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Sample records for threaten eurozone expansion

  1. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

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    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  2. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Varada S. Shevade; Peter V. Potapov; Nancy L. Harris; Tatiana V. Loboda

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss ...

  3. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE EUROZONE CRISIS MANAGEMENT

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    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Euro is the single currency shared by 17 of the European Union's Member States, which together make up the Euro area. Since its introduction, in January 2002, it became the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. With the launch of the Euro, the monetary policy became the responsibility of the independent European Central Bank, which was created for that purpose, and of the national central banks of the Member States, having adopted the Euro. However, the accumulation of massive and unsustainable deficits and public debt levels in a number of peripheral economies threatened the Eurozone's viability by the end of its first decade, triggering a Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. The institutional mechanisms surrounding the Euro have also been an integral part of the crisis. On this line, the European Monetary Union is supported on one side by treaties and multilateral agreements including the Maastricht Treaty, the Stability and Growth Pact and the Lisbon Strategy and, on the other side, by the European Central Bank. The combination of these institutions has produced a mix of monetary, fiscal and labour market policies with powerful social implications. And, what started as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a broader economic and political crisis in the Eurozone and European Union. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the roots of the Eurozone crisis, as the biggest challenge since the Euro adoption and the European Central Bank’s response to it. Therefore the objectives are: identification of the reasons that stand behind the crisis, then observing how the crisis has affected the functioning of the European Central Bank and the Euro, and how it was forced to respond and, finally, focusing on the future and the challenges that lie ahead.

  4. THE CRISIS FROM THE EUROZONE

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    Nicu Trandafir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implosion of the European financial system? The global financial crisis – which still fumes – completed by a series of adjectives: economic, moral, social, political, has shaken the intelectual and political elite causing strong debates and the analysis of the causes, effects and, especially, the solutions of this true ”cyclone”. Some preached even the end of the world for the beginning of another world! It is unanimous the idea according to which the fool monetary system of the world must be deeply re-formed/restructured, not only tamed. For the European Union, the critical problems appeared on the ground of national debt crisis. The countries burdened by national debts – Greece, Spain, Portugal etc – can break down in a conflict - caused by the dilemma who will pay: tax payers, bankers, public sector’s employees, investors! There is the major risk of breaking out a monetary and commercial ”war” as soon as governments face the population rage as consequence of the decrease of incomes and increase of unemployment. Eurozone and European Union are in danger. Profound crisis, institutional block and the lack of efficient solutions will become chronic, and the lack of trust of people in politicians and in the European project will increase.

  5. Rebalancing the Eurozone Troubled Economies

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    Ziółkowski Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess how much rebalancing of the six eurozone troubled economies (Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus was achieved since the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007/2008, to what extent migrations were a mitigating factor on their labor markets and how much the troubled countries were assisted in their adjustment by other countries. The first part of the article shows an overall macroeconomic picture of the troubled economies' rebalancing together with a presentation of the etiology of the problem (i.e. accumulation of imbalances. The second part presents the role of migrations and the third part the role of the Eurosystem and international financial assistance in the rebalancing process. The research is based on comparing developments in selected indicators across countries. The conclusions are that the rebalancing in the troubled countries was either at most limited or actually their economies continued to fall out of balance (various indicators showing various developments make the situation ambiguous, migrations were either not much supportive for rebalancing of the troubled economies or they did not provide any dent to unemployment at all and that the troubled countries were provided with significant international assistance mainly in the form of the ECB policies causing the rise in the Target balances.

  6. The Eurozone Dynamic Cohesion: Convergence or Divergence

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    Antonin Rusek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The long term economic dynamics of the Eurozone’s original 12 countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Finland, France is analyzed and compared. It is today increasingly recognized that the diverging competitiveness between the Eurozone members is at the root of the current crisis. But the competitiveness dynamics and its impact on the crucial fiscal and financial variables during the common currency existence is seldom analyzed and compared, especially as far as the different groups of countries (and/or different areas within the Eurozone are concerned.

  7. Four currencies outside the eurozone

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    Imre Vámos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - In the European Union only a few countries have remained outside the eurozone. Among these countries with independent monetary policies few pursue a floating exchange rate regime: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania (IMF, 2013. The purpose of the paper is to examine whether there is a cointegrating relationship between the same underlying economic fundamentals and the real and nominal exchange rate of these countries against the euro. Design/methodology/approach – The quarterly data used for analysis for the period between 2000 and 2014 were provided by the Eurostat and European economy databases. After testing for unit root in the logarithmised data series Engel-Granger and Johansen tests are applied to discover the existence of longrun equilibrium relationships between the exchange rates and fundamentals explaining balance of payments equilibrium. Findings –Based on a uniform behavioural exchange rate model cointegration can only be revealed in the case of the Polish nominal exchange rate data, though simple OLS estimations indicate a strong relationship between fundamentals and exchange rates in the case of all the four countries. Research limitations/implications – The paper points out that it is difficult to prove the existence of any such relationship: making forecasts of the paths of equilibrium exchange rates is hampered by the lack of an adequate model, the short time series and the strong volatility of these currencies, especially the Hungarian forint and the Romanian leu. Another reason for the low explanatory value of various models can be frequent central bank intervention. Originality/value – As Dick et al. (2015 reveals good exchange rate estimates rely on the forecasters ability to understand the relation between fundamentals and the exchange rates mostly in times when exchange rate more strongly deviate from their PPP value. Therefore, applying more approaches for exchange rate analysis helps us

  8. Sticking together: the future of the Eurozone

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    Lorié, J.; Kastelein, M.; Nordman, N.; Willebrands, D.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few months - and more precisely since July 2011 - the Eurozone crisis has escalated. The initial impact was on the financial markets, where government bond spreads, especially in, but not limited to, the socalled peripheral countries, reached previously unimaginable levels. Bank

  9. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  10. On exchange rate misalignments in the Eurozone's peripheral countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochová, Ladislava; Plecitá, Klára

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we model equilibrium exchange rates for the Eurozone's countries on the basis of the Behavioural Equilibrium Exchange Rate approach, which assumes, that equilibrium exchange rates are in the long run affected by economic fundamentals. To assess the degree of exchange rate misalignment for the Eurozone's peripheral countries - Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain - the gap between the actual and the modelled equilibrium exchange rate value is calculated. Our results show that Spain, Portugal and Ireland had their real exchange rates in equilibrium when they joined the Eurozone; however their real exchange rates have been persistently overvalued since the beginning of the 2000s. Greece, on the other hand, has experienced diminishing undervaluation at the beginning of its membership in the Eurozone and since 2009 has exhibited an overvalued real exchange rate.

  11. Economic crisis and convergence in the Eurozone countries

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    Ferreiro Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a key condition for the creation of a monetary union is the existence of similar structural characteristics that reduce the existence and incidence of asymmetric shocks, in the case of the Eurozone, most, if not all, studies have emphasized the existence of sizeable divergences both in the macroeconomic performances and in the structural elements of the Eurozone countries. The objective of the paper is to analyse whether the economic and financial crisis that is affecting the Eurozone since the year 2008 has had any impact of the coherence of the Eurozone, that is, whether after 2008 the differences in the macroeconomic performance of the euro counties are declining (convergence or increasing (divergence.

  12. EU Banking Union: Lessons for non-eurozone transition countries

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    Šoškić Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurozone has gone through turmoil of sovereign debt crisis just after the detrimental effect of global financial crises of 2007/2008. Sovereign debt crisis of the eurozone was caused by bank-sovereign interdependence and lack of fiscal union in the eurozone. Financial fragmentation in the eurozone financial markets was an immediate outcome. Banking union of the EU is a regulatory and institutional remedy for main financial problems of the eurozone post global financial crisis. It is clear signal that lessons have been learned from the two crises. Stricter regulation (single rule book aims to increase the quality of banks. Single Supervisory Mechanism (SRM, and Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM aim to unify and better the standards of supervision and resolution in the EU. With emphasis on bail-ins, and EU level backstops, bank-sovereign interdependence should be dismantled and chances of financial crisis reoccurrence with huge costs for taxpayers should be significantly lower. There are important elements of Banking Union that could be introduced in non-eurozone transition countries both members and nonmembers of the EU.

  13. The Eurozone's arrested adolescence: Sketching a way out of the crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Erixon, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    The Eurozone crisis has been reinforced and prolonged by leaders' inability to agree on robust and credible crisis responses. Individual governments are experiencing sovereign deficit and debt crises, but not the Eurozone at large. Its fiscal position is manageable. The Eurozone is rather going through a crisis of the sovereign - or a crisis of government. Too many of the crisis solutions offered by Eurozone leaders have commanded neither authority nor electoral legitimacy. (...)

  14. Spanning trees and the Eurozone crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João

    2013-12-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has not yet been solved and recent developments in Spain and Italy have further deteriorated the situation. In this paper we develop a new approach to analyze the ongoing Eurozone crisis. Firstly, we use Maximum Spanning Trees to analyze the topological properties of government bond rates’ dynamics. Secondly, we combine the information given by both Maximum and Minimum Spanning Trees to obtain a measure of market dissimilarity or disintegration. Thirdly, we extend this measure to include a convenient distance not limited to the interval [0, 2]. Our empirical results show that Maximum Spanning Tree gives an adequate description of the separation of the euro area into two distinct groups: those countries strongly affected by the crisis and those that have remained resilient during this period. The measures of market dissimilarity also reveal a persistent separation of these two groups and, according to our second measure, this separation strongly increased during the period July 2009-March 2012.

  15. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

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    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  16. Age effects in Okun's law within the Eurozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutengs, O.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate Okun's coefficients for five different age cohorts for several Eurozone countries. We find a stable pattern for all countries: the relationship between business cycle fluctuations and the unemployment rate is the strongest for the youngest cohort and gets smaller for the elderly cohorts....

  17. Neoliberalism, trade imbalances, and economic policy in the Eurozone crisis

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    Engelbert Stockhammer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causes of the Eurozone crisis. In doing so, it carefully surveys authors from different economic schools of thought. The paper discusses competing explanations for European current account imbalances. Remarkably, opposing views on the relative importance of cost developments and demand developments in explaining current account imbalances can be found in both heterodox and orthodox economics. Regarding the assessment of fiscal and monetary policy there is a clearer polarisation, with heterodox analysis regarding austerity as unhelpful and most of orthodox economics endorsing it. We advocate a post-Keynesian view, which holds that current account imbalances are not a fundamental cause of the sovereign debt crisis. Rather, the economic policy architecture of the Eurozone, which aims at restricting the role of fiscal and monetary policy, is the key to understanding the crisis in Europe.

  18. What Really Ails the Eurozone?: Faulty Supranational Architecture

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    Assaf Razin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis which erupted in the United States instantaneously swept across Europe. Like the United States, the European Monetary Union (EMU was ripe for a crash. It had its own real estate bubble, specifically in Ireland and Spain, indulged in excessive deficit spending, financially deregulated, and rapidly expanded credit. Policy responses and recovery patterns for key EU members like Germany, France (within the Eurozone and the United Kingdom (outside the Eurozone were similar. However, after the bubble burst and the crisis began unfolding it became clear that the Eurozone plight differed from America’s in one fundamental respect. There was no exact counterpart of Eurozone GIIPS (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal and Spain in the United States. The disparity is traced to the EU’s and Eurozone’s special form of governance called “supranationality” (a partially sovereign transnational organization that has been largely ignored in economic treatises about the costs and benefits of customs unions, economic communities, and monetary unions. EZ members have put themselves in a monetary cage, akin to the gold standard. Member states have surrendered control over their monetary and foreign exchange rate policies to the German dominated European Central Bank (ECB, without supplementary central fiscal, private banking and political union institutions. This should be enough in general competitive theory, but too often leads to factional and societal gridlock that compounds the misery, and could cause the EU to permanently and gravely underperform relative to community’s “un-caged” potential.

  19. Asymmetric correlation of sovereign bond yield dynamics in the Eurozone

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    Dajcman Silvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the symmetry of correlation of sovereign bond yield dynamics between eight Eurozone countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain in the period from January 3, 2000 to August 31, 2011. Asymmetry of correlation is investigated pair-wise by applying the test of Yongmiao Hong, Jun Tu, and Guofu Zhou (2007. Whereas the test of Hong, Tu, and Zhou (2007 is static, the present paper provides also a dynamic version of the test and identifies time periods when the correlation of Eurozone sovereign bond yield dynamics became asymmetric. We identified seven pairs of sovereign bond markets for which the null hypothesis of symmetry in correlation of sovereign bond yield dynamics can be rejected. Calculating rolling-window exceedance correlation, we found that the time-varying upper- (i.e. for positive yield changes and lower-tail correlations (i.e. for negative yield changes for pair-wise observed sovereign bond markets normally follow each other closely, yet during some time periods (for most pair-wise observed countries, these periods are around the September 11 attack on the New York City WTC and around the start of the Greek debt crisis the difference in correlation does increase. The results show that the upper- and lower-tail correlation was symmetric before the Eurozone debt crisis for most of the pair-wise observed sovereign bond markets but has become much less symmetric since then.

  20. BALTIC STATES IN THE EUROZONE: THE ACCESSION PROCESS AND RESULTS

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    Jarosław Wołkonowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the process of the Baltic states’ accession to the eurozone and examines the consequences of their adoption of the euro currency. Although Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania joined the eurozone in different years, they share a number of common features in terms of both their accession process and presence in the euro area. The article consists of three parts – the first surveys the Baltic states’ conformity with the convergence criteria and the second examines the effects that can be observed in the economies of the three Baltic countries after accession. The third part contains a comparative analysis of actual inflation versus perceived inflation index seen over the three years spanning the periods before, during and after the adoption of the euro. For this purpose, calculations of simplified perceived inflation indices in the Baltic States were compiled and compared against actual inflation. The differences across the Baltic states between the perceived inflation index and real inflation were similar to those in Austria and Germany during these countries’ accession to the euro zone.

  1. Current Transformations of the Eurozone Financial and Institutional Space

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    Kornіvska Valerіa O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the processes of reforming the financial and institutional space of the eurozone, which in the long run creates the foundation for basic changes, which will result in not just a postcrisis “restart” of the system of financial institutions, but the creation of new mechanisms of liquidity circulation and in view of this the restructuring of the current model of investment process from mainly the banking into the market (stock one. On the basis of the analysis of the credit cooperation between banking institutions of the eurozone and the real sector there made conclusions about the limited effectiveness of the current model of investment support due to the inability of the dominant financial institutions (banks to enable economic recovery under conditions of the gap between the complementary interaction of banking institutions and the real sector of the economy. The paper justifies that the gap between the complementarity of the banking system and the real sector emerged also in connection with the formation of the negative in the general economic context complementarity of the state and the banking sector, which greatly distorts the competitive foundations of the European financial and institutional space, contributes to the banking lobby, hinders the process of reforming the banking space, which will be of limited effectiveness in the future

  2. Insurance market penetration and economic growth in Eurozone countries: Time series evidence on causality

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    Saurav Dash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between insurance market penetration and per capita economic growth in 19 Eurozone countries for the period 1980–2014. We use three different indicators of insurance market penetration (IMP, namely life insurance penetration, non-life insurance penetration, and total (both life and non-life insurance penetration. We particularly emphasize on whether Granger causality exists between these variables both ways, one way, or not at all. Our empirical results perceive both unidirectional and bidirectional causality between IMP and per capita economic growth. However, these results are mostly non-uniform across the Eurozone countries during this selected period. The policy implication is that the economic policies should recognize the differences in the insurance market and per capita economic growth in order to maintain sustainable growth in the Eurozone. Keywords: IMP, Per capita economic growth, Granger causality, Eurozone countries, JEL codes: L96, O32, O33, O43

  3. Going Forward from B to A? Proposals for the Eurozone Crisis

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    Massimo Amato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available After reviewing the main determinants of the current Eurozone crisis, this paper discusses the feasibility of introducing fiscal currencies as a way to restore fiscal space in peripheral countries, such as Greece, which have so far adopted austerity measures in order to abide by their commitments with Eurozone institutions and the IMF. We show that the introduction of fiscal currencies would speed up the recovery, without violating the rules of Eurozone Treaties. At the same time, these processes could help the transition of the euro from its current status of single currency to a status of “common clearing currency” along the lines proposed by Keynes at Bretton Woods as a system of international settlements. Eurozone countries could therefore move from “Plan B” aimed at addressing member state domestic problems, to a “Plan A” of a better European monetary system.

  4. In the absence of fiscal union, the Eurozone needs a more flexible monetary policy: A comment

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    Andrea Terzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a comment on Alessandrini and Fratianni (2015 (A&F, on how can the euro area cope with inter-regional differences in the absence of fiscal union. A&F develop a model to support their proposals, against which twomain remarks are raised here. First, diverging current account imbalances shaped the eurozone countries’ vulnerability, but were not a cause of the euroarea 2010-2012 liquidity crisis. Second, A&F’s quantity-theoretic view of monetary policy implementation is inapplicable to a floating currency like the euro, or to the Target2 payment system. A&F’s proposal of adding a current account constraint to the existing fiscal constraint for EA countries could have a positive impact if a country running a large current account balance and having fiscal room, as defined by the EU rules, were pressed to engage in expansionary fiscal policy. The problem with such a double constraint, however, is that the stronger the impact on the other EA countries, the sooner fiscal room would be exhausted. This criticism however does not imply that in the absence of fiscal union there is no stable solution; a coordinated pro-quota fiscal expansion would provide such stable solution. JEL: E42, E52, E58

  5. Enhanced Debt Management: solving the eurozone crisis by linking debt management with fiscal and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional approaches to suit unusual circumstances have become acceptable in monetary policy, a formerly highly conservative discipline. In this paper it is argued that unconventional approaches should also be considered in sovereign debt management, in order to contribute to resolving the eurozone sovereign debt crisis. First, the Troika crisis lending to indebted sovereign borrowers in the eurozone is reviewed and compared with standard IMF post-crisis lending. The main difference and ...

  6. Diversification: A Value-Creating or Value-Destroying Strategy? Evidence from the Eurozone Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvan Antonio; Pindado Julio; De La Torre Chabela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence on how diversification strategy impacts on excess value in a sample of Eurozone firms by using the data panel methodology. Specifically, we study the effect of the levels and types of the product diversification on the premium or discount that diversified firms trade at. Preliminary results are consistent with the value-destroying expectations and show that diversified companies trade at a discount in the Eurozone countries. However, a more accurate analysis...

  7. Exchange-traded funds of the eurozone sovereign debt

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    Drenovak Mikica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periods of high uncertainty bring liquidity concerns to the forefront for sovereign bond investors. Arguably the most liquid and cost-effective way for retail and small institutional investors to gain diversified sovereign bond exposure is through an exchange traded fund (ETF. In this paper we study the performance, country exposure, and replicating characteristics of a sample of 31 European index ETFs with exposure to eurozone sovereign debt. The obtained results are presented in the context of underlying index selection rules, types of replication, and movements in sovereign debt interest rates and sovereign CDS spreads. It is demonstrated that the ETFs focused on accurately track corresponding bond indices. This is consistent with earlier findings for equity index ETFs. Our results may be of interest for institutional investors, regulators, and everyone interested in sovereign debt investments.

  8. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

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    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  9. Determinants of non-performing loans: The case of Eurozone

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    Makri Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to identify the factors affecting the non-performing loans rate (NPL of Eurozone’s banking systems for the period 2000-2008, just before the beginning of the recession. In our days, Eurozone is in the middle of an unprecedented financial crisis, calling into question the soundness of the banking systems of European countries. Looking at both macro-variables (e.g. annual percentage growth rate of gross domestic product, public debt as % of gross domestic product, unemployment and micro-variables (e.g. loans to deposits ratio, return on assets, return on equity, we investigate which factors determine NPL on aggregate level. Overall, our findings reveal strong correlations between NPL and various macroeconomic (public debt, unemployment, annual percentage growth rate of gross domestic product and bank-specific (capital adequacy ratio, rate of nonperforming loans of the previous year and return on equity factors.

  10. An Analysis of the Recent Eurozone Recovery: is It Sustainable?

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    Ivo Pezzuto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the topic of the surprise European Economy recovery in 2017 and its possible implications. The article aims to provide a broad and comprehensive understanding of the triggering factors that have contributed to this unexpected economic revival and to the slow and uneven economic recovery in Europe after the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and the Great Recession. The article also aims to highlight the potential downside risks related to the still unsolved structural issues that caused the debt overhang and macroeconomic imbalances in Europe in the past decade. Thus, the European Union and the Eurozone seem to be on course for a potential brighter future in the years to come but internal and external risks might still undermine the path to sustained growth, full economic recovery, and stronger integration in the region unless proper political, economic, fiscal, and monetary governance and policies are assured to make the euro area more resilient to future systemic shocks.

  11. Analysis of the Czech and Slovak Different Strategic Choices Towards the Eurozone

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    Jiang Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Czechs and Slovaks lived in a common country from 1918 to 1992, and in May 2004 the Czech Republic and Slovakia joined the EU together; nevertheless, these two countries took different paths towards the Eurozone. On January 1, 2009 Slovakia became the 16th member state of the Eurozone, while the Czech Republic has not yet determined a specific timetable to enter the Eurozone. In this paper, our main objective is to answer the following questions: Why did the Czech Republic and Slovakia make different strategic choices on the issue of euro introduction? How could Slovakia, a country with unfavourable initial conditions of transformation, quickly achieve the full compliance of the Maastricht convergence criteria? How is Slovakia’s experience in the Eurozone? Compared with the Czech Republic, which has not introduced the euro, is the Slovak economic situation better or not? Which economic consequences did the Eurozone debt crisis bring to Slovakia and how does it affect the decision of the other Central European countries, including the Czech Republic, about euro adoption?

  12. The conundrum of Greece and the Eurozone: Puzzles, paradoxes and contradictions

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    Kitromilides Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three questions regarding the controversial relationship between Greece and the eurozone during the current crisis. First, why was Greece “bailed-out” in 2010? Second, why the Greek economy collapsed despite the largest “bail-out” in global financial history? Third, was the electoral mandate of the Syriza government for ending austerity while remaining in the eurozone contradictory? There are conflicting answers to all three questions and the paper compares the answers of the so called “dominant narrative” to those provided by the “counter-narrative” of the eurozone crisis. The paper reaches the following conclusions. First, the primary motivation for the “bail-out” of Greece was the maintenance of European and global financial stability. Second, although programme implementation was less successful in Greece than in other “programme” countries the catastrophic collapse of the Greek economy had more to do with the programme itself than its implementation. Third, the meaning of democratic decision-making in the Euro-group needs re-appraisal and must go beyond seeing the Greek demand of a policy reversal in the eurozone as simply a clash of democratic mandates in a 19 member monetary union. Political unity will not only improve efficiency but also democracy and accountability in eurozone policymaking.

  13. The impact of news ans the SMP on realized (co)variances in the Eurozone sovereign debt market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; de Jong, F.; Giuliodori, M.; Widijanto, D.

    2014-01-01

    We use realized variances and covariances based on intraday data from Eurozone sovereign bond market to measure the dependence structure of eurozone sovereign yields. Our analysis focuses on the impact of news, obtained from the Eurointelligence newsash, on the dependence structure. More news raises

  14. Policy learning in the Eurozone crisis: modes, power and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Claire A; Radaelli, Claudio M

    In response to the attacks on the sovereign debt of some Eurozone countries, European Union (EU) leaders have created a set of preventive and corrective policy instruments to coordinate macro-economic policies and reforms. In this article, we deal with the European Semester, a cycle of information exchange, monitoring and surveillance. Countries that deviate from the targets are subjected to increasing monitoring and more severe 'corrective' interventions, in a pyramid of responsive exchanges between governments and EU institutions. This is supposed to generate coordination and convergence towards balanced economies via mechanisms of learning. But who is learning what? Can the EU learn in the 'wrong' mode? We contribute to the literature on theories of the policy process by showing how modes of learning can be operationalized and used in empirical analysis. We use policy learning as theoretical framework to establish empirically the prevalent mode of learning and its implications for both the power of the Commission and the normative question of whether the EU is learning in the 'correct' mode.

  15. Transcending the new macroeconomic orthodoxy in the Eurozone: a Post-Keynesian view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Kotarski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to empirically test the endogenous money hypothesis for the Eurozone. Based on data on loans to private sector, deposits, monetary aggregates, prices and GDP we use three empirical approaches to test the hypothesis: (i moving correlation; (ii Granger causality tests and (iii original framework for the analysis based on the structural VAR model. The empirical results confirm our main hypothesis on the endogeneity of money in the Eurozone as they show that the commonly accepted neoclassical relations between monetary variables, inflation and economic activity are reversed in case of Eurozone and that the direction of influence goes from loans to deposits and from real sector of the economy towards the monetary sector. The basic conclusion from carried out research is that ECB should implement measures directly aimed at stimulation of domestic demand (monetary-supported tax cut.

  16. Eurozone Public Debt Crisis: ECB Bond Buying and the Setup of European Financial Stability Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Bălțătescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to briefly review two of the most important policy responses of EU authorities to the Eurozone public debt crisis: (1 ECB bond buying; and (2 the setup of European Financial Stability Facility with the special task of issuing Eurobonds. The Securities Markets Programme approved by ECB marks an important change in the ECB policy. According to European treatises, ECB must remain an independent bank, but since the beginning of the debt crisis, in early 2010, the ECB has been pressured by the Eurozone governments that encountered financial problems to purchase Eurozone government bonds. By surrendering to these requests, ECB is being accused that it became a political bank, like its American counterpart, the FED. The Eurobonds represent as well a controversial measure because they allow the already highly indebted countries to access new funds on behalf of other Eurozone countries with a relative better financial and economic situation. Also, another important problem is that both measures curtail incentives for prudence and responsible fiscal policies for countries that already proved lack of prudence and fiscal discipline.

  17. Supranational institutions as central stakeholders during eurozone debt crisis in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljar Veebel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis in the Eurozone is combining several new interdisciplinary debates. Has the financial crisis been caused by the decisions of the political actors or rather by complicated economic dilemmas? In what way have the different social stakeholders acted during the years of the crisis and which of the groups have had biggest influence in different stages of the crisis? Why and how national political elites have lost their dominant position in crisis management and which were the cornerstones of this power transition process and what role have the supranational institutions like the European Commission and the European Central Bank played during the crisis? Accordingly, the main goal of the article is to define crucial events and stakeholders in Eurozone crisis solution process by using empirical process tracking and narrative analysis as research methods. This article will also look on the possible interests and future actions of the Eurozone stakeholders based on the last four years´ experience. It will also be inquired into how and why national political elites and citizens delegated their democratic competences and powers to non-electable institutions during Eurozone crisis.

  18. Credit cycle coherence in the eurozone : Was there a euro effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Bezemer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines effects of the euro introduction on credit cycle coherence in the euro-zone through six channels. We construct and describe credit cycles for total bank credit, household mortgages and non-financial business loans for 16 EMU economies over 1990-2015. Credit cycle coherence is

  19. Myths, Mix-ups and Mishandlings : What Caused the Eurozone Crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, S.T.H.; Naastepad, C.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Eurozone crisis has been wrongly interpreted as either a crisis of fiscal profligacy or of deteriorating unit-labour cost competitiveness (caused by rigid labour markets), or a combination of both. Based on these diagnoses, crisiscountries have been treated with the bitter medicines of fiscal

  20. Ratings uplifts and bank characteristics in the Eurozone 2002-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores which characteristics define banks that are too-big-to-fail in the Eurozone over the period 2002-2011. These banks are identified through ratings uplift data from Moody’s. Higher ratings uplifts are associated with higher degrees of interest income and lower degrees of commission

  1. Miscarriage - threatened

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might take place before the 20th week of pregnancy. Causes Some pregnant women have some vaginal bleeding , with ... injuries or stress during the first trimester of pregnancy can cause threatened miscarriage. It occurs in almost half of ...

  2. Assessing Determinants of Macroeconomic Policy on Real Convergence and Growth: A Comparative Study of the Eurozone and ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    ZaenalMutaqin; Masaru Ichihashi

    2012-01-01

    This study mainly examines the role of macroeconomic policy variables associated with Maastricht Convergence Criteria (MC), using various approaches to analyze comparatively differences in growth and convergence in income, productivity, and unemployment between a developed, economically integrated area (Eurozone) and a developing one (ASEAN), a decade before and after the euro was introduced. The most interesting issue is whether macroeconomic policy coordination in the Eurozone has had an in...

  3. Has the 2008 financial crisis affected stock market efficiency? The case of Eurozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostidis, P.; Varsakelis, C.; Emmanouilides, C. J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on the weak-form efficiency of twelve Eurozone stock markets is investigated empirically. Efficiency is tested via the Generalized Hurst Exponent method, while dynamic Hurst exponents are estimated by means of the rolling window technique. To account for biases associated with the finite sample size and the leptokurtosis of the financial data, the statistical significance of the Hurst exponent estimates is assessed through a series of Monte-Carlo simulations drawn from the class of α-stable distributions. According to our results, the 2008 crisis has adversely affected stock price efficiency in most of the Eurozone capital markets, leading to the emergence of significant mean-reverting patterns in stock price movements.

  4. The roots of the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis: PIGS vs non-PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Costa Abel L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of this paper are twofold: a to determine if there are significant differences on the determinants of public expenditures and tax revenues between the so-called PIGS and the remaining Eurozone member states; b to uncover possible explanations for the different situations in which these countries find themselves nowadays. The paper focus on the effects of the cyclical state of the economy on those fiscal variables, and on the actual adherence to the fiscal rules imposed by the Maastricht Treaty. Based on the estimated results we conclude that the anti-cyclical reaction with respect to the unemployment rate is much stronger among non-PIGS. We also find that fiscal rules have, in general, not been followed by those two groups of countries. Moreover, PIGS, in spite of their economic frailties, have tried to emulate the fiscal behavior of their more prosperous Eurozone partners instead of executing more rigorous policies.

  5. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  6. Eurozone Debt Monetization and Helicopter Money Drops: How Viable can this be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriazis Νikolaos A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After the outburst of the recent financial crisis, the subsequent unconventional monetary acting that seemed to be a veritable revolution tends to become a norm. This paper makes an effort to employ the modern monetary theory framework to address the nowadays recession in the Eurozone through the prism of debt perpetuation and the more drastic helicopter money drops. Dynamics of debt monetization and issues of its sustainability are examined in connection to its free liquidity injections capacity. The aim of this paper is to try to cast some light on the potential of overt money financing in the Eurozone (EZ and its consequences on the ECB’s credibility and the maintenance of its efficacy.

  7. Energy prices, volatility, and the stock market. Evidence from the Eurozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper constitutes a first analysis on stock returns of energy corporations from the Eurozone. It focuses on the relationship between energy market developments and the pricing of European energy stocks. According to our results, oil price hikes negatively impact on stock returns of European utilities. However, they lead to an appreciation of oil and gas stocks. Interestingly, forecastable oil market volatility negatively affects European oil and gas stocks, implying profit opportunities for strategic investors. In contrast, the gas market does not play a role for the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. Coal price developments affect the stock returns of European utilities. However, this effect is small compared to oil price impacts, although oil is barely used for electricity generation in Europe. This suggests that for the European stock market, the oil price is the main indicator for energy price developments as a whole. (author)

  8. The Impact of The Sovereign Debt Crisis on The Eurozone Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Mohamed Ali

    2012-01-01

    The turmoil affecting capital markets since summer 2007 and its intensification since mid-September 2008 inflicted noticeable blows to world economy. These last years the euro-zone’s financial institutions seem to be seriously hit by aggravating tensions. In 2010, this crisis intensified with the Greek debt crisis. It dated back to autumn 2010 with the Irish public debt. In this paper, we analyse the recent developments in the eurozone, mainly the PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and S...

  9. Importance of the Debt-Adjusted Real Exchange Rate in the Eurozone and V4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Abrahámek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine a potential overvaluation and undervaluation of currencies of selected eurozone countries and of the Visegrád Four. The DARER (Debt-Adjusted Real Exchange Rate model was used for an empirical analysis of the period between 2010–2014 in individual quarters. The advantage of this model is that it explicitly takes into consideration the development of the current account and the debt of the country in connection with the theory of purchasing power parity. The DARER model appears to be a suitable tool for the empirical analysis because, currently, there are many countries in the eurozone with a high debt. In the analysis, data on the current account, debt service payments, GDP, HICP USA and individual researched countries, the exchange rates EUR/USD and CZK/USD, PLN/USD, HUF/USD were used. According to the average overvaluation and undervaluation of currency in all observed states in the Eurozone, in total the overvaluation of the euro against the US dollar was 19.3 %. The overvaluation in individual countries varied from 6.3 % to 33.38 %. These differences in the overvaluation of states’ currency against the US dollar were caused mainly by different development of the balance of payments of the country and the country’s debt. This can indicate various levels of external imbalances among the states within the monetary union. According to the result of this research, the DARER model was able to identify varying overvaluation and undervaluation of currencies in individual eurozone states and the Visegrád Group, so it can be used by policy makers as one of the indicators of these external imbalances of individual countries in the monetary union.

  10. The crisis and fiscal policies in the peripheral countries of the Eurozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the political causes of the current financial crisis of the eurozone peripheral countries (Spain, Greece, Portugal, and Ireland) and how the crisis affects their welfare states. It examines how their profoundly conservative governments (dictatorships in Spain, Portugal, and Greece and authoritarian regime in Ireland) during the post-World War II period and the dominance of their states by right-wing forces have made these countries very vulnerable to the speculations of the financial markets.

  11. THE CONVERGENCE OF ROMANIA WITH THE EUROZONE IN TERMS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the integration of Romanian monetary system into European one and the transmission of liquidity shocks from eurozone to Romanian monetary market. Since Romania become a member of European Union, most of the Romanian banks are mainly provided by financial institutions placed in Europe. With the accession of Romania to the European Union, has started a process of integration of the national banking system into the eurozone banking system and thus, domestic financial institutions has began to be increasingly more subject to liquidity conditions and external contagion liquidity risk in the eurozone. In some periods, between EU accession and until the beginning of 2014, Romania has managed to reduce the volatility of the daily rates of monetary policy, compared with the eurozone, where, in the same periods, were recorded high volatility of monetary policy interest rates. Partial decoupling of the two money markets can be explained by economic stabilization policies adopted by Romania by improving the liquidity of the financial institutions and national measures taken by monetary policy makers in Romania. The main conclusion of this study is that the domestic banking sector is only partially integrated in the European banking sector in terms of money market liquidity and liquidity risk, and creating a stable framework for liquidity in Romania requires a mix of fiscal and monetary policies conducive to the development of financial instruments in long-term. However, the analysis shows that the sensitivity of liquidity in the Romanian banks to adverse developments on the European money market has increased and the ability of the internal factors to predict the liquidity conditions in national banking institutions is still high. Considering these aspects, we can say that, when we analyze liquidity risk in the Romanian banking system, we must take into consideration the influence of the external factors.

  12. Unemployment and sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone: A k-means- r analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João

    2017-09-01

    Some southern countries in Europe, together with Ireland, were particularly affected by the sovereign debt crises in the Eurozone and were obliged to implement tough corrective measures which proved to be very recessive in nature. As a result, not only GDP declined but unemployment jumped to very high levels as well. This paper uses a modified version of k-means (restricted k-means) to analyze the clustering of the Eurozone countries during the recent sovereign debt crisis, combining monthly data on unemployment and government bond yield rates. Our method shows that the separation of southern Europe from the other Eurozone is not necessarily a good characterization of this area before the crisis but the group of externally assisted countries plus Italy gains consistence as the crisis evolved, although there is no perfect homogeneity in this group, since the problems they faced, the type of response requested, the speed of reaction to the crisis and the lasting effects were not the same for all these countries.

  13. The competitiveness of Eurozone periphery countries’ economies and their debt problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that after the periphery PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain joined the Eurozone, several factors previously improving PIGS' export competitiveness (undervalued national currency, protective customs duty, low compensation of employees no longer work. It is revealed that in the pre-crisis years the rapid GDP growth in PIGS took place considerably by means of foreign loans. Moreover, external debt bubbles grew: high rates of economic growth facilitated the inflow of new foreign money used for both reinvestment and current external debt service. Besides, the share of «tradable» goods (that can be moved between countries and internationally traded decreased in the GDP structures of PIGS. During the crisis, the PIGS' economic situation got worse (growth of external and public debts, decline in the GDP and in the investments, high unemployment. Conclusion: the Eurozone should either strengthen the integration (to increase the unification of laws in the economic and social spheres, to tighten control by the Eurozone central authorities, or get rid of the troubled countries. Otherwise, the current crisis, repeatedly flaring and fading, will persist for a long time.

  14. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EUROZONE PERIPHERY COUNTRIES’ ECONOMIES AND THEIR DEBT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that after the periphery PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain joined the Eurozone, several factors previously improving PIGS' export competitiveness (undervalued national currency, protective customs duty, low compensation of employees no longer work. It is revealed that in the pre-crisis years the rapid GDP growth in PIGS took place considerably by means of foreign loans. Moreover, external debt bubbles grew: high rates of economic growth facilitated the inflow of new foreign money used for both reinvestment and current external debt service. Besides, the share of «tradable» goods (that can be moved between countries and internationally traded decreased in the GDP structures of PIGS. During the crisis, the PIGS' economic situation got worse (growth of external and public debts, decline in the GDP and in the investments, high unemployment. Conclusion: the Eurozone should either strengthen the integration (to increase the unification of laws in the economic and social spheres, to tighten control by the Eurozone central authorities, or get rid of the troubled countries. Otherwise, the current crisis, repeatedly flaring and fading, will persist for a long time.

  15. Hawkes-diffusion process and the conditional probability of defaults in the Eurozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmu; Park, Yuen Jung; Ryu, Doojin

    2016-05-01

    This study examines market information embedded in the European sovereign CDS (credit default swap) market by analyzing the sovereign CDSs of 13 Eurozone countries from January 1, 2008, to February 29, 2012, which includes the recent Eurozone debt crisis period. We design the conditional probability of defaults for the CDS prices based on the Hawkes-diffusion process and obtain the theoretical prices of CDS indexes. To estimate the model parameters, we calibrate the model prices to empirical prices obtained from individual sovereign CDS term structure data. The estimated parameters clearly explain both cross-sectional and time-series data. Our empirical results show that the probability of a huge loss event sharply increased during the Eurozone debt crisis, indicating a contagion effect. Even countries with strong and stable economies, such as Germany and France, suffered from the contagion effect. We also find that the probability of small events is sensitive to the state of the economy, spiking several times due to the global financial crisis and the Greek government debt crisis.

  16. Geographic Labor Mobility as an Element of Adjustment Process in the Eurozone Countries and the USA States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziółkowski Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to compare geographic labor mobility (the migration channel of adjustment in the eurozone and the USA since the 1990s. The first part of the article contains a review of selected literature on migration in Europe and the USA. In the second part three hypotheses are formulated on the basis of this review. The third part of the article presents the methodology and data used to verify these hypotheses. Tat methodology rests on analyzing how net emigration rates in the period 1992-2011 in eurozone countries and various states in the United States (plus the District of Columbia reacted to unemployment rates. The fourth part of the article presents the results of the analysis, together with an explanation of the intensity and dynamics of the migration channel of adjustment in both monetary unions. The analysis confirms that migration has been less supportive for the functioning of the monetary union in the eurozone than in the USA. It also shows that visible strengthening of the migration channel in the eurozone seems to have taken place only after 2004, which suggests an association with the European Union enlargement in 2004. For the eurozone, the analysis does not provide convincing evidence that the migration channel strengthened after the outbreak of the fnancial crisis. For the USA the analysis suggests that the fnancial and economic crisis significantly weakened the migration channel. The article ends with concluding remarks.

  17. Business cycle synchronization among member countries of Eurozone during the process of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the correlation of the business cycles between the Eurozone member states in the period 1957–2003. The analysed period is divided into the four parts (1959–1972, 1973–1985, 1986–1994, 1995–2003, which correspond to integration waves and relate approximately to the European integration process. The empirical analysis is based on the time series correlation. The authors discuss the impact of the EC enlargements on the business cycles correlation as well as on qualitative changes in the interaction between the states.

  18. THE CONTAGION EFFECT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE EUROZONE TO THE SOVEREIGN DEBT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Peptine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a number of phenomena that characterize the euro area, one of them being the contagion effect. This is one of the mechanisms by which financial instability becomes so widespread that the crisis reached global dimensions. The following lines argue that contagion plays a crucial role in exacerbating the sovereign debt problems in the Eurozone. Consequently, the management of the crisis by the competent authorities should focus on policy measures that are able to mitigate the contagion. Therefore, many of the European Central Bank interventions (ECB in the European Union were motivated by the need for understanding and mitigating the contagion phenomenon.

  19. Social Progress in Romania and other Central and Eastern European Non- Eurozone States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA CÂMPEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our research paper refers to the social progress achieved in the last 10 years by Romania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland and Hungary as non- Eurozone members (CEE-6, compared to the minimum and maximum levels in the EU-28, depending on their economic development levels. This analysis isa part of the larger-scale study regarding the readinessassessment of Romania and other five Central and Eastern European countries (CEE-6 for accession to the Eurozone in terms of the real convergence. We extended the analysis of the real economic convergence to the sphere of social convergence. The purpose of the extended analysis is to compare the living standards in Romania, CEE-6 and other European Union member states (EU-28 and to draw conclusions on the social convergence as a complement to real economic convergence. Using a new analytical tool, the global composite index “Social Progress Index” at different levels of disaggregation, this article reveals the social gaps between CEE-6 and the EU and identifies strengths, and weaknesses for these countries to achieve social progress on the road to real economic and social convergence with the EU.The aim is to provide to the national decision-makers some milestones to remove weaknesses and to turn threats into opportunities in the future social and economic policies.

  20. Sovereign Adaptive Risk Modeling and Implications for the Eurozone GREXIT Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Escalera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Financial Stability Board (FSB and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS created a list of systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs with the intention of determining which financial institutions were important enough to the global market that their failure would result in systemic collapse. In this work, we create a model that modifies the BCBS’s five indicators of size, interconnectedness, cross-jurisdictional activities, complexity, and substitutability and apply these measures of systemic stress to governments. Although the cross-jurisdictional activities and size were almost identical to the SIFI calculations, the others had to be adapted to mirror the intent of the BCBS. Interconnectedness is calculated by simulation of what would happen to nearby countries if a country defaulted. Substitutability is estimated by the number of services that would no longer be provided if the government ceased to exist. Complexity is market-based and is derived from credit default swap (CDS spreads. The original application of the model was to track the systemic interdependence of the Eurozone, with particular emphasis on the case of Greece. We anticipate that this model can be used in regional fiscal situations beyond the Eurozone.

  1. Risk assessment and stock market volatility in the Eurozone: 1986-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rui; Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    This paper studies the stock market return's volatility in the Eurozone as an input for evaluating the market risk. Stock market returns are endogenously determined by long-term interest rate changes and so is the return's conditional variance. The conditional variance is the time-dependent variance of the underlying variable. In other words, it is the variance of the returns measured at each moment t, so it changes through time depending on the specific market structure at each time observation. Thus, a multivariate EGARCH model is proposed to capture the complex nature of this network. By network, in this context, we mean the chain of stock exchanges that co-move and interact in such a way that a shock in one of them propagates up to the other ones (contagion). Previous studies provide evidence that the Eurozone stock exchanges are deeply integrated. The results indicate that asymmetry and leverage effects exist along with fat tails and endogeneity. In-sample and out-of-sample forecasting tests provide clear evidence that the multivariate EGARCH model performs better than the univariate counterpart to predict the behavior of returns both before and after the 2008 crisis.

  2. The resurgence of cultural borders in international finance during the financial crisis: Evidence from Eurozone cross-border depositing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Sander, H.; Heuchemer, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cultural borders in international finance resurge during financial crises. To investigate the role of cultural borders during both tranquil and crisis periods, we employ a unique data set that focuses on Eurozone cross-border depositing in a gravity-model

  3. Realized (co)variances of eurozone sovereign yields during the crisis: The impact of news and the Securities Markets Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; de Jong, Frank; Giuliodori, M.; Widijanto, D.

    We use realized variances and covariances based on intraday data to measure the dependence structure of eurozone sovereign yields. Our analysis focuses on the impact of news, obtained from the Eurointelligence newsflash, on the dependence structure. More news tends to raise the volatility of yields

  4. Financial crises as catalysts for regional cooperation? Chances and obstacles for financial integration in ASEAN+3, MERCOSUR and the eurozone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapohl, S.

    2015-01-01

    This article compares and analyses the different answers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations+3 (ASEAN+3), Mercado Común del Dur (MERCOSUR) and the eurozone on financial crises in their respective regions. All three regions were hit by economic turmoil between 1997 and 2012, but whereas

  5. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration, the eurozone, and the hellish road to the fabled gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Claes, D.H.; Knutsen, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Regional systems of governance may resolve some of the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the eurozone is among the most advanced examples of attempts to do so. This paper argues that the recent Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition, and the outcome leaves the EU

  6. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration, the eurozone, and the imaginary road to the fabled gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Regional systems of governance may resolve some of the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the eurozone is among the most advanced examples of attempts to do so. This paper argues that the recent Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition, and the outcome leaves the EU

  7. From Subprime and Eurozone Crisis with Full Speed into the Next Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašek Sebastjan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the road from subprime and eurozone crisis to the elements of a new systemic crisis. Our aim is to research common issues that accompany each of these crises and to explore elements that hint that the financial systems are moving toward a new crisis. By holding short-term interest rates near zero, the central banks have encouraged malinvestment and speculation. Fuelling the bubble is the fear of missing out on trade. We find that actual events and movements on security markets follow a typical pattern, which indicates a serious threat for the next financial crisis. We also find enough signs that old crises lessons haven’t been learned.

  8. The Eurozone Crisis: Muddling through on the Way to a More Perfect Euro Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Aizenman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking a historical perspective of economic changes, this paper argues that muddling through crises-induced reforms characterizes well the evolutionary process of forming currency unions. The economic distortions facing the euro include structural challenges in the labor and product markets, and financial distortions. While both structural and financial distortions are costly and prevalent, they differ in fundamental ways. Financial distortions are moving at the speed of the Internet, and their welfare costs are determined more by the access to credit lines and leverage, than by the GDP of each country. In contrast, the structural distortions are moving at a slow pace relative to the financial distortions, and their effects are determined by inter-generational dynamics. These considerations suggest that the priority should be given to dealing with the financial distortions. A more perfect Eurozone is not assured without successfully muddling through painful periodic crises.

  9. The effect of innovative activity in firm performance and development: Analysing data from eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias A. Makris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of Innovative Activity on firm performance and growth. Active Research and Development is considered to be directly related with development, prosperity and growth, in micro and macro level and a key factor in hindering economic recession. Design/methodology/approach – We analyse economic data from listed firms of selected eurozone country-members in order to associate Research and Development with performance indicators in firm and country level. For that purpose, several firm data were collected from WorldScope data base and macroeconomic data from Worldbank database. The period examined is between 2002 and 2012, with a special focus on current financial crisis (after 2007. The empirical process includes, descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Findings – Findings indicate the crucial effect of innovative process in economic performance and development in firm and country level. The latter highlights the urgent need for public support in order to spur innovative activity and high-tech exports, especially in countries that were heavily affected by recession. Research limitations/implications – Some research limitations are the large number of missing cases in WordScope database, as many firms after the beginning of current crisis exit stock market. Furthermore, the other part of the economy, the Small and Medium Enterprises does not exist in the analysis, as listed firms are mainly large and mature companies. Originality/value – The results tend to highlight the need for common policy measures in eurozone, in regard to such issues, instead of imposing horizontal budgetary constraints in specific countries (like Southern Europe, hindering the vicious recessionary circle.

  10. DCCA cross-correlation in blue-chips companies: A view of the 2008 financial crisis in the Eurozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, E.; Dionísio, A.; Ferreira, P. J.; Zebende, G. F.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we analyze the blue-chips (up to 50% of the total index) companies in the Eurozone. Our motivation being analysis of the effect of the 2008 financial crisis. For this purpose, we apply the DCCA cross-correlation coefficient (ρDCCA) between the country stock market index and their respective blue-chips. Then, with the cross-correlation coefficient, we qualify and quantify how each blue-chip is adherent to its country index, evaluating the type of cross-correlation among them. Subsequently, for each blue-chip, we propose to study the 2008 financial crisis by measuring the adherence between post and pre-crisis. From this analysis, we can construct an adhesion map of each company with respect to the global index. Our database is formed of 12 Eurozone countries.

  11. AN OVERVIEW AT MACROECONOMIC LEVEL THROUGH ACCOUNTING FIGURES PROVIDED BY THE ECB ASSESSMENT ON EUROZONE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Ecaterina OROS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the main macroeconomic indicators, the credit risk indicators became an important leverage in monitoring and evaluating the standard of living at a national level and the country’s economic evolution. These two types of indicators show a strong interconnection, and the correct assessment of the credit risk indicators becomes a must. As a consequence, the central banks and the main regulators in the Europe aria provided for a strict monitoring of such indicators and further on, for constant update of the banking supervisory regulations. In October 2013, the European Central bank (ECB issued the Note of Comprehensive Assessment that will be carried out during 2014, on the Euro-zone1 banking system. The outcome of the assessment will impact not only the accounting figures of the banking system, but also might change the macroeconomic overview of Euro-zone and the IASB's Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting.

  12. Transgenerational metamorphosis in Shakespeare’s Winter’s tale and the eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wooster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale – set in Palermo, and also Bohemia - suggests that where there is close affection and love there also may be more exposure to envy, jealousy, uncontrolled anger,attempts to punish, and guilt. It involves inter-sibling and inter-group dynamics, attributions, misattributions, but also transgenerational metapmorphosis creating new meanings, and how envy and jealousy - if reconciled – may redeem guilt and generate psychic surpluses rather than only deficits. The paper outlines these but also relates such dynamics to the current crisis of the Eurozone and Kleinian splitting and projective identification. It suggests that the crisis is the first time Germany that Germany has been able to split from guilt (Schuld – especially for the Holocaust – and been able to project guilt for debt (also Schuld in German onto the peripheral European countries, and that transgenerational metapmorphosis will depend on recovering the good in credit as the inverse of debt. Keywords: Jealousy; Guilt; Debt 

  13. Transgenerational metamorphosis in Shakespeare’s Winter’s tale and the eurozone crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wooster

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale – set in Palermo, and also Bohemia - suggests that where there is close affection and love there also may be more exposure to envy, jealousy, uncontrolled anger,attempts to punish, and guilt. It involves inter-sibling and inter-group dynamics, attributions, misattributions, but also transgenerational metapmorphosis creating new meanings, and how envy and jealousy - if reconciled – may redeem guilt and generate psychic surpluses rather than only deficits. The paper outlines these but also relates such dynamics to the current crisis of the Eurozone and Kleinian splitting and projective identification. It suggests that the crisis is the first time Germany that Germany has been able to split from guilt (Schuld – especially for the Holocaust – and been able to project guilt for debt (also Schuld in German onto the peripheral European countries, and that transgenerational metapmorphosis will depend on recovering the good in credit as the inverse of debt. Key words: Jealousy, Guilt, Debt.

  14. In the absence of fiscal union, the Eurozone needs a more flexible monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes three points. The first is that external imbalances between Member States are relevant for the performance of a monetary union when the latter is not backed by a strong political commitment and a solid political framework. Eurozone policymakers have ignored these inter-member imbalances and have instead concentrated on union-wide imbalances, so much so that statistical data on the former phenomenon still remain largely incomplete. There are signs that a correction is in the making, which we hope will lead to a comprehensive quantitative knowledge of intra-EMU imbalances. The second objective of the paper is to design specific policies aimed at reducing inter-member external disequilibria, for example by fixing targets on current-account imbalances symmetrically applied to both deficit and surplus countries. The contrast between the keen attention of the EZ policymakers on national fiscal imbalances and the belated and lukewarm attention given to external imbalances is striking. The third aim of the paper is to propose a more flexible monetary policy aimed at controlling the distribution of liquidity among Member States, resulting from inter-member external imbalances. Our proposal is that National Central Banks should add a risk premium cost to official interest rates on banks that accumulate “excessive” borrowings or deposits to compensate, respectively, for outflows and inflows of the monetary base due to the effect of external imbalances. JEL classification: E42, E52, E58

  15. Liquidity supply and money velocity co-movements in the Eurozone – Time-Frequency Domain Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus on financial stability in the Eurozone and propose alternative indicator for macro-prudential policy implementation. Rapid growth of the shadow banking system biases increase in loans to identify financial instability. The velocity of money represented money demand in the economy. The empirical part of the paper applies wavelet analysis to identify cyclical co-movements in money velocity and liquidity supply. The authors provide recommendations for policymakers to stabilize global liquidity shocks and reduce procyclical effects by institutions which supply official liquidity in their domestic currency – central banks.

  16. Towards a European Division of Labour : Do Europe’s Crises Highlight Structural Challenges to Sustainable Economic Growth in the Eurozone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, D.J.; Scholten, M.

    2014-01-01

    The financial and economic crises of the last few years in many Southern Eurozone countries are generally studied individually, without reference to other such crises in the region. In this note, we argue that they may also be approached as symptoms of an underlying structural challenge facing the

  17. ’When Poverty Comes in at the Door, Love Flies Out the Window’: The Influence of Eurozone Reforms Upon the Social Dimension of the EU – and Vice Versa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Th e economic crisis has brought the intriguing question of its eff ects on Social Europe sharply into focus. Th is contribution therefore goes to the heart of the puzzles and explores the mutual infl uence of Eurozone reforms and broader Union social policies with an additional focus on pointing...... and the internal construction of the Eurozone, which is growing, but not really focused on. It is, inter alia, concluded that the Eurozone reforms bring Social Europe in a new – also viewed by many as a dangerous, illegitimate and undemocratic – direction detached from the prevailing intentions in the EU as such....

  18. Breaking up Is Hard to Do: Why the Eurozone Will Survive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Aslett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since revelations of the Greek fiscal deficit in the fall of 2009, the breakup of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU has moved from unthinkable to plausible. The debate over the future  of the EMU has become increasingly relevant, as numerous efforts to solve the Greek crisis have not  been successful. Neither have basic competitiveness differences between countries in the core and  periphery of the European Union been eliminated. Proposed solutions include development of a  banking union, regulatory measures to monitor trade and capital imbalances, fiscal reforms on the  part of countries in trouble, and centralized fiscal capacity on the part of the EMU itself to offset the liabilities of the indebted states. While the crisis seems to be contained, it is by no means solved.  This leads to the question: “Will the euro survive?” We answer this question in the affirmative, but  in doing so we argue that continuation of the EMU is different from the question of whether the  EMU should have been created in the first place. Some reasons for continuation of the EMU were  present at its creation; others have developed in a path‐dependent way as the Eurozone has evolved.

  19. Competitividade e restrição externa na Zona do Euro Competitiveness and external constraint in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sander Diniz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent debt crisis in Greece, Ireland and Portugal has exposed the fragility existing in the Eurozone for promoting development and economic convergence between the countries that have adopted the currency. Way beyond the fear of insolvency, what is observed is a growing disparity of the most-developed countries in comparison to the less-developed ones, with perverse consequences for the last ones. Once the nominal exchange rates are fixed, the divergent movements in relative prices and wages between the countries have led to totally distinct paths for the real exchange rates. Worsening the scenario, one can observe the incompleteness of the political union, the monetarist focus of the ECB and the lack of labor mobility between the countries, what distances from the argument stated by the theory and puts in jeopardize the future of the Monetary Union.

  20. Sovereign debt threatens the Union: the genesis of a federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubert, A.

    2012-01-01

    Eurozone sovereign debt crisis - Europe's ‘Alexander Hamilton Moment’ - American sovereign debt crisis of 1780s - Articles of Confederation - U.S. Constitution - Assumption of states' debt - Constitutional transformation key factor in enabling Alexander Hamilton's debt restructuring.

  1. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  2. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  3. German Economic Expansion under the Conditions of the European Debt Crisis and Military-Political Conflict in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Кухтин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.

  4. How the Eurosystem’s Treatment of Collateral in its Open Market Operations Weakens Fiscal Discipline in the Eurozone (and what to do about it)

    OpenAIRE

    Buiter, Willem H.; Sibert, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Market interest rates on sovereign debt issued by the 12 Eurozone national governments differ very little from each other, despite the credit ratings of these governments ranging from triple A to single A, and despite significant differences among their objective indicators of fiscal-financial sustainability. We argue that this market failure is at least in part due to a policy failure: the operational practices of the European Central Bank and the rest of the Eurosystem in its collateralised...

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence Methods for Analysis of Material and Non-material Determinants of Functioning of Young Europeans in Times of Crisis in the Eurozone

    OpenAIRE

    Gawlik, Remigiusz

    2014-01-01

    The study presents an analysis of possible applications of artificial intelligence methods for understanding, structuring and supporting the decision-making processes of European Youth in times of crisis in the Eurozone. Its main purpose is selecting a research method suitable for grasping and explaining the relations between social, economic and psychological premises when taking important life decisions by young Europeans at the beginning of their adult life. The interdisciplinary ap...

  6. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  7. Structural asymmetries at the roots of the eurozone crisis: what’s new for industrial policy in the EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Botta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze and try to measure productive and technological asymmetries between central and peripheral economies in the eurozone. We assess the effects such asymmetries would likely bring about on center–periphery divergence/convergence patterns, and derive some implications as to the design of future industrial policy at the European level. We stress that future European Union (EU industrial policy should be regionally focused and specifically target structural changes in the periphery as the main way to favor center–periphery convergence and avoid the reappearance of past external imbalances. To this end, a wide battery of industrial policy tools should be considered ranging from subsidies and fiscal incentives to innovative firms, public financing of R&D efforts, sectoral policies, and public procurements for home-produced goods. All in all, future EU industrial policy should be much more interventionist than it currently is, and dispose of much larger funds with respect to the present setting in order to effectively pursue both short-run stabilization and long-run development goals.

  8. Management of Peatland Shrub- and Forest-Dominated Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    ... or agricultural uses, and they support several threatened, endangered, and sensitive species (TES). Several of these plant communities are rare due to alterations in fire and hydrology over large expanses of the region...

  9. Threatened and neglected forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellicane, P.J.; Gutkowski, R.M.; Czarnock, J.

    1997-01-01

    Polands once considerable forest resource suffered destruction during World War II and is now a victim of the legacy of past forest practices, the toxic effects of industrial pollution, and the urgent needs of its people today. Polish forest are threatened by a variety of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Extremes of climate and declining groundwater tables add to the problem. Pollution is the most serious problem, particularly air pollution. Much of the air pollution in Poland is attributable to mining and burning high-sulfur coal. Besides describing the causes of the forest decline, this article discusses solutions

  10. PROTECTION OF THREATENED WITNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Claudia CANTEMIR-STOICA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available First, I wish to make a presentation of historically institution and subsequently parallels between past and current regulators to expose whether the legislature has reached desire - namely ensuring effective protection of witnesses threatened and vulnerable. Also, I decided to analyze the topic from the perspective of the criminal procedural provisions of Law 682/2002 and witness protection, which are republished to expose the conditions and criteria by which to ensure this status. I also want to present besides theoretical and practical ways in which the National Office for Witness Protection gives effective legal provisions. Not least, I will bring criticism of current regulation and not by law ferenda proposals.

  11. Expansion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1985-10-01

    A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)

  12. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.

  13. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  14. For or Against the Eurozone? Romanian Students’ Perspective on the Economic Crisis and Their Future as European Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Daniela MIHALCEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and of the aftermath of the economic crisis, the pillars on which the EU stands no longer satisfy the demands and necessities of the European citizens (Van Ham, 2005; Habermas, 2012.  The euro crisis has generated, on one hand, a gap between the “center” and the “periphery” that can be correlated with the fragmentation both of the EU’s spheres of influence and of the European financial market (Dobrescu & Palada, 2012; EFCR, 2013.  On the other hand, the euro crisis has generated a lack of solidarity and confidence in the European project. At this point, the major challenge for the European Union is not only the Euro-zone crisis, but also the level of confidence amongst young people. Recent polls (Gallup, 2013; Pew Research Center, 2013 indicate a dramatic rise in pessimism among Europe’s young people that have been labeled as “the Lost Generation” (European Commission, 2012. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on Romanian students’ attitudes towards the future of the European project and towards their European identity. The study aims at identifying the major concerns of Romanian students in terms of their future as European citizens. Our approach of this subject covers two perspectives: the first one is the utilitarian perspective, that is taking into consideration the actual advantages of the Europeanization process and the sustainability of the European social and economic model in the current national economic context; the second one is the identity perspective, that is taking into account the impact of the economic crisis on the Romanian students’ sense of belonging to the European community. The results of our study indicate that, overall, the Romanian youth holds an optimistic view concerning the EU, however they express some concerns in terms of lack of solidarity and fear of national identity loss.

  15. Reactions to threatening health messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  16. Out of the Crisis. A radical change of strategy for the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ginzburg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the crisis, mistakenly interpreted as a standard fiscal/balance of payments problem, was generated by the incomplete nature of the European institutions and a disregard for the consequences of differences in the stages of development of the member countries. The ideological pre-conception that markets are self-equilibrating through price competition has been used to justify disastrous internal devaluation policies in the belief that an austerity regime associated with institutions close to those assumed to prevail in 'core' countries would create the 'right' environment for resuming growth in the periphery. An analysis of the main phases of the development of European countries since the second post-war period provides evidence of wide differences in the productive structures of the countries of the centre and the southern periphery of Europe at the start of the Europeanization process. These differences entailed an asymmetric capacity of countries at differing levels of development to adjust to external shocks. This longer-term perspective helps us better to assess the limitations of the two alternatives that have been suggested to steer the EZ economy out of its present quagmire: internal devaluation (wage flexibility in the deficit (Southern European countries, or expansion of internal demand in 'core' countries (Germany. Both measures, it is argued, do not go to the root of the development and debt sustainability problems of Southern European countries, which continue to lack a sufficiently broad and differentiated productive structure. Given the differences in the levels of development of the various EU countries and their varying capacities to cope with change, fiscal policy should be assigned two complementary targets: the role of actively promoting — through investment —the removal of development bottlenecks and the renewal of the productive base, and a redistributive and compensative function. This new strategy

  17. Reactions to threatening health messages

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...

  18. Monetary Policy Transmission and the Labour Market in the Non‑eurozone Visegrad Group Countries in 2000–2014. Evidence from a SVAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at filling the gap in existing economic research by delivering new evidence on the money‑labour nexus in the emerging markets of the non‑eurozone Visegrad group countries (i.e. Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. Analyses are based on the Strucutral VAR (SVAR models of the monetary transmission mechanism, estimated using monthly data from the 2000:1-2014:2 period. In order to obtain impulse responses, the short‑run restrictions set, based on the monetary transmission theory, is imposed. Two different identification schemes are considered. The results confirm that there exists a nexus between monetary policy, employment, and unemployment. According to the obtained estimates monetary policy shocks invoked lagged, hump‑shaped reactions of output, employment and unemployment in each of the analysed countries.

  19. Population growth, urban expansion, and private forestry in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; David L. Azuma; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    Private forestlands in the United States face increasing pressures from growing populations, resulting in greater numbers of people living in closer proximity to forests. What often is called the "wildland/urban interface" is characterized by expansion of residential and other developed land uses onto forested landscapes in a manner that threatens forestlands...

  20. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  1. Satellite tracking of threatened species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Lunsford, A.; Ellis, D.; Robinson, J.; Coronado, P.; Campbell, W.

    1998-01-01

    In 1990, a joint effort of two U.S. federal agencies, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, began. We initially joined forces in a project that used satellite telemetry to discover the winter home of a tiny dwindling population of Siberian Cranes. Since then several projects have emerged, and a web site was created to follow some of these activities. This web site is called the Satellite Tracking of Threatened Species and its location is http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISTO/satellite_tracking. It describes the overall program, and links you to three subsections that describe the projects in more detail: Satellite Direct Readout, Birdtracks, and Birdworld.

  2. The Impact of Theory of Optimal Currency Areas on Discursus of Political Parties ČSSD and ODS about the Entry to the Eurozone Between the Years 2010 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    This essay is about the theory of optimal currency areas (OCA) and its reflection in public discussion of two biggest political parties in Czech Republic - ODS and ČSSD, about Czech Republic entering the European Monetary Union (EMU). Although EMU hadn't met the criteria of OCA before the examined period, both parties entered the elections in May 2010 with more or less pro-european program despite decreasing support of eurozone in Czech public opinion. While ČSSD only limitedly mentioned the ...

  3. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  4. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  5. Human activities threaten coral reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveitdal, Svein; Bjoerke, Aake

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that 58 per cent of the coral reefs of the world are threatened by human activities. Pollution and global heating represent some of the threats. Coral reefs just beneath the surface of the sea are very sensitive to temperature changes. Since 1979, mass death of coral reefs has been reported increasingly often. More than 1000 marine species live in the coral reefs, among these are one fourth of all marine species of fish. It is imperative that the coral reefs be preserved, as coastal communities all over the world depend on them as sources of food and as they are the raw materials for important medicines. The article discusses the threats to the coral reefs in general and does not single out any particular energy-related activity as the principal threat. For instance, the El-Nino phenomenon of the Pacific Ocean is probably involved in mass death of coral reefs and in the North Sea large parts of deep-water reefs have been crushed by heavy beam trawlers fishing for bottom fish

  6. Transport woes threaten California production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    California oil producers face a loss of production this year because of constraints on pipeline and tanker transportation to Los Angeles area refineries. The potential bottleneck is occurring at a time when Outer Continental Shelf production is near capacity from Chevron Corp.'s Point Arguello project at the same time production is increasing from Exxon Corp.'s nearby Santa Ynex Unit (SYU) expansion. Both megaprojects must compete for pipeline space with onshore crude producers, notably in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Recent development limiting transportation options include: An indefinite shutdown of Four Corners Pipe Line Co.'s 50,000 b/d Line No. 1, damaged by the Jan. 17 earthquake; Loss of a tanker permit by Chevron and partners for offshore Point Arguello production; Permanent shutdown of Exxon's offshore storage and treatment (OST) facility, which since 1981 has used tankers to transport about 20,000 b/d of SYU production from the Santa Barbara Channel to Los Angeles. The OST, the first commercial floating production system in the US -- placed in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1981 after a decade of precedent setting legal and political battles -- was shut down Apr. 4. The paper discusses these production concerns, available options, the OST shutdown, and the troubled history of the OST

  7. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  8. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymann, G.A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten

  9. Integrating cellular automata, artificial neural network and fuzzy set theory to simulate threatened orchards: Application to Maragheh, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azari, M; Tayyebi, A; Helbich, M; Ahadnejad Reveshty, M

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization processes challenge the growth of orchards areas in many cities in Iran. In Maragheh orchards are crucial ecological, economical, and tourist sources. To explore orchards threatened by urban expansion, this study aims, first, to develop a new model by coupling cellular automata and

  10. Density of Threatened and Endangered Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...

  11. Threatened and Endangered Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all U.S. listed threatened and endangered mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians in the Middle-Atlantic...

  12. Targeting global protected area expansion for imperiled biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Fuller, Richard A; Segan, Daniel B; Carwardine, Josie; Brooks, Thomas; Butchart, Stuart H M; Di Marco, Moreno; Iwamura, Takuya; Joseph, Liana; O'Grady, Damien; Possingham, Hugh P; Rondinini, Carlo; Smith, Robert J; Venter, Michelle; Watson, James E M

    2014-06-01

    Governments have agreed to expand the global protected area network from 13% to 17% of the world's land surface by 2020 (Aichi target 11) and to prevent the further loss of known threatened species (Aichi target 12). These targets are interdependent, as protected areas can stem biodiversity loss when strategically located and effectively managed. However, the global protected area estate is currently biased toward locations that are cheap to protect and away from important areas for biodiversity. Here we use data on the distribution of protected areas and threatened terrestrial birds, mammals, and amphibians to assess current and possible future coverage of these species under the convention. We discover that 17% of the 4,118 threatened vertebrates are not found in a single protected area and that fully 85% are not adequately covered (i.e., to a level consistent with their likely persistence). Using systematic conservation planning, we show that expanding protected areas to reach 17% coverage by protecting the cheapest land, even if ecoregionally representative, would increase the number of threatened vertebrates covered by only 6%. However, the nonlinear relationship between the cost of acquiring land and species coverage means that fivefold more threatened vertebrates could be adequately covered for only 1.5 times the cost of the cheapest solution, if cost efficiency and threatened vertebrates are both incorporated into protected area decision making. These results are robust to known errors in the vertebrate range maps. The Convention on Biological Diversity targets may stimulate major expansion of the global protected area estate. If this expansion is to secure a future for imperiled species, new protected areas must be sited more strategically than is presently the case.

  13. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  14. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  15. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  16. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  17. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  18. Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Reitsma, Femke; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Barthel, Stephan; Güneralp, Burak; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Creutzig, Felix; Seto, Karen C

    2017-08-22

    Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world's cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will result in a 1.8-2.4% loss of global croplands by 2030, with substantial regional disparities. About 80% of global cropland loss from urban expansion will take place in Asia and Africa. In both Asia and Africa, much of the cropland that will be lost is more than twice as productive as national averages. Asia will experience the highest absolute loss in cropland, whereas African countries will experience the highest percentage loss of cropland. Globally, the croplands that are likely to be lost were responsible for 3-4% of worldwide crop production in 2000. Urban expansion is expected to take place on cropland that is 1.77 times more productive than the global average. The loss of cropland is likely to be accompanied by other sustainability risks and threatens livelihoods, with diverging characteristics for different megaurban regions. Governance of urban area expansion thus emerges as a key area for securing livelihoods in the agrarian economies of the Global South.

  19. Thermal expansion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)

  20. A meta-analysis of global urban land expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Fragkias, Michail; Güneralp, Burak; Reilly, Michael K

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of Earth's land surface to urban uses is one of the most irreversible human impacts on the global biosphere. It drives the loss of farmland, affects local climate, fragments habitats, and threatens biodiversity. Here we present a meta-analysis of 326 studies that have used remotely sensed images to map urban land conversion. We report a worldwide observed increase in urban land area of 58,000 km(2) from 1970 to 2000. India, China, and Africa have experienced the highest rates of urban land expansion, and the largest change in total urban extent has occurred in North America. Across all regions and for all three decades, urban land expansion rates are higher than or equal to urban population growth rates, suggesting that urban growth is becoming more expansive than compact. Annual growth in GDP per capita drives approximately half of the observed urban land expansion in China but only moderately affects urban expansion in India and Africa, where urban land expansion is driven more by urban population growth. In high income countries, rates of urban land expansion are slower and increasingly related to GDP growth. However, in North America, population growth contributes more to urban expansion than it does in Europe. Much of the observed variation in urban expansion was not captured by either population, GDP, or other variables in the model. This suggests that contemporary urban expansion is related to a variety of factors difficult to observe comprehensively at the global level, including international capital flows, the informal economy, land use policy, and generalized transport costs. Using the results from the global model, we develop forecasts for new urban land cover using SRES Scenarios. Our results show that by 2030, global urban land cover will increase between 430,000 km(2) and 12,568,000 km(2), with an estimate of 1,527,000 km(2) more likely.

  1. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  2. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  3. Lace expansion for dummies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady

    2018-01-01

    We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier

  4. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  5. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  6. 77 FR 20774 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 223 RIN 0648-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  7. 76 FR 14883 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...-XZ58 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of..., published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the... published a proposed rule to list the Beringia and Okhotsk Distinct Population Segments (DPSs) of the...

  8. The outcome of pregnancy after threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, J B; Heisterberg, L

    1985-01-01

    A prospectively collected group of 93 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion was carefully monitored throughout pregnancy, during birth and in the perinatal period, and any deviation from a completely uneventful course was registered. Comparison was made with a selected group of 282 non-risk pregnant women. A significant association was found between threatened abortion and the overall number of complications in the second half of pregnancy requiring medical intervention and/or admission to hospital, impending pre-term birth requiring betamimetics, pre-term birth, retention of the placenta, birth weight below 2000 g, light-for-dates infants in case of pre-term birth or birth weight below 2000 g, and hyperbilirubinemia in infants with birth weight below 2000 g. The incidences of perinatal mortality and congenital malformations did not differ significantly from those of the control group. Pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion constitute a risk group requiring careful obstetric and perinatal supervision and follow-up.

  9. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, A; Mool, S; Tiwari, P

    2011-01-01

    Threatened abortion is the most common complication in the first half of pregnancy. Most of these pregnancies continue to term with or without treatment. Spontaneous abortion occurs in less than 30% of these women. Threatened abortion had been shown to be associated with increased incidence of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour and intra uterine growth retardation. This study was to asses the outcome of threatened abortion following treatment. This prospective study was carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2009 till May 2010. Total 70 cases of threatened abortion were selected, managed with complete bed rest till 48 hrs of cessation of bleeding, folic acid supplementation, uterine sedative, and hormonal treatment till 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonogram was performed for diagnosis and to detect the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Patients were followed up until spontaneous abortion or up to delivery of the fetus. The measures used for the analysis were maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of presentation, previous abortions, presence of subchorionic hematoma, complete abortion, continuation of pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of fetus. Out of 70 cases subchorionic haematoma was found in 30 (42.9%) cases. There were 12 (17.1%) patients who spontaneously aborted after diagnosis of threatened abortion during hospital stay, 5 (7.1%) aborted on subsequent visits while 53 (75.8%) continued pregnancy till term. Among those who continued pregnancy intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 7 (13.2%), antepartum hemorrhage in 4 (7.5%), preterm premature rupture of membrane in 3 (5.66%) and IUD in 3 (5.66%). Spontaneous abortion was found more in cases with subchorionic hematoma of size more than 20 cm2. In cases of threatened abortion with or without the presence of subchorionic hematoma, prognostic outcome is better following treatment with bed rest

  10. Financial Stability In The Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielińska Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability inside the European Monetary Union (EMU is a trendy topic in most developed countries around the world. From the moment the EMU was brought to life, there was much speculation about its imperfections, inadequate management, and vulnerability. Some of them have turned out to be true, while others have been proved invalid. Nevertheless, the debt crisis has demonstrated inadequacies in the EMU’s structure and proved that a higher degree of integration is necessary in order to guarantee the robustness of the common currency and fully utilize its potential.

  11. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  12. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  13. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  14. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  15. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  16. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  17. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  18. Diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent on station and on-farm studies suggest the major diseases threatening banana biodiversity in Uganda include: 1)Black sigatoka which severely affects all East African Highland (EA-AAA) banana cultivars and a range of introduced genotypes; 2) Fusarium wilt which affects several introduced genotypes though all EA ...

  19. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  20. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  1. Radial expansion and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei

  2. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  4. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  5. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  6. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  7. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  8. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  9. Predicting the impact of climate change on threatened species in UK waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda C Jones

    Full Text Available Global climate change is affecting the distribution of marine species and is thought to represent a threat to biodiversity. Previous studies project expansion of species range for some species and local extinction elsewhere under climate change. Such range shifts raise concern for species whose long-term persistence is already threatened by other human disturbances such as fishing. However, few studies have attempted to assess the effects of future climate change on threatened vertebrate marine species using a multi-model approach. There has also been a recent surge of interest in climate change impacts on protected areas. This study applies three species distribution models and two sets of climate model projections to explore the potential impacts of climate change on marine species by 2050. A set of species in the North Sea, including seven threatened and ten major commercial species were used as a case study. Changes in habitat suitability in selected candidate protected areas around the UK under future climatic scenarios were assessed for these species. Moreover, change in the degree of overlap between commercial and threatened species ranges was calculated as a proxy of the potential threat posed by overfishing through bycatch. The ensemble projections suggest northward shifts in species at an average rate of 27 km per decade, resulting in small average changes in range overlap between threatened and commercially exploited species. Furthermore, the adverse consequences of climate change on the habitat suitability of protected areas were projected to be small. Although the models show large variation in the predicted consequences of climate change, the multi-model approach helps identify the potential risk of increased exposure to human stressors of critically endangered species such as common skate (Dipturus batis and angelshark (Squatina squatina.

  10. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  11. Evidence-based interventions of threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Bed rest is the commonest advice, but there is little evidence of its value. Other options include progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG and muscle relaxants. The complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies such as acupuncture and Chinese herbs have also been tried. There is some evidence from clinical studies indicating that CAM therapies may reduce the rate of miscarriage, but the quality of studies is poor. Thus, further double-blind, randomized-controlled trials are necessary to confirm its effectiveness, especially acupuncture and Chinese herbs.

  12. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  13. Renormalization group and Mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-02-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory by Goepfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear sigma-model, and elsewhere. (orig.)

  14. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  15. Renormalization group and mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U (1) lattice gauge theory by Gopfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear σ-model, and elsewhere

  16. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  17. 76 FR 77465 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... population segments (DPS) of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) as threatened species under the... posed to this population by the projected habitat changes. Extension of Final Listing Determination The...

  18. 76 FR 35755 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Oregon Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the Oregon Coast (OC) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch... coho salmon ESU as threatened under the ESA in 1995 (60 FR 38011; July 25, 1995). Since then, we have...

  19. 78 FR 22506 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Threatened and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Threatened and Designation of Critical Habitat for Texas Golden... habitat determination for these two East Texas plants. The final listing rule will publish under the... reopening of the public comment period on the September 11, 2012, proposed endangered status for the Texas...

  20. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J A; Simcox, D J; Clarke, R T

    2009-07-03

    Globally threatened butterflies have prompted research-based approaches to insect conservation. Here, we describe the reversal of the decline of Maculinea arion (Large Blue), a charismatic specialist whose larvae parasitize Myrmica ant societies. M. arion larvae were more specialized than had previously been recognized, being adapted to a single host-ant species that inhabits a narrow niche in grassland. Inconspicuous changes in grazing and vegetation structure caused host ants to be replaced by similar but unsuitable congeners, explaining the extinction of European Maculinea populations. Once this problem was identified, UK ecosystems were perturbed appropriately, validating models predicting the recovery and subsequent dynamics of the butterfly and ants at 78 sites. The successful identification and reversal of the problem provides a paradigm for other insect conservation projects.

  1. Potentialities of embolization of life threatening hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvichev, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author analysed experience in the embolization of the abdominal vessels in 79 patients with diseases and lesions of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by life threatening hemorrhage. In 51 cases embolization was used as an independent method of hemorrhage arrest and in 28 cases for patients' preoperative preparation. A hemostatic sponge combined with a superselective administration of 150-200 ml of aminocaproic acid was used as an emboilizing material. Complications attributed to embolization were noted in 5 patients: pancreatitis, subdiaphragmatic abscess, paranephritis, ischemia of the gluteal soft tissues, sciatic neuritis. An analysis has shown that urgent embolization of the abdominal vessels in diseases and lesions of the organs of the peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space accompanied by massive hemorrhage, can be used as an independent method for hemorrhage arrest

  2. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  3. Evidence for coral range expansion accompanied by reduced diversity of Symbiodinium genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Grupstra, Carsten G. B.

    2017-05-15

    Zooxanthellate corals are threatened by climate change but may be able to escape increasing temperatures by colonizing higher latitudes. To determine the effect of host range expansion on symbiont genetic diversity, we examined genetic variation among populations of Symbiodinium psygmophilum associated with Oculina patagonica, a range-expanding coral that acquires its symbionts through horizontal transmission. We optimized five microsatellite primer pairs for S. psygmophilum and tested them on Oculina spp. samples from the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. We then used them to compare symbiont genotype diversity between an Iberian core and an expansion front population of O. patagonica. Only one multilocus S. psygmophilum genotype was identified at the expansion front, and it was shared with the core population, which harbored seven multilocus genotypes. This pattern suggests that O. patagonica range expansion is accompanied by reduced symbiont genetic diversity, possibly due to limited dispersal of symbionts or local selection.

  4. Threatening faces and social anxiety: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2010-01-01

    A threatening facial expression is a potent social sign of hostility or dominance. During the past 20 years, photographs of threatening faces have been increasingly included as stimuli in studies with socially anxious participants, based on the hypothesis that a threatening face is especially...... salient to people with fears of social interaction or negative evaluation. The purpose of this literature review is to systematically evaluate the accumulated research and suggest possible avenues for further research. The main conclusion is that photographs of threatening faces engage a broad range...... of perceptual processes in socially anxious participants, particularly when exposure times are very short...

  5. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  6. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  7. Estimates of expansion time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure

  8. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  9. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  10. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools

    OpenAIRE

    Seto, Karen C.; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

    2012-01-01

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. ...

  11. Surviving Armageddon - Solutions for a Threatened Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Bill

    2005-07-01

    What do earthquakes, magma, asteroid 1950DA, and global warming have in common? All are very real natural disasters, already under way; all are also the focus of intensive work by scientists, aimed at preventing, predicting, or at least limiting their impact on civilization. Using the latest chilling data and taking care to draw a clear line between scientific fact and fiction, McGuire discusses the various ways that scientists have already started to prepare for survival. Solutions on earth range from 'space reflectors' to prevent global warming, to pressure-relieving 'robot excavators' to stop volcanic eruptions. In space, NASA is developing rocket motors to gently nudge asteroids out of Earth's path, and plans to have all threatening asteroids larger than 1km detected by 2008, thereby enabling us to predict possible collisions up to 2880. The book provides the strategies to the problems we face, and concludes optimistically with ways in which we can use technology to protect our society and planet from global catastrophe.

  12. Why are freshwater fish so threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closs, Gerard P.; Angermeier, Paul; Darwall, William R.T.; Balcombe, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The huge diversity of freshwater fishes is concentrated into an area of habitat that covers only about 1% of the Earth's surface, and much of this limited area has already been extensively impacted and intensively managed to meet human needs (Dudgeon et al., 2006). As outlined in Chapter 1, the number and proportions of threatened species tend to rise wherever fish diversity coincides with dense human populations, intensive resource use and development pressure. Of particular concern is the substantial proportion of the global diversity of freshwater fishes concentrated within the Mekong and Amazon Basins and west-central Africa (Berra, 2001; Abell et al., 2008; Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1) with extensive exploitation of water resources planned to accelerate in future years (Dudgeon, 2011; Chapter 1). If current trends continue, and the social, political and economic models that have been used to develop industrialised regions of the world over the past two centuries prevail, then the future of a significant proportion of global diversity of freshwater fish species is clearly uncertain.

  13. Globally threatened dragonflies (Odonata) in Eastern Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the status of East African dragonfly species (Odonata) listed globally as threatened on "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". The area considered includes Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Malawi. From a total of 323 species known from these countries, 31 are listed in ...

  14. Anti-TNF-alpha therapy for sight threatening uveitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Lindstedt (Eric); G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); R.W.A.M. Kuijpers (Robert); P.M. van Hagen (Martin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAIM: To describe the effect of additional treatment with anti-TNF-alpha therapy in a case series of 13 patients with serious sight threatening uveitis. METHODS: 13 patients with serious sight threatening uveitis were included, of whom six had Behcet's disease, five had idiopathic

  15. Face threatening acts in familiar communicational space in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such a constitution of face is referred to as a Face Threatening Act. This paper studies the face threatening acts in the interactional space among characters in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus and establishes how those acts aid or mar the illocutionary goals of participants. The study concludes that the 'face' is inseparable from ...

  16. Sight threatening retinopathy in a child with sickle cell &beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sight threatening changes in the retina are a well-recognized complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). However they usually occur in older patients with Haemoglobin SC or Sβ+thal patterns. It is rarely found under the age of 20 years in patients who are Hb SS or Sβ<°thal. This is a report of sight threatening retinopathy in ...

  17. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Threatened and endangered species. 230... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a...

  18. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  19. 78 FR 75306 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the conservation of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce... prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act. We also announce the availability of the final...

  20. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  1. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  2. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  3. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these "rare" organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters. The analysis of more than 350,000 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA sequence tags and almost 2,000 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that rare seawater biosphere members are highly abundant or even dominant in diverse Caribbean corals. Closely related corals (in the same genus/family harbored similar bacterial communities. At higher taxonomic levels, however, the similarities of these communities did not correlate with the phylogenetic relationships among corals, opening novel questions about the evolutionary stability of coral-microbial associations. Large proportions of OTUs (28.7-49.1% were unique to the coral species of origin. Analysis of the most dominant ribotypes suggests that many uncovered bacterial taxa exist in coral habitats and await future exploration. Our results indicate that coral species, and by extension other animal hosts, act as specialized habitats of otherwise rare microbes in marine ecosystems. Here, deep sequencing provided insights into coral microbiota at an unparalleled resolution and revealed that corals harbor many bacterial taxa previously not known. Given that two of the coral species investigated are listed as threatened under

  4. The loop expansion as a divergent-power-series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, N.

    1981-01-01

    The loop expansion should be divergent, possibly an asymptotic one, in the Euclidean path integral formulation. This consideration is important in applications of the symmetric and mass-independent renormalization. The [1,1] Pade approximant is calculated in a PHI 4 model. Its classical vacua may be not truely stable for nonzero coupling constant. (author)

  5. Cosmological expansion and local physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed

  6. Temperature expansions for magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangemi, D.; Dunne, G.

    1996-01-01

    We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the T=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  8. Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies

  9. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  10. Stigma by Prejudice Transfer: Racism Threatens White Women and Sexism Threatens Men of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Wilton, Leigh S; Remedios, Jessica D

    2017-04-01

    In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2). Robust to perceptions of liking and the order in which measures were administered, results showed that prejudice transfers between racism and sexism were driven by the presumed social dominance orientation of the prejudiced individual. In addition, important downstream consequences, such as the increased likelihood of anticipated stigma, expectations of unfair treatment, and the attribution of negative feedback to sexism, appeared for stigmatized individuals.

  11. Threatened fertility and gonadal function after a polytraumatic, life-threatening injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Michael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma literature regarding management of genitalia trauma affecting future fertility and gonadal function in the face of coexisting life-threatening injuries is underdeveloped. We present a unique case that necessitated integrative management of a 24-year-old male who became entangled within the blades of a manure spreader and presented with life-threatening trauma in addition to severe genital trauma, including penile degloving, bilateral testicular avulsion and bilateral spermatic cord laceration. During the initial stabilization and surgical management, urology and plastic surgery were consulted to assess the urogenital injuries. Together, the surgical team orchestrated potentially life-saving interventions while successfully performing both a testicular sperm extraction and a testicular revascularization. Viable sperm was collected on the day of surgery and initial follow-up showed preserved sexual function and adequate perfusion to the testicle. This report presents a case and provides a review discussing the management of traumatic genital injuries and the importance of early involvement of surgical specialties in genitalia trauma to optimize future fertility and gonadal function. The literature search was performed in August 2008 using Medline for articles only in English, including any of the following terms: polytrauma, trauma, penis, testicle, degloving, avulsion, spermatic cord, laceration, fertility, reproduction or revascularization.

  12. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  13. Asymptotic Expansions - Methods and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, R.

    1999-01-01

    Different viewpoints on the asymptotic expansion of Feynman diagrams are reviewed. The relations between the field theoretic and diagrammatic approaches are sketched. The focus is on problems with large masses or large external momenta. Several recent applications also for other limiting cases are touched upon. Finally, the pros and cons of the different approaches are briefly discussed. (author)

  14. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  15. The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...

  16. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  17. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  18. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  19. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  20. Management of Maritime Communities for Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehlhausen, Sophia

    1998-01-01

    ...). Since the DoD mission has not required large-scale urbanization of the coast, these ecosystems also provide high quality habitat for several federally threatened and endangered plant and animal species (TES...

  1. Cesarean Delivery for a Life‑threatening Preterm Placental Abruption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exact etiology is still unclear, however, associated risk factors include maternal hypertension, advanced maternal age, polyhydramnios, multiparity, abdominal trauma, intrauterine growth restriction, intrauterine infection, premature rupture of membranes, threatened miscarriage, and cocaine abuse.[6]. According to Sher and ...

  2. Current cultures in threatening, comforting, and challenging ecologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Places of residence have multiple, yet largely unintegrated, cultural characteristics. Here I make a distinction between human environments that offer demanding winters or summers together with collective poverty (threatening ecologies), undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head

  3. globally threatened biodiversity of the eastern arc mountains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the 2015 Red List there are 43 globally threatened species of birds occurring in the ..... Total amphibian species richness increased with increased habitat ...... In Kilengwe Forest, a forest in Morogoro Rural District that is dominated by J.

  4. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  5. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  6. Production expansion continues to accelerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production

  7. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...

  8. Threats from urban expansion, agricultural transformation and forest loss on global conservation priority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with ~20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results

  9. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  10. A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.

  11. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  12. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  13. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  14. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  15. Thermal expansion of LATGS crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; Kandil, S.H.; Hamed, A.E.; Stankowska, J.

    1989-04-01

    The thermal expansion of triglycine sulphate crystals doped with L-α alanine (LATGS) has been studied around the phase transition temperature (30-60 deg. C) using thermomechanical analysis TMA. With increasing the content of admixture, the transition temperature (T c ) was shifted towards higher values, while the relative changes in the dimension of the crystals (ΔL/L 0 ) of the studied directions varied both in the para- and ferroelectric phases. The transition width in the case of doped crystals was found to be broad, and this broadening increases with increasing the content of L-α alanine. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  16. Contribution of thermal expansion and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I.Pursky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model is developed to describe the experimental results obtained for the isobaric thermal conductivity of rare gas solids (RGS. The isobaric thermal conductivity of RGS has been analysed within Debye approximation with regard to the effect of thermal expansion. The suggested model takes into consideration the fact that thermal conductivity is determined by U-processes while above the phonon mobility edge it is determined by "diffusive" modes migrating randomly from site to site. The mobility edge ω0 is determined from the condition that the phonon mean-free path restricted by the U-processes cannot be smaller than half of the phonon wavelength.

  17. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  18. Nonperturbative path integral expansion II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Feynman path integral representation of the 2-point function for a self-interacting Bose field is investigated using an expansion ('Path Integral Expansion', PIE) of the exponential of the kinetic term of the Lagrangian. This leads to a series - illustrated by a graph scheme - involving successively a coupling of more and more points of the lattice space commonly employed in the evaluation of path integrals. The values of the individual PIE graphs depend of course on the lattice constant. Two methods - Pade approximation and Borel-type extrapolation - are proposed to extract information about the continuum limit from a finite-order PIE. A more flexible PIE is possible by expanding besides the kinetic term a suitably chosen part of the interaction term too. In particular, if the co-expanded part is a mass term the calculation becomes only slightly more complicated than in the original formulation and the appearance of the graph scheme is unchanged. A significant reduction of the number of graphs and an improvement of the convergence of the PIE can be achieved by performing certain sums over an infinity of graph elements. (author)

  19. Dataset of herbarium specimens of threatened vascular plants in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart, Neus; Ibáñez, Neus; Luque, Pere; Pedrol, Joan; Vilar, Lluís; Guàrdia, Roser

    2017-01-01

    This data paper describes a specimens' dataset of the Catalonian threatened vascular plants conserved in five public Catalonian herbaria (BC, BCN, HGI, HBIL and MTTE). Catalonia is an administrative region of Spain that includes large autochthon plants diversity and 199 taxa with IUCN threatened categories (EX, EW, RE, CR, EN and VU). This dataset includes 1,618 records collected from 17 th century to nowadays. For each specimen, the species name, locality indication, collection date, collector, ecology and revision label are recorded. More than 94% of the taxa are represented in the herbaria, which evidence the paper of the botanical collections as an essential source of occurrence data.

  20. Threatening auditory hallucinations and Cotard syndrome in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Stewart A; Molho, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). In particular, patients experience nonthreatening visual hallucinations that can occur with insight (so called hallucinosis) or without. Auditory hallucinations are uncommon, and schizophrenialike symptoms such as pejorative and threatening auditory hallucinations and delusions that are persecutory, referential, somatic, religious, or grandiose have rarely been reported. The authors present 2 PD patients who experienced threatening auditory hallucinations, without visual hallucinations, and schizophrenialike delusions with detailed description of the clinical phenomenology including 1 patient with Cotard syndrome.

  1. Management of threatened abortion with real-time sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S G

    1980-02-01

    Real-time sonography was used to evaluate 158 patients with threatened abortion. Fetal motion was first detected during the seventh gestational week and with increasing frequency thereafter in 73 patients with viable pregnancies continuing to term. Only 2 of 65 patients who aborted demonstrated fetal motion. The presence or absence of fetal motion was most reliable after 7 weeks' gestation for establishing a prognosis for a given pregnancy. Seventy-two of 74 pregnancies with fetal motion continued to term, whereas 63 of 64 pregnancies without fetal motion aborted. A method for using real-time sonography in the management of threatened abortion is presented.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT AND CLINICAL RESEARCH OF THREATENED ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-xia; XIE Gan-gong

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors review recent development of acupuncture treatment of threatened abortion from 1) clinical application of "Linggui Bafa"(灵龟八法Eight Methods of Intelligent Turtle), 2) body acupoints, and 3) acupuncture combined with Chinese materia medica, and clinical study from 1) effect of acupuncture on the blood flow of uterus, and 2) effect of acupuncture on plasma progesterone level. In addition, acupuncture therapy is also used to help women in gestation and can effectively raise the pregnant rate. "Linggui Bafa" is rather effective in preventing threatened abortion and should be studied further.

  3. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Fei-Ran Shen; Hao Kuang; Feng-Xia Hu; Hui Wu; Qing-Zhen Huang; Fei-Xiang Liang; Kai-Ming Qiao; Jia Li; Jing Wang; Yao Liu; Lei Zhang; Min He; Ying Zhang; Wen-Liang Zuo; Ji-Rong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE o...

  4. EC : No country ready for eurozone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Keskpank teatas, et ükski EL-iga hiljuti liitunud liikmesriigist pole ebastabiilse majandus- või rahanduspoliitika tõttu valmis eurotsooniga ühinema. Tabel: Baltimaade sobivus euroga liitumiseks

  5. CSR reporting practices of Eurozone companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Bonsón

    2015-07-01

    The results revealed an intensive use of corporate governance indicators, a moderate disclosure of environmental key performance indicators (KPIs, and a low use of social indicators. Our study also showed that there is an influence of sector, and the listing in DJSI on the extent of sustainability reporting.

  6. Expansion of passive safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.

    1995-01-01

    Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed

  7. Threatened bird species on two little-known mountains (Chiperone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The montane forests of northern Mozambique and southern Malawi support several bird species of global conservation concern, and particularly in Malawi are seriously threatened by deforestation. However, the status of these in northern Mozambique remains poorly known. We report that some 1 600 ha of mid-altitude and ...

  8. RAPD-PCR molecular analysis of the threatened Cabrera's vole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal management and conservation programs of the threatened Cabrera's vole require investigating potential molecular genetic markers in the genomic background, if the few remaining fragile populations are to ... The results described Cabrera's vole populations as a single genetic unit with slightly restricted gene flow.

  9. Life threatening spinal shock and complete neurological recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mild to moderate trauma to the spinal cord that is complicated by existing cervical canal stenosis or spondylosis can be a life threatening event. It is against this background that we present a 41 year old male with cervical spinal stenosis who developed marked quadriparesis and respiratory embarrassment following ...

  10. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  11. Mara River and Associated Wetland as a Refuge of Threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Mara River and Lake Kirumi in January/February, 2005 to investigate the importance oJ. the wetland as a refuge site for indigenous cichlids particularly tilapiines which have either disappeared from Lake Victoria or threatened. Fish samples were obtained using experimental gillnets whose ...

  12. 76 FR 74070 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Dated: November 21, 2011. Lynn M. Lewis...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered...

  13. 78 FR 9415 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...). Authority: The authority for this notice is the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Species; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species under the authority of the Endangered...

  14. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N149; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of an application to...

  15. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N021; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  16. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N112; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  17. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N181; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  18. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N010; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  19. 76 FR 18576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N056; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  20. 76 FR 10063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2011-N026; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  1. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-ES-2010-N095; 60120-1113-0000-D2] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our receipt of applications to...

  2. 75 FR 20621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R3-ES-2009-N0054]; [30120-1113-0000-F6] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  3. Life threatening arrhythmias: Knowledge and skills among nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Although the majority of the participants scored highly in their level of knowledge regarding life threatening arrhythmias, they scored poorly in most of the observed skills when identifying and treating this patient group. It is important that hospital administration take into consideration the identified areas of ...

  4. Oxytocin increases amygdala reactivity to threatening scenes in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Alexander; Gamer, Matthias; Berger, Christoph; Grossmann, Annette; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Heinrichs, Markus; Herpertz, Sabine C; Domes, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is well known for its profound effects on social behavior, which appear to be mediated by an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity in the context of social stimuli. In humans, OT decreases amygdala reactivity to threatening faces in males, but enhances amygdala reactivity to similar faces in females, suggesting sex-specific differences in OT-dependent threat-processing. To further explore whether OT generally enhances amygdala-dependent threat-processing in females, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a randomized within-subject crossover design to measure amygdala activity in response to threatening and non-threatening scenes in 14 females following intranasal administration of OT or placebo. Participants' eye movements were recorded to investigate whether an OT-dependent modulation of amygdala activity is accompanied by enhanced exploration of salient scene features. Although OT had no effect on participants' gazing behavior, it increased amygdala reactivity to scenes depicting social and non-social threat. In females, OT may, thus, enhance the detection of threatening stimuli in the environment, potentially by interacting with gonadal steroids, such as progesterone and estrogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 63322 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... from Helianthus paradoxus (Pecos sunflower) from plants in Texas. Permit TE-829761 Applicant: Bureau of... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available...: Texas A & M University, Galveston, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for husbandry and holding of...

  6. Biomass is beginning to threaten the wood-processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    In this issue an exploitation of biomass in Slovak Republic is analysed. Some new projects of constructing of the stoke-holds for biomass processing are published. The grants for biomass are ascending the prices of wood raw material, which is thus becoming less accessible for the wood-processors. An excessive wood export threatens the domestic processors

  7. Breeding distribution and ecology of the threatened Madagascar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Madagascar Plover Charadrius thoracicus is a threatened wader endemic to Madagascar. We report the first detailed study of its distribution and breeding ecology. Madagascar Plovers breed on the west coast of Madagascar between the Mahavavy delta in the north and Fort-Dauphin in the south-east. Between 2002 ...

  8. Introduction of threatened species in a fragmented and deteriorated landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, P.

    2005-01-01

    In The Netherlands, heathlands and species-rich grassland are strongly reduced in both area and habitat quality mainly due to fragmentation, eutrophication and acidification. As a result, many plant and animal species have become (locally) extinct, or are threatened by extinction as they are forced

  9. THE OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH THREATENED ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Outcome of pregnancy in patients with threatened abortion. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was done on 106 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Out comes in the form of antenatal complications, mode of delivery and postnatal co mplications were noted. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: In the study of 106 patients 18% had spontaneous abortion. Pre - labour rupture of membranes were seen in 20% of patients and 21% had preterm labour. Threatened abortion di d not affect mode of delivery. PPROM, preterm births were more in women presenting with first trimester bleeding; PIH, PROM, and postpartum complications were more in women presenting beyond 20 weeks gestation though statistically not significant. 13.2% of women had heavy bleeding at admission out of which 50% aborted subsequently – significantly higher than the light bleeding group. CONCLUSION: The overall maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened abortion is suboptimal. Women with heavy blee ding are more likely to abort than women with light bleeding. Among the prognostic factors, only the amount of bleeding had significant prognostic accuracy

  10. Using demography and movement behavior to predict range expansion of the southern sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M.T.; Doak, D.F.; Estes, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to forecasting population growth, basic demographic data combined with movement data provide a means for predicting rates of range expansion. Quantitative models of range expansion have rarely been applied to large vertebrates, although such tools could be useful for restoration and management of many threatened but recovering populations. Using the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) as a case study, we utilized integro-difference equations in combination with a stage-structured projection matrix that incorporated spatial variation in dispersal and demography to make forecasts of population recovery and range recolonization. In addition to these basic predictions, we emphasize how to make these modeling predictions useful in a management context through the inclusion of parameter uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Our models resulted in hind-cast (1989–2003) predictions of net population growth and range expansion that closely matched observed patterns. We next made projections of future range expansion and population growth, incorporating uncertainty in all model parameters, and explored the sensitivity of model predictions to variation in spatially explicit survival and dispersal rates. The predicted rate of southward range expansion (median = 5.2 km/yr) was sensitive to both dispersal and survival rates; elasticity analysis indicated that changes in adult survival would have the greatest potential effect on the rate of range expansion, while perturbation analysis showed that variation in subadult dispersal contributed most to variance in model predictions. Variation in survival and dispersal of females at the south end of the range contributed most of the variance in predicted southward range expansion. Our approach provides guidance for the acquisition of further data and a means of forecasting the consequence of specific management actions. Similar methods could aid in the management of other recovering populations.

  11. On the Equisummability of Hermite and Fourier Expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove an equisummability result for the Fourier expansions and Hermite expansions as well as special Hermite expansions. We also prove the uniform boundedness of the Bochner-Riesz means associated to the Hermite expansions for polyradial functions.

  12. Acupuncture as a therapeutic treatment option for threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betts Debra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatened miscarriage involves vaginal bleeding in a pregnancy that remains viable. This is a common early pregnancy complication with increased risk factors for early pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, preterm delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal antepartum haemorrhage. Currently there are no recommended medical treatment options, rather women receive advice that centres on a 'wait and see' approach. For women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage providing supportive care in a subsequent pregnancy improves live birthing outcomes, but the provision of supportive care to women experiencing threatened miscarriage has to date not been examined. Discussion While it is known that 50-70% of miscarriages occur due to chromosomal abnormalities, the potential for therapeutic intervention amongst the remaining percentage of women remains unknown. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies have the potential to provide supportive care for women presenting with threatened miscarriage. Within fertility research, acupuncture demonstrates beneficial hormonal responses with decreased miscarriage rates, raising the possibility acupuncture may promote specific beneficial effects in early pregnancy. With the lack of current medical options for women presenting with threatened miscarriage it is timely to examine the possible treatment benefits of providing CAM therapies such as acupuncture. Summary Despite vaginal bleeding being a common complication of early pregnancy there is often reluctance from practitioners to discuss with women and medical personal how and why CAM may be beneficial. In this debate article, the physiological processes of early pregnancy together with the concept of providing supportive care and acupuncture are examined. The aim is to raise awareness and promote discussion as to the beneficial role CAM may have for women presenting with threatened miscarriage.

  13. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Colding

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  14. [Tissular expansion in giant congenital nevi treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Nuoi, V; Francois-Fiquet, C; Diner, P; Sergent, B; Zazurca, F; Franchi, G; Buis, J; Vazquez, M-P; Picard, A; Kadlub, N

    2014-08-01

    Surgical management of giant melanotic naevi remains a surgical challenge. Tissue expansion provides tissue of the same quality for the repair of defects. The aim of this study is to review tissular expansion for giant melanotic naevi. We conducted a retrospective study from 2000 to 2012. All children patients who underwent a tissular expansion for giant congenital naevi had been included. Epidemiological data, surgical procedure, complication rate and results had been analysed. Thirty-tree patients had been included; they underwent 61 procedures with 79 tissular-expansion prosthesis. Previous surgery, mostly simple excision had been performed before tissular expansion. Complete naevus excision had been performed in 63.3% of the cases. Complications occurred in 45% of the cases, however in 50% of them were minor. Iterative surgery increased the complication rate. Tissular expansion is a valuable option for giant congenital naevus. However, complication rate remained high, especially when iterative surgery is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation program for multiple expansion Stirling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Weiss, M.; Fauvel, R.; Reader, G.; Bingham, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple expansion Stirling machines have been a topic of interest at the University of Calgary for some years. Recently a second-order computer simulation program with integral graphics package for Stirling cryocoolers with up to four stages of expansion were developed and made available to the Stirling community. Adaptation of the program to multiple expansion Stirling power systems is anticipated. This paper briefly introduces the program and presents a specimen result

  16. Semiclassical expansions for confined N fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivine, H.; Martorell, J.; Casas, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new derivation of the Wigner Kirkwood expansion for N-fermion systems is presented, showing explicitly the connection to the WKB approximation for a single level. This allows to study separately the two ansatz required to obtain the semiclassical expansions: the asymptotic expansions in powers of ℎ and the smoothing of quantal effects. We discuss the one dimensional and three dimensional, with spherical symmetry, cases. Applications for standard potentials used in nuclear physics are described in detail

  17. Thermal and hygroscopic expansion characteristics of bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Puxi; Chang, Wen-shao; Ansell, Martin P.; Bowen, Chris R.; Chew, John Y. M.; Adamak, Vana i

    2017-01-01

    The expansion and contraction of bamboo caused by temperature and moisture variations must be evaluated\\ud if bamboo is to be utilised as a building material. However, detailed expansion data, especially data in the ascent and\\ud descent processes of temperature and moisture are unexplored. The aim of this study is to investigate the expansion\\ud characteristics of Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo) in ascent and descent processes of temperature and moisture.\\ud The measurement of linear ther...

  18. $\\delta$-Expansion at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rudnei O.

    1996-01-01

    We apply the $\\delta$-expansion perturbation scheme to the $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ self-interacting scalar field theory in 3+1 D at finite temperature. In the $\\delta$-expansion the interaction term is written as $\\lambda (\\phi^{2})^{ 1 + \\delta}$ and $\\delta$ is considered as the perturbation parameter. We compute within this perturbative approach the renormalized mass at finite temperature at a finite order in $\\delta$. The results are compared with the usual loop-expansion at finite temperature.

  19. Chromatic Derivatives, Chromatic Expansions and Associated Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the basic properties of chromatic derivatives and chromatic expansions and provides an appropriate motivation for introducing these notions. Chromatic derivatives are special, numerically robust linear differential operators which correspond to certain families of orthogonal polynomials. Chromatic expansions are series of the corresponding special functions, which possess the best features of both the Taylor and the Shannon expansions. This makes chromatic derivatives and ...

  20. Thermal expansion in small metallic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    An anomalously low thermal expansion observable in small particles is attributed to extending effect of the shell. It is shown that the coefficient of thermal expansion of the oxide-film-coated aluminium particles calculated using elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of massive materials agres well with those measured experimentally. The linear dilatation of the shell, its stress to rupture and the values of the structural tension are estimated vs the temperature

  1. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken... the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). In addition, we announce the reopening of the public comment period on the December 11, 2012, proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a...

  2. Disjoint sum expansion method in FTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Keqiang

    1987-01-01

    An expansion formula for transforming boolean algebraic expressions into disjoint form was proved. Based on this expansion formula, a method for transforming system failure function into disjoint form was devised. The fact that the expansion can be done for several elements simulatneously makes the method flexible and fast. Some examples from fault tree analysis (FTA) and network analysis were examined by the new method to show its algorithm and its merit. Besides, by means of the proved expansion formula some boolean algebraic relations can proved very easily

  3. Thermal expansion of L-ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaï, B.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Céolin, R.; Rietveld, I. B.

    2017-04-01

    The specific volume of vitamin C has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction as a function of temperature from 110 K up to complete degradation around 440 K. Its thermal expansion is relatively small in comparison with other organic compounds with an expansivity α v of 1.2(3) × 10-4 K-1. The structure consists of strongly bound molecules in the ac plane through a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The thermal expansion is anisotropic. Along the b axis, the expansion has most leeway and is about 10 times larger than in the other directions.

  4. Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs

  5. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  6. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  7. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining pra...

  8. Misdiagnosed Ovarian Pregnancy to Threatened Abortion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghaieh Rahmani Beilondi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about a patient with a history of infertility and polycystic ovarian disease who was admitted with spotting and severe abdominal pain, There was one misdiagnosis about this patient and progesterone was prescribed for treating of threatened abortion, following transvaginal ultrasound, one heterogeneous echogenic mass with dimensions of 5.8 × 18 in the vicinity of the left ovary was reported in favor of ectopic pregnancy. The patient was hospitalized and treated with methotrexate with diagnosis of an ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Pregnant women with complaints of bleeding and spotting in early pregnancy should be evaluated in terms of ectopic pregnancy in addition of abortion and molar pregnancy. The aim of this study was to introduce a new case of misdiagnosed ovarian pregnancy instead of threatened abortion.

  9. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there

  10. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in “honest” countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living. PMID:21818383

  11. Investing in threatened species conservation: does corruption outweigh purchasing power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Stephen T; Joseph, Liana N; Watson, James E M; Zander, Kerstin K

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by the likely value for money in terms of pricing parity. Nevertheless global conservation is likely to get best returns in terms of threatened species security by investing in "honest" countries than in corrupt ones, particularly those with a high cost of living.

  12. Signature movements lead to efficient search for threatening actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A van Boxtel

    Full Text Available The ability to find and evade fighting persons in a crowd is potentially life-saving. To investigate how the visual system processes threatening actions, we employed a visual search paradigm with threatening boxer targets among emotionally-neutral walker distractors, and vice versa. We found that a boxer popped out for both intact and scrambled actions, whereas walkers did not. A reverse correlation analysis revealed that observers' responses clustered around the time of the "punch", a signature movement of boxing actions, but not around specific movements of the walker. These findings support the existence of a detector for signature movements in action perception. This detector helps in rapidly detecting aggressive behavior in a crowd, potentially through an expedited (subcortical threat-detection mechanism.

  13. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  14. The δ expansion for stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Cooper, F.; Milton, K.A.; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912; Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexic o 87545; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklaho ma 73019)

    1989-01-01

    Using a recently proposed perturbation expansion called the δ expansion, we show how to solve the Langevin equation associated with a gphi 4 field theory. We illustrate the technique in zero- and one-dimensional space-time, and then generalize this approach to d dimensions

  15. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs

  16. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.F. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Thermal expansion of doped lanthanum gallates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Since the components are in intimate mechanical contact, any stress generated due to their thermal expansion mis- match during thermal cycling could lead to catastrophic failure of the cell. The functional materials must have similar thermal expansions to avoid mechanical stresses. Hence it is useful to study the thermal ...

  18. Platform Expansion Design as Strategic Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina S.; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address how the strategic choice of platform expansion design impacts the subse-quent platform strategy. We identify two distinct approaches to platform expansion – platform bun-dling and platform constellations, which currently co-exist. The purpose of this paper is to outline...

  19. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  20. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

    2012-10-02

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

  1. Psychotherapeutic work with Families with Life-threatening Maternal Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Chinoy, Freni

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory research study describes a child and adolescent psychotherapeutic clinical service offered to children/adolescents and their families with mothers with a life-threatening illness. The clinical service itself was also exploratory in nature. The research objectives of the study were (i) to explore whether this form of clinical work could be beneficial for such families in relieving distress and supporting their development; (ii) to discover the factors at play within and betwee...

  2. Life-threatening motor vehicle crashes in bright sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Raza, Sheharyar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bright sunlight may create visual illusions that lead to driver error, including fallible distance judgment from aerial perspective. We tested whether the risk of a life-threatening motor vehicle crash was increased when driving in bright sunlight. This longitudinal, case-only, paired-comparison analysis evaluated patients hospitalized because of a motor vehicle crash between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2014. The relative risk of a crash associated with bright sunlight was estim...

  3. Investing in Threatened Species Conservation: Does Corruption Outweigh Purchasing Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Joseph, Liana N.; Watson, James E. M.; Zander, Kerstin K.

    2011-01-01

    In many sectors, freedom in capital flow has allowed optimization of investment returns through choosing sites that provide the best value for money. These returns, however, can be compromised in countries where corruption is prevalent. We assessed where the best value for money might be obtained for investment in threatened species that occur at a single site, when taking into account corruption. We found that the influence of corruption on potential investment decisions was outweighed by th...

  4. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-02-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less gave little useful information.

  5. Plasma diamine oxidase levels in pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, M; Duff, G B

    1981-01-01

    Plasma diamine oxidase levels were assayed in 66 patients who presented with pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion. Levels within the normal range were associated with continuing pregnancies, whereas levels below the normal range were associated with subsequent abortion. Among those patients in whom gestation was greater than eight weeks, 66.6% of diamine oxidase levels correctly predicted the pregnancy outcome. Assay of the diamine oxidase levels at eight weeks of gestation or less ga...

  6. Rapid decline of the volcanically threatened Montserrat oriole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoff M. Hilton; Phil W. Atkinson; Gerard A.L. Gray; Wayne J. Arendt; David W. Gibbons

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1995, the Montserrat oriole (Icterus oberi) was confined to ca. 30 km2 of hill forest on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat, but was not listed as globally threatened. Since then, the eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano has destroyed more than half of the species’ range. Recent intensive monitoring has indicated that the species has also declined...

  7. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Concha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2 leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM(N recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N. Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sMm+2 and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  8. Use of expansion joints in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birker; Rommerswinkel.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the mode of action of different systems of expansion joints. Special regard is given to the problems of expansion of pipelines of high rated diameter as employed in today's large power plant turbines. Due to the limited space available, the important role of the spring rate of the bellows for the reaction forces and moments acting on the connection points is pointed out. Apart from this details are given on the fabrication and materials selection of expansion joint bellows, and problems are discussed which arise in connection with the mechanical or hydraulic deformation of bellows with one or more walls. The non-destructive methods now in use for the testing of expansion pipe joints are mentioned along with experiments to test their behaviour under changing loads. The paper concludes on some remarks concerning proper transport, storage and installation of expansion pipe joints. (orig./AK) [de

  9. Maxwell superalgebras and Abelian semigroup expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Concha, P.K.; Rodríguez, E.K. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    The Abelian semigroup expansion is a powerful and simple method to derive new Lie algebras from a given one. Recently it was shown that the S-expansion of so(3,2) leads us to the Maxwell algebra M. In this paper we extend this result to superalgebras, by proving that different choices of abelian semigroups S lead to interesting D=4 Maxwell Superalgebras. In particular, the minimal Maxwell superalgebra sM and the N-extended Maxwell superalgebra sM{sup (N)} recently found by the Maurer–Cartan expansion procedure, are derived alternatively as an S-expansion of osp(4|N). Moreover, we show that new minimal Maxwell superalgebras type sM{sub m+2} and their N-extended generalization can be obtained using the S-expansion procedure.

  10. Status of the globally threatened forest birds of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil hosts a unique biota which is among the most threatened in the Neotropics. Near-total conversion of forest habitat to sugar cane monocultures has left the region's endemic forest-dependent avifauna marooned in a few highly-fragmented and degraded forest remnants. Here we summarise the current status of 16 globally threatened species based on surveys conducted over the last 11 years. We found a bleak situation for most of these species and consider that three endemics: Glaucidium mooreorum (Pernambuco Pygmy-owl, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Cryptic Treehunter and Philydor novaesi (Alagoas Foliage-gleaner are most likely globally extinct. Some positive news can, however, be reported for both Leptodon forbesi (White-collared Kite and Synallaxis infuscata (Pinto's Spinetail which may warrant re-evaluation of their respective red list statuses. We outline a road map to prioritise conservation interventions in the region directed at preventing the extinction of this suite of threatened bird species and their companion biota.

  11. Threatened fish and fishers along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Hallwass, Gustavo; Hanazaki, Natalia; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2017-12-01

    Small-scale fisheries of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast (BAFC) depend on fish resources for food and income. Thus, if the catch diminishes or if fish species that are a target for fishers are overexploited or impacted, this could affect fishers' livelihoods. The exclusion of threatened fish species from the catch is believed to be a threat to small-scale fisheries, which is likely to be the case along the BAFC. Many fish species are currently listed as threatened or vulnerable, whereas there is not enough biological information available to determine the status of the majority of the other species. Failure to protect the BAFC biodiversity might negatively impact fishers' income and the regional economy of local small-scale fisheries. We collected data from 1986 to 2009 through 347 interviews and 24-h food recall surveys at seven southeastern coastal sites of the Atlantic Forest. We show that important species of consumed fish are currently threatened: of the 65 species mentioned by fishers as the most consumed fishes, 33% are decreasing and 54% have an unknown status. Thus, biological and ecological data for BAFC marine species are urgently needed, along with co-management, to promote fish conservation.

  12. Closing Kynect and Restructuring Medicaid Threaten Kentucky's Health and Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charles B; Vanderford, Nathan L

    2017-08-01

    Following passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States, the Kentucky Health Benefit Exchange, Kynect, began operating in Kentucky in October 2013. Kentucky expanded Medicaid eligibility in January 2014. Together, Kynect and Medicaid expansion provided access to affordable health care coverage to hundreds of thousands of individuals in Kentucky. However, following the Kentucky gubernatorial election in 2015, the newly inaugurated governor moved to dismantle Kynect and restructure the Medicaid expansion, jeopardizing public health gains and the state economy. As the first state to announce both the closure and restructuring of a state health insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion, Kentucky may serve as a test case for the rest of the nation for reversal of ACA-related health policies. This article describes Kynect and the Kentucky Medicaid expansion and examines the potential short-term and long-term impacts that may occur following changes in state health policy. Furthermore, this article will offer potential strategies to ameliorate the expected negative impacts of disruption of both Kynect and the Medicaid expansion, such as the creation of a new state insurance marketplace under a new governor, the implementation of a private option, and increasing the state minimum wage for workers. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  13. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy at presentation to screening services in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, Erika M; Murray, Neil; Szetu, John; Sikivou, Biu Telaite; Emma, Stephanie; McGhee, Charles N J

    2014-10-01

    To report the spectrum of retinopathy at first presentation to photoscreening services, to determine the proportion of patients that present with sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR), and to raise awareness of the burden of diabetic eye disease in Fiji. This retrospective observational cohort study used data from the initial visit of all new patients presenting to the diabetes retinal screening service at the Pacific Eye Institute in Fiji over the 3-month period between July and September 2012. Patients were assessed using a detailed questionnaire regarding diabetes type, duration of disease, medications, complications and co-morbidities, and blood sugar control. Patients subsequently underwent non-mydriatic fundus photography according to Pacific diabetes retinal screening guidelines. Images were graded at the time of acquisition, and data were entered onto a computerized database. For the purposes of this study, information regarding retinopathy grading, visual acuity and patient demographics was used. A total of 522 new patients were screened over the 3-month period. STDR was observed in 27% of patients, with 15% observed to have bilateral STDR. Diabetes control was generally poor. Blindness and visual impairment were observed in 2.7% and 6.7% of the cohort, respectively. Severe and advanced diabetic retinopathy was present in this population presenting to screening. This was observed 4 years after the formal expansion of the screening services and reflects the high prevalence of diabetes in the population. The need for increased public awareness and greater resource allocation into diabetes and its complications is emphasized.

  14. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-07-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world's most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers--precipitation and temperature--and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  15. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Jones, Leslie A.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Boyer, Matthew C.; Leary, Robb F.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Luikart, Gordon; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will decrease worldwide biodiversity through a number of potential pathways, including invasive hybridization (cross-breeding between invasive and native species). How climate warming influences the spread of hybridization and loss of native genomes poses difficult ecological and evolutionary questions with little empirical information to guide conservation management decisions. Here we combine long-term genetic monitoring data with high-resolution climate and stream temperature predictions to evaluate how recent climate warming has influenced the spatio-temporal spread of human-mediated hybridization between threatened native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the world’s most widely introduced invasive fish. Despite widespread release of millions of rainbow trout over the past century within the Flathead River system, a large relatively pristine watershed in western North America, historical samples revealed that hybridization was prevalent only in one (source) population. During a subsequent 30-year period of accelerated warming, hybridization spread rapidly and was strongly linked to interactions between climatic drivers—precipitation and temperature—and distance to the source population. Specifically, decreases in spring precipitation and increases in summer stream temperature probably promoted upstream expansion of hybridization throughout the system. This study shows that rapid climate warming can exacerbate interactions between native and non-native species through invasive hybridization, which could spell genomic extinction for many species.

  16. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Atmospheric Administration Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing...; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for Alewife and Blueback Herring AGENCY: National Marine... (Alosa aestivalis) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) throughout all or a significant...

  17. User's Manual for the Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES) Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebesta, Georgia

    1996-01-01

    The Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES), version 1.0 helps installation and government personnel locate points of contact for experts in the areas of biodiversity and threatened and endangered species...

  18. 77 FR 16554 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... nesting habitat of endangered and threatened sea turtle species in Sarasota County, Florida, for the... nesting habitat of the threatened loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), endangered leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), endangered green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), endangered hawksbill sea...

  19. δ expansion applied to quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Boettcher, S.; Milton, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    A recently proposed technique known as the δ expansion provides a nonperturbative treatment of a quantum field theory. The δ-expansion approach can be applied to electrodynamics in such a way that local gauge invariance is preserved. In this paper it is shown that for electrodynamic processes involving only external photon lines and no external electron lines the δ expansion is equivalent to a fermion loop expansion. That is, the coefficient of δ n in the δ expansion is precisely the sum of all n-electron-loop Feynman diagrams in a conventional weak-coupling approximation. This equivalence does not extend to processes having external electron lines. When external electron lines are present, the δ expansion is truly nonperturbative and does not have a simple interpretation as a resummation of conventional Feynman diagrams. To illustrate the nonperturbative character of the δ expansion we perform a speculative calculation of the fermion condensate in the massive Schwinger model in the limit of large coupling constant

  20. Interbasis expansions for isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2012-03-12

    The exact solutions of the isotropic harmonic oscillator are reviewed in Cartesian, cylindrical polar and spherical coordinates. The problem of interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. The explicit expansion coefficients of the basis for given coordinates in terms of other two coordinates are presented for lower excited states. Such a property is occurred only for those degenerated states for given principal quantum number n. -- Highlights: ► Exact solutions of harmonic oscillator are reviewed in three coordinates. ► Interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. ► This is occurred only for those degenerated states for given quantum number n.

  1. Decennial plan of expansion 1994-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Decennial Plan of Expansion 1994-2003 of Electric sector reproduces the results of the studies occurred during the planning cycle of 1992/93 from the Coordinator Groups of the Electric System Planning. Based in the market forecasting, economic-financier and time for finishing the the works, the Decennial Plan of Expansion presents the schedule of the main generation and transmission works for the next ten years, the annual spend in generation, transmission and distribution, the costs of expansion and the evaluation of attending conditions in electric system in Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  2. Thermal expansion: Metallic elements and alloys. [Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Kirby, R. K.; Taylor, R. E.; Desai, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The introductory sections of the work are devoted to the theory of thermal expansion of solids and to methods for the measurement of the linear thermal expansion of solids (X-ray methods, high speed methods, interferometry, push-rod dilatometry, etc.). The bulk of the work is devoted to numerical data on the thermal linear expansion of all the metallic elements, a large number of intermetallics, and a large number of binary alloy systems and multiple alloy systems. A comprehensive bibliography is provided along with an index to the materials examined.

  3. Discrete expansions of continuum functions. General concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Different discrete expansions of the continuum wave functions are considered: pole expansion (according to the Mittag-Lefler theorem), Weinberg states. The general property of these groups of states is their completeness in the finite region of space. They satisfy the Schroedinger type equations and are matched with free solutions of the Schroedinger equation at the boundary. Convergence of expansions for the S matrix, the Green functions and the continuous-spectrum wave functions is studied. A new group of states possessing the best convergence is introduced

  4. Semiclassical expansions on and near caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meetz, K.

    1984-09-01

    We show that the standard WKB expansion can be generalized so that it reproduces the behavior of the wave function on and near a caustic in two-dimensional space time. The expansion is related to the unfolding polynomials of the elementary catastrophes occurring in two dimensions: the fold and the cusp catastrophe. The method determines control parameters and transport coefficients in a self-consistent way from differential equations and does not refer to the asymptotic expansion of Feynman path integrals. The lowest order equations are solved explicitly in terms of the multivalued classical action. The result is a generalized semiclassical approximation on and beyond a caustic. (orig.)

  5. Cosmic growth history and expansion history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification

  6. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  7. Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits

  8. Life-threatening hypokalemia following rapid correction of respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kendra; You, David; Collins, Eileen G; Leehey, David J; Laghi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with a history of paraplegia and chronic pain due to neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) was admitted to a spinal cord injury unit for management of a sacral decubitus ulcer. During the hospitalization, she required emergency transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of progressive deterioration of respiratory muscle function, severe respiratory acidosis, obtundation and hypotension. Upon transfer to the ICU, arterial blood gas revealed severe acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH 7.00, PCO2 120 mm Hg, PO2 211 mm Hg). The patient was immediately intubated and mechanically ventilated. Intravenous fluid boluses of normal saline (10.5 L in about 24 h) and vasopressors were started with rapid correction of hypotension. In addition, she was given hydrocortisone. Within 40 min of initiation of mechanical ventilation, there was improvement in acute respiratory acidosis. Sixteen hours later, however, the patient developed life-threatening hypokalemia (K(+) of 2.1 mEq/L) and hypomagnesemia (Mg of 1.4 mg/dL). Despite aggressive potassium supplementation, hypokalemia continued to worsen over the next several hours (K(+) of 1.7 mEq/L). Urine studies revealed renal potassium wasting. We reason that the recalcitrant life-threatening hypokalemia was caused by several mechanisms including total body potassium depletion (chronic respiratory acidosis), a shift of potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space (rapid correction of respiratory acidosis with mechanical ventilation), increased sodium delivery to the distal nephron (normal saline resuscitation), hyperaldosteronism (secondary to hypotension plus administration of hydrocortisone) and hypomagnesemia. We conclude that rapid correction of respiratory acidosis, especially in the setting of hypotension, can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels must be monitored closely in these patients, as failure to do so can lead to potentially lethal consequences

  9. Improvement of Expansive Soils Using Chemical Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikizler, S. B.; Senol, A.; Khosrowshahi, S. K.; Hatipoğlu, M.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of two chemical stabilizers on the swelling potential of expansive soil. A high plasticity sodium bentonite was used as the expansive soil. The additive materials including fly ash (FA) and lime (L) were evaluated as potential stabilizers to decrease the swelling pressure of bentonite. Depending on the type of additive materials, they were blended with bentonite in different percentages to assess the optimum state and approch the maximum swell pressure reduction. According to the results of swell pressure test, both fly ash and lime reduce the swelling potential of bentonite but the maximum improvement occurs using bentonite-lime mixture while the swelling pressure reduction approaches to 49%. The results reveal a significant reduction of swelling potential of expansive soil using chemical stabilizers. Keywords: Expansive soil; swell pressure; chemical stabilization; fly ash; lime

  10. Applications of the large mass expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; ); Veretin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The method of the large mass expansion (LME) is investigated for selfenergy and vertex functions in two-loop order. It has the technical advantage that in many cases the expansion coefficients can be expressed analytically. As long as only one non-zero external momentum squared, q 2 , is involved also the Taylor expansion (TE) w.r.t. small q 2 yields high precision results in a domain sufficient for most applications. In the case of only one non-zero mass M and only one external momentum squared, the expansion w.r.t. q 2 /M 2 is identical for the TE and the LME. In this case the combined techniques yield analytic expressions for many diagrams, which are quite easy to handle numerically. (author)

  11. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes.

  12. Expansion of the Neyveli lignite mine, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S [Neyveli Lignite Corp. Ltd., Tamil Nadu (India); Streck, W [Gold (O.) G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    After giving a picture of the difficult winning conditions at the Neyveli open-cast lignite mine, the author states the reasons for the expansions of the open-cast mine and describes the necessary measures and machinery.

  13. Chemical graph-theoretic cluster expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A general computationally amenable chemico-graph-theoretic cluster expansion method is suggested as a paradigm for incorporation of chemical structure concepts in a systematic manner. The cluster expansion approach is presented in a formalism general enough to cover a variety of empirical, semiempirical, and even ab initio applications. Formally such approaches for the utilization of chemical structure-related concepts may be viewed as discrete analogues of Taylor series expansions. The efficacy of the chemical structure concepts then is simply bound up in the rate of convergence of the cluster expansions. In many empirical applications, e.g., boiling points, chromatographic separation coefficients, and biological activities, this rate of convergence has been observed to be quite rapid. More note will be made here of quantum chemical applications. Relations to questions concerning size extensivity of energies and size consistency of wave functions are addressed

  14. Magnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of relativistic laser-produced plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Based on a one dimensional two-fluid model that includes pressure, enthalpy, and rest mass energy, the expansion is studied in the limit of λD (Debye length) ≤RL (Larmor radius) for magnetized electrons and ions. Numerical investigation conducted for a quasi-neutral plasma showed that the σ parameter describing the initial plasma magnetization, and the plasma β parameter, which is the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure are the key parameters governing the expansion dynamics. For σ ≪ 1, ion's front shows oscillations associated to the break-down of quasi-neutrality. This is due to the strong constraining effect and confinement of the magnetic field, which acts as a retarding medium slowing the plasma expansion.

  15. Wilson expansion in the minimal subtraction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The small distance expansion of the product of composite fields is constructed for an arbitrary renormalization procedure of the type of minimal subtraction scheme. Coefficient functions of the expansion are expressed explicitly through the Green functions of composite fields. The expansion has the explicity finite form: the ultraviolet (UV) divergences of the coefficient functions and composite fields are removed by the initial renormalization procedure while the infrared (IR) divergences in massless diagrams with nonvanishing contribution into the coefficient functions are removed by the R-operation which is the IR part of the R-operation. The latter is the generalization of the dimensional renormalization in the case when both UV and IR divergences are present. To derive the expansion, a ''pre-subtracting operator'' is introduced and formulas of the counter-term technique are exploited

  16. Treatment of divergent expansions in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.; Malin, S.

    1978-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles in applying quantum field theory to realistic scattering problems are the divergencies of pertubation expansions for large coupling constants and the divergencies of partial wave expansions for massless particles exchanges. There exist, however, methods of summation of the divergent expansions which can lead to significant application in physics. In this paper we treat the problem of summing such expansions using three methods: (i) a generalization of the Pade approximation to the multivariable case. The suggested definition is unique and preserves unitarity. (ii) The summation of divergent partial waves for arbitrary spins. (iii) A successful application of a series inversion to the 3 P 1 nucleon-nucleon phase shift up to 200 MeV. (orig./WL) [de

  17. foundations on expansive soils introduction characteristic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the swelling potential of expansive soils have been found to be: initial moisture content, .... behaviour of such huildin1?1>, it is difficult to give definite recommendations. ..... Structures in Black Cotton Soils, Central Building. Research Institute ...

  18. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  19. Boson expansion theory in the seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Li, C.; Pedrocchi, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    A boson expansion formalism in the seniority scheme is presented and its relation with number-conserving quasiparticle calculations is elucidated. Accuracy and convergence are demonstrated numerically. A comparative discussion with other related approaches is given

  20. Biochemical and ultrasonographic predictors of outcome in threatened abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Maged

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CA125, β HCG and progesterone are good biochemical markers and FHR and CRL are good ultrasonographic markers for the prediction of outcome in women with threatened abortion. FHR at 110 bpm gives the best predictivity followed by serum P at 25 ng/ml, β HCG at 19887 mIU/ml, CA 125 at 80 IU/ml and CRL at 21 mm with the least predictive accuracy among studied markers. Adding serum progesterone to FHR gave a sensitivity and specificity of 100%.

  1. Identifying and treating a life-threatening disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Beverley

    2014-02-01

    Meningococcal septicaemia is a life-threatening condition that all nurses working in emergency and urgent care settings are likely to come across during their careers. This article presents, and reflects on, a case study involving a woman with the disease whose signs and symptoms were atypical, and who was not therefore diagnosed with the condition immediately. The author aims to raise awareness among emergency nurses and nurse practitioners of the atypical signs and symptoms of the infection, and its consequences. The article also discusses how referring to patient scenarios can improve practice.

  2. Can femoral dialysis catheter insertion cause a life threatening complication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkay Katrancıoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous catheter (VC insertion may be necessary for the patients with renal failure facing vascular access problem. Femoral VCs are commonly used for their lower complication rates especially in emergency clinics. The incidence of bleeding associated with VC is reported 0.5-1.6%, however, life threatening hemorrhage and complications requiring surgical intervention are very rare. In this manuscript, we aimed to present a case with hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated with retroperitoneal hematoma after femoral VC insertion. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 472-474

  3. Organising pneumonia presenting as acute life threatening pulmonary haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhaiah, Damodhara Honnavally; Chakravorty, Indranil; Swamy, Rajiv; Prakash, Doraiswamy

    2011-11-08

    Organising pneumonia, previously called bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia is a clinicopathological entity of unknown aetiology, which has been reported with increasing frequency. Various modes of presentation have been described such as cough, fever, weight loss and alveolar opacities on chest radiograph. Haemoptysis as primary presenting symptom has only rarely been reported. The authors report a case in which massive life-threatening haemoptysis was the major presenting symptom. No aetiology was identified for the haemoptysis and the diagnosis was confirmed on postmortem histology. This case highlights the importance of considering organising pneumonia in the differential diagnosis of acute severe haemoptysis.

  4. Operator expansion at short distance in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik

    1982-11-01

    We present a method of calculating coefficients of gluon operators in the operator product expansion of two-point functions at short distance. It is based on a short-distance expansion of the singular part of the quark propagator in the gluon field, the latter being treated as external. We verify in full generality that the spin zero, gluon operator of dimension six does not contribute to the two-point functions of quark bilinears.

  5. Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage one have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. It is only concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be given in the next paper. (Author) [pt

  6. The critical thermal expansion of gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.; Lanchester, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the critical thermal expansion of single crystals of gadolinium, prepared by solid state electrotransport processing. Although the expansion data can be fitted to a simple power law with exponents lambda + =-0.25, lambda - =-0.33, these values are not predicted by theory and a discontinuity remains at Tsub(c)=293.620 K. It is suggested that the results relate to a region of crossover to uniaxial dipolar behaviour. (Auth.)

  7. Cluster expansion for vacuum confining fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Colored particle Green functions in vacuum background random fields are written as path integrals. Averaging over random fields is done using the cluster (cumulant) expansion. The existence of a finite correlation length for vacuum background fields is shown to produce the linear confinement, in agreement with the results, obtained with the help of averaged Hamiltonians. A modified form of cluster expansion for nonabelian fields is introduced using the path-ordered cumulants

  8. Synthesis, microstructure and thermal expansion studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report on the synthesis, microstructure and thermal expansion studies on Ca0.5+/2Sr0.5+/2Zr4P6−2Si2O24 ( = 0.00 to 1.00) system which belongs to NZP family of low thermal expansion ceramics. The ceramics synthesized by co-precipitation method at lower calcination and the sintering temperatures ...

  9. Composite asymptotic expansions and scaling wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L

    2007-03-15

    In this article, the assumptions and reasoning that yield composite asymptotic expansions for wall turbulence are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the scaling quantities that are used to render the variables non-dimensional and of order one. An asymptotic expansion is proposed for the streamwise Reynolds stress that accounts for the active and inactive turbulence by using different scalings. The idea is tested with the data from the channel flows and appears to have merit.

  10. A pedagogical approach to the Magnus expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanes, S; Casas, F; Oteo, J A; Ros, J

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent perturbation theory as a tool to compute approximate solutions of the Schroedinger equation does not preserve unitarity. Here we present, in a simple way, how the Magnus expansion (also known as exponential perturbation theory) provides such unitary approximate solutions. The purpose is to illustrate the importance and consequences of such a property. We suggest that the Magnus expansion may be introduced to students in advanced courses of quantum mechanics.

  11. Local behaviour of negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasini, P.; Dalba, G.; Grisenti, R.; Purans, J.; Vaccari, M.; Rocca, F.; Sanson, A.

    2006-01-01

    EXAFS can represent a powerful probe of the local behaviour of negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials, thanks to the possibility of measuring the expansion of selected inter-atomic bonds and the perpendicular relative atomic displacements. The effectiveness of EXAFS for NTE studies is illustrated by a comparison of results recently obtained on germanium, CuCl and the cuprites Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O

  12. Resolution of hydrodynamical equations for transverse expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Y.; Pottag, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamical expansion is treated with a method similar to that of Milekhin, but more explicit. Although in the final stage we have to appeal to numerical calculation, the partial differential equations governing the transverse expansions are treated without transforming them into ordinary equations with an introduction of averaged quantities. The present paper is concerned with the formalism and the numerical results will be reported in another paper. (Author) [pt

  13. Stochastic quantization and 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, J.C.; Mendes, R.S.

    1992-10-01

    We study the 1/N expansion of field theories in the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu using the supersymmetric functional approach. This formulation provides a systematic procedure to implement the 1/N expansion which resembles the ones used in the equilibrium. The 1/N perturbation theory for the non linear sigma model in two dimensions is worked out as an example. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs

  14. Foundations on Expansive Soils; A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Kalantari

    2012-01-01

    This study describes various types of foundation designs to be considered for structural engineering projects when the subsoil foundation consists of expansive or swelling soils. Among civil and architectural engineers expansive soils are known to be difficult foundation materials and problematic. These type of soils swell when they are subjected to moistures and shrink due to moisture loss. Because of this different behaviour upon wetting and drying, they cause minor to major structural dama...

  15. Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Toivonen, Tuuli; Di Minin, Enrico; Kukkala, Aija S; Kullberg, Peter; Kuusterä, Johanna; Lehtomäki, Joona; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Verburg, Peter H; Moilanen, Atte

    2014-12-18

    Protected areas are one of the main tools for halting the continuing global biodiversity crisis caused by habitat loss, fragmentation and other anthropogenic pressures. According to the Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity, the protected area network should be expanded to at least 17% of the terrestrial world by 2020 (http://www.cbd.int/sp/targets). To maximize conservation outcomes, it is crucial to identify the best expansion areas. Here we show that there is a very high potential to increase protection of ecoregions and vertebrate species by expanding the protected area network, but also identify considerable risk of ineffective outcomes due to land-use change and uncoordinated actions between countries. We use distribution data for 24,757 terrestrial vertebrates assessed under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 'red list of threatened species', and terrestrial ecoregions (827), modified by land-use models for the present and 2040, and introduce techniques for global and balanced spatial conservation prioritization. First, we show that with a coordinated global protected area network expansion to 17% of terrestrial land, average protection of species ranges and ecoregions could triple. Second, if projected land-use change by 2040 (ref. 11) takes place, it becomes infeasible to reach the currently possible protection levels, and over 1,000 threatened species would lose more than 50% of their present effective ranges worldwide. Third, we demonstrate a major efficiency gap between national and global conservation priorities. Strong evidence is shown that further biodiversity loss is unavoidable unless international action is quickly taken to balance land-use and biodiversity conservation. The approach used here can serve as a framework for repeatable and quantitative assessment of efficiency, gaps and expansion of the global protected area network globally, regionally and nationally, considering

  16. Thermal expansion behavior in fabricated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruganti, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Mazumder, J.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal expansion behavior of cellular structures is of interest in applications where undesirable deformation and failure are caused by thermal expansion mismatch. This report describes the role of processing-induced effects and metallurgical aspects of melt-processed cellular structures, such as a bi-material structure designed to contract on heating, as well as uni-material structures of regular and stochastic topology. This bi-material structure utilized the principle of internal geometric constraints to alter the expansion behavior of the internal ligaments to create overall contraction of the structure. Homogenization design method was used to design the structure, and fabrication was by direct metal deposition by laser melting of powder in another part of a joint effort. The degree of porosity and grain size in the fabricated structure are characterized and related to the laser deposition parameters. The structure was found to contract upon heating over a short range of temperature subsequent to which normal expansion ensued. Also examined in this report are uni-material cellular structures, in which internal constraints arise from residual stress variations caused by the fabrication process, and thereby alter their expansion characteristics. A simple analysis of thermal strain of this material supports the observed thermal expansion behavior

  17. Agriculture in the climate change negotiations; ensuring that food production is not threatened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldowney, J; Mounsey, J; Kinsella, L

    2013-06-01

    With the human population predicted to reach nine billion by 2050, demand for food is predicted to more than double over this time period, a trend which will lead to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. Furthermore, expansion in food production is predicted to occur primarily in the developing world, where adaptation to climate change may be more difficult and opportunities to mitigate emissions limited. In the establishment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 'ensuring that food production is not threatened' is explicitly mentioned in the objective of the Convention. However, the focus of negotiations under the Convention has largely been on reducing GHG emissions from energy, and industrial activities and realizing the potential of forestry as a carbon sink. There has been little attention by the UNFCCC to address the challenges and opportunities for the agriculture sector. Since 2006, concerted efforts have been made to raise the prominence of agriculture within the negotiations. The most recent The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report and 'The Emissions Gap Report' by the UNEP highlighted the significant mitigation potential of agriculture, which can help contribute towards keeping global temperature rises below the 2°C limit agreed in Cancun. Agriculture has to be a part of the solution to address climate change, but this will also require a focus on how agriculture systems can adapt to climate change in order to continue to increase food output. However, to effectively realize this potential, systematic and dedicated discussion and decisions within the UNFCCC are needed. UNFCCC discussions on a specific agriculture agenda item started in 2012, but are currently inconclusive. However, Parties are generally in agreement on the importance of agriculture in contributing to food security and employment as well as the need to improve understanding of agriculture and how it can contribute to

  18. Urban expansion dynamics and natural habitat loss in China: a multiscale landscape perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Liu, Zhifeng; Tian, Jie; Ma, Qun

    2014-09-01

    China's extensive urbanization has resulted in a massive loss of natural habitat, which is threatening the nation's biodiversity and socioeconomic sustainability. A timely and accurate understanding of natural habitat loss caused by urban expansion will allow more informed and effective measures to be taken for the conservation of biodiversity. However, the impact of urban expansion on natural habitats is not well-understood, primarily due to the lack of accurate spatial information regarding urban expansion across China. In this study, we proposed an approach that can be used to accurately summarize the dynamics of urban expansion in China over two recent decades (1992-2012), by integrating data on nighttime light levels, a vegetation index, and land surface temperature. The natural habitat loss during the time period was evaluated at the national, ecoregional, and local scales. The results revealed that China had experienced extremely rapid urban growth from 1992 to 2012 with an average annual growth rate of 8.74%, in contrast with the global average of 3.20%. The massive urban expansion has resulted in significant natural habitat loss in some areas in China. Special attention needs to be paid to the Pearl River Delta, where 25.79% or 1518 km(2) of the natural habitat and 41.99% or 760 km(2) of the local wetlands were lost during 1992-2012. This raises serious concerns about species viability and biodiversity. Effective policies and regulations must be implemented and enforced to sustain regional and national development in the context of rapid urbanization. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Threatened and endangered fish and wildlife of the midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D.W.; Robeck, K.E.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains information of federally-listed endangered and/or threatened fish and wildlife occurring in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The information was compiled as a support document for the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) project sponsored by the Regional Assessments Division of the Office of Technology Impacts within the Department of Energy. The information on midwestern endangered species distribution, habitats, and reasons for population decline included in this document are designed to help assess the potential for adverse impacts if energy activities are sited within the general range of an endangered species. It is hoped that this document will thereby enhance the reliability of one portion of energy-related assessments performed in the Midwest. This report considers only those species listed prior to October 1979 as endangered and/or threatened in the federal endangered species list published in the Federal Register and that have been known to occur in the region in the last 20 years.

  20. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  1. Tracheal intubation in the ICU: Life saving or life threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigeeshu V Divatia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal intubation (TI is a routine procedure in the intensive care unit (ICU, and is often life saving. However, life-threatening complications occur in a significant proportion of procedures, making TI perhaps one the most common but underappreciated airway emergencies in the ICU. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room (OR, the unstable physiologic state of critically ill patients along with underevaluation of the airways and suboptimal response to pre-oxygenation are the major factors for the high incidence of life-threatening complications like severe hypoxaemia and cardiovascular collapse in the ICU. Studies have shown that strategies planned for TI in the OR can be adapted and extrapolated for use in the ICU. Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation for pre-oxygenation provides adequate oxygen stores during TI for patients with precarious respiratory pathology. The intubation procedure should include not only airway management but also haemodynamic, gas exchange and neurologic care, which are often crucial in critically ill patients. Hence, there is a necessity for the implementation of an Intubation Bundle during routine airway management in the ICU. Adherence to a plan for difficult airway management incorporating the use of intubation aids and airway rescue devices and strategies is useful.

  2. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf C Buckley

    Full Text Available Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  3. Net Effects of Ecotourism on Threatened Species Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C; Morrison, Clare; Castley, J Guy

    2016-01-01

    Many threatened species rely on ecotourism for conservation funding, but simultaneously suffer direct ecological impacts from ecotourism. For a range of IUCN-Redlisted terrestrial and marine bird and mammal species worldwide, we use population viability analyses to calculate the net effects of ecotourism on expected time to extinction, in the presence of other anthropogenic threats such as poaching, primary industries and habitat loss. Species for which these calculations are currently possible, for one or more subpopulations, include: orangutan, hoolock gibbon, golden lion tamarin, cheetah, African wild dog, New Zealand sealion, great green macaw, Egyptian vulture, and African penguin. For some but not all of these species, tourism can extend expected survival time, i.e., benefits outweigh impacts. Precise outcomes depend strongly on population parameters and starting sizes, predation, and ecotourism scale and mechanisms. Tourism does not currently overcome other major conservation threats associated with natural resource extractive industries. Similar calculations for other threatened species are currently limited by lack of basic population data.

  4. Life-Threatening Atypical Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajmir-Riahi, Azadeh; Wörl, Petra; Harrer, Thomas; Schliep, Stefan; Schuler, Gerold; Simon, Miklos

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotics are known to cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions, such as the rare acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Unlike Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis, AGEP is rarely life-threatening. Systemic involvement is not typical, and if present usually coincides with a mild elevation of the hepatic enzymes and a decrease in renal function. Hence, AGEP is known to have a good prognosis and to be life-threatening only in elderly patients or patients with chronic diseases. Herein, we report a case of AGEP in a young healthy male leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and to treatment in an intensive care unit after being treated with 5 different antibiotics. Initial symptoms were not indicative for AGEP and the patient's course of disease led promptly to critical cardiorespiratory symptoms and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We assume that the administration of the 5 different antibiotics resulted in type IV allergy as well as secondary infection with Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus, while the underlying periodontitis also contributed to the severity of this case. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Thin foil expansion into a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum is an old problem which has been renewed recently in various contexts: expansion of ultra-cold plasmas, cluster expansion, of dust grains, expansion of thin foils. In this presentation I will first discuss the physics of the expansion of a thin foil irradiated by an ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulse. The expansion results in the formation of high energy ions. For an infinitely steep plasma-vacuum interface the fastest ions are located in the outer part of the expansion and their velocity is given by ν m ax∼ 2 C s (In ω p it) where c s (Zk B T e /m i )''1/2 is the ion-acoustic velocity ω p i=(n e 0Ze''2/m i e 0 )''1/2 is the ion plasma frequency, n e 0 is the electron density in the unperturbed plasma, Z is the ion charge number. In the above expression, t is either the pulse duration or the effective acceleration time (in particular t∼L/2c s , where L is the width of the foil, when the electron cooling is taken into account). A salient characteristic of the expansion is the occurrence of a double layer structure and a peak of the accelerating electric field at the ion front. I will explain the origin of the peak and predict its temporal behavior. This peak has been diagnosed in recent experiments. I will also discuss the effect of a 2-temperatures electron distribution function on the expansion, showing the dominant role of the hot electron component. Finally I will discuss the occurrence of ion spikes in the expansion when the initial density profile is smooth. The ion spike is due to a wave breaking which cannot be handled in a satisfactory way by a fluid code and requires a kinetic description. A. simple collisionless particle code has been used to treat the evolution of the spike after the wave breaking and the results will be shown. (Author)

  6. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-02-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over -30 ppm K -1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  7. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K−1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.

  8. Negative thermal expansion materials: technological key for control of thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Koshi

    2012-01-01

    Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K −1 . Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade. (topical review)

  9. Global Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and Carbon Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first global probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the global urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and forest carbon losses.

  10. Expansion Under Climate Change: The Genetic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jimmy; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Range expansion and range shifts are crucial population responses to climate change. Genetic consequences are not well understood but are clearly coupled to ecological dynamics that, in turn, are driven by shifting climate conditions. We model a population with a deterministic reaction-diffusion model coupled to a heterogeneous environment that develops in time due to climate change. We decompose the resulting travelling wave solution into neutral genetic components to analyse the spatio-temporal dynamics of its genetic structure. Our analysis shows that range expansions and range shifts under slow climate change preserve genetic diversity. This is because slow climate change creates range boundaries that promote spatial mixing of genetic components. Mathematically, the mixing leads to so-called pushed travelling wave solutions. This mixing phenomenon is not seen in spatially homogeneous environments, where range expansion reduces genetic diversity through gene surfing arising from pulled travelling wave solutions. However, the preservation of diversity is diminished when climate change occurs too quickly. Using diversity indices, we show that fast expansions and range shifts erode genetic diversity more than slow range expansions and range shifts. Our study provides analytical insight into the dynamics of travelling wave solutions in heterogeneous environments.

  11. Simplified Technique for Predicting Offshore Pipeline Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J. H.; Kim, D. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yu, S. Y.; Park, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we propose a method for estimating the amount of expansion that occurs in subsea pipelines, which could be applied in the design of robust structures that transport oil and gas from offshore wells. We begin with a literature review and general discussion of existing estimation methods and terminologies with respect to subsea pipelines. Due to the effects of high pressure and high temperature, the production of fluid from offshore wells is typically caused by physical deformation of subsea structures, e.g., expansion and contraction during the transportation process. In severe cases, vertical and lateral buckling occurs, which causes a significant negative impact on structural safety, and which is related to on-bottom stability, free-span, structural collapse, and many other factors. In addition, these factors may affect the production rate with respect to flow assurance, wax, and hydration, to name a few. In this study, we developed a simple and efficient method for generating a reliable pipe expansion design in the early stage, which can lead to savings in both cost and computation time. As such, in this paper, we propose an applicable diagram, which we call the standard dimensionless ratio (SDR) versus virtual anchor length (L A ) diagram, that utilizes an efficient procedure for estimating subsea pipeline expansion based on applied reliable scenarios. With this user guideline, offshore pipeline structural designers can reliably determine the amount of subsea pipeline expansion and the obtained results will also be useful for the installation, design, and maintenance of the subsea pipeline.

  12. Preliminary thermal expansion screening data for tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A.R.

    1980-03-01

    A major variable in evaluating the potential of silicic tuffs for use in geologic disposal of heat-producing nuclear wastes is thermal expansion. Results of ambient-pressure linear expansion measurements on a group of tuffs that vary treatly in porosity and mineralogy are presente here. Thermal expansion of devitrified welded tuffs is generally linear with increasing temperature and independent of both porosity and heating rate. Mineralogic factors affecting behavior of these tuffs are limited to the presence or absence of cristobalite and altered biotite. The presence of cristobalite results in markedly nonlinear expansion above 200 0 C. If biotite in biotite-hearing rocks alters even slightly to expandable clays, the behavior of these tuffs near the boiling point of water can be dominated by contraction of the expandable phase. Expansion of both high- and low-porosity tuffs containing hydrated silicic glass and/or expandable clays is complex. The behavior of these rocks appears to be completely dominated by dehydration of hydrous phases and, hence, should be critically dependent on fluid pressure. Valid extrapolation of the ambient-pressure results presented here to depths of interest for construction of a nuclear-waste repository will depend on a good understanding of the interaction of dehydration rates and fluid pressures, and of the effects of both micro- and macrofractures on the response of tuff masss

  13. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  14. Hematoma Expansion Following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage, the most devastating form of stroke, has no specific therapy proven to improve outcome by randomized controlled trial. Location and baseline hematoma volume are strong predictors of mortality, but are non-modifiable by the time of diagnosis. Expansion of the initial hematoma is a further marker of poor prognosis that may be at least partly preventable. Several risk factors for hematoma expansion have been identified, including baseline ICH volume, early presentation after symptom onset, anticoagulation, and the CT angiography spot sign. Although the biological mechanisms of hematoma expansion remain unclear, accumulating evidence supports a model of ongoing secondary bleeding from ruptured adjacent vessels surrounding the initial bleeding site. Several large clinical trials testing therapies aimed at preventing hematoma expansion are in progress, including aggressive blood pressure reduction, treatment with recombinant factor VIIa guided by CT angiography findings, and surgical intervention for superficial hematomas without intraventricular extension. Hematoma expansion is so far the only marker of outcome that is amenable to treatment and thus a potentially important therapeutic target. PMID:23466430

  15. Considering FACTS in Optimal Transmission Expansion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Soleimani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power transmission systems is an important part of the expansion of power systems that requires enormous investment costs. Since the construction of new transmission lines is very expensive, it is necessary to choose the most efficient expansion plan that ensures system security with a minimal number of new lines. In this paper, the role of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS devices in the effective operation and expansion planning of transmission systems is examined. Effort was taken to implement a method based on sensitivity analysis to select the optimal number and location of FACTS devices, lines and other elements of the transmission system. Using this method, the transmission expansion plan for a 9 and a 39 bus power system was performed with and without the presence of FACTS with the use of DPL environment in Digsilent software 15.1. Results show that the use of these devices reduces the need for new transmission lines and minimizes the investment cost.

  16. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1991-07-01

    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  17. Land use compounds habitat losses under projected climate change in a threatened California ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Coulter Riordan

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly growing human population in mediterranean-climate systems, land use may pose a more immediate threat to biodiversity than climate change this century, yet few studies address the relative future impacts of both drivers. We assess spatial and temporal patterns of projected 21(st century land use and climate change on California sage scrub (CSS, a plant association of considerable diversity and threatened status in the mediterranean-climate California Floristic Province. Using a species distribution modeling approach combined with spatially-explicit land use projections, we model habitat loss for 20 dominant shrub species under unlimited and no dispersal scenarios at two time intervals (early and late century in two ecoregions in California (Central Coast and South Coast. Overall, projected climate change impacts were highly variable across CSS species and heavily dependent on dispersal assumptions. Projected anthropogenic land use drove greater relative habitat losses compared to projected climate change in many species. This pattern was only significant under assumptions of unlimited dispersal, however, where considerable climate-driven habitat gains offset some concurrent climate-driven habitat losses. Additionally, some of the habitat gained with projected climate change overlapped with projected land use. Most species showed potential northern habitat expansion and southern habitat contraction due to projected climate change, resulting in sharply contrasting patterns of impact between Central and South Coast Ecoregions. In the Central Coast, dispersal could play an important role moderating losses from both climate change and land use. In contrast, high geographic overlap in habitat losses driven by projected climate change and projected land use in the South Coast underscores the potential for compounding negative impacts of both drivers. Limiting habitat conversion may be a broadly beneficial strategy under climate change

  18. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei-Ran; Kuang, Hao; Hu, Feng-Xia; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Liang, Fei-Xiang; Qiao, Kai-Ming; Li, Jia; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Lei; He, Min; Zhang, Ying; Zuo, Wen-Liang; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2017-10-01

    Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE) or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn-Co-Ge-In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE owing to a martensitic magnetostructural transition. The major finding is that the thermal expansion behavior can be totally controlled by modulating the crystallinity degree and phase transition from atomic scale. Self-compensation effect leads to ultra-low thermal expansion with a linear expansion coefficient as small as +0.68 × 10-6/K over a wide temperature range around room temperature. The present study opens an avenue to reach ZTE particularly from the large class of giant NTE materials based on phase transition.

  19. Ultra-low thermal expansion realized in giant negative thermal expansion materials through self-compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Ran Shen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials with zero thermal expansion (ZTE or precisely tailored thermal expansion are in urgent demand of modern industries. However, the overwhelming majority of materials show positive thermal expansion. To develop ZTE or negative thermal expansion (NTE materials as compensators has become an important challenge. Here, we present the evidence for the realization of ultra-low thermal expansion in Mn–Co–Ge–In particles. The bulk with the Ni2In-type hexagonal structure undergoes giant NTE owing to a martensitic magnetostructural transition. The major finding is that the thermal expansion behavior can be totally controlled by modulating the crystallinity degree and phase transition from atomic scale. Self-compensation effect leads to ultra-low thermal expansion with a linear expansion coefficient as small as +0.68 × 10−6/K over a wide temperature range around room temperature. The present study opens an avenue to reach ZTE particularly from the large class of giant NTE materials based on phase transition.

  20. Supersonic expansion of argon into vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habets, A H.M.

    1977-01-21

    A theoretical description of a free supersonic expansion process is given. Three distinct regions in the expansion are discussed, namely the continuum region, the gradual transition to the collisionless regime, and the free-molecular-flow stage. Important topics are the peaking-factor formalism, the thermal-conduction model, and the virtual-source formalism. The formation of the molecular beam from the expansion and condensation phenomena occurring in the expanding gas are discussed. The molecular beam machine used in the measurements is described and special attention is given to the cryopumps used in the supersonic sources as well as to the time-of-flight analysis of the molecular beam velocity distributions. Finally, the processing of experimental data is discussed, particularly the least-squares determination of best-fit representations of the measurements.

  1. Origami structures for tunable thermal expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatti, Elisa; Bertoldi, Katia

    Materials with engineered thermal expansion, capable of achieving targeted and extreme area/volume changes in response to variations in temperature, are important for a number of aerospace, optical, energy, and microelectronic applications. While most of the proposed structures with tunable coefficient of thermal expansion consist of bi-material 2D or 3D lattices, here we propose a periodic metastructure based on a bilayer Miura-Ori origami fold. We combine experiments and simulations to demonstrate that by tuning the geometrical and mechanical parameters an extremely broad range of thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained, spanning both negative and positive values. Additionally, the thermal properties along different directions can be adjusted independently. Differently from all previously reported systems, the proposed structure is non-porous.

  2. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  3. Thermal expansion of quaternary nitride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnádi, Ferenc; Wang, Fei; Odén, Magnus; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2018-04-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient of technologically relevant multicomponent cubic nitride alloys are predicted using the Debye model with ab initio elastic constants calculated at 0 K and an isotropic approximation for the Grüneisen parameter. Our method is benchmarked against measured thermal expansion of TiN and Ti(1-x)Al x N as well as against results of molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the thermal expansion coefficients of Ti(1-x-y)X y Al x N (X  =  Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Ta) solid solutions monotonously increase with the amount of alloying element X at all temperatures except for Zr and Hf, for which they instead decrease for y≳ 0.5 .

  4. On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibler, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Mardoyan, L G; Pogosyan, G S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1997-12-31

    This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,.

  5. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.

    2017-10-01

    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  6. On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,

  7. Supersonic expansion of argon into vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habets, A.H.M.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical description of a free supersonic expansion process is given. Three distinct regions in the expansion are discussed, namely the continuum region, the gradual transition to the collisionless regime, and the free-molecular-flow stage. Important topics are the peaking-factor formalism, the thermal-conduction model, and the virtual-source formalism. The formation of the molecular beam from the expansion and condensation phenomena occurring in the expanding gas are discussed. The molecular beam machine used in the measurements is described and special attention is given to the cryopumps used in the supersonic sources as well as to the time-of-flight analysis of the molecular beam velocity distributions. Finally, the processing of experimental data is discussed, particularly the least-squares determination of best-fit representations of the measurements

  8. Back Reaction And Local Cosmological Expansion Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Geshnizjani, G; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Brandenberger, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the back reaction of cosmological perturbations on a general relativistic variable which measures the local expansion rate of the Universe. Specifically, we consider a cosmological model in which matter is described by a single field. We analyze back reaction both in a matter dominated Universe and in a phase of scalar field-driven chaotic inflation. In both cases, we find that the leading infrared terms contributing to the back reaction vanish when the local expansion rate is measured at a fixed value of the matter field which is used as a clock, whereas they do not appear to vanish if the expansion rate is evaluated at a fixed value of the background time. We discuss possible implications for more realistic models with a more complicated matter sector.

  9. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  10. Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton, 1822, a threatened fish of Indian subcontinent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eutropiichthys vacha (Batchwa vacha is a freshwater catfish species having high economic value. It is a very popular table fish among the consumers due to high nutritional value and taste. Just recently small specimens of this species have also made their entry in ornamental fish markets. Recently due to number of reasons, populations of this fish species are facing the threat of extinction. It has already been documented as Endangered in India and Critically Endangered in Bangladesh. The present report has been prepared to summarize the information available on different aspects of this threatened fish species as well as to point out the possible measures that should be considered for its conservation.

  11. Strategic environmental policy when the governments are threatened by relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaker, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the threat of relocation influences environmental policy. The stringency of environmental policy is determined in a game between two governments. There is one firm in each jurisdiction, and both firms threaten to relocate their production to the other jurisdiction. Because there is asymmetric information about the cost of relocation, the governments do not know the credibility of the threat. We compare the outcome of this game with the outcome of a game in which relocation is not possible. We find that the threat of relocation can increase both the level of environmental regulation and welfare. The profit tax level proves to be the most decisive for the result; that is, the higher the profit tax level, the lower the level of environmental regulation

  12. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Premi, H K; Gupta, T V; Thakur, S; Gupta, K B; Randhawa, I

    1994-11-01

    One hundred and two cases of viable pregnancies with threatened abortion were studied in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Kamla Nehru Hospital, IG Medical College, Shimla between November 1987 and February 1989 and their perinatal outcome was evaluated. The pregnancies continued beyond 28 weeks in 61.7% of the cases. The incidence of prematurity was 19.0%. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) babies was 23.8%. Apgar score was less than 7 in 22.3%. The incidence of neonatal complications was 25.3%. There was no perinatal mortality. In a control group of 50 cases, the incidence of prematurity and LBW was 8% and 4% respectively. Apgar score less than 7 was noted in 4% and neonatal complications were observed only in 4% of newborns.

  13. Cell phone-induced ostracism threatens fundamental needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Andrew H; Dvir, Maayan; Wesselmann, Eric D; Kruger, Daniel J; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2018-01-01

    Cell phones are useful tools with both practical and social benefits. However, using them in the context of face-to-face conversations may be problematic. We consider this behavior a form of ostracism and test its effects on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. In Study 1 participants who recalled a time in which a friend was checking a cell phone during a serious conversation reported feeling more ostracized (ignored and excluded), greater pain, and threat to basic needs than participants recalling a conversation without a cell phone interruption or a control event. Study 2 replicated and extended this effect: Cell phone-induced ostracism's effects were partially mediated by decreased feelings of relational evaluation, and threatened basic needs both in serious and casual conversation contexts. Findings from both studies also indicated that cell phone-induced ostracism hurts women more so than men.

  14. Life-Threatening Thrombocytopenia Following Intravenous Contrast Media Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Jisun; Cho, Jinhyun

    2018-01-01

    Radiocontrast media-induced acute severe thrombocytopenia is a very rare complication and potentially life-threatening. Here, we report the case of a 63-year-old male patient with severe acute thrombocytopenia following first exposure to intravenous non-ionic contrast media without immediate allergic reactions. His platelet count dropped from 107000/μL to 2000/μL after six hours of radiocontrast infusion. After administration of corticosteroid and transfusion of platelet concentrates, the platelet count returned gradually to normal within 5 days. To the best of our knowledge, non-ionic contrast media-induced isolated acute severe thrombocytopenia following no signs or symptoms of immediate allergic reaction has never been described. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  15. Use of plant biotechnology for the propagation of threaten cataceas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Quiala

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The quick readiness of postures for the restoration of the vegetable cover in a degraded ecosystem constitutes one of the main factors in the ecological restoration programs. The in vitro tissue culture techniques are attractive for the propagation of threatened species, due to the discharges multiplication rates that are gotten in a relatively short time and to the reduced required departure material and from this point of view it is considered to the cactaceae like the family more worked. Cuba has a wide vascular flora, in which stand out diverse cactuses goods, but the same as other countries of the tropic have a great destruction of their habitat due to the man’s devastating action, so that the development of alternative techniques as tissue culture can help to counteract the loss of the biodiversity in the Cuban flora. Key word: micropropagation, extinction danger, biodiversity conservation, in vitro tissue culture

  16. Seronegative neuromyelitis optica presenting with life-threatening respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Zuccoli, Giulio; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Fitzgerald, Ryan T

    2016-11-01

    Dyspnea has rarely been reported as a presenting symptom in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). We report an unusual case of NMO relapse presenting with rapidly progressive respiratory failure and briefly discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of this potential life-threatening complication of NMO. The 58-year-old woman with a history of bilateral optic neuritis presented to the emergency department with rapidly worsening dyspnea. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive abnormal signal with involvement of the medulla oblongata. Since in our patient chest radiography failed to disclose a diaphragmatic palsy that is commonly observed in patients with phrenic nerve involvement, this acute manifestation of the disease may be attributed to brainstem involvement instead of cervical myelitis. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical presentation of NMO, which needs to be promptly recognized and aggressively treated.

  17. Coercive Diplomacy: Countering War-Threatening Crises and Armed Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays states rarely resort to war to defeat each other or to address war-threatening crises and armed conflicts. Instead, coercive diplomacy has emerged as their strategy of choice when persuasion and other non-military instruments fall short. Coercive diplomacy involves the use of military...... threats and/or limited force (sticks) coupled with inducements and assurances (carrots) in order to influence the opponent to do something it would prefer not to. States use coercive diplomacy in the hope of achieving their objectives without having to resort to full-scale war. This chapter presents...... the strategy of coercive diplomacy and its requirements for success and shows how states have employed it to manage crises and conflicts during the three strategic eras that the world has passed through since the end of the Cold War....

  18. Do environmental and climate change issues threaten sustainable development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric environment is presently under threat from anthropogenic emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases to the extent that irreversible changes to the climate, the ozone layer and the quality of the air could occur. While the required changes in practice and regulations may hit economies if the induced costs are to be internalised, the impact of ignoring these requirements might even threaten the concept of sustainable development. The prospects of environmental pollution, depletion of ozone layer and climate change due to human activities have sparked a variety of controversies on many fronts. These topics are discussed with respect to the imposed threats to the sustainable development, and with particular attention paid to delays in urgent emission reductions. (author)

  19. Parental spirituality in life-threatening pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B; Barrera, Maru; Granek, Leeat; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Shaheed, Jenny; Beaune, Laura; Bouffet, Eric; Antle, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed parental spirituality in the context of pediatric cancer with a poor prognosis. Drawing upon previous research implementing a longitudinal grounded theory design examining parental hope, 35 parents were interviewed regarding their experiences with an emergent description of the role of spirituality in parents' daily lives. Spirituality included religious beliefs and practices, notions of a higher force or cosmos, relationship with a divine being, as well as elements emerging from meaning-making and relationships. Parental expectations of spirituality remained relatively constant across data collection time points (3-9 months postdiagnosis), although limited variation occurred relative to shifting circumstance (e.g., deterioration of the child's condition). Spirituality appeared to offer: greater acceptance of parents' inability to protect their child from harm related to her/his life-threatening illness, guidance and emotion decompression, and support from one's faith community. Recommendations for integrating spiritual assessment in clinical care practice are offered.

  20. Indian areas threatened by hydroelectric projects in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelin, P L; Santos, S.C. dos

    1981-10-01

    In Brazil, as elsewhere, high priority is being given to developing domestic energy sources due to the spectacular increase in the cost of imported petroleum in recent years. This paper discusses the present situation of the thirty-two to thirty-four various Indian areas presently known to be threatened by seven major hydro-electric projects and one flood-control project, either planned or underway, in or directly involving Brazil. A total of at least 100,000 hectares of Indian land (or nearly one hectare for each remaining Brazilian Indian) will be flooded or otherwise expropriated by these projects. Past efforts by the Brazilian National Indian Foundation (FUNAI) to protect the Indians from the pressure of ''national development'' have not been sufficient. Research, planning, publicity, and political pressure are necessary to ensure that their efforts regarding these hydroelectric projects are more successful.

  1. Longitudinal expansion of field line dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, O.; Hayashi, K.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the substorm expansions that started at 1155 UT 10 August 1994 in the midnight sector focusing on the longitudinal (eastward) expansion of field line dipolarization in the auroral zone. Eastward expansion of the dipolarization region was observed in all of the H, D, and Z components. The dipolarization that started at 1155 UT (0027 MLT) from 260° of geomagnetic longitude (CMO) expanded to 351°(PBQ) in about 48 min. The expansion velocity was 0.03-0.04°/s, or 1.9 km/s at 62°N of geomagnetic latitude. The dipolarization region expanding to the east was accompanied by a bipolar event at the leading edge of the expansion in latitudes equatorward of the westward electrojet (WEJ). In the midnight sector at the onset meridian, the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MAP) on board geosynchronous satellite L9 measured electrons and ions between 10 eV and 40 keV. We conclude from the satellite observations that this dipolarization was characterized by the evolution of temperature anisotropies, an increase of the electron and ion temperatures, and a rapid change in the symmetry axis of the temperature tensor. The field line dipolarization and its longitudinal expansion were interpreted in terms of the slow MHD mode triggered by the current disruption. We propose a new magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (MI-coupling) mechanism based on the scenario that transmitted westward electric fields from the magnetosphere in association with expanding dipolarization produced electrostatic potential (negative) in the ionosphere through differences in the mobility of collisional ions and collisionless electrons. The field-aligned currents that emerged from the negative potential region are arranged in a concentric pattern around the negative potential region, upward toward the center and downward on the peripheral.

  2. Massive expansion of the calpain gene family in unicellular eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that participate in a range of crucial cellular processes. Dysfunction of these enzymes may cause, for instance, life-threatening diseases in humans, the loss of sex determination in nematodes and embryo lethality in plants. Although the calpain family is well characterized in animal and plant model organisms, there is a great lack of knowledge about these genes in unicellular eukaryote species (i.e. protists. Here, we study the distribution and evolution of calpain genes in a wide range of eukaryote genomes from major branches in the tree of life. Results Our investigations reveal 24 types of protein domains that are combined with the calpain-specific catalytic domain CysPc. In total we identify 41 different calpain domain architectures, 28 of these domain combinations have not been previously described. Based on our phylogenetic inferences, we propose that at least four calpain variants were established in the early evolution of eukaryotes, most likely before the radiation of all the major supergroups of eukaryotes. Many domains associated with eukaryotic calpain genes can be found among eubacteria or archaebacteria but never in combination with the CysPc domain. Conclusions The analyses presented here show that ancient modules present in prokaryotes, and a few de novo eukaryote domains, have been assembled into many novel domain combinations along the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Some of the new calpain genes show a narrow distribution in a few branches in the tree of life, likely representing lineage-specific innovations. Hence, the functionally important classical calpain genes found among humans and vertebrates make up only a tiny fraction of the calpain family. In fact, a massive expansion of the calpain family occurred by domain shuffling among unicellular eukaryotes and contributed to a wealth of functionally different genes.

  3. Massive expansion of the calpain gene family in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Liang, Zhe; Demko, Viktor; Wilson, Robert; Johansen, Wenche; Olsen, Odd-Arne; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2012-09-29

    Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that participate in a range of crucial cellular processes. Dysfunction of these enzymes may cause, for instance, life-threatening diseases in humans, the loss of sex determination in nematodes and embryo lethality in plants. Although the calpain family is well characterized in animal and plant model organisms, there is a great lack of knowledge about these genes in unicellular eukaryote species (i.e. protists). Here, we study the distribution and evolution of calpain genes in a wide range of eukaryote genomes from major branches in the tree of life. Our investigations reveal 24 types of protein domains that are combined with the calpain-specific catalytic domain CysPc. In total we identify 41 different calpain domain architectures, 28 of these domain combinations have not been previously described. Based on our phylogenetic inferences, we propose that at least four calpain variants were established in the early evolution of eukaryotes, most likely before the radiation of all the major supergroups of eukaryotes. Many domains associated with eukaryotic calpain genes can be found among eubacteria or archaebacteria but never in combination with the CysPc domain. The analyses presented here show that ancient modules present in prokaryotes, and a few de novo eukaryote domains, have been assembled into many novel domain combinations along the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Some of the new calpain genes show a narrow distribution in a few branches in the tree of life, likely representing lineage-specific innovations. Hence, the functionally important classical calpain genes found among humans and vertebrates make up only a tiny fraction of the calpain family. In fact, a massive expansion of the calpain family occurred by domain shuffling among unicellular eukaryotes and contributed to a wealth of functionally different genes.

  4. Eigenfunction expansion for fractional Brownian motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, C.

    1981-01-01

    The fractional Brownian motions, a class of nonstationary stochastic processes defined as the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral/derivative of the Brownian motion, are studied. It is shown that these processes can be regarded as the output of a suitable linear system of which the input is the white noise. Their autocorrelation is then derived with a study of their standard-deviation curves. Their power spectra are found by resorting to the nonstationary spectral theory. And finally their eigenfunction expansion (Karhunen-Loeve expansion) is obtained: the eigenfunctions are proved to be suitable Bessel functions and the eigenvalues zeros of the Bessel functions. (author)

  5. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  6. Large J expansion in ABJM theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, H; Mladenov, S; Rashkov, R C

    Recently there has been progress in the computation of the anomalous dimensions of gauge theory operators at strong coupling by making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. On the string theory side they are given by dispersion relations in the semiclassical regime. We revisit the problem of a large-charge expansion of the dispersion relations for simple semiclassical strings in an [Formula: see text] background. We present the calculation of the corresponding anomalous dimensions of the gauge theory operators to an arbitrary order using three different methods. Although the results of the three methods look different, power series expansions show their consistency.

  7. Near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendels, E.

    2005-01-01

    The near threshold expansion of Feynman diagrams is derived from their configuration space representation, by performing all x integrations. The general scalar Feynman diagram is considered, with an arbitrary number of external momenta, an arbitrary number of internal lines and an arbitrary number of loops, in n dimensions and all masses may be different. The expansions are considered both below and above threshold. Rules, giving real and imaginary part, are derived. Unitarity of a sunset diagram with I internal lines is checked in a direct way by showing that its imaginary part is equal to the phase space integral of I particles

  8. Thermal expansion of diamond at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V

    2010-02-26

    Temperature variation of a lattice parameter of a synthetic diamond crystal (type IIa) was measured using high-energy-resolution x-ray Bragg diffraction in backscattering. A 2 order of magnitude improvement in the measurement accuracy allowed us to directly probe the linear thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures below 100 K. The lowest value measured was 2x10{-9} K-1. It was found that the coefficient deviates from the expected Debye law (T3) while no negative thermal expansion was observed. The anomalous behavior might be attributed to tunneling states due to low concentration impurities.

  9. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  10. Testing the isotropy of the Hubble expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Migkas, K.; Plionis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We have used the Union2.1 SNIa compilation to search for possible Hubble expansion anisotropies, dividing the sky in 9 solid angles containing roughly the same number of SNIa, as well as in two Galactic hemispheres. We identified only one sky region, containing 82 SNIa (~15% of total sample with z > 0.02), that indeed appears to share a Hubble expansion significantly different from the rest of the sample. However, this behaviour can be attributed to the joint "erratic" behaviour of ...

  11. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  12. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.

  13. Towards finite density QCD with Taylor expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsch, F.; Schaefer, B.-J.; Wagner, M.; Wambach, J.

    2011-01-01

    Convergence properties of Taylor expansions of observables, which are also used in lattice QCD calculations at non-zero chemical potential, are analyzed in an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model. A recently developed algorithmic technique allows the calculation of higher-order Taylor expansion coefficients in functional approaches. This novel technique is for the first time applied to an effective N f =2+1 flavor Polyakov quark-meson model and the findings are compared with the full model solution at finite densities. The results are used to discuss prospects for locating the QCD phase boundary and a possible critical endpoint in the phase diagram.

  14. Expansion program is a challenging project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that construction is set to begin on the $1.5 billion PGT-PG and E Pipeline Expansion Project. It will consist of 691 miles of 42-in pipeline and 110 miles of 36-in. pipeline, to be built over 2 years. The project, which will transport additional supplies of natural gas to US West Coast markets, has its US regulatory approval in hand. On Oct. 16, 1991, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authorized Pacific Gas Transmission Co. to construct its Pacific Northwest segment of the expansion. Pacific Gas and Electric Co. received approval to build its California segment in late 1990 from the California Public Utilities Commission

  15. Strategic Expansion Models in Academic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Rajni; Yang, Wei T; Tannir, Habib; Parikh, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In response to economic pressures, academic institutions in the United States and their radiology practices, are expanding into the community to build a larger network, thereby driving growth and achieving economies of scale. These economies of scale are being achieved variously via brick-and-mortar construction, community practice acquisition, and partnership-based network expansion. We describe and compare these three expansion models within a 4-part framework of: (1) upfront investment; (2) profitability impact; (3) brand impact; and (4) risk of execution. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. From greedy to lazy expansions and their driving dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajani, K.; Kraaikamp, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we study the ergodic properties of non-greedy series expansions to non-integer bases β > 1. It is shown that the so-called 'lazy' expansion is isomorphic to the 'greedy' expansion. Furthermore, a class of expansions to base β > 1, β =2 Z, 'in between' the lazy and the greedy

  17. Parabolic cyclinder functions : examples of error bounds for asymptotic expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Vidunas; N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSeveral asymptotic expansions of parabolic cylinder functions are discussedand error bounds for remainders in the expansions are presented. Inparticular Poincaré-type expansions for large values of the argument$z$ and uniform expansions for large values of the parameter areconsidered.

  18. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  19. Edgeworth expansion for functionals of continuous diffusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolskij, Mark; Yoshida, Nakahiro

    This paper presents new results on the Edgeworth expansion for high frequency functionals of continuous diffusion processes. We derive asymptotic expansions for weighted functionals of the Brownian motion and apply them to provide the Edgeworth expansion for power variation of diffusion processes....... Our methodology relies on martingale embedding, Malliavin calculus and stable central limit theorems for semimartingales. Finally, we demonstrate the density expansion for studentized statistics of power variations.......This paper presents new results on the Edgeworth expansion for high frequency functionals of continuous diffusion processes. We derive asymptotic expansions for weighted functionals of the Brownian motion and apply them to provide the Edgeworth expansion for power variation of diffusion processes...

  20. Principles of Thermal Expansion in Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Guy; Medford, Aaron; Conlon, Maricate; Tether, Allison; Romanoski, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Following the recent thermal expansion work of Hovis et al. (1) on AlSi3 feldspars, we have investigated the thermal expansion of plagioclase, Ba-K, and Ca-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data were collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six natural plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase, the K-exchanged equivalents of these plagioclase specimens, and five synthetic Ba-K feldspars with compositions ranging from 25 to 99 mol % BaAl2Si2O8. The resulting thermal expansion coefficients (α) for volume have been combined with earlier results for end-member Na- and K-feldspars (2,3). Unlike AlSi3 feldspars, Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study plus Sr- and Pb-feldspar from other workers (4,5), show essentially constant and very limited thermal expansion, regardless of divalent cation size. In the context of structures where the Lowenstein rule (6) requires Al and Si to alternate among tetrahedra, the proximity of bridging Al-O-Si oxygen ions to divalent neighbors (ranging from 0 to 2) produces short Ca-O (or Ba-O) bonds (7,8) that apparently are the result of local charge-balance requirements (9). Gibbs et al. (10) suggest that short bonds such as these have a partially covalent character. This in turn stiffens the structure. Thus, for feldspar series with coupled substitution the change away from a purely divalent M-site occupant gives the substituting (less strongly bonded) monovalent cations increasingly greater influence on thermal expansion. Overall, then, thermal expansion in the feldspar system is well represented on a plot of α against room-temperature volume, where one sees a quadrilateral bounded by data for (A) AlSi3 feldspars whose expansion behavior is controlled largely by the size of the monovalent alkali-site occupant, (B) Al2Si2 feldspars whose expansion is uniformly limited by partially-covalent bonds between divalent M-site occupants and

  1. 78 FR 34347 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan for the North Pacific Right Whale AGENCY: National Marine... Recovery Plan (Plan) for the North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica). ADDRESSES: Electronic copies...

  2. Bosnia: Crime and Corruption Threaten Successful Implementation of the Dayton Peace Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Harold

    2000-01-01

    Endemic crime and corruption in Bosnia are threatening the successful implementation of the Dayton Peace Agreement and until the situation is satisfactorily addressed the conditions for the complete...

  3. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1996-01-01

    -sum type. For the latter case, it enables “The Trick.” In this article, we extend Gomard and Jones' partial evaluator for the &lgr;-calculus, &lgr;-Mix, with products and disjoint sums; we point out how eta-expansion for (finite) disjoint sums enable The Trick; we generalize our earlier work by identifying...

  4. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1995-01-01

    -sum type. For the latter case, it enables “The Trick.” In this article, we extend Gomard and Jones' partial evaluator for the &lgr;-calculus, &lgr;-Mix, with products and disjoint sums; we point out how eta-expansion for (finite) disjoint sums enable The Trick; we generalize our earlier work by identifying...

  5. Thermal Expansion Properties of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E. F.

    1969-01-01

    Thermal expansion properties of materials used in aerospace systems are compiled into a single handbook. The data, derived from experimental measurements supplemented by information from literature sources, are presented in charts and tables arranged in two sections, covering cryogenic and elevated temperatures.

  6. Cropland expansion in Brazil, 2000 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.; Stehman, S. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Pickens, A. H.; Okpa, C.; Aguilar, R.; John, N.; Chavez, S.

    2017-12-01

    Brazil has become a global leader in the production of commodity row crops such as soybean, sugarcane, cotton, and corn. Here, we employ 30m spatial resolution Landsat data to estimate cropland extent in the year 2000 and its subsequent expansion through 2014. A probability-based sample of reference data allows us to report unbiased estimates of national, biome, and state-scale area of crop expansion with associated uncertainties. We find an increase in Brazilian cropland extent from 26.0 Mha in 2000 to 46.1 Mha in 2014. The cropland frontier states of Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, Bahia (MATOPIBA), Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Para all more than doubled in cropland extent. The states of Goias, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo experienced >50% increases. The vast majority of expansion, 79%, occurred on repurposed pasture lands, and 20% from the conversion of natural vegetation. Area of converted Cerrado savannas was nearly 2.5 times that of Amazon forests, and accounted for over half of new cropland in MATOPIBA. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cropland expansion are reflected in market conditions, land use policies, and other factors. Continued extensification of cropland is a viable option across Brazil with attendant benefits for and challenges to development.

  7. Territorial expansion and primary state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles S

    2010-04-20

    A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion model, is presented and assessed with archaeological data from six areas where primary states emerged in antiquity: Mesoamerica, Peru, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. In each case, the evidence shows a close correspondence in time between the first appearance of state institutions and the earliest expansion of the state's political-economic control to regions lying more than a day's round-trip from the capital. Although additional research will add detail and clarity to the empirical record, the results to date are consistent with the territorial-expansion model, which argues that the success of such long-distance expansion not only demanded the bureaucratization of central authority but also helped provide the resources necessary to underwrite this administrative transformation.

  8. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  9. The asymptotic expansion method via symbolic computation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Juan F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  10. The Asymptotic Expansion Method via Symbolic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for implementing a perturbation method based on an asymptotic expansion of the solution to a second-order differential equation. We also introduce a new symbolic computation system which works with the so-called modified quasipolynomials, as well as an implementation of the algorithm on it.

  11. Discrete expansions of continuum wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, J.; Ershov, S.N.; Gareev, F.A.; Kazacha, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    Different methods of expanding continuum wave functions in terms of discrete basis sets are discussed. The convergence properties of these expansions are investigated, both from a mathematical and a numerical point of view, for the case of potentials of Woods-Saxon and square well type. (orig.)

  12. Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.

    1982-01-01

    Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)

  13. On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2 cannot...... be learned from positive (negative) examples alone. However, if the restriction that the hypothesis which is output by the learning algorithm is also a k-RSE is suspended, then k-RSE is learnable from positive (negative) examples only. Moreover, it is proved that 2-term-RSE is learnable by a conjunction...

  14. Regulatory Holidays and Optimal Network Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Bert; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2016-01-01

    We model the optimal regulation of continuous, irreversible, capacity expansion, in a model in which the regulated network firm has private information about its capacity costs, investments need to be financed out of the firm’s cash flows from selling network access and demand is stochastic. If

  15. On the Convergence of the Virial Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramawadh, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    The virial expansion appears in statistical mechanics, an area where physics and mathematics intersect. Throughout this thesis we will mostly ignore the physics and mainly focus on the mathematical aspects. This is a deliberate choice, made for two reasons. Firstly, there are several books that

  16. The optimizied expansion method for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    , for inhomogeneous media, we face difficulties in dealing with the mixed space-wavenumber domain operator.In this abstract, we propose an optimized expansion method that can approximate this operator with its low rank representation. The rank defines the number

  17. Asymptotic expansions for the Gaussian unitary ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Let g : R ¿ C be a C8-function with all derivatives bounded and let trn denote the normalized trace on the n × n matrices. In Ref. 3 Ercolani and McLaughlin established asymptotic expansions of the mean value ¿{trn(g(Xn))} for a rather general class of random matrices Xn, including the Gaussian U...

  18. Analytic continuation and perturbative expansions in QCD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caprini, I.; Fischer, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2002), s. 127-135 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : perturbative expansion * quantum chromodynamics * infrared ambiguity * essential singularities Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.162, year: 2002

  19. A Pedagogical Approach to the Magnus Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes, S.; Casas, F.; Oteo, J. A.; Ros, J.

    2010-01-01

    Time-dependent perturbation theory as a tool to compute approximate solutions of the Schrodinger equation does not preserve unitarity. Here we present, in a simple way, how the "Magnus expansion" (also known as "exponential perturbation theory") provides such unitary approximate solutions. The purpose is to illustrate the importance and…

  20. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  1. Instability of a planar expansion wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Metzler, N; Wouchuk, J G

    2005-10-01

    An expansion wave is produced when an incident shock wave interacts with a surface separating a fluid from a vacuum. Such an interaction starts the feedout process that transfers perturbations from the rippled inner (rear) to the outer (front) surface of a target in inertial confinement fusion. Being essentially a standing sonic wave superimposed on a centered expansion wave, a rippled expansion wave in an ideal gas, like a rippled shock wave, typically produces decaying oscillations of all fluid variables. Its behavior, however, is different at large and small values of the adiabatic exponent gamma. At gamma > 3, the mass modulation amplitude delta(m) in a rippled expansion wave exhibits a power-law growth with time alpha(t)beta, where beta = (gamma - 3)/(gamma - 1). This is the only example of a hydrodynamic instability whose law of growth, dependent on the equation of state, is expressed in a closed analytical form. The growth is shown to be driven by a physical mechanism similar to that of a classical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the opposite extreme gamma - 1 gas with low . Exact analytical expressions for the growth rates are derived for both cases and favorably compared to hydrodynamic simulation results.

  2. Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…

  3. Instability of a planar expansion wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Zalesak, S.T.; Metzler, N.; Wouchuk, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    An expansion wave is produced when an incident shock wave interacts with a surface separating a fluid from a vacuum. Such an interaction starts the feedout process that transfers perturbations from the rippled inner (rear) to the outer (front) surface of a target in inertial confinement fusion. Being essentially a standing sonic wave superimposed on a centered expansion wave, a rippled expansion wave in an ideal gas, like a rippled shock wave, typically produces decaying oscillations of all fluid variables. Its behavior, however, is different at large and small values of the adiabatic exponent γ. At γ>3, the mass modulation amplitude δm in a rippled expansion wave exhibits a power-law growth with time ∝t β , where β=(γ-3)/(γ-1). This is the only example of a hydrodynamic instability whose law of growth, dependent on the equation of state, is expressed in a closed analytical form. The growth is shown to be driven by a physical mechanism similar to that of a classical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the opposite extreme γ-1 -1/2 , and then starts to decrease. The mechanism driving the growth is the same as that of Vishniac's instability of a blast wave in a gas with low γ. Exact analytical expressions for the growth rates are derived for both cases and favorably compared to hydrodynamic simulation results

  4. Hole expansion test of third generation steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Julen; Mendiguren, Joseba; Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Sáenz

    2017-10-01

    The trend towards the implementation of new materials in the chassis of the automobiles is considerably making more complex the manufacturing of the components that built it up. In this scenario materials with higher strengths and lower formabilities are daily faced by tool makers and component producers what reduces the process windows and makes the forming processes to be in the limits of the materials. One of the concerns that tool makers must face during the definition of the tools is the expansion ratios that the holes in the sheet may reach before producing a breakage due to the stretching of the material (also known as edge cracks). For the characterization of such limits, a standard test, the hole expansion test, can be applied so that the limits of the material are known. At the present study, hole expansion tests of a third generation steel, Fortiform1050 with a thickness of 1.2 millimeters have been carried out and compared them to a mild steel, DX54D with a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. A comparison for each material in terms of technology used to punch the hole, mechanical punching vs laser cutting has also been conducted. In addition, the measurement technique (online measurement vs offline measurement) followed in the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) identification has also been analyzed. Finally, differences between both materials and techniques are presented.

  5. Asymptotic behaviour of firmly non expansive sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, B.D.

    1993-04-01

    We introduce the notion of firmly non expansive sequences in a Banach space and present several results concerning their asymptotic behaviour extending previous results and giving an affirmative answer to an open question raised by S. Reich and I. Shafir. Applications to averaged mappings are also given. (author). 16 refs

  6. The stagnation of electric system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.M. dos

    1989-01-01

    The main works in the Brazilian electric sector in 1988 is presented, mentioning the fault of financier resources. The electric power tariffs by a real economical cost are also cited, allowing some advantages that can resolve the investment problem in the electric power expansion. (author)

  7. Peruvian Higher Education: Expansions Amid Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Peruvian university system is described, focusing on periods of rapid expansion. Enrollment declines in 1974-78 are analyzed in the context of the educational reform program of the military government. The 1983 new university law, following return to civilian government, and future prospects for higher education are discussed.…

  8. Form factor expansion for thermal correlators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozsgay, B.; Takács, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider finite temperature correlation functions in massive integrable quantum field theory. Using a regularization by putting the system in finite volume, we develop a novel approach (based on multi-dimensional residues) to the form factor expansion for thermal correlators. The first few terms

  9. Expansion patterns and parallaxes for planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberner, D.; Balick, B.; Jacob, R.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We aim to determine individual distances to a small number of rather round, quite regularly shaped planetary nebulae by combining their angular expansion in the plane of the sky with a spectroscopically measured expansion along the line of sight. Methods: We combined up to three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data and determined the angular proper motions of rim and shell edges and of other features. These results are combined with measured expansion speeds to determine individual distances by assuming that line of sight and sky-plane expansions are equal. We employed 1D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of nebular evolution to correct for the difference between the spectroscopically measured expansion velocities of rim and shell and of their respective shock fronts. Results: Rim and shell are two independently expanding entities, driven by different physical mechanisms, although their model-based expansion timescales are quite similar. We derive good individual distances for 15 objects, and the main results are as follows: (i) distances derived from rim and shell agree well; (ii) comparison with the statistical distances in the literature gives reasonable agreement; (iii) our distances disagree with those derived by spectroscopic methods; (iv) central-star "plateau" luminosities range from about 2000 L⊙ to well below 10 000 L⊙, with a mean value at about 5000 L⊙, in excellent agreement with other samples of known distance (Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds, and K648 in the globular cluster M 15); (v) the central-star mass range is rather restricted: from about 0.53 to about 0.56 M⊙, with a mean value of 0.55 M⊙. Conclusions: The expansion measurements of nebular rim and shell edges confirm the predictions of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations and offer a reliable method for the evaluation of distances to suited objects. Results of this paper are based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in Cycle 16 (GO11122

  10. Cycle expansions: From maps to turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Y.

    2010-03-01

    We present a derivation, a physical explanation and applications of cycle expansions in different dynamical systems, ranging from simple one-dimensional maps to turbulence in fluids. Cycle expansion is a newly devised powerful tool for computing averages of physical observables in nonlinear chaotic systems which combines many innovative ideas developed in dynamical systems, such as hyperbolicity, invariant manifolds, symbolic dynamics, measure theory and thermodynamic formalism. The concept of cycle expansion has a deep root in theoretical physics, bearing a close analogy to cumulant expansion in statistical physics and effective action functional in quantum field theory, the essence of which is to represent a physical system in a hierarchical way by utilizing certain multiplicative structures such that the dominant parts of physical observables are captured by compact, maneuverable objects while minor detailed variations are described by objects with a larger space and time scale. The technique has been successfully applied to many low-dimensional dynamical systems and much effort has recently been made to extend its use to spatially extended systems. For one-dimensional systems such as the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the method turns out to be very effective while for more complex real-world systems including the Navier-Stokes equation, the method is only starting to yield its first fruits and much more work is needed to enable practical computations. However, the experience and knowledge accumulated so far is already very useful to a large set of research problems. Several such applications are briefly described in what follows. As more research effort is devoted to the study of complex dynamics of nonlinear systems, cycle expansion will undergo a fast development and find wide applications.

  11. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  12. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  13. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA

  14. More, more, more: the dark side of self-expansion motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Christopher T; Rempel, John K; Munteanu, Armand R; Therrien, Patrick A

    2013-05-01

    Self-expansion without regard for others' well-being may represent the dark side of an otherwise healthy motive. Guided by Amoebic Self-Theory (AST), we developed the Engulfing Self Scale (ESS) to measure acquisitive tendencies across AST's three domains of the self. Four studies revealed that bodily engulfment appeared generally benign, and that the problematic aspects of social engulfment were generally restricted to interpersonal contexts. Spatial-symbolic engulfment motivation was linked to a breadth of problematic indices such as psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychological entitlement, social dominance orientation, economic system justification, greed, and valuation of power. It also predicted reluctance to expose a cheating group leader when doing so would threaten one's own positive outcomes, greater justification of a looter's behavior when prompted take his or her perspective, and greater justification of self-serving reward allocations after defeating an ostensible competitor. Spatial-symbolic engulfment may be a motivational fountainhead for behaviors that negate others' well-being.

  15. District Heating Expansion Potential with Low-Temperature and End-Use Heat Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Grundahl, Lars

    2018-01-01

    District heating has the potential to play a key role in the transition towards a renewable energy system. However, the development towards reduced heat demands threatens the feasibility of district heating. Despite this challenge, opportunity exists in the form of fourth generation district...... heating, which operates at lower temperatures and enables better renewable integration. This article investigates this challenge by examining the district heating potential within three scenarios: The first is a reference scenario with current heat demand and temperatures, the second includes heat demand...... costs. The models are applied using an example case of The Northern Region of Denmark. The article concludes that the district heating potential is highest in the reference scenario. When heat savings are introduced, district heating expansions, in most cases, will not be feasible. Introducing low...

  16. Sea level driven marsh expansion in a coupled model of marsh erosion and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Walters, David C.; Reay, William G.; Carr, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most valuable ecosystems on Earth, where ecosystem services such as flood protection depend nonlinearly on wetland size and are threatened by sea level rise and coastal development. Here we propose a simple model of marsh migration into adjacent uplands and couple it with existing models of seaward edge erosion and vertical soil accretion to explore how ecosystem connectivity influences marsh size and response to sea level rise. We find that marsh loss is nearly inevitable where topographic and anthropogenic barriers limit migration. Where unconstrained by barriers, however, rates of marsh migration are much more sensitive to accelerated sea level rise than rates of edge erosion. This behavior suggests a counterintuitive, natural tendency for marsh expansion with sea level rise and emphasizes the disparity between coastal response to climate change with and without human intervention.

  17. Ectopic pregnancy: a life-threatening gynecological emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani OL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Osaheni L Lawani, Okechukwu B Anozie, Paul O Ezeonu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening gynecological emergency, and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Objective: The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, and management outcomes of ectopic pregnancies at Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH in Abakaliki. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study of ectopic pregnancies managed in EBSUTH during the study period (June 1, 2002 to May 31, 2012. The medical records of the patients managed for ectopic pregnancy as well as the total birth record and gynecological admission records during the period under review were retrieved, and data were collected with the aid of data-entry forms designed for this purpose. There were 4,610 gynecological admissions and 9,828 deliveries, with 215 cases of ectopic pregnancies. A total of 205 cases were suitable for analysis after excluding cases with incomplete records. The relevant data collected were analyzed with SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results: Ectopic pregnancy constituted 4.5% of all gynecological admissions, and its incidence was 2.1%. The mean age of the patients was 27 ± 2 years, 196 of 205 (95.6% had ruptured ectopic pregnancies, and the remaining nine (4.4% were unruptured. The commonest (166 of 205, 80.0% clinical presentation was abdominal pain, and the commonest (105 of 205, 51.2% identified risk factor was a previous history of induced abortion. Three deaths were recorded, giving a case-fatality rate of 1.4% (three of 205. Conclusion: Ectopic pregnancy is a recognized cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and has remained a reproductive health challenge to Nigerian women, as well as a threat to efforts in achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goal 5 in sub-Saharan Africa

  18. Pseudohypoaldosteronism in a Neonate Presenting as Life-Threatening Hyperkalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najya A. Attia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1 is a life-threatening disease that causes severe hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest if not treated appropriately or if diagnosis is missed. Objective. To report a case of a newborn with vomiting and lethargy, ultimately diagnosed with pseudohypoaldosteronism. Patient. This case presented to the ED at an age of 14 days in hypovolemic shock. There was a family history of sudden infant death, her sister who was diagnosed with CAH and passed away at 3 months of age despite regular hormone replacement. Our patient had cardiac arrest in ED, due to hyperkalemia; while receiving fluid boluses, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated. After stabilization, diagnostic workup demonstrated persistently low sodium, acidosis, and high potassium, which required peritoneal dialysis. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with CAH. It turned out later that the patient had PHA1. Two years later, the patient had a new sibling with the same disease diagnosed at birth and started immediately on treatment without any complication. Conclusions and Outcome. This case highlights the significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in treating children with PHA1. Adrenal crisis is not always CAH; delayed diagnosis can lead to complication and even death. The presence of high plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and cortisol, along with the presence of hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, established the diagnosis of PHA type 1 and ruled out CAH.

  19. Life-Threatening Hypokalemic Paralysis in a Young Bodybuilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty K. T. Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR 3.5–5.0 mmol/L. He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition. He made a full recovery after a few days and discharged himself from the hospital against medical advice. The severe hypokalemia was thought to be caused by several mechanisms to be discussed in this report. With the ever rising number of new fitness centers recently, the ease of online purchasing of almost any drug, and the increasing numbers of youngsters getting into the bodybuilding arena, clinicians should be able to recognize the possible causes of sudden severe hypokalemia in these patients in order to revert the pathophysiology.

  20. Economic consequences of over-diagnosis of threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Marta; Kang, Fatima; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Díaz, Paloma; Méndez, Yurena; Álvarez de la Rosa, Margarita

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether adherence to a cervical length-based protocol can reduce both unnecessary admissions and the socioeconomic costs associated with inappropriately admitted patients. The present retrospective observational study included women admitted for threatened preterm labor (TPL) at 24-34 weeks of pregnancy to a tertiary hospital in the Canary Islands, 2009-2014. Data were reviewed from all patients admitted for TPL. Those with a long cervix (>25 mm) were classified as "inappropriate admissions", and both the economic burden based on diagnosis-related group (DRG) and the social costs associated with sick leave for these women were calculated. During the 6-year study period, 430 women were admitted for TPL. The rate of inappropriate hospital admissions was 45% in the first year, but was reduced to 23% in the final year (P2099. The total annual costs from inappropriate admission (both social security sick leave costs and hospital costs) were estimated to be up to €571 047.37 during the 6-year study period, and reduced from €60 420.76 in 2009 to €29 998.04 in 2014. Reductions in inappropriate admissions from applying cervical length-based management protocol could reduce healthcare costs without increasing the incidence of premature delivery. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Life-threatening hypokalemic paralysis in a young bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kitty K T; So, Wing-Yee; Kong, Alice P S; Ma, Ronald C W; Chow, Francis C C

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR) 3.5-5.0 mmol/L). He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition. He made a full recovery after a few days and discharged himself from the hospital against medical advice. The severe hypokalemia was thought to be caused by several mechanisms to be discussed in this report. With the ever rising number of new fitness centers recently, the ease of online purchasing of almost any drug, and the increasing numbers of youngsters getting into the bodybuilding arena, clinicians should be able to recognize the possible causes of sudden severe hypokalemia in these patients in order to revert the pathophysiology.

  2. Life-Threatening Hypokalemic Paralysis in a Young Bodybuilder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kitty K. T.; So, Wing-Yee; Kong, Alice P. S.; Ma, Ronald C. W.; Chow, Francis C. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening hypokalemia in a 28-year-old bodybuilder who presented with sudden onset bilateral lower limbs paralysis few days after his bodybuilding competition. His electrocardiogram (ECG) showed typical u-waves due to severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 1.6 mmol/L, reference range (RR) 3.5–5.0 mmol/L). He was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and was treated with potassium replacement. The patient later admitted that he had exposed himself to weight loss agents of unknown nature, purchased online, and large carbohydrate loads in preparation for the competition. He made a full recovery after a few days and discharged himself from the hospital against medical advice. The severe hypokalemia was thought to be caused by several mechanisms to be discussed in this report. With the ever rising number of new fitness centers recently, the ease of online purchasing of almost any drug, and the increasing numbers of youngsters getting into the bodybuilding arena, clinicians should be able to recognize the possible causes of sudden severe hypokalemia in these patients in order to revert the pathophysiology. PMID:24660073

  3. Strengthening threatened communities through adaptation: insights from coastal Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Blythe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Change is a defining characteristic of coastal social-ecological systems, yet the magnitude and speed of contemporary change is challenging the adaptive capacity of even the most robust coastal communities. In the context of multiple drivers of change, it has become increasingly important to identify how threatened communities adapt to livelihood stressors. We investigate how adaptation is negotiated in two coastal fishing communities by documenting livelihood stressors, household assets, adaptive strategies, and factors that facilitate or inhibit adaptation. Declining catch is the most common stressor being experienced in both communities, however, socioeconomic, e.g., disease or theft, and ecological, e.g., severe storms and drought, changes are also creating livelihood stress. We find that specialized fishers' with higher investment in fishing gear and government support are adapting by intensifying their fishing efforts, whereas poorer fishers with more livelihood options are adapting through diversification. Adaptation is facilitated by fishers' groups, occupational pride, and family networks. It is inhibited by limited assets, competition over declining resources, and pervasive poverty. Our data suggest that adaptation is a heterogeneous process that is influenced by multiple factors. Understanding the complexity of fishers' responses to livelihood stressors is critical for fostering adaptive capacity in coastal communities, for strengthening fisheries management, and for improving the livelihoods of fishing dependent communities.

  4. Interventions for reducing extinction risk in chytridiomycosis-threatened amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Ben C; Hunter, David A; Grogan, Laura F; Berger, Lee; Kolby, Jon E; McFadden, Michael S; Marantelli, Gerry; Skerratt, Lee F; Driscoll, Don A

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife diseases pose an increasing threat to biodiversity and are a major management challenge. A striking example of this threat is the emergence of chytridiomycosis. Despite diagnosis of chytridiomycosis as an important driver of global amphibian declines 15 years ago, researchers have yet to devise effective large-scale management responses other than biosecurity measures to mitigate disease spread and the establishment of disease-free captive assurance colonies prior to or during disease outbreaks. We examined the development of management actions that can be implemented after an epidemic in surviving populations. We developed a conceptual framework with clear interventions to guide experimental management and applied research so that further extinctions of amphibian species threatened by chytridiomycosis might be prevented. Within our framework, there are 2 management approaches: reducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the fungus that causes chytridiomycosis) in the environment or on amphibians and increasing the capacity of populations to persist despite increased mortality from disease. The latter approach emphasizes that mitigation does not necessarily need to focus on reducing disease-associated mortality. We propose promising management actions that can be implemented and tested based on current knowledge and that include habitat manipulation, antifungal treatments, animal translocation, bioaugmentation, head starting, and selection for resistance. Case studies where these strategies are being implemented will demonstrate their potential to save critically endangered species. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Trait vs. state anxiety in different threatening situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyana Caldeira Leal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Anxiety as a uni- or multidimensional construct has been under discussion. The unidimensional approach assumes that there is a general trait anxiety, which predisposes the individuals to increases in state anxiety in various threatening situations. In this case, there should be a correlation between state and trait anxiety in any situation of threat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between trait and state anxiety in participants exposed to two different anxiogenic situations: interpersonal threat (Video-Monitored Stroop Test – VMST and physical threat (third molar extraction – TME. Methods Participants with various levels of trait anxiety (general trait: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; specific trait: Social Phobia Inventory, Dental Anxiety Scale had their anxious state evaluated (STAI, self-evaluation of tension level, heart rate, electromyogram activity before, during and after the VMST or the TME. Results In VMST, trait anxiety correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters in all test phases. However, in TME, the only trait measurement that correlated to state anxiety (psychological parameters was the Dental Anxiety Scale. Conclusion Trait anxiety correlates positively to state anxiety in situations of interpersonal threat, but not of physical threat.

  6. Perturbation Expansion in Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory and Its Relation with Boson Expansion Theory : Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Teruo, KISHIMOTO; Tetsuo, KAMMURI; Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba; Department of Physics, Osaka University

    1990-01-01

    With the Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory (DNFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff representation we examine higher order corrections in the vibrational mode of a spherical nuclear system. Due to the effects of bubble diagrams, the perturbation expansion in terms of the unrenormalized coupling strength and boson energy fails at full self-consistency. On the other hand, it becomes applicable in the form of linked-cluster expansion when we use thses constants renormalized by the effect of bubble diagrams, in t...

  7. Defining chemical expansion: the choice of units for the stoichiometric expansion coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrocchelli, Dario; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Bishop, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical expansion refers to the spatial dilation of a material that occurs upon changes in its composition. When this dilation is caused by a gradual, iso-structural increase in the lattice parameter with composition, it is related to the composition change by the stoichiometric expansion coeffi...... are provided for changes in oxygen content in fluorite, perovskite, and Ruddlesden-Popper (K2NiF4) phase materials used in solid oxide fuel cells....

  8. Southwesterners’ views of threatened and endangered species management: does ethnic/racial diversity make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George T. Cvetkovich

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of trust in the Forest Service to manage threatened and endangered species as measured through a survey of residents of four Southwestern States. Of particular interest were variations by ethnic/racial group, gender, concern about threatened and endangered species, and self-assessed knowledge. Increasing diversity in the United States...

  9. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, for the purpose of enhancing the species' survival. Permit... certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  10. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  11. 50 CFR 17.8 - Import exemption for threatened, CITES Appendix-II wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Import exemption for threatened, CITES Appendix-II wildlife. 17.8 Section 17.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  12. 75 FR 8053 - A Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... EPA's policy to include all comments it receives in the public docket without change and to make the... Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change AGENCY... Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change...

  13. 76 FR 43986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  14. 77 FR 41168 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... available for review pursuant to section 10(c) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). DATES: Comments and... the ESA. NMFS regulations governing permits for threatened and endangered species are promulgated at...

  15. 75 FR 14133 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  16. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permits Permit 15926... will be captured by fyke net, identified to species, enumerated and measured. Dead or moribund fish...

  17. 75 FR 14132 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The proposed modification is to extend the existing permit... regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is...

  18. 76 FR 15932 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or Threatened AGENCIES: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Distinct Population Segments (DPS) of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, as endangered or threatened... populations of loggerhead sea turtle'' as an endangered species under the ESA. NMFS published a notice in the...

  19. 75 FR 30769 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 223 and 224 RIN 0648-AY49 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Listing of Nine Distinct Population Segments of Loggerhead Sea Turtles as Endangered or... loggerhead sea turtles as endangered or threatened, which was published on March 16, 2010, until September 13...

  20. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a) Background. (1) A variety of plant and animal species of the United States are so reduced in numbers that...

  1. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  2. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  3. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  4. Thermal expansion coefficient determination by CBED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Bentley, J.

    1984-01-01

    The present application of CBED involves measurements of thermal-expansion coefficients by measurement of changes in HOLZ line positions as a function of temperature. Previous work on this subject was performed on Si at a constant accelerating voltage of 100 kV between about 90 and 600 K. Diffraction patterns were recorded and line shifts correlated to lattice parameter changes. Differences were noted between values determined by CBED and accepted thermal expansion values. Significant HOLZ line interactions and splitting occurring in the (111) patterns were noted to contribute to the differences. Preliminary measurements have been made on Al, Al 2 O 3 , and single-crystal tau (Ni/sub 20.3/Ti/sub 2.7/B 6 ). An example of changes in HOLZ lines present in (114) patterns for Al are shown and the effect of temperature on the position of lines in the pattern illustrated

  5. The delta expansion in zero dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.T.; Milton, K.A.; Pinsky, S.S.; Simmons, L.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The recently introduced δ-expansion (or logarithmic-expansion) technique for obtaining nonperturbative information about quantum field theories is reviewed in the zero-dimensional context. There, it is easy to study questions of analytic continuation that arise in the construction of the Feynman rules that generate the δ series. It is found that for six- and higher-point Green's functions, a cancellation occurs among the most divergent terms, and that divergences that arise from summing over an infinite number of internal lines are illusory. The numerical accuracy is studied in some detail: The δ series converges inside a circle of radius one for positive bare mass squared, and diverges if the bare mass squared is negative, but in all cases, low-order Pade approximants are extremely accurate. These general features are expected to hold in higher dimensions, such as four

  6. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  7. Collisionless plasma expansion into a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denavit, J.

    1979-01-01

    Particle simulations of the expansion of a collisionless plasma into vacuum are presented. The cases of a single-electron-temperature plasma and of a two-electron-temperature plasma are considered. The results confirm the existence of an ion front and verify the general features of self-similar solutions behind this front. A cold electron front is clearly observed in the two-electron-temperatures case. The computations also show that for a finite electron-to-ion mass ratio, m/sub e//m/sub i/, the electron thermal velocity in the expansion region is not constant, but decreases approximately linearly with xi 0 -(γ-1) xi/2, and comparison with computer simulation results show that the constant γ-1 is proportional to (Zm/sub e//m/sub i/)atsup 1/2at, where Z is the ion charge number

  8. Off-diagonal expansion quantum Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Wagenbreth, Gene; Hen, Itay

    2017-12-01

    We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm designed to simulate quantum as well as classical systems at equilibrium, bridging the algorithmic gap between quantum and classical thermal simulation algorithms. The method is based on a decomposition of the quantum partition function that can be viewed as a series expansion about its classical part. We argue that the algorithm not only provides a theoretical advancement in the field of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but is optimally suited to tackle quantum many-body systems that exhibit a range of behaviors from "fully quantum" to "fully classical," in contrast to many existing methods. We demonstrate the advantages, sometimes by orders of magnitude, of the technique by comparing it against existing state-of-the-art schemes such as path integral quantum Monte Carlo and stochastic series expansion. We also illustrate how our method allows for the unification of quantum and classical thermal parallel tempering techniques into a single algorithm and discuss its practical significance.

  9. Bond return predictability in expansions and recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander

    We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...... but not in expansions. Thus, our results indicate that there is not a common predictive pattern of stock and bond returns associated with the state of the economy....

  10. Expansion planning for electrical generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The guidebook outlines the general principles of electric power system planning in the context of energy and economic planning in general. It describes the complexities of electric system expansion planning that are due to the time dependence of the problem and the interrelation between the main components of the electric system (generation, transmission and distribution). Load forecasting methods are discussed and the principal models currently used for electric system expansion planning presented. Technical and economic information on power plants is given. Constraints imposed on power system planning by plant characteristics (particularly nuclear power plants) are discussed, as well as factors such as transmission system development, environmental considerations, availability of manpower and financial resources that may affect the proposed plan. A bibliography supplements the references that appear in each chapter, and a comprehensive glossary defines terms used in the guidebook

  11. Intrinsic thermal expansion of crystal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganne, J.-P.

    1981-02-01

    Although the phenomenon of thermal expansion has long been known, the intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient (ITEC) βsub(d) of a point defect, derived from its formation volume vsub(d), has never been measured directly. The differential dilatometer by interferometry built by ASTY and GILDER is described. It has allowed βsub(d) to be measured for several defects. Vacancies and small interstitial loops were produced in aluminium by low temperature (20 K) fast neutron irradiation followed by an anneal up to the beginning of stage III (160 K). The very high value of the measured ratio βsub(d)/β 0 (12+-4) is comparable with a lattice statics calculated (42) value (11.5 0 [fr

  12. Polyhomogeneous expansions from time symmetric initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperín, E.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We make use of Friedrich’s construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity to relate the logarithmic terms appearing in asymptotic expansions of components of the Weyl tensor to the freely specifiable parts of time symmetric initial data sets for the Einstein field equations. Our analysis is based on the assumption that a particular type of formal expansions near the cylinder at spatial infinity corresponds to the leading terms of actual solutions to the Einstein field equations. In particular, we show that if the Bach tensor of the initial conformal metric does not vanish at the point at infinity then the most singular component of the Weyl tensor decays near null infinity as O(\\tilde{r}-3\\ln \\tilde{r}) so that spacetime will not peel. We also provide necessary conditions on the initial data which should lead to a peeling spacetime. Finally, we show how to construct global spacetimes which are candidates for non-peeling (polyhomogeneous) asymptotics.

  13. 6th International Symposium on Thermal Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    1978-01-01

    This 6th International Symposium on Thermal Expansion, the first outside the USA, was held on August 29-31, 1977 at the Gull Harbour Resort on Hecla Island, Manitoba, Canada. Symposium Chairman was Ian D. Peggs, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and our continuing sponsor was CINDAS/Purdue University. We made considerable efforts to broaden the base this year to include more users of expansion data but with little success. We were successful, however, in establishing a session on liquids, an area which is receiving more attention as a logical extension to the high-speed thermophysical property measurements on materials at temperatures close to their melting points. The Symposium had good international representation but the overall attendance was, disappointingly, relatively low. Neverthe­ less, this enhanced the informal atmosphere throughout the meeting with a resultant frank exchange of information and ideas which all attendees appreciated. A totally new item this year was the presentation of a bursary to ...

  14. Eta-expansion does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta-expansion, and a p......Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta...... across dynamic case expressions. This requirement precisely accounts for the nonstandard use of continuation-passing style encountered in partial evaluation. Eta-expansion thus acts as a uniform binding-time coercion between values and contexts, be they of function type, product type, or disjoint...

  15. Temporal quadratic expansion nodal Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cong; Jing Xingqing; Xu Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is presented to efficiently solve the three-dimensional space-time reactor dynamics equation which overcomes the disadvantages of current methods. In the Temporal Quadratic Expansion Nodal Green's Function Method (TQE/NGFM), the Quadratic Expansion Method (QEM) is used for the temporal solution with the Nodal Green's Function Method (NGFM) employed for the spatial solution. Test calculational results using TQE/NGFM show that its time step size can be 5-20 times larger than that of the Fully Implicit Method (FIM) for similar precision. Additionally, the spatial mesh size with NGFM can be nearly 20 times larger than that using the finite difference method. So, TQE/NGFM is proved to be an efficient reactor dynamics analysis method

  16. Change in the pace of universe expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Yeche, C.

    2016-01-01

    During the first 8 billion years the universe expansion was slowed down by gravity, at that time the universe was made up mostly of ordinary matter. The accelerating expansion phase we know dates back to 6 billion years ago and now the content of the universe can be divided into: dark energy (73%), dark matter (23%), gas (3.6%) and stars, planets... (0.4%). Quasars which are among the most luminous objects of the universe and whose light can be detected even after having travelled through the universe for 12 billion years, can be used as markers of the matter all along the history of the universe. 3 international projects (SDSS, DESI and LSST) will study, in a complementary way, the period when dark energy overtook ordinary matter. (A.C.)

  17. Separable expansions for virtual states and resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.; Fonseca, A.C.; Tomio, L.

    1983-01-01

    Finite rank expansions for two- and three-body t matrices are analytically continued to the unphysical sheet of the complex energy plane associated with the lowest two-body scattering threshold in order to obtain the position and residue of the virtual state and resonance poles. The present method is applied to study the 1 S 0 virtual state of two nucleons, the Efimov virtual states of three identical bosons, and the doublet virtual state of three nucleons

  18. Asymptotic expansion of the Keesom integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, Paul C

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic evaluation and expansion of the Keesom integral, K(a), is discussed at some length in Battezzati and Magnasco (2004 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 9677; 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 6715). Here, using standard identities, it is shown that this triple integral can be reduced to a single integral from which the asymptotic behaviour is readily obtained using Laplace's method. (comment)

  19. The reference electricity expansion plan of Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    This presentation prepared by the Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines overviews the following issues: description of electric power infrastructure, price markets, expansion plans, power and energy demand projections through 2010, including bussiness opportunities for private investment on geothermal and hidro electric power production and distribution market. This presentation is intended for private investors who could be interested in bussiness opportunities of energy generation market in Guatemala

  20. Reduction Expansion Synthesis for Magnetic Alloy Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    in Figure 1, the Army was able to address its need for printable plastic components, thus enabling a reduction in the total quantity of spare...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REDUCTION EXPANSION SYNTHESIS FOR...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202–4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project

  1. Moments expansion densities for quantifying financial risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ñíguez, T.M.; Perote, J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel semi-nonparametric distribution that is feasibly parameterized to represent the non-Gaussianities of the asset return distributions. Our Moments Expansion (ME) density presents gains in simplicity attributable to its innovative polynomials, which are defined by the difference between the nth power of the random variable and the nth moment of the density used as the basis. We show that the Gram-Charlier distribution is a particular case of the ME-type of densities. The latte...

  2. SIMMER analysis of SRI postdisassembly expansion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Bell, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations of simulated postdisassembly expansions with SIMMER-II are compared to experimental data. The main features of the fluid motion are reproduced accurately. Good agreement is achieved for the important parameters of kinetic energy and impulse imparted to the vessel head. The most important calculated results are shown to be relatively insensitive to numerical modeling variations and uncertainties in many physical parameters. The geometric configuration of the upper internal structures is shown to affect significantly the vessel head impact energy and impulse

  3. Theory of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    2005-01-01

    The expression for thermal expansivity and bulk modulus, claimed by Shanker et al. to be new [Physica B 233 (1977) 78; 245 (1998) 190; J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59 (1998) 197] are compared with the theory of high pressure-high temperature reported by Kumar and coworkers. It is concluded that the Shanker formulation and the relations based on this are equal to the approach of Kumar et al. up to second order

  4. Electrochemical detection of DNA triplet repeat expansion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Havran, Luděk; Vojtíšková, Marie; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 21 (2004), s. 6532-6533 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004402; GA AV ČR IBS5004355; GA AV ČR KJB4004302; GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA triplet repeat expansion * PCR amplification * neurodegenerative diseases Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.903, year: 2004

  5. Automation of a thermal expansion instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, L.L.

    1979-03-01

    Automation of a thermal expansion instrument using a minicomputer system and with analog-to-digital converter inputs and flip-flop relay outputs is described. The necessary hardware link and the software were developed to allow equipment control, data acquisition, data reduction, and report generation by the minicomputer. The design of the automation allows non-programmers to run the experiment, reduce the data, and generate the report.

  6. Hubble expansion in a Euclidean framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1979-01-01

    There now seems to be strong evidence for a non-cosmological interpretation of the QSO redshift - in any case, so strong that it is of interest to investigate the consequences. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model of the Hubble expansion which is as far as possible from the conventional Big Bang model without coming in conflict with any well-established observational results (while introducing no new laws of physics). This leads to an essentially Euclidean metagalactic model (see Table I) with very little mass outside one-third or half of the Hubble radius. The total kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion need only to be about 5% of the rest mass energy. Present observations support backwards in time extrapolation of the Hubble expansion to a 'minimum size galaxy' Rsub(m), which may have any value in 0 26 cm. Other arguments speak in favor of a size close to the upper value, say Rsub(m) = 10 26 cm (Table II). As this size is probably about 100 times the Schwarzschild limit, an essentially Euclidean description is allowed. The kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion may derive from an intense QSO-like activity in the minimum size metagalaxy, with an energy release corresponding to the annihilation of a few solar masses per galaxy per year. Some of the conclusions based on the Big Bang hypothesis are criticized and in several cases alternative interpretations are suggested. A comparison between the Euclidean and the conventional models is given in Table III. (orig.)

  7. Local product structure for expansive homeomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Artigue, Alfonso; Brum, Joaquin; Potrie, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Let $f\\colon M\\to M$ be an expansive homeomorphism with dense topologically hyperbolic periodic points, $M$ a compact manifold. Then there is a local product structure in an open and dense subset of $M$. Moreover, if some topologically hyperbolic periodic point has codimension one, then this local product structure is uniform. In particular, we conclude that the homeomorphism is conjugated to a linear Anosov diffeomorphism of a torus.

  8. Theory of compression and expansion of hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, M. [Suzuka National College of Tech., Mie (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Koda, S.; Nomura, H. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Molecular Design and Engineering

    1999-10-01

    Compression and expansion processes of cross-linked sodium polyacrylate hydrogels under mechanical pressure were investigated. A packed spherical gel bed shows irreversible deformation when the applied pressure is decreased; the expansion behavior depends on the maximum pressure applied to the gel bed. The time required to attain a certain degree of deformation is directly proportional to the square of the total solid volume of the gel bed; this relation is very similar to that observed in expression or expansion processes of ordinary solid-liquid mixtures. The driving force of the deformation is an effective osmotic pressure gradient in the gel bed, where the effective osmotic pressure of the gel is the difference between the swelling pressure of the gel and the pressure applied to the gel. The flow rate of liquid through any gel layer can be expressed by Darcy's equation. The deformation ceases when the swelling pressure of each gel particle is equal to the applied pressure. Thus, the deformation of a packed gel bed can be recognized as a process of equalizing the swelling pressure distribution in the bed. (author)

  9. Renormalizations and operator expansion in sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    The operator expansion (OPE) is studied for the Green function at x 2 → 0 (n(x) is the dynamical field ofσ-model) in the framework of the two-dimensional σ-model with the O(N) symmetry group at large N. As a preliminary step we formulate the renormalization scheme which permits introduction of an arbitrary intermediate scale μ 2 in the framework of 1/N expansion and discuss factorization (separation) of small (p μ) momentum region. It is shown that definition of composite local operators and coefficient functions figuring in OPE is unambiguous only in the leading order in 1/N expansion when dominant are the solutions with extremum of action. Corrections of order f(μ 2 )/N (here f(μ 2 ) is the effective interaction constant at the point μ 2 ) in composite operators and coefficient functions essentially depend on factorization method of high and low momentum regions. It is shown also that contributions to the power corrections of order m 2 x 2 f(μ 2 )/N in the Green function (here m is the dynamical mass-scale factor in σ-model) arise simultaneously from two sources: from the mean vacuum value of the composite operator n ∂ 2 n and from the hard particle contributions in the coefficient function of unite operator. Due to the analogy between σ-model and QCD the obtained result indicates theoretical limitations to the sum rule method in QCD. (author)

  10. Hausdorff dimension of unique beta expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Derong; Li, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Given an integer N ⩾ 2 and a real number β > 1, let Γ β, N be the set of all x=∑ i=1 ∞ d i /β i with d i  ∈ {0, 1, ···, N − 1} for all i ⩾ 1. The infinite sequence (d i ) is called a β-expansion of x. Let U β,N be the set of all x's in Γ β,N which have unique β-expansions. We give explicit formula of the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for β in any admissible interval [β L , β U ], where β L is a purely Parry number while β U is a transcendental number whose quasi-greedy expansion of 1 is related to the classical Thue–Morse sequence. This allows us to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for almost every β > 1. In particular, this improves the main results of Gábor Kallós (1999, 2001). Moreover, we find that the dimension function f(β) = dim H U β,N fluctuates frequently for β ∈ (1, N). (paper)

  11. Leptodermous expansion of finite-nucleus incompressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the influence of higher-order terms in the leptodermous expansion used to extract the incompressibility K v of infinite nuclear matter from data on the breathing mode of finite nuclei. The terms we calculate are the curvature term K cv A -2/3 , the surface-symmetry term K ss I 2 A -1/3 , the quartic volume-symmetry term K 4 I 4 , and a Coulomb-exchange term. Working within the framework of the scaling model we derive expressions for their coefficients in terms of quantities that are defined for infinite and semi-infinite nuclear matter. We calculate these coefficients for four different Skyrme-type forces, using the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation. With the same forces we also calculate the incompressibility K (A, I) for a number of finite nuclei, fit the results to the leptodermous expansion, and thereby extract new results for the same coefficients. The comparison of the two calculations shows that the leptodermous expansion is converging rapidly. Of the new terms, the term K 4 I 4 is quite negligible, the curvature term should be included, and we discuss to what extent the other higher-order terms are significant. (orig.)

  12. Trace expansions for mixed boundary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the heat trace expansion for a mixed boundary problem for the Laplace operator acting on sections of some bundle V over a manifold M of dimension d. The boundary is divided in two parts N{sub D} and N{sub N}, intersecting in a smooth submanifold {sigma}. Dirichlet conditions are imposed on N{sub D} - {sigma}, and Neumann conditions on N{sub N} - {sigma}. It turns out that it is also necessary to impose a condition along {sigma}. We then obtain an expansion of the trace of the heat operator with these boundary conditions, containing integrals of the usual terms over the interior and the two parts of the boundary, together with integrals over {sigma} of terms that are 'global' in certain operators on a semicircle. The first nonzero such term is computed; it involves the zeta function of an operator on the semicircle, and depends on the boundary condition along {sigma}. We find that no logarithmic terms occur in the expansion.

  13. Eta-Expansion Does The Trick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Malmkjær, Karoline; Palsberg, Jens

    1995-01-01

    Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta-expansion, and a p......Partial-evaluation folklore has it that massaging one's source programs can make them specialize better. In Jones, Gomard, and Sestoft's recent textbook, a whole chapter is dedicated to listing such “binding-time improvements”: nonstandard use of continuation-passing style, eta...... across dynamic case expressions. This requirement precisely accounts for the nonstandard use of continuation-passing style encountered in partial evaluation. Eta-expansion thus acts as a uniform binding-time coercion between values and contexts, be they of function type, product type, or disjoint......-expansion, and a popular transformation called “The Trick.” We provide a unified view of these binding-time improvements, from a typing perspective. Just as a proper treatment of product values in partial evaluation requires partially static values, a proper treatment of disjoint sums requires moving static contexts...

  14. Spatial Linkage and Urban Expansion: AN Urban Agglomeration View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L. M.; Tang, X.; Liu, X. P.

    2017-09-01

    Urban expansion displays different characteristics in each period. From the perspective of the urban agglomeration, studying the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion plays an important role in understanding the complex relationship between urban expansion and network structure of urban agglomeration. We analyze urban expansion in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRD) through accessibility to and spatial interaction intensity from core cities as well as accessibility of road network. Results show that: (1) Correlation between urban expansion intensity and spatial indicators such as location and space syntax variables is remarkable and positive, while it decreases after rapid expansion. (2) Urban expansion velocity displays a positive correlation with spatial indicators mentioned above in the first (1980-1990) and second (1990-2000) period. However, it exhibits a negative relationship in the third period (2000-2010), i.e., cities located in the periphery of urban agglomeration developing more quickly. Consequently, the hypothesis of convergence of urban expansion in rapid expansion stage is put forward. (3) Results of Zipf's law and Gibrat's law show urban expansion in YRD displays a convergent trend in rapid expansion stage, small and medium-sized cities growing faster. This study shows that spatial linkage plays an important but evolving role in urban expansion within the urban agglomeration. In addition, it serves as a reference to the planning of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration and regulation of urban expansion of other urban agglomerations.

  15. Transvaginal ultrasound in threatened abortions with empty gestational sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Wanapirak, C; Srisomboon, J; Sirichotiyakul, S; Polsrisuthikul, T; Pongsatha, S

    1994-09-01

    To determine whether transvaginal ultrasound criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable gestational sacs at a single examination. A prospective descriptive study was undertaken and analysis performed on 211 pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion and empty gestation sacs diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. The main outcome measure was the final diagnosis of viable or non-viable gestation on subsequent transvaginal sonography. The study shows that a single transvaginal ultrasound examination is useful in differentiating viable from non-viable gestation sacs. The mean sac diameter (MSD) was found to be the most useful criterion for determining non-viability. An MSD of > or = 17 mm that lacked an embryo and an MSD of > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac were reliable predictors of non-viable gestation sacs at a single examination with 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value. An MSD > or = 13 mm without visible yolk sac was the most sensitive criterion. Using MSD criteria, 73% of non-viable gestations could be reliably identified without any false-positive diagnoses. Deformed shape, low position and thin decidual reaction are strong indicators of non-viable gestations but are not 100% accurate. There is still a significant proportion of empty sacs, where no accurate distinction between viable and non-viable can be made according to one criterion at a single examination and in these cases serial examinations should be carried out before any active management is advocated. In most cases, transvaginal sonographic criteria alone can distinguish viable from non-viable empty gestational sacs at a single examination.

  16. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE is defined as “an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing”. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common causes and factors associated with higher risk of ALTE could be resulted in a more purposeful approach, improving the decision making process, and benefiting both children and parents. The aim of this review article was to report the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, management, and disposition of ALTE. Infants with an ALTE might present no signs of acute illness and are commonly managed in the emergency settings that often require significant medical attention; hence, the emergency medicine personnel should be aware of the its clinical importance. There is no specific treatment for ALTE; therefore, the clinical evaluations should be focused on the detection of the underlying causes, which will define the outcomes and prognosis. ALTE is a confusing entity, representing a constellation of descriptive symptoms and signs; in other words, it is not a diagnosis. There are multiple possible etiologies and difficulties in evaluating and managing infants with these events, which are challenges to primary care physicians, emergency medicine specialists, and subspecialty pediatricians. The evaluation of these events in infants includes a detailed history, appropriate physical examination, diagnostic tests guided by obtained clues from the history and physical examination, and observation in the emergency department.

  17. Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's arctic islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and notthwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the catibou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist.

  18. The Television Advertisements of Health-threatening Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koorosh Etemad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: The media strongly affect in individuals consumption behavior, purchasing and food pattern and undoubtedly, if these foods doesn’t advertise, People tend not to consume them and will reduce the related diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the television advertising of healththreatening products Methods: In this study, the television advertising of one, two, three and Tehran channels were studied from 6 am to 24 midnight From January 20 to February 3 and from August 23 to September 6 ,2013. According to the list approved by the Ministry of Health, harmful products to health include the grain snack, carbonated drinks, Chips and consuming fast foods. Data were collected from recorded adverting boxes and were analyzed using Excel software. Results: In this 30-day period, 612 cases of harmful products were advertised in four TV Channels in 14567 second. From January 20 to February 3, 295 cases of harmful products were advertised in in 6853 second. From August 23 to September 6, 317 cases of harmful products were advertised in in 7714 second. Most harmful products were done in the TV channel 3. Chips were advertised more than other harmful products. Conclusion: Due to the high amount of advertisements of health-threatening products, it is suggested continuous monitoring, using the legal and regulatory strategies.

  19. Genomic variation among populations of threatened coral: Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C; Dale, K E; Panlilio, J M; Miller, S V; Lirman, D; Larson, E A; Bartels, E; Crawford, D L; Oleksiak, M F

    2016-04-13

    Acropora cervicornis, a threatened, keystone reef-building coral has undergone severe declines (>90 %) throughout the Caribbean. These declines could reduce genetic variation and thus hamper the species' ability to adapt. Active restoration strategies are a common conservation approach to mitigate species' declines and require genetic data on surviving populations to efficiently respond to declines while maintaining the genetic diversity needed to adapt to changing conditions. To evaluate active restoration strategies for the staghorn coral, the genetic diversity of A. cervicornis within and among populations was assessed in 77 individuals collected from 68 locations along the Florida Reef Tract (FRT) and in the Dominican Republic. Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) identified 4,764 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pairwise nucleotide differences (π) within a population are large (~37 %) and similar to π across all individuals. This high level of genetic diversity along the FRT is similar to the diversity within a small, isolated reef. Much of the genetic diversity (>90 %) exists within a population, yet GBS analysis shows significant variation along the FRT, including 300 SNPs with significant FST values and significant divergence relative to distance. There are also significant differences in SNP allele frequencies over small spatial scales, exemplified by the large FST values among corals collected within Miami-Dade county. Large standing diversity was found within each population even after recent declines in abundance, including significant, potentially adaptive divergence over short distances. The data here inform conservation and management actions by uncovering population structure and high levels of diversity maintained within coral collections among sites previously shown to have little genetic divergence. More broadly, this approach demonstrates the power of GBS to resolve differences among individuals and identify subtle genetic structure

  20. Biodegradable airway stents in infants - Potential life-threatening pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztanó, B; Kiss, G; Márai, K; Rácz, G; Szegesdi, I; Rácz, K; Katona, G; Rovó, L

    2016-12-01

    The solution of severe tracheobronchial obstructions in early childhood means a great challenge. Biodegradable stents were intended to be a minimally invasive temporary solution which may decrease the number of interventions and limit the possible complications of stenting procedures. However, our first experiences have brought out a new, - especially in childhood - potentially life-threatening complication of this concept. Five SX-ELLA biodegradable polydioxanone stents was applied in three patients because of severe tracheobronchial obstruction: congenital tracheomalacia (7 day-old), acquired tracheomalacia (10 month-old), and congenital trachea-bronchomalacia (10 month-old). The breathing of all children improved right after the procedure. We observed degradation of the stent from the 5th postoperative week which resulted in large intraluminar fragments causing significant airway obstruction: one patient died of severe pneumonia, the other baby required urgent bronchoscopy to remove the obstructing 'foreign body' from the trachea. In the third case repeated stent placements successfully maintained the tracheal lumen. Polydioxanone stents may offer an alternative to metallic or silastic stents for collapse or external compression of the trachea in children; however, large decaying fragments mean a potential risk especially in the small size pediatric airway. The fragmentation of the stent, which generally starts in the 4-6 postoperative weeks, may create large sharp pieces. These may be anchored to the mucosa and covered by crust leading to obstruction. As repeated interventions are required, we do not consider the application of biodegradable stents unambiguously advantageous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.