The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.
Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of mindfulness and its relationship to subjective well-being. The main objective of the study was the empirical confirmation of the relationship between mindfulness and components of hedonic model of subjective well-being. To this end, we held a correlation study with the participation of 94 men and 137 women (average age totaled 27.35 years. The participants filled out a questionnaire “Scale of life satisfaction” by E. Dinera, questionnaire" Mindfulness and awareness” as well as a modified version of the questionnaire "Scale differential emotions". A positive relationship of mindfulness and positive emotions, life satisfaction and the ratio of positive and negative emotions. We detected the negative relationship of negative emotions and mindfulness with life satisfaction. The obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies and suggest that there exists an interaction between emotional and cognitive processes.
Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life after hip fracture. Identifying the meaning of a hip fracture in older people can provide a deeper understanding of what matters during rehabilitation and when managing in everyday life. Aim: To aggregate, appraise, interpret and synthesize findings from...... whole. Conclusion: The meta-synthesis provided evidence that both the sufferings and the possibilities of older people need to be addressed during rehabilitation to support experiences of well-being, independency and confidence after a hip fracture. The study contributed with evidence......Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
The word "gratitude" has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows-gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude.
Evans, Scotney D; Raymond, Catherine; Levine, Daniella
Traditional capacity-building approaches tend to be organizationally focused ignoring the fact that community-based organizations learn and take action in a larger network working to promote positive community change. The specific aim of this paper was to outline a vision for a Third Sector Alliance to build organizational, network, and sector capacity for community well-being in Miami. Building a foundation for social impact requires a strategy for organizational, network, and sector capacity building. Organizational, network, and sector capacity building can best be achieved through a cooperative network approach driven by a solid community-university partnership. Although a Third Sector Alliance for Community Well-being does not yet exist in Miami, Catalyst Miami and the University of Miami (UM) have partnered closely to articulate a vision of what could be and have been working to make that vision a reality.
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus
The present study investigated the workplace experiences of junior physicians in their first year of residency, and the impact of these experiences on their physical and psychological well-being. In a prospective longitudinal study 518 junior physicians (54.4% women, 45.6% men) were investigated twice within two years with regard to individual and institutional determinants of career development. Gender-relevant workplace experiences, i. e. effort-reward imbalance, and their relation to physical and psychological well-being, i. e. anxiety and depression, as well as life satisfaction were evaluated. The workplace experiences revealed three significant gender-specific results: Women residents received less mentoring, had more positive social relationships at work, and showed a higher over-commitment than their male colleagues. Both men and women residents reported significantly worse physical and psychological well-being as well as life satisfaction after their first year of residency (T2) compared to the time directly before their graduation from medical school (T1). The junior physicians' life satisfaction scores are significantly lower than those of the normal population. 7-10% of the respondents showed anxiety scores above cut-off, and 1-4% depression scores above cut-off. Personality traits such as a high sense of coherence and low expressiveness are protective factors for well-being and life satisfaction. Insufficient leadership of senior residents and unclear hierarchical structures as well as stress at work and over-commitment are risk factors for the development of symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The reported results are consistent with the psychosocial stress model by Karasek and Theorell as well as with the model of effort-reward imbalance of Siegrist.
Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto
This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...
Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang
Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...
Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry
The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peternel, Lana; Sujoldžić, Anita
This study focuses on the middle school students in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. The survey was designed to examine adolescent eating behavior as it relates to body image and psychological well-being (self-esteem, life-satisfaction and stress) in relation to body mass index; BMI. Differences among participants in food intake were examined according to demographic variables and eating behavior (regular food intake or dieting) as well. Psychological variables were highly associated with die...
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Wang, Chia-Chih D C
The psychological well-being of nursing students is a very important component in the training and development of future nurses. While previous studies have explored different aspects of nursing students' mental and psychological health in various countries, they have given little attention to comparing nursing students with their non-nursing student peers. The present study investigated the differences between nursing students and non-nursing students in Thailand with regard to their psychological well-being. The gender effect was also examined. Four hundred students were included in this study (200 nursing students and 200 non-nursing students). Participants completed a demographic questionnaire and four psychological instruments that examined their self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and social difficulties. Overall, compared to their non-nursing counterparts, nursing students were found to score significantly higher on self-esteem and life satisfaction and reported lower levels of depression and social difficulties. Gender was also found to have a significant main effect on participants' social difficulties. Several recommendations for improving the mental health and psychological well-being of nursing students are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Houdmont, J; Zhou, J; Hassard, J
Research on the relationship between overtime and psychological well-being, and workers' perceptions of the factors that determine overtime, has been conducted exclusively in the Western cultural context. To examine whether existing theory and evidence can be applied to a non-Western cultural setting by investigating the constructs among a sample of office workers drawn from a Chinese branch of an international information and communication technology company. Data were collected from 130 full-time employees on overtime hours worked, psychological well-being, and four variables identified by participants as being important determinants of overtime: job demands, intrinsic motivation, anticipated rewards, and overtime work culture. T-tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between variables. All study participants had worked overtime in the previous 6 months period; the mean weekly overtime rate was 14.2 h. High overtime employees demonstrated significantly lower levels of psychological well-being than those who worked low levels of overtime. In combination, the four reasons for working overtime predicted approximately one-fifth of the variance in overtime hours worked, suggesting that knowledge of these variables could be used by practitioners to predict the amount of overtime in which workers are likely to engage. The findings suggest that existing theory and evidence may apply beyond the individualist cultural context. The findings might usefully inform the organization of work in collectivist cultures and the implementation of multinational operations in these cultures.
Full Text Available The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status.A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42 and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants.In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction.Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.
Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan
The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status. A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42) and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants. In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction. Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.
Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter
Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving.
Full Text Available Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64% did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction or even negatively (empathic concern related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects. Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions.
Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue
The current study describes the relationships between family meals and family connectedness, parental monitoring and parent-child communication and determines if frequent family meals are associated with better mental well-being and fewer risk-taking behaviours among adolescents. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9107). Frequent family meals were positively associated with better indicators of family relationships (P family meals were significantly associated with higher well-being scores (P family connectedness, parental monitoring and parental communication. Our findings suggest that family meals may provide a unique opportunity for building stronger families and young people. Creating environments where frequent family meals are normative, valued and feasible for families may result in benefits for young people that extend beyond good nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E
We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.
Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W
The present review organizes the vocational psychology literature published between 2007 and 2014 into three overarching themes: Promoting (a) agency in career development, (b) equity in the work force, and (c) well-being in work and educational settings. Research on career adaptability, self-efficacy beliefs, and work volition is reviewed in the agency section, with the goal of delineating variables that promote or constrain the exercise of personal agency in academic and occupational pursuits. The equity theme covers research on social class and race/ethnicity in career development; entry and retention of women and people of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields; and the career service needs of survivors of domestic violence and of criminal offenders. The goal was to explore how greater equity in the work force could be promoted for these groups. In the well-being section, we review research on hedonic (work, educational, and life satisfaction) and eudaimonic (career calling, meaning, engagement, and commitment) variables, with the goal of understanding how well-being might be promoted at school and at work. Future research needs related to each theme are also discussed.
An intervention was carried out with primary school staff to promote well-being with weekly sessions of a project which became known as Chill and Chat. Data were gathered via questionnaires completed before and after the project and from three focus groups (before, during and after the intervention), and were analysed using thematic analysis.…
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Coward, D D
Self-transcendence has been associated, in previous studies, with stressful life events and emotional well-being. This study examined the relationships among self-transcendence, emotional well-being, and illness-related distress in women with advanced breast cancer. The study employed a cross-sectional correlational design in a convenience sample (n = 107) of women with Stage IIIb and Stage IV breast cancer. Subjects completed a questionnaire that included Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale; Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (ABS); a Cognitive Well-Being (CWB) Scale based on work by Campbell, Converse, and Rogers; McCorkle and Young's Symptom Distress Scale (SDS); and the Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS). Data were analyzed using factor analytic structural equations modeling. Self-transcendence decreased illness distress (assessed by the SDS and the KPS) through the mediating effect of emotional well-being (assessed by the ABS and the CWB Scale). Self-transcendence directly affected emotional well-being (beta = 0.69), and emotional well-being had a strong negative effect on illness distress (beta = -0.84). A direct path from self-transcendence to illness distress (beta = -0.31) became nonsignificant (beta = -0.08) when controlling for emotional well-being. Further research using longitudinal data will seek to validate these relationships and to explain how nurses can promote self-transcendence in women with advanced breast cancer, as well as in others with life-threatening illnesses.
Homeless treatment programs have focused on physical solutions rather than attending to all aspects of well-being. Support services that address overall well-being have demonstrated effectiveness. Previous research suggests that overall well-being is defined as satisfaction within all life spheres. Objective life indices have been the primary evidence of success among various programs, which include food, housing, income, leisure, health, access to psychiatric and medical services, and maintenance of positive support networks. This does not account for other important subjective components, such as psychiatric symptoms and quality of life. This study was designed to assess quality of life and psychiatric symptoms among the people who were chronically and formerly chronically homeless. The people who were formerly chronically homeless are defined as individuals who were chronically homeless in the past but have successfully remained in housing for 6 months or more and have access to intensive case management services. People who are chronically homeless are homeless individuals who have lacked a residence for a year or more or have had four or more episodes in three years, are single, and have a persistent disability. Participants completed the Oxford Happiness Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, and a brief questionnaire. All participants were disabled in accordance with the definition of chronic homelessness adopted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This researcher hypothesized that high quality-of-life scores, low frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and greater access to basic life indices indicate happiness overall. Additionally, it was hypothesized that people who are chronically homeless have a higher foster care rate than the general population.
This book presents current innovative, alternative and creative approaches that challenge traditional mechanisms in and across disciplines and industries targeting societal impact. A common thread throughout the book is human-centered, uni and multi-modal strategies across the range of human...
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Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus
AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age...... educational level at birth with no demonstrable effects due to gestation or gender. CONCLUSION: Moderately premature infants, born before the era of intensive care, at the age of 32 years with regard to health, quality of life, education and social status proved to fare as well as their term counterparts....
Karling, J; Pyper, T
Both traditional group practices and IPAs have felt the impact of changes brought about by managed care. Group practices need to ensure that their financial reporting and cost-accounting methods capture information that is key to decision making. An independent assessment of financial procedures helps identify any outstanding issues and maintain financial well-being. This assessment should be conducted at least quarterly so that potential problems can be resolved, income opportunities explored, and cost-saving measures adopted in a timely manner.
Pantzar, Mika; Shove, Elizabeth
Kulutus ja vapaa-ajan talous ovat nousseet useissa länsimaissa elinkeinopoliittisen keskustelun huomion kohteeksi viime vuosina. Talouden kasvu on nähty yhä enemmän tapahtuvan ns. elämystalouden ja viihdeteollisuuden virittämänä. Manufacturing leisure - Innovations in happiness, well-being and fun lähestyy vapaa-ajan klusteria kuluttajien vapaa-ajan käytäntöjen näkökulmasta. Saksalaiset, englantilaiset ja suomalaiset tutkijat pyrkivät vastaamaan muun muassa seuraaviin kysymyksiin: · Minkälais...
Ilona BONIWELL; Evgeny OSIN
In this review questions such as “What is a good use of time?”, “How can one achieve satisfaction with their time?” and “How can one’s relationship with time contribute to their well-being?” are raised and discussed with regard to empirical research on various aspects of positive psychology of time. This paper differs from traditional approach to thinking about time in organisations in three substantial ways. Firstly, it reviews the existing empirical research on time use, focusin...
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.
Veitch, Jennifer A
People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religious meaning and subjective well-being. A major emphasis is placed on assessing race differences in the relationship between these constructs. Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older White and older Black adults. Survey items were administered to assess a sense of meaning in life that is derived specifically from religion. Subjective well-being was measured with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The findings suggest that older adults who derive a sense of meaning in life from religion tend to have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The data further reveal that older Black adults are more likely to find meaning in religion than older White adults. In addition, the relationships among religious meaning, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism tend to be stronger for older African Americans persons than older White persons. Researchers have argued for some time that religion may be an important source of resilience for older Black adults, but it is not clear how these beneficial effects arise. The data from this study suggest that religious meaning may be an important factor.
Anttonen, Hannu; Vainio, Harri
The "Towards Better Work and Well-being" conference, held in Helsinki in February 2010, was attended by 190 participants from 34 countries. During the Conference 12 keynote presentations and 57 oral and 47 poster communications were given. The conference was arranged by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in cooperation with the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health as well as with the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy. The Conference was supported by the World Health Organization, the International Labor Organization, the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion, the European Network Education and Training in Occupational Health and Safety, and the European Technology Platform on Industrial Safety. The aim of the Conference was to provide an opportunity to discuss strategies and tools for promotion of health and well-being at work and its effect on productivity. The main topics of the Conference were scientific and practical evidence; management and good practices--better productivity; workplace as an arena for health and safety promotion; and expert services and policies.
Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.
This chapter discusses the role of emotion expression in decision-making. To understand connections between emotion and decision it is helpful first to differentiate between emotion experience and emotion expression. Understanding how emotion expression influences decision-making is important as a practical matter. However, in contrast to emotion experience, economic research has paid little attention to the significance of emotion expression in decision-making. I review recent studies on emotion expression, paying specific attention to possible connections between emotion expression, punishment, fair economic exchange, and well-being. In contrast to emotions, which are typically difficult to control, I suggest that opportunities for emotion expression can feasibly be manipulated through appropriately designed policies. I further suggest that this approach may have the ability to positively affect well-being and economic outcomes. VALUE OF THE CHAPTER: The chapter provides new perspectives on how policy-makers can benefit by understanding the effect of emotion expression in decision-making. The chapter also suggests future research to improve our understanding of emotion expression.
Kandolin, I; Härmä, M; Toivanen, M
Flexibility of working hours became more prevalent in the 1990s in Finland. According to a representative survey on Finnish wage and salary earners (n = 1790) at the beginning of 2000, a great majority of male (76%) and female (65%) employees regularly worked overtime and/or had irregular working hours every month. These employees were flexible in meeting the needs of their companies/employers. Individual flexibility of working hours was far less common, only one third of male and female employees were able to regulate their working hours. A better balance between company-controlled and individual flexibility would, however, improve the well-being of employees. Employees working overtime without being allowed to regulate their working hours felt more symptoms of distress and had more conflicts in combining workplace and family roles than those who could individually determine their working hours flexibly. An investment in individually determined flexibility, for example by means of participatory planning, would improve the well-being of employees, and thus also improve the productivity of the organization.
Herrmann, Thora M; Sch?ttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; G?lvez, Nicolas; S?hn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja
Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative an...
Hawker, Clare L
There is strong evidence that suggests physical activity can enhance mental well-being. However, this relationship has not been widely investigated in student nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between physical activity and mental well-being in undergraduate student nurses (n=215). Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Other outcomes included self-esteem, anxiety, depression, life satisfaction, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Almost, a quarter (23.8%) of the total sample, were meeting the Department of Health's physical activity guideline. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.0 with 40% being in the overweight to morbidly obese category. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with total physical activity (r=0.16, p=0.038) and moderate intensity activity (r=0.17, p=0.021). No other significant relationships were found between anxiety, depression and satisfaction with life and physical activity. Outcome expectations for exercise and self-efficacy were significantly positively correlated with moderate (r=0.17, p=0.019) and vigorous (r=0.28, p=0.000) intensity activity and total physical activity (r=0.29, p=0.000). BMI was significantly positively correlated with age (r=0.242, p=0.001), significantly negatively correlated with self-efficacy for exercise (r=0.257, p=0.000) and satisfaction with life (r=-0.144, p=0.041). Regression analysis showed that low self efficacy for exercise and increasing age were significant predictors of BMI with a small effect size r(2)=0.126, adjusted r(2)=0.112. BMI and physical activity variables collectively explained only 2% of the variance for anxiety, 4% for depression, 5% for self esteem and 6% for satisfaction with life. BMI was a significant predictor of satisfaction with life (Beta=-0.171, p=0.027). Participation in physical activity may be influential in improving mental well-being in student nurses. Promoting physical
Chana, Navtej; Kennedy, Paul; Chessell, Zoë J
To examine the relationships between structural factors (work stressors), individual factors (demographics and the personal resources of resilience and social support) and transactional factors (appraisals and coping), and nursing staffs' levels of burnout, psychological distress and caring behaviours. A further aim was to examine the relationships between nursing staffs' levels of burnout and psychological distress and their caring behaviours. Burnout and psychological distress levels have been found to be high in National Health Service nursing staff and furthermore this emotional distress has been found to affect patient care. In a National Health Service striving to provide high-quality patient-centred care, it is essential that factors affecting nursing staffs' well-being and their caring behaviours are examined. A cross-sectional correlation-based survey design. A sample of 102 nursing staff from an Acute National Health Service Trust were recruited in 2010. Participants completed the questionnaires: Nursing Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire-Short Form, Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale-2, Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Scale for Nurses, PsychNurse Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Caring Behaviours Inventory-revised. Due to the nonparametric nature of part of the data, Spearman's Rho correlations were used for analysis. Demographics were not found to be regularly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout, psychological distress or caring behaviours. Work stressors, coping strategies and self-efficacy were found to be significantly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. Caring behaviours were also correlated with coping strategies and self-efficacy. Importantly, correlations were found between caring behaviours and nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. It is extremely important that the emotional well-being of nursing staff is supported, both for them, and
Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena
Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller
In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation...
Full Text Available Introduction: Physician health and well-being is an important issue that ultimately affects job performance. We compared the self-reported incidence of known medical issues, physical and mental health symptoms, and health behaviors of Emergency Physicians (EPs with the general public in the United States. Methods: Questions selected from a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC about public health trends were distributed to via Facebook to a private group of 12,917 EPs. Responses were compared between EPs and the general population using Chi-square tests of independence. Results: Our results demonstrated that EPs suffer less from chronic diseases, especially those related to the cardiopulmonary system; however, they suff er from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain and infectious disease complaints. EPs also exhibit higher rates of mental health symptoms, sleep-related complications, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Awareness, education, and advocacy may help improve physician health and ultimately job performance.
MacDonald, Raymond A R
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components. PMID:23930991
Simpson, Lynn; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Dudiak, Kika M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Nyberg, David A; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis
Although there is limited evidence that antepartum testing decreases the risk for fetal death in low-risk pregnancies, women with high-risk factors for stillbirth should undergo antenatal fetal surveillance. The strongest evidence supporting antepartum testing pertains to pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. The main ultrasound-based modalities to determine fetal health are the biophysical profile, modified biophysical profile, and duplex Doppler velocimetry. In patients at risk for cardiovascular compromise, fetal echocardiography may also be indicated to ensure fetal well-being. Although no single antenatal test has been shown to be superior, all have high negative predictive values. Weekly or twice-weekly fetal testing has become the standard practice in high-risk pregnancies. The timing for the initiation of assessments of fetal well-being should be tailored on the basis of the risk for stillbirth and the likelihood of survival with intervention. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoonpongsimanont, W; Murphy, M; Kim, C H; Nasir, D; Compton, S
Emergency medicine (EM) residents are exposed to many work-related stressors, which affect them both physically and emotionally. It is unknown, however, how EM residents perceive the effect of these stressors on their well-being and how often they use unhealthy coping mechanisms to manage stress. To evaluate EM residents' perceptions of stressors related to their overall well-being and the prevalence of various coping mechanisms. An online survey instrument was developed to gauge resident stress, satisfaction with current lifestyle, stress coping mechanisms and demographics. A stratified random sample of EM residents from three postgraduate years (PGY-I, PGY-II and PGY-III) was obtained. Descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare residents across PGY level. There were 120 potential participants in each of the three PGYs. The overall response rate was 30% (109) with mean age of 30 and 61% were male. On a 0-4 scale (0 = completely dissatisfied), respondents in PGY-I reported significantly less satisfaction with lifestyle than those in PGY-II and III (mean rating: 1.29, 1.66 and 1.70, respectively; P stress categories: work relationships (1.37), work environment (1.10) and response to patients (1.08). Residents reported exercise (94%), hobbies (89%) and use of alcohol (71%) as coping methods. Residents reported low satisfaction with current lifestyle. This dissatisfaction was unrelated to perceived work-related stress. Some undesirable coping methods were prevalent, suggesting that training programs could focus on promotion of healthy group activities.
This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.
Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces. The surveillance was undertaken online and the data were encrypted and personal identifiers removed. The four clinical measures were Goldberg Anxiety/Depression Scale, Professional Quality of Life and Impact of Events (extended). Eighty-two per cent of 2798 CAIs returned questionnaires. There was a statistically significant relationship between all four clinical symptoms and workability (P < 0.001), between tenure and primary trauma (P < 0.01) and between anxiety, depression, primary trauma and workability and adverse childhood experience (ACE) scores (P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that workability, tenure and ACE scores explained between 12 and 23% of the variance. There were gender differences with women having higher levels of symptoms; however, the effect size and clinical significance were negligible for all but the primary trauma scores. Psychological surveillance can provide an important source of evidence for occupational health practitioners working with CAIs in informing them of the factors which could be considered in selecting, training, supporting and retaining officers and staff. Psychological surveillance can also help police management to identify ways to monitor the long-term effectiveness and well-being of CAIs.
Rabow, Michael W; Knish, Sarah J
Spiritual well-being is threatened by cancer, but its correlation with other illness symptoms and the efficacy of palliative care (PC) to ameliorate spiritual suffering are not well understood. We conducted a retrospective study using a convenience sample of oncology patients at a comprehensive cancer center who received concurrent oncologic and palliative care between 2008 and 2011 and completed ESAS, QUAL-E, and Steinhauser Spiritual well-being survey questions was conducted. Descriptive, correlation, and t test statistics. Eight hundred eighty-three patients surveyed had an average age of 65.6 years, with 54.1 % female, 69.3 % white, and 49.3 % married. Half (452, 51.2 %) had metastatic disease. Religious affiliation was reported as Christian by 20.3 %, Catholic by 18.7 %, and "none" by 39.0 %. Baseline spiritual well-being was not significantly correlated with age, gender, race, cancer stage, marital status, insurance provider, or having a religious affiliation. Greater spiritual well-being was correlated with greater quality of life (well-being (spiritual well-being and anxiety, depression, fatigue, and quality of life (R (2) = 0.677). Spiritual well-being improved comparing mean scores immediately prior to initial PC consultation with those at first follow-up (2.89 vs. 3.23 on a 1-5 scale, p = 0.005). Among patients with cancer receiving concurrent oncologic and palliative care, spiritual well-being was not associated with patient age, gender, or race, or disease stage. It was correlated with physical and emotional symptoms. Spiritual well-being scores improved from just prior to the initial PC consultation to just prior to the first PC follow-up visit.
Parker, Gordon B; Hyett, Matthew P
Because there has been a lack of a single comprehensive measure for assessing workplace well-being, we elected to develop such a self-report measure. Provisional items were extracted from the literature on "positive psychology" and were adapted to capture their workplace application. The provisional 50-item set was completed by a nonclinical sample of 150 adults. A second and third sample was recruited to examine its reliability and any impact of depressed mood and sociodemographic and work-related variables, respectively. Factor analysis identified four domains, "Work Satisfaction," "Organizational Respect for the Employee," "Employer Care," and a negative construct-"Intrusion of Work into Private Life." High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for the final 31-item measure, whereas there was no distinct impact of depressed mood on the scale scores. Work Satisfaction scale scores were influenced by job type. Gender effects were found for two of the four scales, whereas a longer period of employment inversely linked to Organizational Respect for the Employee and Employer Care scores and was conversely associated with higher Intrusion of Work into Private Life scores. The refined measure should enable individuals and employers to quantify the levels of support and well-being provided by employing organizations.
Psychological factors play an important part in sport participation. Besides influencing ... An area that is rapidly gaining more attention concerning the important role psychology plays in health and ..... The psychology of enhancing human performance. The ... Journal of Sport Management, 26(4): 322-334. JACKSON, S.A. ...
Ravalier, J M; Wegrzynek, P; Lawton, S
A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear. To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being. We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues. We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Demiris, George; Wouters, Eveline
Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology. In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing, and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured, and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots. In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being p...
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin
Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.
Hoffner, Cynthia A; Lee, Sangmi
This study examined the use of mobile phones to regulate negative emotions, considering both the role of different aspects of phone use and individual differences in emotion regulation strategies. A total of 287 young adult smartphone users completed an online survey that addressed use of mobile phones for negative emotion regulation. They responded to a phone loss scenario by rating how much they would miss various uses/functions of the phone (which could be involved in emotion regulation). Habitual use of reappraisal to regulate emotion was associated with missing both interpersonal contact and social support, but not access to entertainment/information. In contrast, habitual use of emotion suppression was associated only with missing entertainment/information content. Regulating negative emotions via mobile phone was associated with missing all three uses/functions of the phone, but perception that the phone was effective in remediating negative emotion was associated only with missing social support. Well-being was related to greater use and perceived effectiveness of the mobile phone for emotion regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that mobile phones can yield psychological benefits, depending on how they are used. Findings suggest that using the phone for social support is most likely to lead to effective remediation of negative emotion. Interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.
Using the experience sampling method and survey data from the 500 Family Study this study examined how parents feel when they spend time with their children and whether their emotional experiences differ by type of activity and the parent's gender. I found that mothers spent more time in childcare than fathers but this disparity was primarily due to mothers' more frequent engagement in activities that were not child-centered (i.e., non-focused and passive childcare). Multilevel models further showed that engagement in these activities was related to higher positive affect. Shared meals and leisure activities were particularly beneficial to parents' emotional well-being and the likelihood of engaging in them was not affected by parents' paid work hours. By contrast, routine childcare was associated with increased stress and lower engagement but only among mothers. Mothers were also less likely to provide childcare in conjunction with their spouse. These findings reveal the subtle dimensions of the unequal division of childcare by gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.
Strickhouser, Jason E; Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan
To derive a robust and comprehensive estimate of the overall relation between Big Five personality traits and health variables using metasynthesis (i.e., second-order meta-analysis). Thirty-six meta-analyses, which collectively provided 150 meta-analytic effects from over 500,000 participants, met criteria for inclusion in the metasynthesis. Information on methodological quality as well as the type of health outcome, unreliability adjustment, population sampled, health outcome source, personality source, and research design was extracted from each meta-analysis. An unweighted model was used to aggregate data across meta-analyses. When entered simultaneously, the Big Five traits were moderately associated with overall health (multiple R = .35). Personality-health relations were larger when examining mental health outcomes than physical health outcomes or health-related behaviors and when researchers adjusted for measurement unreliability, used self-report as opposed to other-report Big Five scales, or focused on clinical as opposed to nonclinical samples. Further, effects were larger among agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism than extraversion or openness to experience. This metasynthesis provides among the most compelling evidence to date that personality predicts overall health and well-being. In addition, it may inform research on the mechanisms by which personality impacts health as well as research on the structure of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Drake, Charles L.
In the symposium on Earth Sciences and Society at the Spring AGU Meeting May 29-June 1, Baltimore, Md.), I was assigned to speak on the maintenance of excellence and national well-being in the Earth sciences. I developed serious writer's block every time I approached the topic until I remembered a paragraph at the beginning of Doug Adams' great text, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe [Adams, 1982]. It tells how [A race of highly intelligent pan-dimensional beings once built themselves a gigantic supercomputer called Deep Thought to calculate once and for all the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, Universe and Everything. For seven and a half million years, Deep Thought computed and calculated, and in the end announced that the answer was in fact Forty-two—and so another, even bigger, computer had to be built to find out what the actual question was. And this computer, which was called the Earth, was so large that it was frequently mistaken for a planet-especially by the strange apelike beings who roamed its surface, totally unaware that they were simply part of a gigantic computer program. And this is very odd, because without that fairly simple and obvious piece of knowledge, nothing that ever happened on the Earth could possibly make the slightest bit of sense.
Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P
Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.
Schattner, Peter; Mazalin, Dennis; Pier, Ciaran; Wainer, Jo; Ling, Mee Yoke
To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Survey response rate of 51% (102/199). Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS) and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS). Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors); similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.
Bae, Wonyul; Ik Suh, Young; Ryu, Jungsu; Heo, Jinmoo
The objective of this study was to identify the interconnectedness of different intensity levels of physical activity and psychological (life satisfaction and positive affect) and physical (physical health) well-being. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States with assessments in 2004 and aged 25 to 74 living in the United States were included in the analyses. We conducted bivariate correlations to examine significant relationships among the study variables. In addition, after multicollinearity among the independent variable was checked, a series of hierarchical regression analyses with physical health, positive affect, and life satisfaction as criterion variables were conducted. The results showed that light physical activities were positively associated with physical health and life satisfaction in summer, whereas light physical activities and all dependent variables were positively correlated in winter. Furthermore, engaging in moderate physical activities was positively related only with physical health. Meanwhile, vigorous physical activities were not associated with life satisfaction, physical health, and positive affect in summer and winter.
Lakatos, Enikő; Szabó, Gábor; F Szigeti, Judit; Balog, Piroska
10 to 15% of the Hungarian fertile age population struggles with reproductivity problems. Previous researches have shown that psychological well-being and lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in overall health status, which is closely related to fertility. The aim of the study was to examine fertility-related psychological and lifestyle factors in a Hungarian sample. 194 women (115 infertile and 79 fertile) took part in the study. Standardized, validated questionnaires were used for the assessment of psychological factors and self-administered questions were used for exploring lifestyle factors. The results show that infertile women are younger (33.98±4.89 vs. 36.43±5.81 years, pfertile counterparts. The number of their depressive (BDI 14.00±12.21 vs. 7.79±9.17, p40.25±10.65, pfertile women. Findings related to lifestyle factors show that lower level of fluid consumption (1.71±0.67 vs. 1.95±0.68, pfertile group (OR = 1.65, CI = 2.58-1.06), independently of body mass index and age. The results confirm the findings of international researches showing that women struggling with infertility are in worse psychological condition than their fertile counterparts. The authors conclude that the findings demand further investigations and follow-up studies in order to more specifically determine the relationship between fluid consumption and fertility.
Rafnsdóttir, Guðbjœrg Linda; Tómasson, Kristinn
The study assessed the association between well-being, work-environment and employees? health among the personnel in savings- and other banks? branches with reference to whether they had been exposed to bullying at work. A questionnaire based on the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work was sent to all employees (N=1847) in the spring of 2002. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical package. The response rate was 80% with 1475 employees returning the questionnaire. Women were 86% (n=1192) of the responders. About 15% of the employees (n=209) had experienced some form of harassment in connection with work. The majority of those had experienced bullying (8% (n=110)). The victims of bullying were more likely to have poor psychosocial work-environment and were less likely to have experienced a positive relationship with supervisors and other staff. There was only minimal association between bullying and seeking medical attention for a selected number of medical conditions. The victims of bullying were more likely to have experienced significant stress recently (p=0.025), to be mentally exhausted at the end of the workday (p=0.013), to have significant sleep difficulties (p=0.001), and poor mental health (pworkplace, that they will quit their job. In light of this it is of importance to study the experience of bullying among those receiving benefits due to long-term sickness absence or disability.
Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl
Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.
Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G
To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Ploukou, Stella; Panagopoulou, Efharis
Nurses experience high levels of stress associated with the demands of their workplace. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common in this occupational group and the necessity of supportive actions is vital. This is especially true for nurses working in high intensity and demanding settings such as oncology units. This study examined the effects of a music intervention on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms of oncology nurses. Forty-eight oncology nurses, were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 22) attending four consecutive weekly 1-h music classes or a control group with no intervention (n = 26) who maintained their usual lifestyle habits, for one month. Intervention group played and improvised music using percussion instruments. Courses consisted of varied multitask exercises of progressive difficulty, sometimes involving team playing, or individual performances. Depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms were measured before and after the end of the intervention. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychosomatic symptoms were assessed with Pennebaker Inventory οf Limbic Languidness. Anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms significantly reduced for the intervention group at the end of the study. No statistical significant change was observed for the control group in any of the three psychological indicators. The findings of our study highlight the fact that music can be a cost-effective resource in developing interventions to reduce stress and improve well-being. Playing music can be the next step for further investigation, since we already know that listening to music is beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Collins, Rebecca L; Strasburger, Victor C; Brown, Jane D; Donnerstein, Edward; Lenhart, Amanda; Ward, L Monique
Sexual content is highly prevalent in traditional media, and portrayals rarely depict the responsibilities and risks (eg, condom use, pregnancy) associated with sexual activity. Exposure to such content is linked with shifts in attitudes about sex and gender, earlier progression to sexual activity, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection among adolescents. However, little information is available about moderators and mediators of these effects. We also know little about digital media, their sex-related content, and their potential influence on youth. Data from a few studies of older youth indicate that sexual displays on social media sites are related to problematic beliefs and behaviors among those who post this content and among viewers. Online pornography appears to be more problematic for youth than off-line sources. Given the vast and increasing amount of time youth spend online and their developmental openness to influence, more research attention to digital sexual media is needed. Those who undertake this work should identify potential negative consequences of use and opportunities to improve adolescent sexual health through digital media. Studies of on- and off-line media in which researchers examine younger media audiences, identify processes explaining sexual media effects on behavior, and moderators of effects are needed. Such studies could be used to inform interventions to reduce negative outcomes and increase positive media effects. Policy makers should stimulate the development of such interventions, including tools to help parents identify and manage negative media influences on their children's sexual well-being and development and dissemination of innovative media literacy programs related to sexual health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency
van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W
Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.
Although women's rights proposals included in the International Conference on Population and Development deserve support on their own merit, governments are more likely to increase funding for human development if the environmental and economic advantages of investing in women are spelled out. A significant negative association between income growth and population growth emerged in the 1980s. During this decade, 41 countries where population was growing more slowly demonstrated an average income growth of 1.23% per year, while average income fell by an average of 1.25% per year in 41 countries where there was more rapid population growth. In the 1965-80 period, there was no such correlation. Moreover, population control is among the most effective measures for protecting the environment. If--through female education, women's rights, maternal-child health, and family planning--the United Nations' low population projection existed in the year 2050 as opposed to the medium projection (2.2 billion higher), 4.4 million square kilometers of land would be saved and there would be 9.3 billion tones less in carbon dioxide emissions per year. This would be equivalent to halting all current deforestation and a 26% improvement in global energy improvement. Achievement of the low projection would further result in 342 million fewer cases of malnutrition than the medium projection.
Carlisle, Sandra; Hanlon, Phil
The concept of well-being is now of interest to many disciplines; as a consequence, it presents an increasingly complex and contested territory. We suggest that much current thinking about well-being can be summarized in terms of four main discourses: scientific, popular, critical and environmental. Exponents of the scientific discourse argue that subjective well-being is now static or declining in developed countries: a paradox for economists, as incomes have grown considerably. Psychological observations on the loss of subjective well-being have also entered popular awareness, in simplified form, and conceptions of well-being as happiness are now influencing contemporary political debate and policy-making. These views have not escaped criticism. Philosophers understand well-being as part of a flourishing human life, not just happiness. Some social theorists critique the export of specific cultural concepts of well-being as human universals. Others view well-being as a potentially divisive construct that may contribute to maintaining social inequalities. Environmentalists argue that socio-cultural patterns of over-consumption, within the neo-liberal economies of developed societies, present an impending ecological threat to individual, social and global well-being. As the four discourses carry different implications for action, we conclude by considering their varied utility and applicability for health promotion.
Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them. PMID:23764186
Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja
The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people's spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.
Full Text Available Abstract Given the lack of instruments to measure both affective and cognitive elements of well-being at work, the objective of this study is to look for evidence of validity in the US regarding the well-being at work scale, which was first validated in Brazil to measure employee well-being perceptions. Two studies using two different American samples of 809 participants in total were conducted for the exploratory and confirmatory validation of the scale. Construct validity was determined using convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity, which was assessed using a structural equation model to determine a correlation between well-being at work and human resources management practices. This research provides a comprehensive and operationally valid measure of well-being in work settings. The three-factor model can be used as a diagnostic tool for managers who wish to identify and improve the well-being of their work teams.
Leão, Zelinda M A N; Kikuchi, Ruy K P
Coral species composition of drilled cores from emergent bank reefs, and coral cover of the surface of old and living reefs located along the coast of the state of Bahia, Eastern Brazil, revealed that there is a marked change in the occurrence of the major building coral species in different time intervals of the reef structure, as well as in the living surface of reefs located in two different geographical sites. Holocene core sections from two reef areas (12 degrees 40'S-38 degrees 00'W and 18 degrees 00'S-39 degrees 00'W) have as major reef builders, on its topmost core interval (3 to 4 ky old), the endemic coral Mussismilia braziliensis Verrill, 1868, which also dominate on the 2.5-3.5 ky old surfaces of truncated reef tops. At the base of the cores (the 2m lower interval, older than 4 ky BP), another endemic coral Mussismilia harttii Verrill, 1868 is the dominant reef component. The relative abundance of M. braziliensis on the living surfaces of shallow reefs from both areas, shows that in the southern area, it is up to 98% on reefs located 60 km off the coast, in depths between 3 and 4m, but do not exceed 1.3% on the surface of the northern reefs located 1-2 km off the coast in depths 4-5m. The Holocene falling sea level that occurred along the coast of Brazil since 5.1 ky BP, causes an increasing runoff into the area of coastal reefs. This phenomenon may have affected the nearshore reef building fauna, replacing a more susceptive coral fauna with one better adapted to low light levels and higher sediment influx. The high turbidity associated with early Holocene shelf flooding, should also be responsible for the absence of M. braziliensis during the initial stages of reef buildup in Brazil. At the present time, the rapidly increasing human pressure, due to changes in land uses of the coastal zone (increasing sedimentation rate, nutrification of coastal waters, industrial pollution) and underwater practices, such as overfishing and an intense tourism, is
Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar
Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.
Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.
Luo, Yangmei; Chen, Xuhai; Qi, Senqing; You, Xuqun; Huang, Xiting
Anticipation for future confers great benefits to human well-being and mental health. However, previous work focus on how people's well-being correlate with brain activities during perception of emotional stimuli, rather than anticipation for the future events. Here, the current study investigated how well-being relates to neural circuitry underlying the anticipating process of future desired events. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, 40 participants were scanned while they were performing an emotion anticipation task, in which they were instructed to anticipate the positive or neutral events. The results showed that bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) were activated during anticipation for positive events relative to neutral events, and the enhanced brain activation in MPFC was associated with higher level of well-being. The findings suggest a neural mechanism by which the anticipation process to future desired events correlates to human well-being, which provide a future-oriented view on the neural sources of well-being.
Zang, Zheng; Zou, Xin- Qing
China is advocating ecological civilization construction nowadays. Further researches on the relation between ecosystem service and humanity well-being are full of theoretical and practical significance. Combining related researches, this paper defined the concept and connotation of ecological well-being based on ecosystem service theory. Referencing theory of national economic accounting and relative researches, the evaluation indicators of ecological well-being supply and consumption were established. The quantitative characterization and evaluation method of red line of regional ecological well-being was proposed on the basis of location quotient. Then the evaluation of ecological well-being in mainland China in 2012 was set as an example for empirical research. The results showed that the net product values of 6 ecosystems, includingcultivated land, forest land, grassland, wetland, water area and unused land, were respectively 1481.925, 8194.806, 4176.277, 4245.760, 3177.084 and 133.762 billion CNY. Spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem net product in different provinces was distinct. Ecological well-being per capita of forest land, grassland, wetland, cultivated land and unused land in eastern and middle provinces were under the red line and less than the national average. The spatial distribution of 9 kinds of ecological well-being per capita split at Hu's line with high value in northwest and low value in southeast, and was aggravated by differences in density of population and land resources gift.
Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L
The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to explore the contribution of spiritual well-being and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) symptoms to psychological well-being measured by depression, hope, and state-trait anxiety in a sample of 117 African-American men and women with a mean age of 38 years living with HIV disease. Of the respondents, 26% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 74% were HIV seropositive. Each participant completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Sign and Symptom Checklist for Persons with HIV Disease, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Nowotny Hope Scale, State-Trait Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings suggest that existential well-being, a spiritual indicator of meaning and purpose, more than religious well-being, was significantly related to the participants' psychological well-being. In addition, HIV symptoms were found to be significant predictors of psychological well-being. These findings support the need for nurses to continue exploring ways to integrate and support spirituality within the domains of clinical practice.
Johnson, Anna D; Markowitz, Anna J
To investigate associations between household food insecurity and multiple family well-being variables in an effort to illuminate previously understudied, policy-amenable mechanisms through which food insecurity threatens healthy development. Data are drawn from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort contains longitudinal data on household food insecurity and several family well-being factors including maternal physical and mental health, positive parenting practices and disciplinary strategies, and frequency and severity of spousal conflict. We use regression models with lagged dependent variables to estimate associations between food insecurity and family well-being outcomes, on a subsample of low-income families (N ≈ 2100-4700). Household food insecurity was significantly associated with poorer maternal physical health; increased depressive symptoms and use of harsh discipline strategies; and greater frequency and negativity of conflict between parents. Associations were strongest and most consistent when children were preschool aged. Transitions into food insecurity between toddlerhood and preschool were also associated with significantly worse parental physical and mental health outcomes, and more family conflict, with similar though slightly weaker and less consistent associations for transitioning into food insecurity between infancy and toddlerhood. Food insecurity is associated with significant decreases in family health and well-being. Clinicians and other public health officials play a critical role in assessing risk for children and families, and linking families with supportive services. Screening families experiencing or at risk for food insecurity and connecting them with resources is an avenue through which public health practitioners can support family health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades, the positive psychology considered as an ability of human being which are provided appropriate studies in well-being and happiness domains. In this way, the purpose of current research was to identify the effect of aerobic dancing on psychological well-being of non-athletic male students. Materials and Methods: The research method was of a quasi-experimental nature in the form of a time-series design using experimental and control groups. 40 non-athlete students (21.6±1.82 years old from General physical Education 1 course in Birjand University were randomly selected and assign to two groups. The Ryff's scales of psychological well-being were used to analyze the psychological well-being parameters in the pre-test and post-test of training. The training protocol was including 12 weeks, and 3 seasons (60 minutes per week that each subject in experimental group received 15 minutes warm-up, 30 minute aerobic training and 15 minutes cool-down and relaxation training. Results: The results of repeated measure analysis of variance indicated significant differences in psychological well-being and its subdivisions in the 3 phases of tests in the experimental group (p<0.01. Moreover, the results of t-test showed the positive influence of 12 weeks aerobic training on psychological well-being of the student boys (first post-test, p<0.001; second post-test, p<0.001, and well-being scores of aerobic group was higher than control group. Conclusion: The result of the present research emphasizes the factors affecting on psychological well-being as well as its ways to promote of well-being. Implications of these findings are discussed among exercise psychologists.
Erika S. Svendsen; Mary E. Northridge; Sara S. Metcalf
One of the enduring lessons of cities is the essential relationship between grey infrastructure (e.g., streets and buildings) and green infrastructure (e.g., parks and open spaces). The design and management of natural resources to enhance human health and well-being may be traced back thousands of years to the earliest urban civilizations. From the irrigation projects...
Voorde, F.C. van de; Paauwe, J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van
There is a lack of consensus on the role of employee well-being in the human resource management–organizational performance relationship. This review examines which of the competing perspectives –‘mutual gains’ or ‘conflicting outcomes’– is more appropriate for describing this role of employee
Wichmann, Sonia Secher
According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.
Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S
In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status
Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva
The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…
Hagger, Hazel; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
Human goal-processes are conceptualised in an action-theoretic model of motivation, in line with discourse on self-directed teachers. Eighty-eight pre-service teachers reported ideographic professionally-related goals "and" concerns, future-time extension of the goals, and well-being (self-esteem and depression). Thirteen goal and fifteen concern…
Ala-Kortesmaa, Sanna; Isotalus, Pekka
This qualitative cross-cultural study sought to contribute to the understanding of listening competence, dialogic listening, and the use of human agency in promoting well-being at work. The participant groups ("N" = 103) consisted of "n" = 76 U.S.-American and "n" = 27 Finnish attorneys. Results suggest that in order…
Full Text Available Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1 Tengku Aizan Hamid,1,2 Rahimah Ibrahim1,21Institute of Gerontology, 2Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people's attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents.Methods: Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA.Results: Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55 than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P≤0.001. The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587=120.21; P≤0.001; η2=0.122] after controlling for sex.Conclusion: Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people.Keywords: aged, ageism, emotional well-being, positive aging
Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Porter, James W; Turner, Jeffrey W; Thomas, Brian J; Looney, Erin E; Luna, Trevor P; Meyers, Meredith K; Futch, J Carrie; Lipp, Erin K
Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bournoni. Identification of PDR60 in sewage, diseased Acropora palmata and other reef invertebrates within a discrete time frame suggests a causal link between white pox and sewage contamination on reefs and supports the conclusion that humans are a likely source of this disease.
Debiasi, Laura B; Reynolds, Annette; Buckner, Ellen B
The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined mental health in children to be a priority area for evidence-based interventions. Effective and efficient screening methods are needed to assess emotional well-being of children from diverse cultures. This descriptive study examined two tools for feasibility, sensitivity, cultural appropriateness, and cost/time effectiveness. Emotional well-being was conceptualized using the Roy Adaptation Model as part of the self-concept adaptive mode. Emotional indicators were measured from Human Figure Drawings. Anxiety was measured using a modification of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Survey (RCMAS). The sample included 11 girls who were 7 to 12 years of age and recruited from a girls' orphanage in Honduras. Results indicated the Human Figure Drawings identified more children possibly at risk than the RCMAS. Human Figure Drawings were found to be a time/cost-effective, sensitive, and culturally appropriate means for measuring emotional well-being in the setting. This study contributes to nursing knowledge by demonstrating feasibility of the screening tools for measuring emotional well-being of children in varied cultures.
Di Fabio, Annamaria
This article discusses the contribution of the psychology of sustainability and sustainable development to well-being in organizations from a primary prevention perspective. It deals with sustainability not only in terms of the ecological, economic, and social environment but also in terms of improving the quality of life of every human being. The psychology of sustainability and sustainable development is seen as a primary prevention perspective that can foster well-being in organizations at all the different levels going from the worker, to the group, to the organization, and also to inter-organizational processes. The possibilities for further research and interventions are also discussed.
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The objective of this article is to illustrate the use of a framework to design a set of tools to assess progress towards improved well-being in a mining region. The framework uses an ecosystem approach to assess human well-being and is sensitive to the needs, concerns, and interests of at least the major stakeholders: government, company and community. The framework seeks to be useful to stakeholders and to be of policy relevance. The article presents the proposed framework with illustrations from a case study in Goa, India. Mining in Goa has had both positive and negative impacts on the well-being of local people. These impacts vary depending on the age of mining. In areas where mining is well established and active, the economic impacts are more positive. The social and environmental impacts are more negative in the regions where mining is new or is closing down. These characteristics generate their own set of issues of concern to stakeholders. Based on these issues, three types of tools to assess current well-being and progress towards improved well-being are suggested: (i) Indicators based on identified issues using the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework; (ii) A quality of life instrument, which can be developed either as an aggregate measure of well-being or in a more limited way to capture the satisfaction of the community with their living conditions; (iii) A regional income accounting framework to assess whether the mining region is able to continue functioning into the indefinite future without being forced into a decline through the degradation of its key natural, social, and human assets and resources. The article suggests that if these tools are used regularly, an information system will emerge that will, over time, provide markers of what mining is doing to the region and to the local communities. (author)
Full Text Available The topic of the well-being of human and society has always interested the great thinkers of the humankind. However, conceptually, as a problem of the state and public, this topic fully emerged only in the aftermath of the Second World War in the past century, and it became especially topical in the mid-60s, when a special organization was founded on the basis of the United Nations Organization, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 1965. Well-being became a popular topic for various sociopolitical, socio-economic, cultural, and historical theoretical research and applied programmes. However, there is no unanimously agreed definition of this category or an unanimously agreed approach to its research and evaluation of its value and importance to the human and the society. The present article continues a cycle of the author’s articles devoted to the research of human well-being in nowadays conditions. It looks into the basic concepts, conceptual grounds, and contradictions shaping the key aspects of this broad topic, as well as the fundamental causes and possible methodological misconceptions influencing both their development and the attitude to them of a human, society, state. The article provides extensive statistical data which illustrate the enormous, egregious ill-being of a large part of human society in the modern world. Also, in the article we have undertaken an attempt to define well-being as a multiple-aspect concept and to present a detailed analysis of fundamental causes of the modern ill-being on a massive scale.
Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan
Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)
Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.
Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799
Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Fuchshuber, Jürgen; Dröscher, Heidrun; Vajda, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human F.
The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions – ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality – interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality – formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation – might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being. A total sample of 167 (78% female) student participants completed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (primary emotions), the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (higher emotions). Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality. Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed. From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. Hence, CARE as well as Agreeableness seem of special importance. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups. PMID:29615950
Hiebler-Ragger, Michaela; Fuchshuber, Jürgen; Dröscher, Heidrun; Vajda, Christian; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human F
The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions - ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality - interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality - formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation - might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being. A total sample of 167 (78% female) student participants completed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (primary emotions), the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (higher emotions). Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality. Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed. From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. Hence, CARE as well as Agreeableness seem of special importance. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups.
Full Text Available The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions – ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality – interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality – formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation – might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being. A total sample of 167 (78% female student participants completed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (primary emotions, the Big Five Personality Inventory and the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (higher emotions. Correlation analyses confirmed the link between primary and higher emotions as well as their relation to personality. Further regression analyses indicated that personality dimensions mediate the relationship between primary and higher emotions. A substantial interaction between primary emotions, personality dimensions, and religious/spiritual well-being could be confirmed. From a developmental perspective, cortical top-down regulation might influence religious/spiritual well-being by forming relevant personality dimensions. Hence, CARE as well as Agreeableness seem of special importance. Future studies might focus on implications for clinical groups.
Sanderson, Warren; Striessnig, Erich; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus
Over the past decade, India has experienced rapid economic growth along with increases in levels of air pollution. Our goal is to examine how alternative policies for air pollution abatement affect well-being there. In particular, we estimate the effects of policies to reduce the levels of ambient fine particulates (PM2.5), which are especially harmful to human health, on well-being, quantified using the United Nations' human development index (HDI). Two of the three dimensions of this index are based on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and life expectancy. Our approach allows reductions in PM2.5 to affect both of them. In particular, economic growth is affected negatively through the costs of the additional pollution control measures and positively through the increased productivity of the population. We consider three scenarios of PM2.5 abatement, corresponding to no further control, current Indian legislation, and current European legislation. The overall effect in both control scenarios is that growth in GDP is virtually unaffected relative to the case of no further controls, life expectancy is higher, and well-being, as measured by the HDI, is improved. In India, air pollution abatement investments clearly improve well-being.
Šarotar Žižek, Simona; Mulej, Matjaž; Milfelner, Borut
Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB) to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH) statistically significant negatively affects sub...
Natale, Alfredo; Di Martino, Salvatore; Procentese, Fortuna; Arcidiacono, Caterina
This contribution sets out to combine the perspective of the degrowth paradigm with that of Critical Community psychology. Following the degrowth argument, the advancement of human well-being calls for a shift from growth-based societies to ones grounded in the ethos of degrowth. In this regard, we acknowledge the necessity for both theoretical principles and examples of good practice, which can lead to this transition. To this end, the article combines some of the underlying principles of th...
Šarotar Žižek Simona; Mulej Matjaž; Milfelner Borut
Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB) to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH) statistically significant negatively affects sub...
At our core, or coeur, we humans are spiritual beings. Spirituality can be viewed in a variety of ways from a traditional understanding of spirituality as an expression of religiosity, in search of the sacred, through to a humanistic view of spirituality devoid of religion. Health is also multi-faceted, with increasing evidence reporting the relationship of spirituality with physical, mental, emotional, social and vocational well-being. This paper presents spiritual health as a, if not THE, f...
Full Text Available We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding 'the good life.' Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60 were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal. Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P.3. Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not
Singh, Kamlesh; Jain, Anjali; Kaur, Jasleen; Junnarkar, Mohita; Slezackova, Alena
Indian perspective of human nature and personality are often viewed through a trigunas perspective-Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. The current study investigated the triadic gunas and well-being dimensions across 3 nations India (n=493; 194 males and 299 females; mean age=21.73 years, SD=3.23), USA (n=302; 80 males and 222 females; mean age=22.90years, SD=2.78) and Czech Republic (n=353; 67 males and 286 females; mean age=22.29years, SD=2.29) with a total of 1148 participants. Triguna Personality (Vedic Personality inventory) and well- being dimensions measured by Mental Health Continuum- Short Form, Flourishing scale and the Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (MHC-SF, FS and SPANE) differed across countries. Triguna were correlated with MHC-SF and its clusters, FS and SPANE. Regression analysis revealed that Trigunas accounted significantly for well-being dimensions, for instance, Sattva accounted for 48% variance in Czechs, 56% in Indians and 55% in Americans, Rajas accounted for 21% variance in Czechs, 08% in Indians and 54% in Americans and Tamas accounted for 50% variance in Czechs, 20% in Indians and 64% in Americans. The results reinforce that trigunas personality significantly predict well-being dimensions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cultural dimensions of Hofstede’s model were developed in different models of cultural influences in business. Erin Meyer, the author of the Culture Map, uses eight scales for defining a national cultural profile. The database of cultural profiles for some states of the World was built in time, by business leaders and it can be dynamically updated by adding the answers of new respondents to the online questionnaire. The performances of economic and social organizations influence the well-being of their nations. The paper uses the estimations of the national cultural profiles from Erin Meyer’s database and some indicators which characterize the well-being, like: human development index (HDI, the corruption perceptions index, the unemployment rate and inequality-adjusted HDI, in order to define how the culture influences the well-being. Using the Analysis of Principal Components in SPSS, there can be found the position of the analyzed countries about well-being in relation with their national cultural profile in businesses, in 2013.
Full Text Available In urban environments, green spaces have proven to act as ameliorating factors of some climatic features related to heat stress, reducing their effects and providing comfortable outdoor settings for people. In addition, green spaces have demonstrated greater capacity, compared with built-up areas, for promoting human health and well-being. In this paper, we present results of a study conducted in Italy with the general goal to contribute to the theoretical and empirical rationale for linking green spaces with well-being in urban environments. Specifically, the study focused on the physical and psychological benefits and the general well-being associated with the use of green spaces on people when heat stress episodes are more likely to occur. A questionnaire was set up and administered to users of selected green spaces in Italy (metropolitan area of Milan and Bari - n=400. Results indicate that longer and frequent visits of green spaces generate significant improvements of the perceived benefits and well-being among users. These results are consistent with the idea that the use of green spaces could alleviate the perception of thermal discomfort during periods of heat stress.
Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Information about the work-related well-being and coping strategies of hospital pharmacists could be used to plan individual and organisational interventions which can be used to retain them and to manage their well-being and performance. Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A stratified random sample (N = 187 of pharmacists in South African hospitals was studied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Pharmacist Stress Inventory and the COPE questionnaire were administered. Main findings: The results showed that job related stress and three coping strategies (approach coping, avoidant coping, and turning to religion predicted burnout and work engagement of South African hospital pharmacists. Practical implications: Job stressors that are in the main responsible for the unfavourable work environment and that lead to the development of burnout amongst hospital pharmacists should be addressed. It is also important to enhance the coping capabilities of the hospital pharmacists. Contribution/value-add: The findings of this study provide insight into the factors impacting on the work-related well-being of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.
Kathryn Patterson Sutherland
Full Text Available Coral reefs are in severe decline. Infections by the human pathogen Serratia marcescens have contributed to precipitous losses in the common Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, culminating in its listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. During a 2003 outbreak of this coral disease, called acroporid serratiosis (APS, a unique strain of the pathogen, Serratia marcescens strain PDR60, was identified from diseased A. palmata, human wastewater, the non-host coral Siderastrea siderea and the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata. In order to examine humans as a source and other marine invertebrates as vectors and/or reservoirs of the APS pathogen, challenge experiments were conducted with A. palmata maintained in closed aquaria to determine infectivity of strain PDR60 from reef and wastewater sources. Strain PDR60 from wastewater and diseased A. palmata caused disease signs in elkhorn coral in as little as four and five days, respectively, demonstrating that wastewater is a definitive source of APS and identifying human strain PDR60 as a coral pathogen through fulfillment of Koch's postulates. A. palmata inoculated with strain PDR60 from C. abbreviata showed limited virulence, with one of three inoculated fragments developing APS signs within 13 days. Strain PDR60 from non-host coral S. siderea showed a delayed pathogenic effect, with disease signs developing within an average of 20 days. These results suggest that C. abbreviata and non-host corals may function as reservoirs or vectors of the APS pathogen. Our results provide the first example of a marine "reverse zoonosis" involving the transmission of a human pathogen (S. marcescens to a marine invertebrate (A. palmata. These findings underscore the interaction between public health practices and environmental health indices such as coral reef survival.
Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Shaban, Sameera; Joyner, Jessica L; Porter, James W; Lipp, Erin K
Coral reefs are in severe decline. Infections by the human pathogen Serratia marcescens have contributed to precipitous losses in the common Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, culminating in its listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. During a 2003 outbreak of this coral disease, called acroporid serratiosis (APS), a unique strain of the pathogen, Serratia marcescens strain PDR60, was identified from diseased A. palmata, human wastewater, the non-host coral Siderastrea siderea and the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata. In order to examine humans as a source and other marine invertebrates as vectors and/or reservoirs of the APS pathogen, challenge experiments were conducted with A. palmata maintained in closed aquaria to determine infectivity of strain PDR60 from reef and wastewater sources. Strain PDR60 from wastewater and diseased A. palmata caused disease signs in elkhorn coral in as little as four and five days, respectively, demonstrating that wastewater is a definitive source of APS and identifying human strain PDR60 as a coral pathogen through fulfillment of Koch's postulates. A. palmata inoculated with strain PDR60 from C. abbreviata showed limited virulence, with one of three inoculated fragments developing APS signs within 13 days. Strain PDR60 from non-host coral S. siderea showed a delayed pathogenic effect, with disease signs developing within an average of 20 days. These results suggest that C. abbreviata and non-host corals may function as reservoirs or vectors of the APS pathogen. Our results provide the first example of a marine "reverse zoonosis" involving the transmission of a human pathogen (S. marcescens) to a marine invertebrate (A. palmata). These findings underscore the interaction between public health practices and environmental health indices such as coral reef survival.
Full Text Available At our core, or coeur, we humans are spiritual beings. Spirituality can be viewed in a variety of ways from a traditional understanding of spirituality as an expression of religiosity, in search of the sacred, through to a humanistic view of spirituality devoid of religion. Health is also multi-faceted, with increasing evidence reporting the relationship of spirituality with physical, mental, emotional, social and vocational well-being. This paper presents spiritual health as a, if not THE, fundamental dimension of people’s overall health and well-being, permeating and integrating all the other dimensions of health. Spiritual health is a dynamic state of being, reflected in the quality of relationships that people have in up to four domains of spiritual well-being: Personal domain where a person intra-relates with self; Communal domain, with in-depth inter-personal relationships; Environmental domain, connecting with nature; Transcendental domain, relating to some-thing or some‑One beyond the human level. The Four Domains Model of Spiritual Health and Well‑Being embraces all extant world-views from the ardently religious to the atheistic rationalist.
Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W
The weight of scientific evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence. This evidence arises from individual studies over wide ranges of time and geographic location, and from two extensive meta-analyses. Complex pathways that underlie this association are not fully understood; however, increased ambient temperatures and extremes of rainfall, with their resultant adverse impacts on the environment and risk factors for violence, appear to play key roles. Collective violence due to climate change poses serious threats to health and human rights, including by causing morbidity and mortality directly and also indirectly by damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of society, forcing people to migrate from their homes and communities, damaging the environment, and diverting human and financial resources. This paper also briefly addresses issues for future research on the relationship between climate change and collective violence, the prevention of collective violence due to climate change, and States' obligations to protect human rights, to prevent collective violence, and to promote and support measures to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Copyright © 2014 Levy and Sidel. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Full Text Available Stock-breeding is one of the oldest human occupations. A fact that has always raised interest is that the breeder’s degree of involvement influences the animals’ well-being. Some elements of the breeder’s personality, his character, aptitudes and skills, are significant for the organization of the farm so that it becomes profitable, especially in creating proper life conditions for the animals, as well as insuring an optimal atmosphere for the employees. One of the breeder’s standards is the animal’s well-being. It can be achieved with the help of the breeder’s skills, efficient farm management and due to proper and well maintained equipment, thus adding up to the breeder’s managerial qualities.
Ryan, R M; Deci, E L
Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Full Text Available Aiming to determine which management practice has the strongest influence on the subjective well-being (SWB of employees, three workplaces were assessed with reference to different levels of total participation management (TPM, an innovative approach to human resource management. The study examined whether the level of TPM is positively related with SWB, defined according to Diener’s (1984 affective and cognitive facets of work. The psychological explanation of the predicted dependence was the level of satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness distinguished by Deci and Ryan (2000a. The hypothesis about a positive relationship between SWB and TPM was confirmed. Results indicate that the least participative company has employees with the lowest subjective well-being and with the lowest satisfaction of basic psychological needs.
Full Text Available Recently a compassionate love scale was developed to assess compassionate love or altruistic love for different targets (e.g., romantic partner, close others and all the humanity; Sprecher & Fehr, 2005. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Compassionate Love Scale in the Portuguese context. In addition, it has been examined how compassionate love for a romantic partner was related to socio-demographic variables, love styles, and subjective well-being. Two hundred and eighty one men and women participated (42% of women with a mean age of 21.89. All participants were currently in a romantic relationship. The Compassionate Love Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, our predictions were supported, as those who experience high levels of compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros and altruistic love (Agape, and subjective well-being.
Full Text Available Orientation: It is important to investigate the determinants of well-being among working women. Given the unique demographic diversity within the South African context, differences in the experience of well-being among women are expected. Purpose: The study investigated the effects of age, race, marital status and educational status on psychological meaningfulness, life satisfaction, work–family conflict and social support of working women. Motivation: With the increase of women in the workplace, there is a need for knowledge and understanding of the factors that influence the well-being of women. This study aims to investigate demographic variables as determinants of well-being among working women. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were used to gather data from a sample (n = 540 of women from various South African companies. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale (PMS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, the WorkRole Conflict Scale and the Job Demands Resources Scale (JDRS were administered. Results: Significant relationships were found between life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement, respectively, and marital status. Higher levels of education showed significant relationships with life satisfaction and work-to-family conflict. Being white showed significant positive relationships with life satisfaction, work-to-family conflict and work engagement. With regard to social support and psychological meaningfulness, race explained significant amounts of variance in psychological meaningfulness, as did age. Practical, managerial and methodological implications: The findings indicate that the experiences of well-being among women vary by age, race, marital status and educational status. It is therefore imperative that human resource practitioners appropriately measure these differences, accommodate them in policies through relevant supportive practices and also champion these
Allison G. Belnap
Full Text Available Il contributo è pubblicato con il permesso della Brigham Young University Law Review - dove è apparso nel vol. n. 2 del 2010 (Tribute to Professor Michael Goldsmith, alle pp. 101-148 - e dell‖Autrice, che ringraziamo sentitamente. SUMMARY: 1. Introduction - 2. History of and Motivations for the OIC Defamation of Religions Resolutions - 2.a - The OIC Exerts a Concerted Effort to Protect Islam - 2.b - Terrorist Attacks and Danish Cartoons Raise the Stakes - 3. Defamation of Religions: A Permissible Restraint on Freedom of Speech and Expression? - 3.a - History, Basic Elements, and Contemporary Usage of Defamation - 3.b - Interaction Between Defamation of Religions and the Basic Human Rights Enumerated in Major International Instruments - 4. The Evolution of a Resolution - 4.a. 1999-2000: Beginnings - 4.b. 2001: A Pre-9/11 World - 4.c. 2002: Reactions to the Violent Backlash Against Muslims - 4.d. 2003-2004: Fluctuations in Support - 4.e. 2005: Intensification of a Campaign - 4.f. 2006-2007: The Move to the General Assembly - 4.g. 2008: Decreasing Margins of Support - 4.h. 2009: Current Resolution and Recommendations for Application - 5. Consequences of Accepting the Resolutions and Subsequent Enactment of Statutes Designed to Prevent Defamation of Religions - 5.a. Human Rights Committee - 5.b. The European Court of Human Rights - 5.c. Blasphemy, Incitement, and Hate Speech Laws and Their Enforcement - 5.d. Possible Future Statutes and Enforcement Under Defamation of Religions Theory - 6. Alternatives to Defamation of Religions in the U.N. Resolutions - 7. Conclusion.
Regel, Sabine J; Negovetic, Sonja; Röösli, Martin; Berdiñas, Veronica; Schuderer, Jürgen; Huss, Anke; Lott, Urs; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter
Radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) of mobile communication systems are widespread in the living environment, yet their effects on humans are uncertain despite a growing body of literature. We investigated the influence of a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station-like signal on well-being and cognitive performance in subjects with and without self-reported sensitivity to RF EMF. We performed a controlled exposure experiment (45 min at an electric field strength of 0, 1, or 10 V/m, incident with a polarization of 45 degrees from the left back side of the subject, weekly intervals) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. A total of 117 healthy subjects (33 self-reported sensitive, 84 nonsensitive subjects) participated in the study. We assessed well-being, perceived field strength, and cognitive performance with questionnaires and cognitive tasks and conducted statistical analyses using linear mixed models. Organ-specific and brain tissue-specific dosimetry including uncertainty and variation analysis was performed. In both groups, well-being and perceived field strength were not associated with actual exposure levels. We observed no consistent condition-induced changes in cognitive performance except for two marginal effects. At 10 V/m we observed a slight effect on speed in one of six tasks in the sensitive subjects and an effect on accuracy in another task in nonsensitive subjects. Both effects disappeared after multiple end point adjustment. In contrast to a recent Dutch study, we could not confirm a short-term effect of UMTS base station-like exposure on well-being. The reported effects on brain functioning were marginal and may have occurred by chance. Peak spatial absorption in brain tissue was considerably smaller than during use of a mobile phone. No conclusions can be drawn regarding short-term effects of cell phone exposure or the effects of long-term base station-like exposure on human health.
Goodbred, S. L.
The densely populated country of Bangladesh is often cited as being severely threatened by predicted changes in climate and accelerated sea-level rise. Justification for this grave assessment is founded in part on the low-lying nation's frequent inundation by river floods and storm surges, which affect millions of people annually. Indeed, nearly 50% of the delta system lies natural environment it speaks more to a healthful future than decline. Here I present field-based observations of sediment dispersal in the modern Bengal delta, which demonstrate how the system may remain relatively stable over the next century. However, this potentially acceptable outcome becomes increasingly unlikely if human interferences are considered. For example, short-term strategies to mitigate flooding would likely involve artificial leveeing of the river and the diking of coastal lowlands, both of which would limit sedimentation and diminish relative elevation of the delta surface. Threats upstream of the delta also include river damming to address demands for hydroelectric power and water resources in India, with a resulting decline in sediment discharge to the coast. Ultimately, it may be the impacts of such direct human-modification to the Bengal delta and river systems that outpace - in time and severity - those resulting from climate and sea-level changes alone.
Gustainienė, Loreta; Pranckevičienė, Aistė; Bukšnytė-Marmienė, Loreta; Genevičiūtė-Janonienė, Giedrė
Straipsnyje pristatomas integruotas teorinis darbuotojo gerovės ir palankios darbo aplinkos modelis, pagrįstas pozityviosios psichologijos idėjomis ir tyrimais, kuriuo siekiama prisidėti prie pozityvių veiksnių darbo aplinkoje plėtotės. Business sector in developed countries faces financial losses related to health problems of their employees. These expenses are related to economic as well as to human losses. Therefore it is important to enhance employee well-being in order to prevent thes...
Susan M Waugh
Full Text Available Albatrosses are flexible and adaptable predators, relying on live prey as well as carrion. Use of predictable food sources and reliance on human-produced resources are well-known trait in long-range feeders like albatrosses and petrels. Breeding Buller's albatrosses studied at Solander I. (Hautere, New Zealand fed their chicks the remains of sooty shearwater juveniles (tītī in Māori, which are harvested from nearby muttonbirding sites. Evidence of this food type was found at over 10% of nests examined, and 17-40% birds that were fitted with GPS loggers visited muttonbirding sites in this and previous studies. Muttonbirding is a traditional practice that has continued for centuries, with up to 120 tonnes of offal discharged to the sea annually during the present day harvest. It coincides with the energetically-demanding early chick period for the albatrosses. Our finding suggests that the offal may be an important, but overlooked element in the albatross diet. As an important supplementary food for the albatrosses it is likely to have contributed to the 3% per annum growth of their populations since the first comprehensive population surveys in 1969.
Coffey, Laura; Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre; Ryall, Nicola
This study examined the relationships between tenacious goal pursuit (TGP), flexible goal adjustment (FGA), and affective well-being in a sample of individuals with lower limb amputations. Cross-sectional, quantitative. Ninety-eight patients recently admitted to a primary prosthetic rehabilitation programme completed measures of TGP, FGA, positive affect, and negative affect. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that TGP and FGA accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in both positive and negative affect, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. TGP was significantly positively associated with positive affect, while FGA was significantly negatively associated with negative affect. Moderated regression analyses indicated that the beneficial effect of FGA on negative affect was strongest at high levels of amputation-related pain intensity and low levels of TGP. TGP and FGA appear to influence subjective well-being in different ways, with TGP promoting the experience of positive affect and FGA buffering against negative affect. TGP and FGA may prove useful in identifying individuals at risk of poor affective outcomes following lower limb amputation and represent important targets for intervention in this patient group. What is already known on this subject? The loss of a limb has a significant impact on several important life domains. Although some individuals experience emotional distress following amputation, the majority adjust well to their limb loss, with some achieving positive change or growth as a result of their experiences. Theories of self-regulation propose that disruptions in goal attainment have negative affective consequences. The physical, social, and psychological upheaval caused by limb loss is likely to threaten the attainment of valued goals, which may leave individuals vulnerable to negative psychosocial outcomes if they do not regulate their goals in response to these challenges. According to the dual
Full Text Available Nowadays due to technological advance and its direct impact on the quality of human life, addressing the issue of health and its determinants is very important. Maintaining public health is one of the most fundamental issues in each community. The aim of the study was to survey relationship between dependence on modern communication tools (internet and mobile phones and psychological well-being. 300 university students was selected according to cluster sampling method. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and 141 completed questionnaires were collected. The Young Internet addiction test and mobile phone addiction index were used to measure the predictor variables and the Ryff psychological well-being scale was used for the criterion variable. Multiple regression analysis gave a multiple correlation coefficient (R of 0.347 and adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.120. According to the calculated Beta values, the variable of dependence on mobile phones with the value of 0.196 showed the greatest power for explaining the autonomy component. The results showed a significant negative relationship between independent variables, i.e. dependence on the Internet and mobile phones, and dependent variables, i.e. psychological well-being and its components.
M W de Witt
Full Text Available The escalation in numbers of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa has become a human catastrophe. If governments do not deal with this phenomenon as a priority it might spiral beyond control. Very few studies have been done to investigate the psychosocial impact of orphanhood on children and communities in developing countries. Very little is known about the life world of orphans in developing countries and even less is known about factors in these children’s lives which can affect their mental health. The researchers decided to undertake research in three areas in Southern Africa to investigate the psychosocial well-being of orphans and to compare the findings with existing research findings. A survey was done in three rural areas to determine the perceptions of orphans regarding their own personal experiences and emotional feelings which may reflect on psychosocial well-being, as well as the perceptions of teachers working with these orphans. Except for depression, the findings with regard to most of the psychosocial aspects were in accordance with the literature. The most important findings were that bereavement practices and approaches fit for developed communities might be of little value in developing settings. We are, however, more than aware that orphans from developed counties or even urban settings might differ from those of developing or deep rural areas. Keywords: Orphans; psychosocial well-being; bereavement; poverty; stigmatisation
Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David
This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.
Full Text Available Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.
Gandy, William M; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between individual well-being and risk of a hospital event in the subsequent year. The authors hypothesized an inverse relationship in which low well-being predicts higher likelihood of hospital use. The study specifically sought to understand how well-being segments and demographic variables interact in defining risk of a hospital event (inpatient admission or emergency room visit) in an employed population. A retrospective study design was conducted with data from 8835 employees who completed a Well-Being Assessment questionnaire based on the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) segments and member demographics on hazard ratios (HRs) for a hospital event during the 12 months following assessment completion. Significant main effects were found for the influence of IWBS segments, sex, education, and relationship status on HRs of a hospital event, but not for age. However, further analysis revealed significant interactions between age and IWBS segments (P=0.005) and between age and sex (Pwell-being and higher risk of an event in employees ages 44 years and older is mitigated in younger age groups. These results suggest that youth attenuates the risk engendered in poor well-being; therefore, methods to maintain or improve well-being as individuals age presents a strong opportunity for reducing hospital events.
Gandy, William M.; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E.
Abstract The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between individual well-being and risk of a hospital event in the subsequent year. The authors hypothesized an inverse relationship in which low well-being predicts higher likelihood of hospital use. The study specifically sought to understand how well-being segments and demographic variables interact in defining risk of a hospital event (inpatient admission or emergency room visit) in an employed population. A retrospective study design was conducted with data from 8835 employees who completed a Well-Being Assessment questionnaire based on the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of Individual Well-Being Score (IWBS) segments and member demographics on hazard ratios (HRs) for a hospital event during the 12 months following assessment completion. Significant main effects were found for the influence of IWBS segments, sex, education, and relationship status on HRs of a hospital event, but not for age. However, further analysis revealed significant interactions between age and IWBS segments (P=0.005) and between age and sex (Pwell-being and higher risk of an event in employees ages 44 years and older is mitigated in younger age groups. These results suggest that youth attenuates the risk engendered in poor well-being; therefore, methods to maintain or improve well-being as individuals age presents a strong opportunity for reducing hospital events. (Population Health Management 2014;17:13–20) PMID:23560493
Chessman, Hollie M.
The voice of higher education student affairs professionals is under-represented in the well-being literature even though these campus community members are responsible for providing key programs and services that facilitate the holistic development of students. In order to understand the role of well-being in the work-life of these professionals,…
Sara L. Warber
Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.
Weinberg, Michael; Harel, Hila; Shamani, Michal; Or-Chen, Keren; Ron, Pnina; Gil, Sharon
Exposure to war can lead to numerous traumatic experiences affecting the daily lives and personal well-being of the civilian population. However, no research to date has examined the associations between postwar well-being and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, tendency to forgive, and social support during and following war. Authors examined a sample of 160 Israeli civilians who were exposed to rocket and missile fire during the 2014 Gaza War. Time 1 (Tl) started approximately one week after the beginning of the war and ended four weeks later following the first 72-hour ceasefire declaration by the United Nations. Respondents were re-approached by personal e-mail approximately one month after T1. A structural equation model design showed that higher postwar tendency to forgive, and social support, are associated with higher postwar well-being. It is notable that higher social support during the war had a negative effect on postwar well-being. In addition, higher posttraumatic symptoms and well-being during the war had a positive effect on higher postwar well-being. The study findings reinforce the importance of personal variables in postwar well-being. However, increased awareness of both social support and PTSD symptoms as "double-edged sword" resources is advisable, considering the different effects of social support and PTSD symptoms on well-being both during and after the war. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E; Brown, Gordon D A
Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.
Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm
This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress...... and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardise questionnaires and examine...
Rountree, Jennifer; Smith, Addie
Mainstream child and family well-being indicators frequently are based on measuring health, economic, and social deficits, and do not reflect Indigenous holistic and strength-based definitions of health and well-being. The present article is a review of literature that features Indigenous communities' self-identified strength-based indicators of child and family well-being. The literature search included Indigenous communities from across the world, incorporating findings from American Indians and Alaska Natives, First Nations, Native Hawaiians, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, and Sámi communities. Sorting the identified indicators into the quadrants of the Relational Worldview, an Indigenous framework for well-being based on medicine wheel teachings that views health and well-being as a balance among physical, mental, contextual, and spiritual factors, the authors discuss the findings.
Ebrahimi, Hossein; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Arshetnab, Hossein Namdar; Khanmiri, Soraya Golipoor
Objective: As an important factor affecting human's health consequences, spiritual well-being has been the center of attention in recent years. According to literature, nurses' spiritual well-being affects how they provide spiritual care. This paper, thus, aims to find the relationship between nurses' spiritual well-being and their perception of their competence in providing spiritual care for patients in Tabriz Educational-Therapeutic centersMaterial and Methods: This is cross...
Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.
Šarotar Žižek Simona
Full Text Available Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH statistically significant negatively affects subjective emotional well-being (SEWB. Positive PH and SEWB were negatively connected. Emotional intelligence (EI has a statistically significant impact on SEWB. The last relationship in the model—between spiritual intelligence (SI and self-determination (SD—was negative, but statistically significant. Therefore, human resource management’s activities (HRM must concentrate on optimal physical/mental health, emotional (EI and spiritual (SI intelligence. Employees’ good health supports their emotional WB. Their emotional balance, based on their EI, enhances their subjective emotional WB and SD. The employees ’SI affects their SD.
Bos, Aline; Boselie, Paul; Trappenburg, Margo
Expanding the opportunities for for-profit nursing home care is a central theme in the debate on the sustainable organization of the growing nursing home sector in Western countries. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years in order to determine the broad impact of nursing home ownership in the United States. Our review has two main goals: (a) to find out which topics have been studied with regard to financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in relation to nursing home ownership and (b) to assess the conclusions related to these topics. The review results in two propositions on the interactions between financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being as they relate to nursing home ownership. Five search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 50 studies were included in the review. Relevant findings were categorized as related to financial performance (profit margins, efficiency), employee well-being (staffing levels, turnover rates, job satisfaction, job benefits), or client well-being (care quality, hospitalization rates, lawsuits/complaints) and then analyzed based on common characteristics. For-profit nursing homes tend to have better financial performance, but worse results with regard to employee well-being and client well-being, compared to not-for-profit sector homes. We argue that the better financial performance of for-profit nursing homes seems to be associated with worse employee and client well-being. For policy makers considering the expansion of the for-profit sector in the nursing home industry, our findings suggest the need for a broad perspective, simultaneously weighing the potential benefits and drawbacks for the organization, its employees, and its clients.
The world's human population and an expanding agricultural frontier are exerting increasing pressure on the Earth's systems that sustain life resulting in unprecedented levels of biodiversity loss. Carnivores, which play a key role in ecosystem function and integrity, are also particularly threatened by habitat loss and killing by humans in response to livestock predation. At the same time carnivores, particularly felids show a paucity of studies that suggests population assessments and long-...
Page, Kathryn M.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne A.
This paper examines the "what", "why" and "how" of employee well-being. Beginning with the "what" of well-being, the construct of mental health was explored with the aim of building a model of employee well-being. It was proposed that employee well-being consists of three core components: (1) subjective well-being; (2) workplace well-being and (3)…
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, racism, gender, age, migrant generation, socioeconomic circumstances, family type and indicators of family interactions (shared activities, perceived parenting). Contextual variables were per cent eligible for free school-meals, neighbourhood deprivation, per cent own-group ethnic density, and ethnic diversity. Results. Ethnic minorities were more likely to report racism than Whites. Ethnic minority boys (except Indian boys) and Indian girls reported better psychological well-being throughout adolescence compared to their White peers. Notably, lowest mean TDS scores were observed for Nigerian/Ghanaian boys, among whom the reporting of racism increased with age. Adjusted for individual characteristics, psychological well-being improved with age across all ethnic groups. Racism was associated with poorer psychological well-being trajectories for all ethnic groups (p ethnic density and diversity were not consistently associated with TDS for any ethnic group. Living in more deprived neighbourhoods was associated with poorer psychological well-being for Whites and Black Caribbeans (p ethnic density and deprivation in schools or neighbourhoods, was an important influence on psychological well-being. However, exposure to racism did not explain the advantage in psychological well-being of ethnic minority groups over Whites. PMID:22332834
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J.; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective. To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Design. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11–16 years in 51 London (UK) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, r...
Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
To investigate the effect of racism, own-group ethnic density, diversity and deprivation on adolescent trajectories in psychological well-being. Multilevel models were used in longitudinal analysis of psychological well-being (total difficulties score (TDS) from Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, higher scores correspond to greater difficulties) for 4782 adolescents aged 11-16 years in 51 London (U.K.) schools. Individual level variables included ethnicity, racism, gender, age, migrant generation, socio-economic circumstances, family type and indicators of family interactions (shared activities, perceived parenting). Contextual variables were per cent eligible for free school-meals, neighbourhood deprivation, per cent own-group ethnic density, and ethnic diversity. Ethnic minorities were more likely to report racism than whites. Ethnic minority boys (except Indian boys) and Indian girls reported better psychological well-being throughout adolescence compared to their white peers. Notably, lowest mean TDS scores were observed for Nigerian/Ghanaian boys, among whom the reporting of racism increased with age. Adjusted for individual characteristics, psychological well-being improved with age across all ethnic groups. Racism was associated with poorer psychological well-being trajectories for all ethnic groups (pwell-being for whites and black Caribbeans (pwell-being. However, exposure to racism did not explain the advantage in psychological well-being of ethnic minority groups over whites.
This dissertation discusses how the importance of river flow-sustained ecosystems for local communities can be quantified for the purpose of balancing water supply and demand in Integrated Water Resources Management. Due to the development of water resources, for example through the construction of
Jun 7, 2011 ... that forms and functions there that is the central site of the mutual illumination the two ... ancient Mesopotamian fertility myth. The symbols are those .... richly wholesome culture and a relationality with Jews and. Christians.
Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan; Maughan, Ronald J; Roky, Rachida; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Karli, Umid
Islamic Ramadan is a 29-30 day fast in which food, fluids, medications, drugs and smoking are prohibited during the daylight hours which can be extended between 13 and 18 h · day(-1) depending on the geographical location and season. The majority of health-specific findings related to Ramadan fasting are mixed. The likely causes for these heterogeneous findings lie in the amount of daily time of fasting, number of subjects who smoke, take oral medications, and/or receive intravenous fluids, in the type of food and eating habits and in changes in lifestyle. During Ramadan fasting, glucose homeostasis is maintained by meals taken during night time before dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and depend on the quality and quantity of food intake, physical activity and exercise, and changes in body weight. Compliant, well-controlled type II diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting, but fasting is not recommended for type I, noncompliant, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. There are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on respiratory and cardiovascular systems, haematologic profile, endocrine, and neuropsychiatric functions. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations.
Full Text Available ............................................................................................... 20 184.108.40.206 Food, fodder and fibre ................................................................ 22 220.127.116.11 Water ............................................................................................ 23 18.104.22.168 Other provisioning... ........................................................................ 32 3.4.2 Energy security and access to energy resources ..................................... 35 3.4.3 Food security and access to food ............................................................ 37 Contents Contents 4 3.4.4 Health...
Full Text Available As population will reach over 9 billion by 2050, interest in the forest-food nexus is rising. Forests play an important role in food production and nutrition. Forests can provide nutritionally-balanced diets, woodfuel for cooking and a broad set of ecosystem services. A large body of evidence recommends multi-functional and integrated landscape approaches to reimagine forestry and agriculture systems. Here, after a commented discussion of the literature produced in the last decade about the role for forests with respect to the food security global emergency, we summarize the state of the art in Italy as a representative country-case-study. The aim is to increase awareness about the potential of silviculture in Italy for combining ecological resilience with economic resilience, and reducing the pressure over tropical and sub-tropical forests by means of a sustainable intensification of forest management at national level. Although a quantification of the Italian non-wood forest products is difficult, the potential of this sector for the Italian bioeconomy is relatively high. Italy is among the four top European exporters of cork stoppers, is one of the three top countries for chestnut seed processing, and is among the leading exporters of wild mushroom, while it is the only European country among the top five global importers of tannins. In order to develop this sector for the food industry, more research is needed on non-wood forest products, the scale of production, emerging markets, marketing and production innovation. On the other hand, chain-supply fragmentation, landowner inertia, and lack of governance and cooperation may hamper an effective exploitation of non-wood products. A renewed joint impulse for exploitation of wood and non-wood products may come from a sustainable intensification of forest management. The strategies to guarantee an effective supply of non-wood products require appropriate business skills and the presence of a structured business services. A transparent market is also essential. Therefore, the introduction of standards (like those by forest certification schemes is very important. They can add value to products and emphasize the importance and complexity of the forest sector. However, the implementation of sustainable forest management for an effective supply of non-wood products is affected by the availability of appropriate planning tools, and the public officers need a new mindset to stimulate and support business capacity of forest owners.
Would a "medicalization" of love be a "good" or "bad" form of medicalization? In discussing this question, Earp, Sandberg, and Savulescu primarily focus on the potential positive and negative consequences of turning love into a medical issue. But it can also be asked whether there is something
Hales, Simon; Corvalan, Carlos; McMichael, Anthony (Tony) J
... 36 4 What actions are required to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 4.1 Reducing vulnerability 4.2 The Millennium Development Goals 38 38 39 5 How can priorities be established for actions to address the health consequences of ecosystem change? 5.1 What considerations are important when setting priorities and what...
This lecture discusses concepts of learning and education that have been expressed in terms of the viewpoint of natural science, and proposes a new way of studying learning and education based on functional brain imaging such as fMRI, MEG, and OT (Optical Topography). From a biological viewpoint, they are related to brain development because the brain is an adaptable information processor that is open to environmental stimuli. Stimuli cause new neuronal connections to form, which allow better adaptation to the environment. Thus, education should be designed to guide and inspire the construction of the basic architecture for information processing in the brain by preparing and controlling the input stimuli given to the learners. Education is the process in which learning is guided to provide an optimal environment. This new approach to study of learning and education is called brain science and education.'' (S. Ohno)
This presentation provides an overview of the SHC 2.61 Community-Based Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Project and other ecosystem services activities in the Office of Research and Development. Specifically, this presentation addressed a series of topics: Provide an overview ...
Interoperable software development uses principles of component reuse, systems integration, flexible data transfer, and standardized ontological documentation to promote access, reuse, and integration of code. While interoperability principles are increasingly considered technolo...
Interoperable software development uses principles of component reuse, systems integration, flexible data transfer, and standardized ontological documentation to promote access, reuse, and integration of code. While interoperability principles are increasingly considered technolo...
Deffuant, G.; Alvarez, I.; Barreteau, O.; Vries, de B.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gotts, N.; Jabot, F.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Hilden, M.; Kolditz, O.; Murray-Rust, D.; Rouge, C.; Smits, P.
This position paper proposes a vision for the research activity about sustainability in global environmental change (GEC) taking place in the FuturICT flagship project. This activity will be organised in an "Exploratory", gathering a core network of European scientists from ICT, social simulation,
Radiotherapy is utilized by 80% patients as a part of their treatment to most prevalent disease like cancer. Ionizing radiation causes radiolysis of water, generation of ROS and has deleterious effect penetrating the living tissues resulting in the-transfer of radiation energy to the biological materials. Radioprotectors protect the normal cells from the unwanted radiation damage. Since the beginning of the nuclear era, despite extensive research on the development of radioprotectors from natural and synthetic compounds, success has been limited. The only clinically acceptable radioprotector, amifostine, has inherent dose-limiting toxicities and has therefore stimulated extensive search for nontoxic, effective, and alternative radioprotectors. We have developed a cytoprotective radioprotector DMA, having a bisbenzimidazole nucleus. Relative quantitation of gene expression of the identified proteins and their interacting partners led to the identification of NFkB inducing kinase (NIK) as one of the plausible target. Subsequently, over expression and knock down of NIK suggested that DMA affects NFkB inducing kinase mediated phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ both alone and in the presence of ionizing radiation. We observed 51% radioprotection in untreated cells that attenuated to 17% in siRNA NIK treated U87 cells at 24h. Further studies concluded that the Coactivation of AKT/NFkB triggered by DMA, is a reason behind protection against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis of normal cells, and this was consistent with the alteration of DNA-PKcs. Pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluations and bioavailability measurements proved superior in vivo efficacy, higher AUCs, greater residence time of DMA. (author)
Hoffenaar, Peter Johannes; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo
The primary objective of this study was to more fully understand the impact of having a baby on women's well-being by attending to both the level and the content of well-being. To cover the judgemental and affective aspects of well-being we included global measures of life satisfaction and well-being and affective experience measures derived from…
Huppert, Felicia A.; So, Timothy T. C.
Governments around the world are recognising the importance of measuring subjective well-being as an indicator of progress. But how should well-being be measured? A conceptual framework is offered which equates high well-being with positive mental health. Well-being is seen as lying at the opposite end of a spectrum to the common mental disorders…
Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Chester, Terri; Nunn, David; Vickers, Valerie
This paper presents an exploratory factor analysis of the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale, which was developed to examine overall life satisfaction. It is a 20-item, self-report instrument that measures three dimensions: an overall Spiritual Well-Being score, a Religious Well-Being score, and an Existential Well-Being score. The findings show…
Gamble, Dorothy N.
This article explores the ubiquitous uses of the term "well-being" in social work codes, values, and literature. It reviews international concepts of well-being as well as those within social work to consider a deeper exploration of the meanings of well-being. Dimensions of well-being that resonate with social work values include eliminating…
Full Text Available The distribution of wealth generated in the tourism industry among the labor force should be considered one out of the facets of the social tourism sustainability. Literature highlights that tourism firms’ practices have an impact on labor well - being. However, it also warns that national institutions may condition the adoption of these practices by firms, and so institutions might become a challenge for well - being. This study analyzes the effect of institutions on well - being, and particularly it differentiates between employees and entrepreneurs as human resources in the tourism industry. The empirical analysis carried out on a sample of 1,352 employees and 302 entrepreneurs located in 27 European countries, confirms the direct effect of national institutions on well - being at work. Because institutions would have affect human resources’ well - being, the tourism authorities should pay attention to the governance of this industry.
Beauvais, Audrey; Stewart, Julie G; DeNisco, Susan
Understanding factors that influence spiritual well-being may improve nurses' spiritual caregiving. This study examined relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and spiritual well-being (SWB) in undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) relationships were found between managing emotion and spiritual well-being, and managing emotion and existential well-being. Implications for education and practice are discussed.
Corazza, Giovanni Emanuele
The editorial dwells upon the technology-driven evolution from the Industrial to the Post-Information Society, indicating that this transition will bring about drastic transformations in our way of living, starting from the job market and then pervading all aspects at both individual and social levels. Great opportunities will come together with unprecedented challenges to living as we have always known it. In this innovation-filled scenario, it is argued that human creativity becomes the distinctive ability to provide dignity at first and survival in the long term. The term organic creativity is introduced to indicate those conditions, attitudes, and actions that bear the potential to be at the same time productive in socio-economic terms and conducive to human well-being. As a consequence, the role of psychologists in an open cooperation with sociologists, economists, computer scientists, engineers and others, will be as central as ever in establishing healthy collaboration modes between humans and machines, and large investments in related multidisciplinary scientific research are advocated to establish organic creativity as a discipline that should permeate every educational level, as well as our professional and everyday lives.
Giovanni Emanuele Corazza
Full Text Available The editorial dwells upon the technology-driven evolution from the Industrial to the Post-Information Society, indicating that this transition will bring about drastic transformations in our way of living, starting from the job market and then pervading all aspects at both individual and social levels. Great opportunities will come together with unprecedented challenges to living as we have always known it. In this innovation-filled scenario, it is argued that human creativity becomes the distinctive ability to provide dignity at first and survival in the long term. The term organic creativity is introduced to indicate those conditions, attitudes, and actions that bear the potential to be at the same time productive in socio-economic terms and conducive to human well-being. As a consequence, the role of psychologists in an open cooperation with sociologists, economists, computer scientists, engineers and others, will be as central as ever in establishing healthy collaboration modes between humans and machines, and large investments in related multidisciplinary scientific research are advocated to establish organic creativity as a discipline that should permeate every educational level, as well as our professional and everyday lives.
Song, Mi-Kyung; Paul, Sudeshna; Ward, Sandra E; Gilet, Constance A; Hladik, Gerald A
This study evaluated 1-year linear trajectories of patient-reported dimensions of quality of life among patients receiving dialysis. Longitudinal observational study. 227 patients recruited from 12 dialysis centers. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Participants completed an hour-long interview monthly for 12 months. Each interview included patient-reported outcome measures of overall symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System), physical functioning (Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living), cognitive functioning (Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory), emotional well-being (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and spiritual well-being (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale). For each dimension, linear and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used. Linear trajectories of the 5 dimensions were jointly modeled as a multivariate outcome over time. Although dimension scores fluctuated greatly from month to month, overall symptoms, cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and spiritual well-being improved over time. Older compared with younger participants reported higher scores across all dimensions (all Pspiritual well-being compared with their white counterparts (P<0.01). Clustering analysis of dimension scores revealed 2 distinctive clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by better scores than those of cluster 2 in nearly all dimensions at baseline and by gradual improvement over time. Study was conducted in a single region of the United States and included mostly patients with high levels of function across the dimensions of quality of life studied. Multidimensional patient-reported quality of life varies widely from month to month regardless of whether overall trajectories improve or worsen over time. Additional research is needed to identify the best approaches to incorporate
Kurtz, Laura E.; Algoe, Sara B.
Laughter is a pervasive human behavior that most frequently happens in a social context. However, data linking the behavior of laughter with psychological or social outcomes is exceptionally rare. Here, we draw attention to shared laughter as a useful objective marker of relationship well-being. Spontaneously-generated laughs of 71 heterosexual romantic couples were coded from a videorecorded conversation about how the couple first met. Multilevel models revealed that, while controlling for all other laughter present, the proportion of the conversation spent laughing simultaneously with the romantic partner was uniquely positively associated with global evaluations of relationship quality, closeness, and social support. Results are discussed with respect to methodological considerations and theoretical implications for relationships and behavioral research more broadly. PMID:26957946
Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher
Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available The global environmental conservation community recognizes that the participation of local communities is essential for the success of conservation initiatives; however, much work remains to be done on how to integrate conservation and human well-being. We propose that an assets-based approach to environmental conservation and human well-being, which is grounded in a biocultural framework, can support sustainable and adaptive management of natural resources by communities in regions adjacent to protected areas. We present evidence from conservation and quality of life initiatives led by the Field Museum of Natural History over the past 17 years in the Peruvian Amazon. Data were derived from asset mapping in 37 communities where rapid inventories were conducted and from 38 communities that participated in longer term quality of life planning. Our main findings are that Amazonian communities have many characteristics, or assets, that recent scholarship has linked to environmental sustainability and good natural resource stewardship, and that quality of life plans that are based on these assets tend to produce priorities that are more consistent with environmental conservation. Importantly, we found that validating social and ecological assets through our approach can contribute to the creation of protected areas and to their long-term management. As strategies to engage local communities in conservation expand, research on how particular methodologies, such as an assets-based approach, is needed to determine how these initiatives can best empower local communities, how they can be improved, and how they can most effectively be linked to broader conservation and development processes.
Taylor, R D; Roberts, D
This study tested a conceptual model developed to explain the link between kinship support and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. The relation of kinship support with maternal and adolescent well-being and mothers' child-rearing practices was assessed in 51 African-American families whose incomes placed them at or below the poverty threshold. Findings revealed that kinship social support to mothers/female guardians was positively associated with adolescent psychological well-being, maternal well-being, and more adequate maternal parenting practices (acceptance, firm control and monitoring of behavior, autonomy granting). Maternal well-being and more adequate maternal parenting practices were positively related to adolescent well-being. Evidence of the mediational role of maternal well-being and parenting practices was revealed. When the effects of maternal well-being and maternal parenting practices were controlled, significant relations between kinship support and adolescent well-being were no longer apparent.
Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.
Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843
Lee, Juyoung; Krause, Amanda E.; Davidson, Jane W.
The aim of this study was to consider how we can invest in music-making to promote well-being in school contexts. Web-based data collection was conducted where researchers identified 17 case studies that describe successful music programs in schools in Australia. The researchers aligned content from these case studies into the five categories of…
Coles, Emma; Cheyne, Helen; Rankin, Jean; Daniel, Brigid
Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC), a landmark policy framework for improving children's well-being in Scotland, United Kingdom, is a practice initiative signifying a distinct way of thinking, an agenda for change, and the future direction of child welfare policy. GIRFEC represents a unique case study of national transformative change within the contexts of children's well-being and universal services and is of relevance to other jurisdictions. Implementation is under way, with an understanding of well-being and the requirement for information sharing enshrined in law. Yet there is scope for interpretation within the legislation and associated guidance. Inherent tensions around intrusion, data gathering, professional roles, and balancing well-being against child protection threaten the effectiveness of the policy if not resolved. Despite persistent health inequalities and intergenerational deprivation, the Scottish government aspires for Scotland to be the best country for children to grow up in. Getting It Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) is a landmark children's policy framework to improve children's well-being via early intervention, universal service provision, and multiagency coordination across organizational boundaries. Placing the child and family "at the center," this approach marks a shift from welfare to well-being, yet there is still a general lack of consensus over how well-being is defined and measured. As an umbrella policy framework with broad reach, GIRFEC represents the current and future direction of children's/family policy in Scotland, yet large-scale practice change is required for successful implementation. This article explores the origins and emergence of GIRFEC and presents a critical analysis of its incremental design, development, and implementation. There is considerable scope for interpretation within the GIRFEC legislation and guidance, most notably around assessment of well-being and the role and remit of those charged with
Verhaeghe, Rik; Vlerick, Peter; Gemmel, Paul; Van Maele, Georges; De Backer, Guy
This paper is a report of a study of how the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of hospital nurses affect psychological well-being (i.e. job satisfaction, eustress and distress) and absence through illness. Many researchers have demonstrated the impact of major organizational changes on employees' psychological well-being, but only a few have focused on the permanent consequences in work conditions. In a contemporary healthcare setting, an increased number of recurrent operational changes has become a normal characteristic of nurses' work environment. Specific work situations have frequently been associated with occupational stress, whereas employees' appraisal of recurrent changes as stressors and their relation to psychological well-being and health outcomes (i.e. sickness absence) have been dismissed. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2003 with 2094 Registered Nurses in 10 general hospitals. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact on psychological well-being and prospectively measured rates of sickness absence (frequency and duration). The occurrence of changes in the work environment (in the past 6 months) had had a negative impact on staff psychological well-being. Nurses who had been confronted with changes scored statistically significantly higher for distress. Changes appraised as threatening were negatively related to job satisfaction and eustress, and positively related to distress and sickness absence (frequency and duration). Changes appraised as challenging were positively related to job satisfaction and eustress but had no impact on distress and sickness absence. Future research should take into consideration the impact of the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of healthcare employees (i.e. Registered Nurses) on psychological well-being and sickness absence. This should also be considered by managers when dealing with these nursing workforce
Oscar N.E. Kjell
Full Text Available Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011 in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose.Methods. Iranian (N = 122, mean age 15.23 years and Swedish (N = 109, mean age 16.69 years adolescents were asked to fill out a Big Five personality test, as well as questionnaires assessing subjective well-being and psychological well-being.Results. Swedes reported higher subjective and psychological well-being, while Iranians reported higher degree of Agreeableness, Openness and Conscientiousness. Neuroticism and Extraversion did not differ between cultures. Neuroticism was related to well-being within both cultures. Openness was related to well-being only among Iranians, and Extraversion only among Swedes. A mediation analysis within the Swedish sample, the only sample meeting statistical criteria for mediation analysis to be conducted, demonstrated that psychological well-being mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and subjective well-being as well as between Extraversion and subjective well-being.Conclusions. Certain personality traits, such as Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, relate differently to well-being measures across cultures. Meanwhile, Neuroticism seems to relate similarly across cultures at least with regard to subjective well-being. Furthermore, the results give an indication on how psychological well-being might mediate the relationship between certain personality traits and subjective well-being. Overall, the complexity of the results illustrates the need for more research whilst supporting the importance of contextualizing well-being
Dai, G.S.; Ulgiati, S.; Zhang, Y.S.; Yu, B.H.; Kang, M.Y.; Jin, Y.; Dong, X.B.; Zhang, X.S.
The grasslands of Inner Mongolia are not only the source of the necessary resources for the survival and development of herdsmen, but also represent a significant green ecological barrier in North China. Coal-mining production is important in maintaining GDP growth in Inner Mongolia. However, over-exploitation has created serious problems, such as pollution of the environment and significant decreases in grassland ecosystem services, in addition to impacting the well-being of herdsmen and other humans. Based on questionnaires survey performed among 864 herdsmen addressing the relationship between coal exploitation in grasslands and human well-being in Xilinguole League in Inner Mongolia, we found that (1) coal resource exploitation in these grasslands does not benefit the herdsmen by increasing their income; (2) the rapid development of this resource has not obviously materially improved the life of the herdsmen; and (3) these activities have increased the risks that herdsman will have to endure in the future. Overall, coal resource exploitation in grasslands has more negative than positive effects on the well-being of herdsmen. We propose the conservation of coal resources and improvement of ecological compensation should be carried out without blindly pursuing economic growth, instead of focusing on economic development and structural adjustments. - Highlights: • Evaluation of the human well-being of the Xilinguole grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. • Impact of mining affects herdsmen well-being in grassland ecosystem. • Quantity of questionnaires survey. • Addressing the relationship between coal exploitation in grasslands and human well-being
Kjell, Oscar; Nima, Ali A.; Sikström, Sverker; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo
Introduction. This study addresses the need to further contextualize research on well-being (e.g., Kjell, 2011) in terms of cross-cultural aspects of personality traits among adolescents and by examining two different conceptualizations of well-being: subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) and psychological well-being (i.e., positive relations with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and life purpose). Method...
Paul Frijters; Bernard M.S. van Praag
This paper measures the concepts of welfare and well-being in Russia on the basis of two large Russian household surveys, carried out in 1993 and 1994. Welfare refers to satisfaction with income and well-being refers to satisfaction with life as a whole. This paper investigates how climate conditions in various parts of Russia affect the cost of living and well-being. Climate equivalence scales have been constructed for both welfare and well-being.
Gustems-Carnicer, Josep; Calderón, Caterina
The coping strategies used by students play a key role in their psychological well-being. This study examines the relationship between coping strategies and psychological well-being in a sample of 98 undergraduates aged between 19 and 42 years. Coping strategies were evaluated by means of the CRI-A (Moos, 1993), while psychological well-being was…
Donaldson-Feilder, Emma J.; Bond, Frank W.
Psychological acceptance (acceptance) and emotional intelligence (EI) are two relatively new individual characteristics that are hypothesised to affect well-being and performance at work. This study compares both of them, in terms of their ability to predict various well-being outcomes (i.e. general mental health, physical well-being, and job…
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