WorldWideScience

Sample records for thousand year history

  1. How does one do the history of disability in antiquity? One thousand years of case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Exploring literary sources from the first century BCE up to the eleventh century CE, this article demonstrates how the history of disabilities in antiquity can go further than just collecting 'interesting case histories'. Using a model developed by Michel Vovelle, the sources are interpreted on different levels, taking into account both the cultural context in which the text arose and the intentions of the author.

  2. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, G.; Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. The thousand-year history of the Slovak Karst inferred from pollen in bat guano inside the Domica Cave (Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Andreas, M.; Krištůfek, Václav; Beneš, J.; Novák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2015), s. 49-61 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : bat * pollen * guano Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2015

  5. Sixty thousand years of magmatic volatile history before the caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Sisson, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented eruptive history of Mount Mazama, Oregon, provides an excellent opportunity to use pre-eruptive volatile concentrations to study the growth of an explosive silicic magmatic system. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from eight dacitic–rhyodacitic eruptive deposits (71–7.7 ka) were analyzed to determine variations in volatile-element concentrations and changes in magma storage conditions leading up to and including the climactic eruption of Crater Lake caldera. Temperatures (Fe–Ti oxides) increased through the series of dacites, then decreased, and increased again through the rhyodacites (918–968 to ~950 to 845–895 °C). Oxygen fugacity began at nickel–nickel-oxide buffer (NNO) +0.8 (71 ka), dropped slightly to NNO +0.3, and then climbed to its highest value with the climactic eruption (7.7 ka) at NNO +1.1 log units. In parallel with oxidation state, maximum MI sulfur concentrations were high early in the eruptive sequence (~500 ppm), decreased (to ~200 ppm), and then increased again with the climactic eruption (~500 ppm). Maximum MI sulfur correlates with the Sr content (as a proxy for LREE, Ba, Rb, P2O5) of recharge magmas, represented by basaltic andesitic to andesitic enclaves and similar-aged lavas. These results suggest that oxidized Sr-rich recharge magmas dominated early and late in the development of the pre-climactic dacite–rhyodacite system. Dissolved H2O concentrations in MI do not, however, correlate with these changes in dominant recharge magma, instead recording vapor solubility relations in the developing shallow magma storage and conduit region. Dissolved H2O concentrations form two populations through time: the first at 3–4.6 wt% (with a few extreme values up to 6.1 wt%) and the second at ≤2.4 wt%. CO2 concentrations measured in a subset of these inclusions reach up to 240 ppm in early-erupted deposits (71 ka) and are below detection in climactic deposits (7.7 ka). Combined H2O and

  6. Durable Glass For Thousands Of Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.

    2009-01-01

    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al 3+ rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  7. DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.

    2009-12-04

    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  8. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  9. One thousand years of fires: Integrating proxy and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Marie Kehrwald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The current fires raging across Indonesia are emitting more carbon than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Germany or Japan, and the fires are still consuming vast tracts of rainforest and peatlands. The National Interagency Fire Center (www.nifc.gov notes that 2015 is one worst fire years on record in the U.S., where more than 9 million acres burned -- equivalent to the combined size of Massachusetts and New Jersey. The U.S. and Indonesian fires have already displaced tens of thousands of people, and their impacts on ecosystems are still unclear. In the case of Indonesia, the burning peat is destroying much of the existing soil, with unknown implications for the type of vegetation regrowth. Such large fires result from a combination of fire management practices, increasing anthropogenic land use, and a changing climate. The expected increase in fire activity in the upcoming decades has led to a surge in research trying to understand their causes, the factors that may have influenced similar times of fire activity in the past, and the implications of such fire activity in the future. Multiple types of complementary data provide information on the impacts of current fires and the extent of past fires. The wide array of data encompasses different spatial and temporal resolutions (Figure 1 and includes fire proxy information such as charcoal and tree ring fire scars, observational records, satellite products, modern emissions data, fire models within global land cover and vegetation models, and sociodemographic data for modeling past human land use and ignition frequency. Any single data type is more powerful when combined with another source of information. Merging model and proxy data enables analyses of how fire activity modifies vegetation distribution, air and water quality, and proximity to cities; these analyses in turn support land management decisions relating to conservation and development.

  10. Thirty thousand-year-old evidence of plant food processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Revedin, A.; Aranguren, B.; Becattini, R.; Longo, L.; Marconi, E.; Mariotti Lippi, M.; Skakun, N.; Sinitsyn, A.; Spiridonova, E.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 44 (2010), s. 18815-18819 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : flour * Upper Paleolithic * grindstones * diet * starch grains Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 9.771, year: 2010 http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/107/44/18815.full.pdf

  11. Twenty thousand years of changing obsidian trade in Melanesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J. P. [University Of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Archaeloogy; Torrence, R. [Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Anthropology

    1998-12-31

    Archaeological investigations on a range of sites in the Pacific Region identified four well separated obsidian flows which varied in terms of their spatial scale, ease of extraction of raw material, and quality of obsidian for artefact manufacture. Extensive deposits of the by-products from quarrying and artefact manufacture were associated with each flow. Using enhancements in PIXE-PIGME, a finer discrimination was achieved that has allowed each artefact to be assigned to one of the four sub-regions in the Willaumez Peninsular group. These results have led to a better understanding of ancient trade practices. Further analyses of archaeological materials from multiple sites in the Bismarck Archipelago have shown: 1. During the Pleistocene (20,000 - 10,000 years ago) obsidian from both major source regions was repeatedly moved to New Ireland, a distance of some 600 km. The Mopir source predominated. 2. In the period 3500-1500 years ago Mopir was very rare probably because the source was cut off due to a massive volcanic eruption. 3. Although proximity to outcrop is usually the major factor in determining which obsidian was used, one excellent sub-source, Baki on Garua Island, was almost never traded and was not always even the preferred source locally

  12. Twenty thousand years of changing obsidian trade in Melanesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J. P.; Torrence, R.

    1998-01-01

    Archaeological investigations on a range of sites in the Pacific Region identified four well separated obsidian flows which varied in terms of their spatial scale, ease of extraction of raw material, and quality of obsidian for artefact manufacture. Extensive deposits of the by-products from quarrying and artefact manufacture were associated with each flow. Using enhancements in PIXE-PIGME, a finer discrimination was achieved that has allowed each artefact to be assigned to one of the four sub-regions in the Willaumez Peninsular group. These results have led to a better understanding of ancient trade practices. Further analyses of archaeological materials from multiple sites in the Bismarck Archipelago have shown: 1. During the Pleistocene (20,000 - 10,000 years ago) obsidian from both major source regions was repeatedly moved to New Ireland, a distance of some 600 km. The Mopir source predominated. 2. In the period 3500-1500 years ago Mopir was very rare probably because the source was cut off due to a massive volcanic eruption. 3. Although proximity to outcrop is usually the major factor in determining which obsidian was used, one excellent sub-source, Baki on Garua Island, was almost never traded and was not always even the preferred source locally

  13. One hundred thousand years back and forth: When archaeology meets radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtorf, Cornelius; Hoegberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discussed the final repository of radioactive waste as an issue at the interface of the sciences and the humanities. Archaeologists have learned that a hundred thousand years ago abstract thought and symbolism by humans began. Since then many communities of human beings have succeeded each other. They often intended to leave a mark for eternity, but they established in fact the truism that nothing ages faster than the future. Archaeologists and historians are promoting remembering, learning and understanding of history for contemporary and future generations. Disposal sites of nuclear waste constitute a special case of heritage. We are creating a very distinctive kind of heritage that in the future may be remembered or forgotten, just like any other heritage we create. The presentation addressed what the realms of heritage and radioactive waste disposal can learn from each other regarding making provisions for the future. Rubbish reflects the conditions from which it originates. The final deposition of radioactive waste is by nature a question of historical consciousness and future uses of the past, of memory and forgetting, and of future didactics of history. Heritage studies as well as history and archaeology are thus inherently relevant. Similarities between archaeology and RWM were thus pointed out, for instance the long time frames, specific sites, dealing with the meaning of rubbish, the fact that we both like to think we are doing something good for future generations,.. But there also are differences, notably that archaeology works with precious objects one wishes to keep. How will the future use our present, which is their past, for their own future? The meaning people give to information is important, and meaning is a continuous process of reinterpreting

  14. DITTY - a computer program for calculating population dose integrated over ten thousand years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    The computer program DITTY (Dose Integrated Over Ten Thousand Years) was developed to determine the collective dose from long term nuclear waste disposal sites resulting from the ground-water pathways. DITTY estimates the time integral of collective dose over a ten-thousand-year period for time-variant radionuclide releases to surface waters, wells, or the atmosphere. This document includes the following information on DITTY: a description of the mathematical models, program designs, data file requirements, input preparation, output interpretations, sample problems, and program-generated diagnostic messages

  15. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.

    The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2

  16. The ten-thousand year fever: rethinking human and wild primate malarias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cormier, Loretta A

    2011-01-01

    "Malaria is one of the oldest recorded diseases in human history, and its 10,000-year relationship to primates can teach us why it will be one of the most serious threats to humanity in the 21st century...

  17. Pieces of a thousand stories: repatriation of the history of Aboriginal Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-line project A History of Aboriginal Sydney, based at the University of Sydney, takes existing educational and Australian Indigenous digital initiatives in a new direction. By dividing Sydney into six geographical areas, we are creating a knowledge base of post-invasion Aboriginal history, incorporating different forms of tagging, timeline and digital mapping to provide multiple paths to information in text, videos, still images and, in the future, three dimensional reconstructions of former living areas. After eighteen months research we are maintaining a balance between unearthing new and forgotten material, incorporating it into our developing database, and exploring the potential of digital mapping, animation and 3D historical reconstruction for educational and research purposes. With close Indigenous consultation, especially the Aboriginal Educational Consultative Groups, we hope to digitally construct the Aboriginal history of Sydney and return it to the people who have been deprived of so much of their history for so long.

  18. Specific Chemical and Genetic Markers Revealed a Thousands-Year Presence of Toxic Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegłowska, Marta; Toruńska-Sitarz, Anna; Kowalewska, Grażyna; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna

    2018-04-04

    In the Baltic Sea, diazotrophic cyanobacteria have been present for thousands of years, over the whole brackish water phase of the ecosystem. However, our knowledge about the species composition of the cyanobacterial community is limited to the last several decades. In the current study, the presence of species-specific chemical and genetic markers in deep sediments were analyzed to increase the existing knowledge on the history of toxic Nodularia spumigena blooms in the Baltic Sea. As chemical markers, three cyclic nonribosomal peptides were applied: the hepatotoxic nodularin, which in the sea was detected solely in N. spumigena , and two anabaenopeptins (AP827 and AP883a) characteristic of two different chemotypes of this species. From the same sediment samples, DNA was isolated and the gene involved in biosynthesis of nodularin, as well as the phycocyanin intergenic spacer region (PC-IGS), were amplified. The results of chemical and genetic analyses proved for the first time the thousands-year presence of toxic N. spumigena in the Baltic Sea. They also indicated that through all this time, the same two sub-populations of the species co-existed.

  19. Long Island Sound Water Temperatures During the Last Two Thousand Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C. E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Thomas, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Long Island Sound (LIS), sometimes called the “urban sea”, is a large estuary in the heavily populated coastal zone between New York City and the Connecticut - Rhode Island border. LIS has seen dramatic environmental shifts since colonial times, including major changes in aquatic food extraction, land use, contaminant and nutrient inputs, and climate change. Annual seasonal hypoxic/anoxic events, especially common in westernmost LIS, have been identified as potentially severe stressors for LIS biota including valuable fisheries species such as lobsters and shellfish. These conditions develop when the Sound becomes stratified in midsummer and oxygen consumption from the oxidation of organic matter exceeds oxygen resupply from the atmosphere or photosynthesis. Severity, lateral extent and frequency of hypoxia/anoxia is influenced by the amount of organic matter available for oxidation, both marine organic matter (produced by algal blooms in response to influx of N-rich effluents from waste water treatment plants) and terrestrial organic matter. These events are also influenced by the severity of stratification, determined by differences in density from temperature and salinity gradients of surface and bottom waters. Studies of cores in western and central LIS, dated using Hg-pollution profiles, 210Pb - 137Cs, and 14C, indicate that eutrophication and hypoxia have occurred in LIS only over the last ~150 years, with the possible exception of the Narrows (closest to NY) where it may have occurred before colonial times. Salinity decreased as well over the last 150 years, possibly due to changes in land use or deflection of fresh water from the Hudson River. Temperature variability in LIS over the last few thousand years has not been clearly documented, as several paleotemperature proxies are difficult to use in estuarine settings. Oxygen isotope values of carbonate microfossils are influenced by salinity fluctuations, and Mg/Ca values in these shells may be

  20. The Öland limestone - A Swedish stone used for more than one thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Wickström, Linda; Mikaelsson, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The second largest island in Sweden is the home of the "Öland limestone", a condensed and bedded limestone whose origin dates back to Lower Ordovician, i.e. about 480 M years ago. Öland is a part of the palaeocontinent Baltica that, at the time, was situated at low latitudes with deposition of the calcareous sediments in a cool water environment. The limestone on Öland represents a proximal ramp tectonic setting, with the oldest sediments deposited in the west and younger sediments deposited towards east and southeast. Fluctuating sea-levels have created erosional hard grounds such as the Flowery sheet. These hardgrounds are recognised by their vivid colours and trace fossils, and can be traced all over Baltica, but is maybe best represented on Öland. Ordovician limestones are present in many places in Sweden, but it is the occurrence on Öland that is the most renowned in a building stone perspective. One reason for this is the favourable trading location, an island off the Swedish East coast in middle of the trading routes between the Baltic countries and the continent. Other reasons are the pleasant aesthetical values with numerous orthoceratites and other fossils. The limestones on Öland differ in colour. From the red varieties (with oxidized iron) to brownish and grey. The bedding is mostly in the cm-scale which easily enables very exploitable thickness of slabs. Every mm limestone represents about 1000 years of deposition. The limestone has most likely been used in a very crude way for many thousand years, but archaeological evidence of a more industrialized usage is just a little more than 1000 years. It is known from the literature that the first official Swedish king, Gustav Vasa (16th century), desired this stone. At the time it was called "Öland marble", and the king "imported" specialists to process it further at the Royal Stone workshop on northern Öland. Remnants of tools and working sites still remain in an outdoor museum. Export of the

  1. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  2. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668

  3. Four thousand years of environmental change and human activity in the Cochabamba Basin, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph J.; Gosling, William D.; Coe, Angela L.; Brooks, Stephen J.; Gulliver, Pauline

    The Cochabamba Basin (Bolivia) is on the ancient road network connecting Andean and lowland areas. Little is known about the longevity of this trade route or how people responded to past environmental changes. The eastern end of the Cochabamba valley system constricts at the Vacas Lake District, constraining the road network and providing an ideal location in which to examine past human-environmental interactions. Multi-proxy analysis of sediment from Lake Challacaba has allowed a c. 4000 year environmental history to be reconstructed. Fluctuations in drought tolerant pollen taxa and calcium carbonate indicate two periods of reduced moisture availability ( c. 4000-3370 and c. 2190-1020 cal yr BP) compared to adjacent wetter episodes ( c. 3370-2190 and c. 1020 cal yr BP-present). The moisture fluctuations broadly correlate to El Niño/Southern Oscillation variations reported elsewhere. High charcoal abundance from c. 4000 to 2000 yr ago indicates continuous use of the ancient road network. A decline in charcoal and an increase in dung fungus ( Sporormiella) c. 1340 -1210 cal yr BP, suggests that cultural changes were a major factor in shaping the modern landscape. Despite undisputable impacts of human populations on the Polylepis woodlands today, we see no evidence of woodland clearance in the Challacaba record.

  4. Five thousand years of tropical lake sediment DNA records from Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, L.; Favier, C.; Ficetola, G. F.; Tossou, M. G.; Akouégninou, A.; Gielly, L.; Giguet-Covex, C.; Oslisly, R.; Salzmann, U.

    2017-08-01

    Until now, sedimentary DNA (sedDNA) studies have only focused on cold and temperate regions were DNA is relatively well preserved. Consequently, the tropics, where vegetation is hyperdiverse and natural archives are rare, have been neglected and deserve attention. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to barcode sedDNA from Lake Sele, localized in the tropical lowlands of Benin (Africa), and compared the taxonomic diversity detected by DNA analyses with pollen assemblages. Plant sedDNA was successfully amplified from 33 of the 34 successfully extracted samples. In total, 43 taxa were identified along the 5000 years spanned by the sediment: 22 taxa were identified at the family level and 21 at the genus level. The plant diversity recovered through sedDNA from Lake Sele showed a specific local signal and limited overlapping with pollen. Introduced plants, grown and cultivated close to the water, such as sweet potato, were also well recorded by sedDNA. It appears, therefore, to be a promising approach to studying past diversity in tropical regions, and could help in tracking the introduction and history of agriculture. This is the first time this method has been used in the field of domestication and dissemination of several specific crops, and the results are very encouraging.

  5. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  6. Four-thousand-year-old gold artifacts from the Lake Titicaca basin, southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldenderfer, Mark; Craig, Nathan M; Speakman, Robert J; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel

    2008-04-01

    Artifacts of cold-hammered native gold have been discovered in a secure and undisturbed Terminal Archaic burial context at Jiskairumoko, a multicomponent Late Archaic-Early Formative period site in the southwestern Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. The burial dates to 3776 to 3690 carbon-14 years before the present (2155 to 1936 calendar years B.C.), making this the earliest worked gold recovered to date not only from the Andes, but from the Americas as well. This discovery lends support to the hypothesis that the earliest metalworking in the Andes was experimentation with native gold. The presence of gold in a society of low-level food producers undergoing social and economic transformations coincident with the onset of sedentary life is an indicator of possible early social inequality and aggrandizing behavior and further shows that hereditary elites and a societal capacity to create significant agricultural surpluses are not requisite for the emergence of metalworking traditions.

  7. Fourteen Thousand Solar Systems and Growing: Results From the Starchitect Online Game at One Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Starchitect (www.starchitect.net) is an online, end-to-end stellar and planetary evolution game designed to teach players about a variety of astronomy and planetary topics. Supported by NASA and NSF, and developed at the National Center for Interactive Learning at the Space Science Institute, the game uses the "sporadic play" model of games such as Farmville, where players might only take actions a few times a day, but continue playing for months. This framework is a natural fit for teaching about the evolution of stars and planets. Starchitect's systems evolve at a million years a minute, so that while massive stars will supernova almost immediately, lower mass stars like our sun will live for weeks of game time, possibly evolving life before passing through a red giant stage and ending their lives as white dwarfs. The game has now been live for over a year, playable both on Facebook and externally, and over 14,000 solar systems have been created by over 11,000 players. Since the game itself is heavily instrumented we now have access to a wealth of data that can be used to examine how people are playing the game and what tasks they are successfully engaging with. Through an embedded quiz game we are even in the position to assess the prior knowledge of our audience and execute pre/post assessments tied to game play. This paper will briefly describe the game and its educational strategies, then summarize some of our current results.

  8. Last nine-thousand years of temperature variability in Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The threat of future global warming has generated a major interest in quantifying past climate variability on centennial and millennial time-scales. However, palaeoclimatological records are often noisy and arguments about past variability are only possible if they are based on reproducible features in several reliably dated datasets. Here we focus on the last 9000 years, explore the results of 36 Holocene pollen-based July mean and annual mean temperature reconstructions from Northern Europe by stacking them to create summary curves, and compare them with a high-resolution, summary chironomid-based temperature record and other independent palaeoclimate records. The stacked records show that the "Holocene Thermal Maximum" in the region dates to 8000 to 4800 cal yr BP and that the "8.2 event" and the "Little Ice Age" at 500–100 cal yr BP are the clearest cold episodes during the Holocene. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the last 5000 years pinpoints centennial-scale climate variability with cold anomalies at 3800–3000 and 500–100 cal yr BP, a long, warmer period around 2000 cal yr BP, and a marked warming since the mid 19th century. The colder (warmer anomalies are associated with increased (decreased humidity over the northern European mainland, consistent with the modern high correlation between cold (warm and humid (dry modes of summer weather in the region. A comparison with the key proxy records reflecting the main forcing factors does not support the hypothesis that solar variability is the cause of the late-Holocene centennial-scale temperature changes. We suggest that the reconstructed anomalies are typical of Northern Europe and their occurrence may be related to the oceanic and atmospheric circulation variability in the North Atlantic – North-European region.

  9. Dispersal of thermophilic Desulfotomaculum endospores into Baltic Sea sediments over thousands of years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Júlia Rosa; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Hubert, Casey R J; Finster, Kai; Loy, Alexander; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of microbial biogeography result from a combination of dispersal, speciation and extinction, yet individual contributions exerted by each of these mechanisms are difficult to isolate and distinguish. The influx of endospores of thermophilic microorganisms to cold marine sediments offers a natural model for investigating passive dispersal in the ocean. We investigated the activity, diversity and abundance of thermophilic endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Aarhus Bay by incubating pasteurized sediment between 28 and 85 °C, and by subsequent molecular diversity analyses of 16S rRNA and of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes within the endospore-forming SRB genus Desulfotomaculum. The thermophilic Desulfotomaculum community in Aarhus Bay sediments consisted of at least 23 species-level 16S rRNA sequence phylotypes. In two cases, pairs of identical 16S rRNA and dsrAB sequences in Arctic surface sediment 3000 km away showed that the same phylotypes are present in both locations. Radiotracer-enhanced most probable number analysis revealed that the abundance of endospores of thermophilic SRB in Aarhus Bay sediment was ca. 10(4) per cm(3) at the surface and decreased exponentially to 10(0) per cm(3) at 6.5 m depth, corresponding to 4500 years of sediment age. Thus, a half-life of ca. 300 years was estimated for the thermophilic SRB endospores deposited in Aarhus Bay sediments. These endospores were similarly detected in the overlying water column, indicative of passive dispersal in water masses preceding sedimentation. The sources of these thermophiles remain enigmatic, but at least one source may be common to both Aarhus Bay and Arctic sediments.

  10. The impact of low level radioactive waste on humans and environment the next 100 thousands years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, E.; Saetre, P.; Lindborg, T.; Norden, S.; Kautsky, U. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB - SKB (Sweden); Loefgren, A. [Ecoanalytica, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    A safety assessment for the extension of the low level repository of operational waste (SFR) has been performed (SR-PSU). The repository (both existing and planned extension) is situated c 60 - 120 m below the surface in archaean granitoid rock. SR-PSU evaluates the risk to humans and the environment for the next 100 000 years. During this time period considerable changes are expected in the surface environment due climate change and its effects on shore line displacement, terrestrialisation of lakes and expansion of forest and agricultural land. In this paper specific approaches and results for the surface ecosystems (i.e. biosphere) are presented. The transport and accumulation of radionuclides in marine, lake, and terrestrial ecosystems are modelled and expose of future human populations during present conditions, greenhouse warming, and peri-glacial climate conditions are estimated taking into account different habits and diets of future humans. A new radionuclide transport model was developed to improve the representation of C-14 in the ecosystem modelling. In SR-PSU it is shown that the primary release from the repository via the geosphere to the biosphere is focused to a small area that will be a mire in about 1000 year. The radionuclides can thereafter be transported to downstream lakes and sea ecosystems. The aquatic systems can be utilised for fish and water whereas the mire can either be utilised directly by e.g. collecting, mushroom berries, hay, or hunting, or the mire can be transformed to a small agricultural area and utilised for crops. Important dose contributing radionuclides from SFR are Cl-36, Mo-93, C-14, Ni-59 and I-129 and in some of the scenarios the dose is close to the regulatory limit of 14 μSv/y (i.e. the risk 10{sup -6}). For Non-human biota (NHB) doses are estimated with a novel implementation of the ERICA tool in Ecolego. Generally the same radionuclides contributes to dose to NHB (reference organisms and site -specific organisms) as

  11. The ten thousand Kims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-07-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  12. The ten thousand Kims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Minnhagen, Petter; Kim, Beom Jun

    2011-01-01

    In Korean culture, the names of family members are recorded in special family books. This makes it possible to follow the distribution of Korean family names far back in history. It is shown here that these name distributions are well described by a simple null model, the random group formation (RGF) model. This model makes it possible to predict how the name distributions change and these predictions are shown to be borne out. In particular, the RGF model predicts that for married women entering a collection of family books in a certain year, the occurrence of the most common family name 'Kim' should be directly proportional to the total number of married women with the same proportionality constant for all the years. This prediction is also borne out to a high degree. We speculate that it reflects some inherent social stability in the Korean culture. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the total population of the Korean culture down to the year 500 AD, based on the RGF model, and find about ten thousand Kims.

  13. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  14. An eighty years long history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An eighty years long historyAnnals of Silvicultural Research (ASR take over and are the on line follow-up of the former Annali. The Annali are a body of 36 volumes issued since 1970 from the Experimental Institute of Silviculture, then Forestry Research Centre of the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA. They originate from the series of Papers of the same Institution (n. 15-18, 1968-69 and formerly of the Royal Station of Silviculture in Firenze (n. 1-14, 1932-67. The history of Annals dates therefore back to 80 years ago and covers quite completely the activity of our Institution since its early establishment in Firenze in 1922.Institutional duty of the Annali was the scientific dissemination of research trials’ outcomes and findings to the manifold stakeholders’ levels and was aimed at an effective transfer of knowledge and innovation in the practice of forestry. The Annali housed original research papers produced inside and in cooperation with researchers outside on the subject-matters of forest ecology, silviculture of semi-natural forests and forest plantations for environmental restoration and wood/ non-wood productions, tree farming and agro-forestry, forest mensuration and stand dynamics, dendro-ecology, conservation and valorization of genetic resources and levels and types of biodiversity, protection and provision of forest ecosystems services, maintenance of their multifunctional role, up to the more recent theme of the adaptive management framed within the environmental change in progress and related issues of forests’ mitigation & carbon sequestration/ stocking ability.A review of research topics and thematic volumes handled throughout the eighty years highlights the attention paid towards the national emerging subject-matters, since the Experiments on the introduction of exotic species in Italy by Pavari and De Philippis (1941, to its conclusive follow-up forty years later Role of exotic species

  15. Landscape change and human response during a thousand years of climatic fluctuation and volcanism: Skaftafell, Southeast Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available climatic fluctuation and volcanism: Skaftafell, Southeast Iceland ABSTRACT- The ancient farm of Skaftafell, dating from the Saga Period in Icelandic history is taken as the center-piece for depiction of climatic and landscape change from the earliest settlement in the ninth century AD to the present. The study of landscape evolution is divided into four main periods: 1 the Saga Period, AD 874-1350; 2 the beginning of glacier advance and volcanic activity, AD 1350-1500; 3 the Little Ice Age, AD 1500-1900; and 4 the Modern Period, AD 1900-1990. Is/laps have been produced to represent each period; they show the positions of farms which have survived far more than a thousand years, and churches that have been overwhelmed by catastrophic geomorphic processes, the positions of the glacier termini, melt water rivers, and main pasture lands. These reconstructions are based upon a mixture of physical evidence and folklore and historical documentation. Landscape evaluation is also described through the eyes of historic personalities who lived at Skaftafell. Survival of a rich culture in this region is remarkable in face of a series of almost overwhelming disasters. Today the biggest threat, or challenge and opportunity for sustainable development, is the vast influx of tourists to this region, one of the most isolated in the world. They are drawn to Skaftafell through the establishment of a National Park in one of the most scenically dramatic and beautiful landscapes in the world.

    [es] La antigua granja de Skaftafell, que data del período de Sagas de la Historia islandesa se ha tomado como el eje en torno al cual gira la explicación de los cambios climáticos y paisajísticos que han tenido lugar desde el primitivo asentamiento del siglo IX hasta el presente. El estudio de la evolución del paisaje se divide en cuatro períodos principales: 1 El Período de Sagas, 874-1350; 2 El principio del avance glaciar y la actividad volcánica, 1350

  16. Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics

  17. History of 10 years of KEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book is the history of Korea power engineering company for 10 years. It describes the background of establishment of the company and development of nuclear energy and engineering, the procession of the establishment, the course of development in three parts of period, organization of the company, the progression of the business in the nuclear energy, hydraulic power and thermal power, development of technique and manpower and management for prospect of the company.

  18. Thirty years history of Daeduk Science Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This book records the history of Daeduk science town for 30 years, which includes plan of construction and selection of location like background of construction and general idea of construction, transition of basic plan to construct Daeduk science town such as change of promotion organization and plan, and establishment of construction general planning, building base for town like land, infrastructure, and measures to control speculative investment, construction and present situation of moving into the science town, management of Daeduk science town, public welfare for researchers, and fruit and image of the future of the town.

  19. Forty Thousand Years of Advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The roots of advertisement are connected with reclamations, claims and arguments. No surprise that many people treat it with distrust, suspicion and irritation.Nobody loves advertisement (except its authors and those who order it, nobody watches it, everybody despises it and get annoyed because of it. But newspapers, magazines, television and city economy in general cannot do without it. One keeps on arguing whether to prohibit advertisement, to restrict its expansion, to bring in stricter regulations on advertisement…If something attracts attention, intrigues, promises to make dreams true and arouses desire to join - it should be considered as advertisement. This definition allows saying with no doubts: yes, advertisement did existed in the most ancient strongest cultures. Advertisement is as old as the humane civilization. There have always been the objects to be advertised, and different methods appeared to reach those goals.Advertisement techniques and topics appear, get forgotten and appear again in other places and other times. Sometimes the author of advertisement image has no idea about his forerunners and believes he is the discoverer. A skillful designer with high level of professionalism deliberately uses images from past centuries. The professional is easily guided by historical prototypes.But there is another type of advertisement, its prototypes cannot be found in museums. It does not suppose any respect, because it is built on scornful attitude towards the spectator.However, basically the advertisement is made by professional designers, and in this case ignorance is inadmissible. Even if we many times appeal to Irkutsk designers to work on raising their cultural level of advertisements, anyhow, orders will be always made by those who pay. Unless Its Majesty Ruble stands for Culture, those appeals are of no use.

  20. Flow characteristics and salinity patterns of tidal rivers within the northern Ten Thousand Islands, southwest Florida, water years 2007–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amanda C.; Soderqvist, Lars E.

    2016-12-12

    Freshwater flow to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary has been altered by the construction of the Tamiami Trail and the Southern Golden Gate Estates. The Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is associated with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, has been implemented to improve freshwater delivery to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary by removing hundreds of miles of roads, emplacing hundreds of canal plugs, removing exotic vegetation, and constructing three pump stations. Quantifying the tributary flows and salinity patterns prior to, during, and after the restoration is essential to assessing the effectiveness of upstream restoration efforts.Tributary flow and salinity patterns during preliminary restoration efforts and prior to the installation of pump stations were analyzed to provide baseline data and preliminary analysis of changes due to restoration efforts. The study assessed streamflow and salinity data for water years1 2007–2014 for the Faka Union River (canal flow included), East River, Little Wood River, Pumpkin River, and Blackwater River. Salinity data from the Palm River and Faka Union Boundary water-quality stations were also assessed.Faka Union River was the dominant contributor of freshwater during water years 2007–14 to the Ten Thousand Islands estuary, followed by Little Wood and East Rivers. Pumpkin River and Blackwater River were the least substantial contributors of freshwater flow. The lowest annual flow volumes, the highest annual mean salinities, and the highest percentage of salinity values greater than 35 parts per thousand (ppt) occurred in water year 2011 at all sites with available data, corresponding with the lowest annual rainfall during the study. The highest annual flow volumes and the lowest percentage of salinities greater than 35 ppt occurred in water year 2013 for all sites with available data, corresponding with the highest rainfall during the study.In water year 2014, the percentage of monitored annual flow

  1. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases from...

  2. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  3. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...

  4. The Orgueil meteorite: 150 years of history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to summarize 150 yr of history of a very special meteorite. The Orgueil meteorite fell near Montauban in southwestern France on May 14, 1864. The bolide, which was the size of the full Moon, was seen across Western France, and almost immediately made the news in local and Parisian newspapers. Within a few weeks of the fall, a great diversity of analyses were performed under the authority of Gabriel Auguste Daubrée, geology professor at the Paris Museum, and published in the Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. The skilled scientists reported the presence of iron sulfides, hydrated silicates, and carbonates in Orgueil. They also characterized ammonium salts which are now gone, and observed sulfates being remobilized at the surface of the stone. They identified the high water and carbon contents, and noted similarities with the Alais meteorite, which had fallen in 1806, 300 km away. While Daubrée and his colleagues noted the similarity of the Orgueil organic matter with some terrestrial humus, they were cautious not to make a direct link with living organisms. One century later, Nagy and Claus were less prudent and announced the discovery of "organized" elements in some samples of Orgueil. Their observations were quickly discredited by Edward Anders and others who also discovered that some pollen grains were intentionally placed into the rock back in the 1860s. Orgueil is now one of the most studied meteorites, indeed one of the most studied rocks of any kind. Not only does it contain a large diversity of carbon-rich compounds, which help address the question of organo-synthesis in the early solar system but its chemical composition is also close to that of the Sun's photosphere and serves as a cosmic reference. Secondary minerals, which make up 99% of the volume of Orgueil, were probably formed during hydrothermal alteration on the parent-body within the first few million years of the solar system; their study is essential to our

  5. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident history...

  6. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non

  7. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after “Historicity”, Hjelm and Thompson argue that a ‘crisis’ broke in the 1970s, when several new studies of biblical history and archaeology were published, questioning the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship. The crisis formed...... articles from some of the field’s best scholars with comprehensive discussion of historical, archaeological, anthropological, cultural and literary approaches to the Hebrew Bible and Palestine’s history. The essays question: “How does biblical history relate to the archaeological history of Israel...

  8. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  9. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  10. A brief 100 year history of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Terence J

    2017-09-01

    Elemental carbon has been known from time immemorial in its forms of diamond and graphite, while the Industrial Revolution was powered by coal. The molecular structures of diamond and graphite were established following the inception of X-ray crystallography while the complex natures of charcoal and coal have been investigated for 100 years. Recent developments in activated charcoal are described in an article in this issue of Science Progress. However, no-one could have guessed that carbon would have presented such structural surprises as those of C60 fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Materials science has benefited from the discovery of carbon fibres, and our understanding of the spectroscopy and bonding in the simplest carbon molecule, C2, has reached new depths.

  11. The Antarctic ice core chronology (AICC2012): an optimized multi-parameter and multi-site dating approach for the last 120 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, D.; Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Toyé Mahamadou Kele, H.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Parrenin, F.; Martinerie, P.; Blayo, E.; Blunier, T.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Severi, M.; Svensson, A.; Vinther, B.; Wolff, E. W.

    2013-08-01

    The deep polar ice cores provide reference records commonly employed in global correlation of past climate events. However, temporal divergences reaching up to several thousand years (ka) exist between ice cores over the last climatic cycle. In this context, we are hereby introducing the Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012 (AICC2012), a new and coherent timescale developed for four Antarctic ice cores, namely Vostok, EPICA Dome C (EDC), EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) and Talos Dome (TALDICE), alongside the Greenlandic NGRIP record. The AICC2012 timescale has been constructed using the Bayesian tool Datice (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010) that combines glaciological inputs and data constraints, including a wide range of relative and absolute gas and ice stratigraphic markers. We focus here on the last 120 ka, whereas the companion paper by Bazin et al. (2013) focuses on the interval 120-800 ka. Compared to previous timescales, AICC2012 presents an improved timing for the last glacial inception, respecting the glaciological constraints of all analyzed records. Moreover, with the addition of numerous new stratigraphic markers and improved calculation of the lock-in depth (LID) based on δ15N data employed as the Datice background scenario, the AICC2012 presents a slightly improved timing for the bipolar sequence of events over Marine Isotope Stage 3 associated with the seesaw mechanism, with maximum differences of about 600 yr with respect to the previous Datice-derived chronology of Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010), hereafter denoted LD2010. Our improved scenario confirms the regional differences for the millennial scale variability over the last glacial period: while the EDC isotopic record (events of triangular shape) displays peaks roughly at the same time as the NGRIP abrupt isotopic increases, the EDML isotopic record (events characterized by broader peaks or even extended periods of high isotope values) reached the isotopic maximum several centuries before. It is

  12. The Antarctic ice core chronology (AICC2012: an optimized multi-parameter and multi-site dating approach for the last 120 thousand years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Veres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The deep polar ice cores provide reference records commonly employed in global correlation of past climate events. However, temporal divergences reaching up to several thousand years (ka exist between ice cores over the last climatic cycle. In this context, we are hereby introducing the Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012 (AICC2012, a new and coherent timescale developed for four Antarctic ice cores, namely Vostok, EPICA Dome C (EDC, EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML and Talos Dome (TALDICE, alongside the Greenlandic NGRIP record. The AICC2012 timescale has been constructed using the Bayesian tool Datice (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010 that combines glaciological inputs and data constraints, including a wide range of relative and absolute gas and ice stratigraphic markers. We focus here on the last 120 ka, whereas the companion paper by Bazin et al. (2013 focuses on the interval 120–800 ka. Compared to previous timescales, AICC2012 presents an improved timing for the last glacial inception, respecting the glaciological constraints of all analyzed records. Moreover, with the addition of numerous new stratigraphic markers and improved calculation of the lock-in depth (LID based on δ15N data employed as the Datice background scenario, the AICC2012 presents a slightly improved timing for the bipolar sequence of events over Marine Isotope Stage 3 associated with the seesaw mechanism, with maximum differences of about 600 yr with respect to the previous Datice-derived chronology of Lemieux-Dudon et al. (2010, hereafter denoted LD2010. Our improved scenario confirms the regional differences for the millennial scale variability over the last glacial period: while the EDC isotopic record (events of triangular shape displays peaks roughly at the same time as the NGRIP abrupt isotopic increases, the EDML isotopic record (events characterized by broader peaks or even extended periods of high isotope values reached the isotopic maximum several centuries before

  13. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non

  14. Uroradiology in 117 year history of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: ‘In order to understand the present and see the future, you must know the past'. This motto, used by Professor Jean-Franois Moreau in his presentation ‘A Century uroradiology in Europe 1896 -1996’, is the occasion, with his consent and participation to complement the presentation not only with what comes as a change in our profession in recent years, but also to celebrate milestones in the development of uroradiology in Bulgaria. One of the major health problems in Europe, not only in the late 19th century, but today is renal calculi. For this reason, five months after the described by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen X- rays attempts to use them in medical practice by urologists namely in seeking opportunities to demonstrate calculi began. What you will learn: This justifies the first phase, covering 1896-1929, has not only uroradiology but of radiology as a whole, in which it is a hobby of the urologists. Summarizing the main points as in the technical development of radiological equipment, but above all the introduction of diagnostic methods, some of which have not lost their relevance and today, this period naturally ends with one of the most epochal discoveries in medicine and first diagnostic method combining morphological with functional diagnostics - excretory urography . The second step, covering the period of 1929-1960, is characterized by increasing further improvement of the equipment, but also of the applied diagnostic methods, as the urologist is still leading in applying these methods, but now with the technical assistance of the radiologist. After World War II, this approach began to change, besides the appearance of chapters on uroradiology in major guidelines in diagnostic radiology, new methods have been developed, and including vascular contrast diagnostic are made and implemented by radiologists. The third stage, cover the period 1960-1980, entitled ‘Fathers of uroradiology’ account entry of CT low-osmolar nonionic

  15. Fifty years of IAA History Symposia (1967-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Hall, R. Cargill

    2017-05-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Symposia on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics have been held annually at the International Astronautical Congresses since 1967. During these past 50 years nearly 800 papers have been presented and subsequently published in the proceedings. With a 20-year rule imposed for historical presentations, the first 10 symposia concentrated on pre-World War II and early 1950s activities. A surprisingly large number of papers on early, less well-known Soviet-Russian contributions to rocketry and astronautics were presented in the first symposia, despite the ongoing Space Race between the U.S and USSR. Another important element in these symposia involved memoir papers offered by pre- and post-war rocket and astronautics pioneers from many countries, and the participation of many of these pioneers in person. In sum, the history of national space and rocket projects from some 40 countries were presented over the years in IAA History Symposia. These 50 symposia have provided a platform for scholars and professional and non-professional historians to meet and discuss the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to personally interview many space pioneers, most of whom today are deceased. Their personal recollections have since been shared with a large audience. Over time, IAA history papers divided into recognizable periods: ancient times through the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries, which separate among actions and events that took place before 1945, in 1945 to 1957, and after 1957 (which marked the beginning of the space age). Proceedings of the IAA History Symposia have been published in English, ultimately in the History Series of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and its publishing arm, Univelt Inc., under an agreement secured with the IAA. This paper presents an overview of the IAA History Symposia. It examines the early years of the history committee and its first symposium, the evolution of

  16. Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kogawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2016 the synthetic detergents complete 100 years and in this story they evolved as cleaners. They are already part of the routine of thousands of people worldwide. For a higher power of cleaning of the detergent, today, are added phosphates, the main responsible for environmental problems. After 100 years of synthetic detergents, the effect of the combination of various cleaners on the environment is a gap. Legislation and guidelines about the other components of the formula of cleaners still missing. Even the term biodegradable can be best placed on the diversity of products currently entitled biodegradable. A lot attitudes can still be taken to continuously improve the relationship between the parties involved, animals, plants, waters and men, so that in another 100 years continues to exist this interaction with the environment without destroying it. The marketing used by synthetic detergent companies evolved a lot over the years and showed maturity to deal with changes in theories and strategies for promotion and even with the constant social reform that its consumer lived, accompanying them intelligently to be able to capture their changing needs and desires, and so assemble the best way to connect to them. This paper focuses on the subject synthetic detergents as well as (i types and applications, (ii threats, (iii sustainability, (iv legislation, (v packaging and (vi marketing strategies.

  17. Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Cernic, Beatriz Gamberini; do Couto, Leandro Giovanni Domingos; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2017-09-01

    In the year 2016 the synthetic detergents complete 100 years and in this story they evolved as cleaners. They are already part of the routine of thousands of people worldwide. For a higher power of cleaning of the detergent, today, are added phosphates, the main responsible for environmental problems. After 100 years of synthetic detergents, the effect of the combination of various cleaners on the environment is a gap. Legislation and guidelines about the other components of the formula of cleaners still missing. Even the term biodegradable can be best placed on the diversity of products currently entitled biodegradable. A lot attitudes can still be taken to continuously improve the relationship between the parties involved, animals, plants, waters and men, so that in another 100 years continues to exist this interaction with the environment without destroying it. The marketing used by synthetic detergent companies evolved a lot over the years and showed maturity to deal with changes in theories and strategies for promotion and even with the constant social reform that its consumer lived, accompanying them intelligently to be able to capture their changing needs and desires, and so assemble the best way to connect to them. This paper focuses on the subject synthetic detergents as well as (i) types and applications, (ii) threats, (iii) sustainability, (iv) legislation, (v) packaging and (vi) marketing strategies.

  18. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question types…

  19. Brain Science and Teaching: A Forty-Year Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Linda Faye

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the sharing of a record, the personal history of an educator pursuing an interest in knowledge of the brain. Over the years, this fascination sparked the idea to create a course for teachers based on brain science, with a twist. Certain course assignments would require teachers to interpret knowledge of the brain in the context of…

  20. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  1. Student Interviews Fifty Years Later: An Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...

  2. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  3. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  4. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  5. Total Hip Arthroplasty – over 100 years of operative history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Richard Knight

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA has completely revolutionised the nature in which the arthritic hip is treated, and is considered to be one of the most successful orthopaedic interventions of its generation (1. With over 100 years of operative history, this review examines the progression of the operation from its origins, together with highlighting the materials and techniques that have contributed to its development. Knowledge of its history contributes to a greater understanding of THA, such as the reasons behind selection of prosthetic materials in certain patient groups, while demonstrating the importance of critically analyzing research to continually determine best operative practice. Finally, we describe current areas of research being undertaken to further advance techniques and improve outcomes.

  6. Carbon prices for the next thousand years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, Reyer [Tilburg Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Economics; Liski, Matti [Aalto Univ., Helsinki (Finland). School of Economics

    2012-06-15

    Climate is a persistent asset, bar none: changes in climate-related stocks have consequences spanning over centuries or possibly millennia to the future. To reconcile the discounting of such far-distant impacts and realism of the shorter-term decisions, we consider hyperbolic time-preferences in a climate-economy model. Time-changing utility discount rates have unexplored general-equilibrium effects: carbon prices exceed the pure carbon externality costs - the Pigouvian tax level - by multiple factors in our quantitative assessment. The climateeconomy model is rich in details but can be solved in closed-form yielding Markov carbon prices dependent on climate system parameters, damage estimates, technology parameters, and both short- and long-term time preferences. The equilibrium time discount rate is endogenous, and it can justify high carbon taxes as advocated by Stern while maintaining the realism of the macroeconomic outcome, thus providing a solution for the dilemma centering the carbon tax-discount rate debate. The welfare ranking of the policy alternatives is unambiguous: enforcing the Pigouvian tax decreases a consistently-defined welfare measure vis-a-vis the Markov equilibrium.

  7. 30 years history of KINS 1990-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This describes 20 years history of KINS from 1990 to 2010. It starts with enactment and safety supervision of atomic energy law, establishment and safety confirmation of building of nuclear plant, operating of plant and light-water reactor of North Korea, improvement of safety regulation system, international cooperation of nuclear energy safety. The next part deals with system change and safety regulation system, safety regulation of new building of nuclear plant, safety regulation of operating of nuclear plant and safety regulation of extra nuclear facilities. The last part shows the vision, direction of development, prevention of disasters and cooperation for infrastructure of safety regulation.

  8. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    within the field of Old Testament studies since the ground breaking works of Thomas Thompson and John van Seters in 1974 and 1975 (both republished in 2014). The book is divided in three sections: changing perspectives in biblical studies, history and cult, and ideology and history, presenting new...

  9. Modern history of weather service for one hundred years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book describes meteorological history of Korea for a century. It consists of eleven chapters, which deals with the ancient history of meteorologic services, the beginning of modem history of meteorologic services from 1894 to 1910, meteorologic services in Japanese colonial era, meteorologic services in the U. S Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948, transition period from 1948 to 1950, Korean war period from 1950 to 1953, foundation construction period from 1953 to 1960, growth period in 1970s'. period of development in 1980s' foundation construction period for advanced technologies of meteorologic services in 1990s' and leaping period of meteorologic services in 2000s'.

  10. History of Korean Chemical Society for 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This book records the history of Korean Chemical Society from 1946 to 1996, which is divided into five chapters. The first chapter breaks the history into periodic characteristics. The second chapter introduces committee and executive office like chemical education committee and international cooperation committee. The third chapter lists the department of KCS such as departments of organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, industrial chemistry, biochemistry and physical chemistry. The fourth chapter reports each branch of KCS. The last chapter has a chronological table and articles of association and organizations.

  11. Ontong Java volcanism initiated long-term climate warming that caused substantial changes in terrestrial vegetation several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a (Early Aptian, Cretaceous)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christina E.; Hochuli, Peter A.; Giorgioni, Martino; Garcia, Therese I.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Weissert, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    During Cretaceous times, several intense volcanic episodes are proposed as trigger for episodic climate warming, for changes in marine circulation patterns and for elevated marine productivity, which resulted in the widespread black shale deposits of the Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE). In the sediments underlying the early Aptian OAE1a black shales, a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion is recorded. Its origin had long been controversial (e.g. Arthur, 2000; Jahren et al., 2001) before recent studies attributed it to the Ontong Java volcanism (Méhay et al., 2009; Tejada et al., 2009). Volcanic outgassing results in an increased pCO2 and should lead to a rise in global temperatures. We therefore investigated if the volcanically-induced increase in pCO2 at the onset of OAE1a in the early Aptian led to a temperature rise that was sufficient to affect terrestrial vegetation assemblages. In order to analyse changes in terrestrial palynomorph assemblages, we examined 15 samples from 12 black shale horizons throughout the early Aptian negative C-isotope spike interval of the Pusiano section (Maiolica Formation; N-Italy). These sediments were deposited at the southern continental margin of the alpine Tethys Ocean and have been bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated by Channell et al. (1995). In order to obtain a continuous palynological record of the negative C-isotope spike interval and the base of OAE1a, we combined this pre-OAE1a interval of Pusiano with the OAE1a interval of the nearby Cismon section (Hochuli et al., 1999). The sporomorph assemblages at the base of this composite succession feature abundant bisaccate pollen, which reflects a warm-temperate climate. Rather arid conditions are inferred from low trilete spore percentages. Several tens of thousand years before the onset of OAE1a, C-isotope values started to decrease. Some thousand years later, bisaccate pollen began to decrease, whereas an increase of Classopollis spp. and Araucariacites spp

  12. Brighter than a thousand suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungk, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This fascinating tangible report applies to all, who live face to face with the greatest danger of the 20th century. It describes the history of the atomic bomb as ''a history of real men'', who were in the summer 1939 yet able to prevent the construction of atomic bombs and the opportunity pass unused: They were moralically and politically out of touch with the threatening new invention. Jungk spreads an overwhelming material, opens up hitherto inaccessible sources, and explains in exciting way the dilemma of famous scientists, who fluctuate between the urge to research and moral distress. What has begun in the the twenties as collegial team work of young scientists, developed to a tragedy. Researchers, who felt committed alone to the scientific progress, saw very soon torn into the tension of power politics, and many of them begun to recognize that they have, how the American atomic physicists Oppenheimer expresses himself, done ''the work of the devil''. Despite sharp attacks Jungk is no moral damnation judgement. He wants to know his book understood as contribution to the large conversation, ''which may perhaps prepare a future without fear''.

  13. The first 800 million years of earth's history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is no direct geological information on the first 750 Ma of earth history. Consequently the reported study is based on controversial inferences drawn from the moon, other planets and meteorites, coupled with backward extrapolation from surviving terrestrial rocks, especially those of Archaean age. Aspects of accretion are considered, taking into account cosmochemical and cosmophysical evidence, a new earth model, and convection systems. Attention is given to phase-equilibrium constraints, estimates of heat production, the bombardment history of the moon and implications for the earth, and the nature of the early crust. From a combination of physical, chemical, and petrological arguments, it is concluded that the earth's surface underwent intense volcanism in the pre-Archaean era, and that the rock types were chemically similar to those found in the early Archaean era.

  14. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  15. History of the JAERI linac facility for 33 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nakajima, Yutaka; Mashiko, Katsuo

    1994-01-01

    The JAERI electron linear accelerator will be shutdown and disassembled at the end of 1993. At the JAERI, a prototype 20 MeV linac was constructed at 1960, and was used for the neutron time-of-flight experiments and for the isotope productions. An upgraded 120 MeV linac was constructed at 1972, and was used for many fields of research works until 1993. History of the JAERI Linac and the results of the works made using these facilities are reviewed, and also R/D on the accelerator engineering are described briefly. (author)

  16. [A 43-year-old woman with 18 years history of parkinsonism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Y; Yokochi, M; Ida, A; Mori, H; Shirai, T; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y

    1996-10-01

    We report a 43-year-old woman who died after 18 years history of parkinsonism. She was well until 25 years of the age (1976) when she noted a difficulty in stepping her feet. In the next year, she started to drag her feet. She was treated with levodopa with good response, however, she developed dyskinesia when she was 33 years of the age. She was evaluated in another hospital in 1984. She showed normal intelligence, normal ocular movement, masked face, small voice, small step gait, stooped posture, freezing of the gait, retropulsion, and cogwheel rigidity in limbs. No tremor or ataxia was noted. She received left ventrolateral thalamotomy at that time. Rigidity on the right side markedly reduced, however, she continued to show bradykinesia and motor fluctuations. On August 1 of 1994, she developed fever of 40 degrees C and dyspnea. On the next day, she expired from acute respiratory distress. She was able to walk unsupported until just before her last admission. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC. The chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that this patient had Lewy body-positive young onset Parkinson's disease. Opinions were divided into two groups, i.e., young onset Lewy-body positive Parkinson's disease and Lewy-body negative young onset parkinsonism. Post-mortem examination revealed moderate loss of pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra more in the ventro-lateral part. Lewy bodies were found in the remaining neurons. Lewy bodies were more frequently seen in the locus coeruleus, although neuronal loss was less prominent in the locus coeruleus. The dorsal vagal motor nucleus showed moderate loss of neurons. Otherwise, the central nervous system was unremarkable. To our knowledge, this patient had the second youngest age of the onset so far reported in the literature for Lewy-body positive typical Parkinson's disease.

  17. Concluding remarks: Reflections on the forty year's history of TNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    The History of NATO's TNF policy is much wider than it may first appear, for NATO TNF policy has been the heart of the whole nuclear question since shortly after it was first so dramatically posed in 1945. Admittedly the ultimate foundation of deterrence has been the overarching balance of strategic nuclear weapons between the two Superpowers. These have provided the strategic open-quotes monitorclose quotes of ultimately unacceptable damage that inspires cautious behavior at lower levels of conflict. But if the strategic weapons inculcate the caution, it has been with TNF that the opposing blocs have chiefly tried to harness nuclear weapons to particular situations and manipulate them to their advantage. The key characteristic of nuclear weapons that distinguishes them from all others is their virtually unlimited destructive potential. Powers disposing of large strategic nuclear forces cannot readily, perhaps ever, be deprived of an ultimate capacity to do outrageous harm. If they are to be defeated, it must therefore be by outmaneuvering them so that they yield the essential prizes without recourse to their worst possibilities. If nuclear weapons are to be used in this process, whether actually or by latent influence on particular issues, it must be in some limited form. NATO's TNF policy constitutes the best example of this so far in nuclear history

  18. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  19. 5000 years of geometry mathematics in history and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Scriba, Christoph J

    2015-01-01

    The present volume provides a fascinating overview of geometrical ideas and perceptions from the earliest cultures to the mathematical and artistic concepts of the 20th century. It is the English translation of the 3rd edition of the well-received German book “5000 Jahre Geometrie,” in which geometry is presented as a chain of developments in cultural history and their interaction with architecture, the visual arts, philosophy, science, and engineering. Geometry originated in the ancient cultures along the Indus and Nile Rivers and in Mesopotamia, experiencing its first “Golden Age” in Ancient Greece. Inspired by the Greek mathematics, a new germ of geometry blossomed in the Islamic civilizations. Through the Oriental influence on Spain, this knowledge later spread to Western Europe. Here, as part of the medieval Quadrivium, the understanding of geometry was deepened, leading to a revival during the Renaissance. Together with parallel achievements in India, China, Japan and the ancient American cultur...

  20. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to…

  1. Understanding World Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  2. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    Science.gov (United States)

    This involves the reporting of significant accidental releases of one or more of the regulated toxic or flammable substances from a covered process in the five years prior to the submission of an initial or updated Risk Management Plan.

  3. Fifty years of CERN history in the spotlight

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The programme of events for CERN's Golden Jubilee year was officially unveiled at a press conference on 8 March. The first of these events took place the following day, when the Swiss commemorative postage stamp issued in the Laboratory's honour went on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland.

  4. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  5. Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeque, B G P; Lindeque, A M; Hausner, H; Le Roux, T L B

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between different Organ Donation Organisations. Through collaboration, a dramatic increase in the number of donors was noted over the years. Concurrently, there was a dramatic increase in the usage of different allograft products and now necessitates the development of new graft materials for expanding patient options. As an ongoing concern, the Tissue Bank in South Africa experienced an ever increase in costs to enhance quality/safety controls: increase in historical patient information, documentation and serological testing in a population struggling to control HIV. To date, the South African Tissue Bank has not experienced any untoward patient incidence since the 1960s and currently is getting over 500 donors per year.

  6. Thousand years of epigraphic culture in Roman Hispania: inscriptions, self-representation and social order | Tausend Jahre epigraphische Kultur im römischen Hispanien: Inschriften, Selbstdarstellung und Sozialordnung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géza Alföldy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a revised, updated and considerably expanded version of the author’s article published under the title «La cultura epigráfica de la Hispania romana: inscripciones, auto-representación y orden social» [«The epigraphic culture of Roman Hispania: inscriptions, self-representation and social order»] in the two editions of the volume Hispania. El legado de Roma, [Hispania. The legacy of Rome] edited by M. Almagro-Gorbea and J. M. Álvarez Martínez et alii in 1998 and 1999. The objective of the study is to give a general overview of the history of the epigraphic culture of the Romans in the Iberian Peninsula over almost a thousand years, with special reference to epigraphic problems that the author has been studying for more than forty years, which show first of all that the inscriptions relate to Hispania citerior, while epigraphs appear in Baetica and Lusitania only incidentally. More than 400,000 inscriptions are attributed to the Roman Empire; some 25,000 of them come from the Iberian Peninsula, where the number is continually growing as a result of new finds. However, reviewing inscriptions that have been known for a long time can also yield important new information. Amongst the most recent epigraphic finds are documents of major importance such as the lex Irnitana, the new fragment of the lex Ursonensis, the Tabula Siarensis, the Senatus consultum de Cnaeo Pisone patre and recently the edict by Augustus found in El Bierzo and the lex rivi Hiberiensis. A new edition of volume II of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is justified to classify the vast number of inscriptions in Hispania (the last supplement to appear is: CIL II2, Pars XIV, Conventus Tarraconensis, Fasc. 2, Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco, 2011. The oldest lapidary inscription from Roman Hispania and the whole of the Roman West is the inscription dedicated to Menrva, i.e., to Minerva, in Tarraco during the second Punic war. There are relatively

  7. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients.

  8. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Exploring Medieval European Society with Chess: An Engaging Activity for the World History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotti, John; Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    In a typical high school World History course, the teacher must teach thousands of years of human history in one year, thus making it the most comprehensive history course offered in school. Given the extended content requirements in a World History course, individual topics are given little time before the class must "move on" to the…

  10. RMP Guidance for Chemical Distributors - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five year accident history must be completed for each covered process, and all accidental release events meeting specified criteria must be reported in the Risk Management Plan (RMP) for that process.

  11. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care).

  12. L'etat, c'est moi. Fifty years of history and philosophy of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    I reflect on my fifty-year history as a philosopher of biology, showing how it has taken me from rather narrow analytic studies, through the history of ideas, and now on to issues to do with science and religion. I argue that moral concerns were and still are a major motivation behind what I do and write. Copyright: © 2016 by Fabrizio Serra editore, Pisa · Roma.

  13. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  14. A Short Is Worth a Thousand Films!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Maria Palmira; Blázquez, Bettiana Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The importance of visual input in the contemporary ELT classroom is such that it is commonplace to use audiovisual elements provided by pictures, films, clips and the like. The power of images is unquestionable, and as the old saying goes, an image is worth a thousand words. Following this line of reasoning, the objective of this article is to…

  15. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  16. What history tells us XIII. Fifty years of the Central Dogma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-05-14

    May 14, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 2. What history tells us XIII. Fifty years of the Central Dogma. Michel Morange. Series Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2008 pp 171-175. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/02/0171-0175 ...

  17. History as a Foreign Language: Can We Teach Year 11 Pupils to Write with Flair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Disappointed that the use of the "PEEL" writing scaffold had led her Year 11 students to write some rather dreary essays, Claire Simmonds reflected that a lack of specific training on historical writing might be to blame. Drawing on genre theory and the work of the history teaching community, Simmonds attempted to theorise the…

  18. Screening history of women with cervical cancer: a 6-year study in Aarhus, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemann-Hansen, O; Lidang, M; Niemann, I; Dinesen, J; Baandrup, U; Svanholm, H; Petersen, Lk

    2008-04-08

    To identify possible weaknesses in cervical screening in Aarhus County, 10 years after the programme was introduced, screening histories were examined. A major problem for the screening programme was that 31% of women were never screened and 61% under-screened, the latter group being significantly dominated by older women and high-stage tumours.

  19. Fulfilling the atomic promise: Ten years history gives pointers for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Ten years is a short period in human history, and a short period in the life of an international organization. Nevertheless the ten years now completed by the International Atomic Energy Agency has seen much work accomplished and has brought greater realization than ever before of the promise held out by the atom for peaceful benefits leading to the promotion of peace, health and prosperity throughout the world

  20. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  1. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  2. Rewiew of history lessons during 2001-2012 academic year by the external assessors

    OpenAIRE

    Survutaitė, Dalia; Vaičekauskienė, Snieguolė

    2012-01-01

    Recently a lot of attention has been paid to the search of education innovation and modernization. However in the educational environment empirical data analysis and evaluation of subjects of general education of educational practice are rarely found. This article analyzes quality characteristics of history lessons for years 5-12 in the educational practice, reports of external evaluation of the quality of the activities of country's different general education schools were used. Data interpr...

  3. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E.; Churchill, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  4. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E. [Radiology Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 1AA (United Kingdom); Churchill, Mark A. [Orthopaedic Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  5. Teaching Thousands with Cloud-based GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Michael; DiBiase, David; Beale, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Teaching Thousands with Cloud-based GIS Educators often draw a distinction between "teaching about GIS" and "teaching with GIS." Teaching about GIS involves helping students learn what GIS is, what it does, and how it works. On the other hand, teaching with GIS involves using the technology as a means to achieve education objectives in the sciences, social sciences, professional disciplines like engineering and planning, and even the humanities. The same distinction applies to CyberGIS. Understandably, early efforts to develop CyberGIS curricula and educational resources tend to be concerned primarily with CyberGIS itself. However, if CyberGIS becomes as functional, usable and scalable as it aspires to be, teaching with CyberGIS has the potential to enable large and diverse global audiences to perform spatial analysis using hosted data, mapping and analysis services all running in the cloud. Early examples of teaching tens of thousands of students across the globe with cloud-based GIS include the massive open online courses (MOOCs) offered by Penn State University and others, as well as the series of MOOCs more recently developed and offered by Esri. In each case, ArcGIS Online was used to help students achieve educational objectives in subjects like business, geodesign, geospatial intelligence, and spatial analysis, as well as mapping. Feedback from the more than 100,000 total student participants to date, as well as from the educators and staff who supported these offerings, suggest that online education with cloud-based GIS is scalable to very large audiences. Lessons learned from the course design, development, and delivery of these early examples may be useful in informing the continuing development of CyberGIS education. While MOOCs may have passed the peak of their "hype cycle" in higher education, the phenomenon they revealed persists: namely, a global mass market of educated young adults who turn to free online education to expand their horizons. The

  6. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on">http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  7. The 10 years of history on the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This book reports the 10 years of history of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety which is divided into three part. The first part includes summary, beginning and launching of KINS and establishment and development of KINS. The second deals with inspection safety on nuclear power facilities, protection of radiation and surveillance for environment, safe criterion and development of safe regulation and providing assistance of safe regulation. The third part mentions direction of safe regulation on nuclear power, long term vision and innovation of management, future for KINS. It has appendixes such as a chronological table current condition of budget and human resources.

  8. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  9. The history for thirty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This book gives description of history for thirty years of KAERI. It contains five chapters, which reports the process and development of KAERI, embryonic stage with nuclear energy for peace, the process of establishment of KAERI and building of the KAERI in 1960s, period of growth with change of international situation and measurement of KAERI and launching for KAERI in 1970s, period of technical independence for safe regulation and establishment nuclear safe center in 1980s and prospect on technical development of nuclear energy research like basic R and D.

  10. A MUSIC HISTORY LESSON FROM V. AXIONOVS COURSE IN DIACRONIC PERSPECTIVE: 30 YEARS AGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADRAJAN SVETLANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of a lesson in Universal Music History from the course taught by Vladimir Axionov 30 years ago. It highlights the methodology by which the content is presented, the bibliographic support, the logic of the discourse in each subject, as well as the systemic approach to the topic, including the connections created at different levels — such as ideas, concepts, principles, structures, language, compositional techniques etc. — within the work of one composer and in relation to other composers both during the same period and other periods, currents and trends. On top of that, the article underlines V. Axionov’s teaching skills.

  11. [30 years since the first AIDS cases were reported: history and the present. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůcková, Marie

    2012-05-01

    The 30-year natural history of AIDS disease is presented from the first clinical cases reported in 1981 to the identification of the HIV as the etiological agent of the disease. The priority dispute between Robert C. Gallo and Luc Montagnier over the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus is briefly addressed. The final confirmation of the French priority was provided by the fact that the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2008 was awarded to Luc Montagnier and Francoise Barré--Sinoussi from the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

  12. Plant and equipment division laboratory services series: a ten-year building-maintenance cost history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesee, H.F.

    1976-09-01

    Maintaining a multifacility national laboratory in a safe, reliable condition is a complex management responsibility in terms of budgets, costs, and proper utilization of personnel and material resources. Increasing wage rates and material costs, combined with decreased budgets and aging facilities, create unusual challenges to maintenance managers. A ten-year history of building-maintenance costs, a brief description of the maintenance program, analyses of personnel requirements, cost increase indexes, unit costs, cost controls, procedures, and a brief discussion of alterations and improvements are presented

  13. A Host of Histories: Helping Year 9s Explore Multiple Narratives through the History of a House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David

    2014-01-01

    Described by the author Monica Ali as a building that 'sparks the imagination and sparks conversations', 19 Princelet Street, now a Museum of Diversity and Immigration, captivated the imagination of teacher David Waters. He was struck by the building's potential not merely for exploring the diverse histories of migrant communities in London, but…

  14. Bibliometric Analysis of Female Authorship Trends and Collaboration Dynamics Over JBMR's 30-Year History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Austin E; Fischer, James P; Likine, Elive F; Gudeman, Andrew S; Brinker, Alexander R; Ryu, Jonathan; Maupin, Kevin A; Lunsford, Shatoria; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Loder, Randall T; Kacena, Melissa A

    2017-12-01

    In academia, authorship is considered a currency and is important for career advancement. As the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR) is the highest-ranked journal in the field of bone, muscle, and mineral metabolism and is the official publication of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, we sought to examine authorship changes over JBMR's 30-year history. Two bibliometric methods were used to collect the data. The "decade method" included all published manuscripts throughout 1 year in each decade over the past 30 years starting with the inaugural year, yielding 746 manuscripts for analysis. The "random method" examined 10% of published manuscripts from each of the 30 years, yielding 652 manuscripts for analysis. Using both methods, the average number of authors per manuscript, numerical location of the corresponding author, number of collaborating institutions, number of collaborating countries, number of printed manuscript pages, and the number of times each manuscript was cited all significantly increased between 1986 and 2015 (p authorship trends over the past 30 years and demonstrate those countries having the most changes and where challenges still exist. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Changes of vegetation vis-a-vis Climate since last several thousand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IPSITA

    ... since last several thousand years at North-East India ... of agricultural practices showed the presence of cereal and other cultural pollen taxa. Later, a more humid ... research in southeast Asia, and also to trace the migratory route of flora.

  16. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. Results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent’s permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering both parents’ depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms. PMID:28414019

  17. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  18. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Glombitza, and Jens Kallmeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey. Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between theBlack, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the AhlatRidge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.

  19. Essay-writing module for second-year students of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstens, Adelia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from corpus, discourse and genre analysis has indicated that there is significant variation between disciplines in the way that they structure their discourses, in particular their written genres. Therefore, discipline-specific approaches in language teaching have gained much support in recent years. However, few studies have thus far given a systematic account of relationships between disciplinary purposes and writing conventions, or have used such information as input for course design. This article analyses the purposes of historical writing, and relates these to the salient concepts, genres and modes found in historical discourse. In particular, the discursive and lexicogrammatical choices that are available to the historian for the construal of time, cause and effect, and judgement or evaluation are explored. One particular aspect of evaluation, viz. engagement, is teased out in more detail to demonstrate the pedagogical value of corpus-based genre analysis. The findings underscore the assumption that disciplinary purposes shape texts in a discipline, and show that there is a clear relationship between the main purposes of a subject-field and its writing conventions – at least as far as History is concerned. A genre-based syllabus for a writing course aimed at second-year students of history is subsequently proposed, and a preview is given of the follow-up research that is envisaged to evaluate the effect of the intervention as well as to compare it with the effect of a generic intervention.

  20. Tokamaks: from A D Sakharov to the present (the 60-year history of tokamaks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is prepared on the basis of the report presented at the session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 25 May 2011, devoted to the 90-year jubilee of Academician Andrei D Sakharov - the initiator of controlled nuclear fusion research in the USSR. The 60-year history of plasma research work in toroidal devices with a longitudinal magnetic field suggested by Andrei D Sakharov and Igor E Tamm in 1950 for the confinement of fusion plasma and known at present as tokamaks is described in brief. The recent (2006) agreement among Russia, the EU, the USA, Japan, China, the Republic of Korea, and India on the joint construction of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) in France based on the tokamak concept is discussed. Prospects for using the tokamak as a thermonuclear (14 MeV) neutron source are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  1. Natural history of heartburn: a 10-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2011-02-07

    To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.

  2. The joint impact of family history of myocardial infarction and other risk factors on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J M; Feskens, E.J.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the impact of family history of myocardial infarction on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality. Men and women with a family history had an increased risk for coronary heart disease death, irrespective of other risk factors (RR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.17-2.13 and RR = 2.12; 95% CI =

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric history and infertility: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Malik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric (BOH history and in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital for a period of 5 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Quantitative determination of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection was done by IgM capture ELISA in patients with history of BOH or infertility. Results: Out of a total of 441 subjects included in the study, 417 (94.6% had a BOH and 24 (5.4% subjects had infertility. Toxoplasma was found to be more common in females with two or more abortions 52 (76.5%. Similarly in patients with infertility due to Toxoplasma, secondary infertility (66.7% was more common than primary infertility. About 40.3% patients with BOH and 20% patients with infertility had healthy live issues after treatment with spiramycin. Conclusions: Toxoplasmosis is thus, an easily treatable cause of abortions and infertility. All antenatal females and females with infertility should be screened for toxoplasmosis.

  4. One million years of glaciation and denudation history in west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2017-01-01

    The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov......-Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach to all available paired cosmogenic 10Be-26Al bedrock data from Greenland. We find that long-term denudation rates in west Greenland range from >50 m Myr−1 in low-lying areas to ∼2 m Myr−1 at high elevations, hereby quantifying systematic variations in denudation rate among...... different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape. We furthermore show that the present day ice-free areas only were ice covered ca. 45% of the past 1 million years, and even less at high-elevation sites, implying that the Greenland Ice Sheet for much of the time...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  6. Environmental Radiation Monitoring In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - History And Results 25 Years After

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  7. Polycythemia vera: the natural history of 1213 patients followed for 20 years. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    To reassess the natural history of polycythemia vera and to obtain reliable estimates of both incidence of thrombosis and survival for use in defining the sample size for therapeutic clinical trials. Retrospective cohort study of patients with polycythemia who had been followed for 20 years. 11 Italian hematology institutions. 1213 patients with polycythemia vera, which was diagnosed according to criteria established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group and commonly used in clinical practice. All-cause mortality, venous and arterial thrombosis, and hematologic and nonhematologic neoplastic disease. Myocardial infarction and stroke were classified as major thrombotic events, and venous and peripheral arterial thrombosis were considered minor thrombotic events. The number of patients who died and the number of those who had major thrombotic events (combined end point) were used as a comprehensive measure of the benefit-risk ratio associated with the use of myelosuppressive agents. 634 fatal and nonfatal arterial and venous thromboses were recorded in 485 patients (41%); 36% of these episodes occurred during follow-up in 230 patients (19%), and 64% occurred either at presentation or before diagnosis. Thrombotic events occurred more frequently in the 2 years preceding diagnosis, suggesting a causal relation between the latent myeloproliferative disorder and the vascular event. The incidence of thrombosis during follow-up was 3.4%/y; older patients or those with a history of thrombosis had a higher risk for thrombosis. Overall mortality was 2.9/100 patients per year; thrombotic events and hematologic or nonhematologic cancers had similar effects on mortality. Patients receiving chemotherapy died three to four times more frequently than those not receiving chemotherapy. The increased risk for cancer in patients receiving myelosuppressive agents was seen approximately 6 years after diagnosis. In addition, the combined end point, computed as the sum of the hardest

  8. Two Thousand Apples for Our Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegli, D. Robert

    1984-01-01

    The author reports on the efforts to put 4,000 microcomputers into the Broward County (Florida) Schools in a two-year period. He discusses choosing hardware, teacher training, integrating Florida high technology companies' employee requirements into the vocational curriculum, articulation at the secondary and postsecondary levels, equipment…

  9. [1913: A hundred years ago, the Society of the History of Pharmacy was born].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The "Société d'histoire de la pharmacie" was chronologically the first society for the history of pharmacy in the world. It was initiated by a triumvirate : Eugene-Humbert Guitard (1884-1976), a young graduate of the "Ecole des chartes", Charles Buchet (1848-1933), director of an important pharmaceutical cooperative named "Pharmacie central de France", and Paul Dorveaux (1851-1938), the librarian of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. Those three men were perfectly complementary: the pharmacist Buchet was the "financial", the doctor Dorveaux was the "strategist" and Guitard was in charge of the practical realization. To carry out this project, they appealed to men of good will. Finally, on February 1, 1913, seventy founding members gave birth to the "Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie". These founders came from diverse backgrounds. Some of them, such Dorveaux, belonged to the "Société française d'histoire de la medecine", founded ten years ago. Others were members of the Supervisory Committee of the "Pharmacie centrale de France". A third group consisted of university teachers, as Leon Guignard, the former director of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. There was also some archivists and writers, for example Camille Bloch, Ferdinand Brunot and, of course, Eugene-Humbert Guitard. The largest contingent was made up of French historians and collectors, like Antoine Balland and Charles-Henri Fialon. There was also four foreign founders: the Danish John William Schibbye Johnsson (1868-1929), the American Edward Kremers (1865-1941), and the Germans Hermann Emil Schelenz (1848-1922) and Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938). All of them were correspondents and friends of Paul Dorveaux. As Guitard wrote in 1938, Dorveaux office was, at that time, the "world center" of the studies ofhistory of pharmacy. Morever, according Guitard, the new group could have be called "Societe internationale d'histoire de la pharmacie". The term "international" seemed unfortunately too

  10. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P A; Seltzer, G O; Fritz, S C; Dunbar, R B; Grove, M J; Tapia, P M; Cross, S L; Rowe, H D; Broda, J P

    2001-01-26

    Long sediment cores recovered from the deep portions of Lake Titicaca are used to reconstruct the precipitation history of tropical South America for the past 25,000 years. Lake Titicaca was a deep, fresh, and continuously overflowing lake during the last glacial stage, from before 25,000 to 15,000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr B.P.), signifying that during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru and much of the Amazon basin were wetter than today. The LGM in this part of the Andes is dated at 21,000 cal yr B.P., approximately coincident with the global LGM. Maximum aridity and lowest lake level occurred in the early and middle Holocene (8000 to 5500 cal yr B.P.) during a time of low summer insolation. Today, rising levels of Lake Titicaca and wet conditions in Amazonia are correlated with anomalously cold sea-surface temperatures in the northern equatorial Atlantic. Likewise, during the deglacial and Holocene periods, there were several millennial-scale wet phases on the Altiplano and in Amazonia that coincided with anomalously cold periods in the equatorial and high-latitude North Atlantic, such as the Younger Dryas.

  11. Reflections on the history of indoor air science, focusing on the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, J

    2017-07-01

    The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air. Topics of concern were first radon, environmental tobacco smoke, and lung cancer, followed by volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and sick building syndrome, house dust-mites, asthma and allergies, Legionnaires disease, and other airborne infections. Later emerged dampness/mold-associated allergies and today's concern with "modern exposures-modern diseases." Ventilation, thermal comfort, indoor air chemistry, semi-volatile organic compounds, building simulation by computational fluid dynamics, and fine particulate matter are common topics today. From their beginning in Denmark and Sweden, then in the USA, the indoor air sciences now show increasing activity in East and Southeast Asia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  13. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state-of-the-art geology, concepts of evolution of interrelated geodynamic and biotic events throughout the history of the Earth have been developed (Fig. 1. Research results on sediments, bio-stratigraphy and geodynamics of the southern fragment of the Siberian craton (SSC, Fig. 2 provide for more or less reliable assessments of the status and evolution of ancient landscapes and biotas from the Lower Proterozoic to the Cenozoic.In the Lower Proterozoic, the geodynamic regime of the Urik-Iyskiy graben was similar to those of the westernpacific island-arc systems, which resulted in the orogen formation and established post-orogen granitoids of 1.86 bln years of age. At the beginning of the Early Riphean, volcano-sedimentary masses were accumulated in continental basins (Fig. 2, 3A. Collision orogenesis also resulted in the occurrence of the terrigeno-volcanogenic complex of the Akitkanskaya suite in the Western Pribaikalie and the transecting Irelskiy granitoids, aged 1.86 bln years, at the edge of the craton. Later on, most probably before the Riphean, peneplanation took place, and a shallow peripheral sea was formed with highly-mature sediments of the Purpolskaya suite. Different environments are reconstructed in the KodarUdokan zone. Sediments of the Udokanskaya suite, varying in thicknesses from 11 to 14 km, suggest a complicated evolution of sedimentation in the peripheral marine basin. Dozens of radiochronological datings of granitoids of the Chuiskiy and Kodarskiy complex which transect the Udokanskaya suite are within the range from 1.7 to 2.0 bln years. From the deposit composition and texture, it can be suggested that the middle, Chineiskaya sub-suite was formed under island-arc conditions; and glacial phenomena occurred in the late Udokan time.Further geological history of the SSC can be described only within the period after the Late Riphean sedimentations (see Fig. 3Б, В. The SSC evolution in the Neo-Proterozoic began with

  14. Big History or the 13800 million years from the Big Bang to the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2017-04-01

    Big History is the integrated history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity. It is an attempt to understand our existence as a continuous unfolding of processes leading to ever more complex structures. Three major steps in the development of the Universe can be distinguished, the first being the creation of matter/energy and forces in the context of an expanding universe, while the second and third steps were reached when completely new qualities of matter came into existence. 1. Matter comes out of nothing Quantum fluctuations and the inflation event are thought to be responsible for the creation of stable matter particles in what is called the Big Bang. Along with simple particles the universe is formed. Later larger particles like atoms and the most simple chemical elements hydrogen and helium evolved. Gravitational contraction of hydrogen and helium formed the first stars und later on the first galaxies. Massive stars ended their lives in violent explosions releasing heavier elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and iron into the universe. Subsequent star formation led to star systems with bodies containing these heavier elements. 2. Matter starts to live About 9200 million years after the Big Bang a rather inconspicous star of middle size formed in one of a billion galaxies. The leftovers of the star formation clumped into bodies rotating around the central star. In some of them elements like silicon, oxygen, iron and many other became the dominant matter. On the third of these bodies from the central star much of the surface was covered with an already very common chemical compound in the universe, water. Fluid water and plenty of various elements, especially carbon, were the ingredients of very complex chemical compounds that made up even more complex structures. These were able to replicate themselves. Life had appeared, the only occasion that we human beings know of. Life evolved subsequently leading eventually to the formation of multicellular

  15. Twelve-year history of late-life depression and subsequent feelings to God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; van der Horst, Marleen H L; Steunenberg, Bas; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Willem; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence shows several possible relations between religiousness and late-life depression. Emotional aspects of religiousness such as facets of the perceived relationship with God can be crucial in this connection. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between the course of late-life depression and feelings about God and religious coping. Longitudinal survey study; naturalistic; 12-year follow-up. Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam; population-based, in three regions in The Netherlands. A subsample of 343 respondents (mean age: 77.2 years), including all respondents with high levels of depressive symptoms at any measurement cycle between 1992 and 2003 (assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and a random sample of nondepressed respondents who completed a postal questionnaire in 2005. Scales on God Image and Religious Coping. Twelve-year depression course trajectories serve as predicting variables and are specified according to recency and seriousness. Persistent and emergent depression are significantly associated with fear of God, feeling wronged by God, and negative religious coping. In terms of negative religious coping, significant associations were observed after adjustment for concurrent depression with a history of repeated minor depression and previous major depression. Late-life depression seems to maintain a pervasive relationship over time with affective aspects of religiousness. Religious feelings may parallel the symptoms of anhedonia or a dysphoric mood and could represent the experience of an existential void. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. L'annee psychologique: history of the founding of a 100-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, S; Segui, J; Ferrand, L

    2000-02-01

    The authors present the history of the founding of the French journal L'Annee Psychologique. The names of Theodule Ribot (1839-1916), Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), and Alfred Binet (1857-1911) are closely associated with the journal. Ribot's election to the chair of Experimental and Comparative Psychology at the College de France in 1888 marked the official emancipation of psychology in France. Because there was no laboratory associated with the chair, Beaunis, a physiological psychologist from Nancy, proposed to Ribot the creation of the first French laboratory of experimental psychology (1889). Under Beaunis's direction, this laboratory was established at the Sorbonne in Paris but was in fact dependent on another educational institution, L'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. In 1893 the laboratory's research was first published in a yearly journal named Travaux du Laboratoire de Psychologie Physiologique (2 volumes: 1893-1894). Binet, who joined the laboratory in 1891, was not satisfied by the form of this publication. With Beaunis's agreement, he then created L'Annee Psychologique in 1894 to develop the reputation of the laboratory's research. The authors present the evolution and vicissitudes of the journal from 1895 to 1912, with a glance up to the present.

  17. Practical applications of injury surveillance: a brief 25-year history of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Garry; Borrup, Kevin; DiVietro, Susan; Campbell, Brendan T; Beebe, Rebecca; Grasso, Damion; Rogers, Steven; Joseph, D'Andrea; Banco, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center (CIPC), jointly housed in Connecticut Children's Medical Center and Hartford Hospital, is to reduce unintentional injury and violence among Connecticut residents, with a special focus on translating research into injury prevention programmes and policy. The CIPC engages in four core activities: research, education and training, community outreach programmes and public policy. As surveillance is an essential element of injury prevention, the CIPC has developed a robust statewide fatal and non-fatal injury surveillance system that has guided our prior work and continues to inform our current projects. The purpose of this article is to review the projects, programmes, and collaborative relationships that have made the CIPC successful in reducing unintentional injury and violence in Connecticut throughout the course of its 25 years history. Retrospective review of the application of injury surveillance. We believe that the application of our surveillance system can serve as a model for others who wish to engage in collaborative, community-based, data-driven injury prevention programmes in their own communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. [A 65-year-old man with history of claudication, palpable purpura and livedo reticularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, N; Kimmel, M; Grabner, A; Ott, G; Alscher, M D

    2010-04-01

    A 65-year-old man was admitted with history of claudication symptoms and painful skin lesions of the lower legs. Physical examination showed palpable purpura of the lower legs and livedo reticularis, most marked at the forefoot and toes. Computed tomography (CT) showed an aortic mass 2 cm above the bifurcation. This was treated after angiography with a covered stent. Biopsy of the skin lesions showed no sign of vasculitis and no cholesterol crystals. The patient was discharged and remained symptom-free for 9 months. He was readmitted at that time with recurrent complaints. CT revealed a subtotal stenosis of the aortic stent. A skin biopsy showed CD31-positive tumor cells in small arteries. Biopsy of a new osteolytic lesion in the ileum confirmed the diagnosis of angiosarcoma of the aorta. The patient decided in favor of palliative care and was discharged from the hospital. Primary tumors of the aorta, although they are rare, should be considered in the presence of an intravascular mass with stenosis to blood flow. A skin biopsy is easy to conduct and often leads to the final diagnosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  19. Studying Africa’s hydroclimate history over the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs De Cort

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water-resource availability is one of the most important environmental factors on which Africa’s agricultural societies are reliant. However, our knowledge of the natural background variability of rainfall and drought over Africa is currently still inadequate to allow a full grasp of the relevant climate-dynamical mechanisms and guidance of much-needed forecasts of future trends. This report presents two new efforts to improve insights into how hydroclimate has varied throughout the continent over the past two millennia. Firstly, a thorough synthesis of data from instrumental measurements, historical accounts and natural climate archives resulted in an extensive review of Africa’s hydroclimate history. Secondly, the focus is narrowed to East Africa, where the sediments of hypersaline Lake Bogoria were used to reconstruct how a variable climate has driven large lake-level fluctuations over the last 1,300 years. Key words: paleoclimatology, natural climate archive, lake-level change, sedimentology, Lake Bogoria National Reserve

  20. Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shane

    2016-02-01

    To document the evolution over 40 years (from 1973 to 2013) of Coolmine Therapeutic Community (Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service) against a background of broader drug policy developments in the Republic of Ireland and elsewhere during this period. Data were gathered by means of archival research within Coolmine, complemented by semi-structured interviews with former clients, current and former Coolmine management and staff, and representatives of outsider stakeholder interests. Coolmines's history has three phases: (1) an early and uncontentious phase, in which external authorities provided financial support for Coolmine without questioning its work practices or outcomes; (2) a middle, controversial phase, in which Coolmine struggled for survival in an external policy environment now dominated by harm reduction strategies; and (3) a final phase in which, through the use of conventional corporate governance, Coolmine management sought to repair its damaged reputation by introducing evidence-based clinical practices. Coolmine Therapeutic Community was established when drug treatment services in Ireland were in their infancy, and its changing fortunes over subsequent decades reflected changing perceptions of what constitutes appropriate addiction treatment-and in particular the role to be played by former addicts within addiction treatment systems-as well as changing perceptions of funding relationships between statutory authorities and voluntary providers of health and social services. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Shaping the History of Education? : The first 50 years of Paedagogica Historica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jeroen J.H.; Simon, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In 1961 the Centre for the Study of the History of Education at Ghent University, Belgium published the first issue of the multilingual journal Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education. This book celebrates its fiftieth volume. In fourteen contributions written by

  2. A Portrait of One Hundred Thousand and One Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    significant lensing effect for one of the galaxy clusters in the field ( CL0053-37 , see PR Photo 18d/02 ); the images of background galaxies around this cluster were noticeably distorted in the direction tangential to the cluster center. Based on the measured degree of distortion, a map of the distribution of (dark) matter in this direction was constructed ( PR Photo 18e/02 ). The separation of unlensed foreground (bluer) and lensed background galaxies (redder) greatly profited from the photometric measurements done by Gieren's group in the course of their work on the Cepheids in NGC 300. Assuming that the lensed background galaxies lie at a mean redshift of 1.0, i.e. a distance of 8 billion light-years, a mass of about 2 x 10 14 solar masses was obtained for the CL0053-37 cluster. This lensing analysis in the NGC 300 field is part of the Garching-Bonn Deep Survey (GaBoDS) , a weak gravitational lensing survey led by Peter Schneider (IAEF). GaBoDS is based on exposures made with the WFI and until now a sky area of more than 12 square degrees has been imaged during very good seeing conditions. Once complete, this investigation will allow more insight into the distribution and cosmological evolution of galaxy cluster masses, which in turn provide very useful information about the structure and history of the Universe. One hundred thousand galaxies ESO PR Photo 18f/02 ESO PR Photo 18f/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 526 pix - 93k] [Full-Res - JPEG: 756 x 994 pix - 1.0M] Caption : PR Photo 18f/02 shows a group of galaxies , seen on the NGC 300 images. They are all quite red and their similar colours indicate that they must be about equally distant. They probably constitute a distant cluster, now in the stage of formation. Technical information about this photo is available below. ESO PR Photo 18g/02 ESO PR Photo 18g/02 [Preview - JPEG: 469 x 400 pix - xxk] [Full-Res - JPEG: 1055 x 899 pix - 968k] Caption : PR Photo 18g/02 shows an area in the outer regions of NGC 300. Disks of spiral

  3. Reconstructing the tectonic history of Fennoscandia from its margins: The past 100 million years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir Wood, R [EQE International Ltd (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    In the absence of onland late Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations the tectonic history of the Baltic Shield over the past 100 million years can be reconstructed from the thick sedimentary basins that surround Fennoscandia on three sides. Tectonic activity around Fennoscandia through this period has been diverse but can be divided into four main periods: a. pre North Atlantic spreading ridge (100-60 Ma) when transpressional deformation on the southern margins of Fennoscandia and transtensional activity to the west was associated with a NNE-SSW maximum compressive stress direction; b. the creation of the spreading ridge (60-45 Ma) when there was rifting along the western margin; c. the re-arrangement of spreading axes (45-25 Ma) when there was a radial compression around Fennoscandia, and d. the re-emergence of the Iceland hot-spot (25-0 Ma) when the stress-field has come to accord with ridge or plume `push`. Since 60 Ma the Alpine plate boundary has had little influence on Fennoscandia. The highest levels of deformation on the margins of Fennoscandia were achieved around 85 Ma, 60-55 Ma, with strain-rates around 10{sup -9}/year. Within the Baltic Shield long term strain rates have been around 10{sup -1}1/year, with little evidence for significant deformations passing into the shield from the margins. Fennoscandian Border Zone activity, which was prominent from 90-60 Ma, was largely abandoned following the creation of the Norwegian Sea spreading ridge, and with the exception of the Lofoten margin, there is subsequently little evidence for deformation passing into Fennoscandia. Renewal of modest compressional deformation in the Voering Basin suggest that the `Current Tectonic Regime` is of Quaternary age although the orientation of the major stress axis has remained consistent since around 10 Ma. The past pattern of changes suggest that in the geological near-future variations are to be anticipated in the magnitude rather than the orientation of stresses.

  4. Reconstructing the tectonic history of Fennoscandia from its margins: The past 100 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.

    1995-12-01

    In the absence of onland late Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations the tectonic history of the Baltic Shield over the past 100 million years can most readily be reconstructed from the thick sedimentary basins that surround Fennoscandia on three sides. Tectonic activity around Fennoscandia through this period has been diverse but can be divided into four main periods: a. pre North Atlantic spreading ridge (100-60 Ma) when transpressional deformation on the southern margins of Fennoscandia and transtensional activity to the west was associated with a NNE-SSW maximum compressive stress direction; b. the creation of the spreading ridge (60-45 Ma) when there was rifting along the western margin; c. the re-arrangement of spreading axes (45-25 Ma) when there was a radial compression around Fennoscandia, and d. the re-emergence of the Iceland hot-spot (25-0 Ma) when the stress-field has come to accord with ridge or plume 'push'. Since 60 Ma the Alpine plate boundary has had little influence on Fennoscandia. The highest levels of deformation on the margins of Fennoscandia were achieved around 85 Ma, 60-55 Ma, with strain-rates around 10 -9 /year. Within the Baltic Shield long term strain rates have been around 10 -1 1/year, with little evidence for evidence for significant deformations passing into the shield from the margins. Fennoscandian Border Zone activity, which was prominent from 90-60 Ma, was largely abandoned following the creation of the Norwegian Sea spreading ridge, and with the exception of the Lofoten margin, there is subsequently very little evidence for deformation passing into Fennoscandia. Renewal of modest compressional deformation in the Voering Basin suggest that the 'Current Tectonic Regime' is of Quaternary age although the orientation of the major stress axis has remained approximately consistent since around 10 Ma. The past pattern of changes suggest that in the geological near-future variations are to be anticipated in the magnitude rather

  5. [2000 year history of tonsillectomy. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, highlighted by instruments from the collection of the German Medical History Museum in Ingolstadt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1997-12-01

    The etymology of the anatomical terms and their use in history are elucidated: "Tonsil" (from Latin tonsa = the oar) in use since Celsus (about 40 AD). The Greek terms of that time, "antiádes", "paristhmia", were not adopted in later medical terminology. "Amygdala" (Greek/Latin = the almond) was introduced by Vesalius in 1543. Vesalius was also the first to depict the tonsils in a specimen of the whole human body; Duverney (1761) gives the first exact depiction of the pharyngeal region. Special anatomical and histological studies of the tonsils were carried out in the 19 century. Cornelius Celsus in Rome (about 40 AD) described the blunt removal of the tonsils by use of the finger. This method was favoured anew by numerous laryngologists at the beginning of the 20th century when it had been realised that a gentle enucleation of the entire tonsil including its capsule was advisable against cutting off a slice, but before long this procedure was discarded again for hygienic reasons. Precursors of special instruments for tonsillectomy were instruments designed for shortening the uvula: uvulotomy. Paré (1564) and Scultetus (1655) devised instruments that permitted placing a thread shaped like a snare around the uvula and cutting it off by strangulation. Hildanus (1646), Scultetus (1655) and Heister (1763) presented an instrument of the guillotine-type for uvulotomy. This instrument was modified by P. S. Physick (USA 1828) and used for tonsillotomy. It became the prototype for a number of similar instruments which were to follow: W. M. F. Fahnestock (USA 1832). M. Mackenzie (London 1880), G. Sluder (USA 1911). Besides these guillotines snares were also perfected and used for tonsillotomy, e.g. by W. Brünings (1908). The concentration on tonsillotomy aimed at performing the operation as quickly as possible, especially in children, as it was not yet possible to sustain general anaesthesia for a longer period of time while doing surgery in the pharynx. The operation of

  6. The natural history of Becker expandable breast implants: a single-center 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindali, Katia; Davis, Marcus; Mughal, Maleeha; Orkar, Kusu S

    2013-09-01

    Use of Becker expandable breast implants in single-stage breast surgery is a well-established technique; however, replacement with fixed-volume implants is common. The authors sought to analyze the long-term natural history of these implants over a wide range of surgical indications. A retrospective review of 330 consecutive patients who underwent 384 Becker expander breast reconstructions over a 10-year period in a dedicated plastic surgery unit was undertaken. Implant indication, Becker type, volume and site, complications, expander lifespan, and explant reasons were assessed. Two hundred twenty-eight patients (267 implants) and 102 patients (117 implants) underwent implantation for congenital deformities and breast cancer reconstruction, respectively. One hundred eighty-seven (48 percent) were explanted at a median period of 13.0 months (range, 9.0 to 26.0 months), 149 (39 percent) for aesthetic reasons and 38 (10 percent) for complications. Complication rates were higher in breast cancer reconstruction compared with congenital patients (19.6 percent versus 7.9 percent; p = 0.002), driven by an increased rate of wound complications (13.7 percent versus 4.4 percent; p = 0.003). Cancer-related surgery and advancing age were the only predictors of complication risk. The overall Becker expander retention rate was 24.9 percent and 46.8 percent at 150 months in the cancer reconstruction and congenital groups, respectively. Forty-seven percent of Becker implants were retained long term after congenital corrective surgery; only 25 percent were retained after postmastectomy reconstruction. Poor aesthetics was driving the exchange for fixed-volume implants, indicating that after breast cancer reconstruction, Becker expanders were being used as part of a two-stage reconstructive strategy.

  7. The natural history of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A in adults: a 5-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhamme, Camiel; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; de Haan, Rob J.; de Visser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A is the most prevalent hereditary demyelinating polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural history of the disease in adults during a 5-year follow-up and to compare the changes over time with those found in normal ageing. In a cohort of 46 adult

  8. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: "A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are…

  9. Visual Thinking in Teaching History: Reading the Visual Thinking Skills of 12 Year-Old Pupils in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Gulcin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the visual thinking skills of some sixth grade (12-13 year-old) primary pupils who created visual interpretations during history courses. Pupils drew pictures describing historical scenes or events based on visual sources. They constructed these illustrations by using visual and written primary and secondary sources in…

  10. Thousands of cold anti-atoms produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The antimatter factory delivers its first major results. ATHENA has just produced thousands of anti-atoms. This is the result of techniques developed by ATRAP and ATHENA, the two collaborations aiming to study antihydrogen.

  11. Using Event-history Analysis: Lessons from Fifteen Years of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bourdais, Céline

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishInnovative statistical methods and new longitudinal surveys paved the way forthe widespread use of event-history analysis in social science during the last two decades. This paperdoes not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of these innovative methods. More modestly, it aimsat identifying and describing the problems encountered by two privileged users. Two types of problemsare discussed here. The first arises from the design of the surveys, or the way data are collected,and the difficulty in testing specific hypotheses with the existing databases. This is the kind ofproblem that Le Bordais has faced in analyzing family dynamics. The second has to do with thelimitations of the survival regression models when the longitudinal phenomena studied can no longerproperly be thought of as a small number of unique events. This is the type of problem enountered byRenaud in his ten-year Quebec panel sturvey of new immigrants.FrenchLes avancées récentes de la statistique et le développement de nouvellesenquêtes longitudinales ont suscité un engouement pour l’analyse des transitionsen sciences sociales au cours des deux dernières décennies. Cet article necherche pas à présenter une revue exhaustive des progrès qui ont été réalisésgrâce à l’utilisation de cette méthode d’analyse statistique. Plus modestement, iltente d’identifier et de décrire les problèmes rencontrés par deux chercheurs lorsde l’application de l’analyse des transitions. Deux types de problèmes sontdiscutés ici. Le premier est lié à la structure des enquêtes, soit à la nature mêmedes données recueillies, et à la difficulté de tester certaines hypothèses à partirdes bases de données existantes; c’est le type de problème rencontré par LeBourdais dans ses travaux sur la dynamique familiale. Le second tient auxlimites des modèles de l’analyse des transitions quand les phénomènes étudiésne peuvent plus être conceptualisés comme

  12. Chapter 1. Valles Caldera National Preserve land use history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt F. Anschuetz

    2007-01-01

    The land use history of the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) extends back over thousands of years. Few known archaeological properties in the Valles Caldera date to the Paleoindian period (10000/9500–5500 B.C.). These finds include the recent discovery, during ongoing archaeological studies (Dr. Bob Parmeter, personal communication, VCNP, Los Alamos, 2005), of...

  13. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  14. Reconsidering a Classic: Assessing the History of Women's Higher Education a Dozen Years after Barbara Solomon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Linda

    1997-01-01

    A critique of Barbara Miller Solomon's 1985 book "In the Company of Educated Women" identifies its ground-breaking contributions but shows how it limited women's educational history by overemphasizing access to higher education and neglecting wider influences such as economics, women's occupational choices, and women's status in society.…

  15. Histories of Cyprus : the disputed years of Ottoman Rule 1571-1878

    OpenAIRE

    Smilden, Jan-Erik

    2007-01-01

    Summary Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots have their respective versions of the history of Cyprus during the Ottoman rule from 1571 to 1878. This thesis examines how this period is presented and constructed by present Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot historians.

  16. Introduction: A brief journey through the 80 year history of the International Association of Schools of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaders of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW have played major roles in shaping the organization over its 80 year history. This brief introduction will put their roles in the context of the organization’s history. While influenced by its presidents in significant ways, the organization’s trajectory has also been affected by the political, economic and social developments of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st. Significant changes have occurred in the organization and in social work education, yet, as Feustel (2006 observed, “the history of the IASSW demonstrates lines of continuity that are even more remarkable for the fact that it was caught up in the great historical ruptures of the 20th century” (p. 3.

  17. Rewriting rural community and dictatorial history through magical realism in Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abu Shahid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Márquez was greatly influenced by his grandmother’s story-telling ability, and was highly indebted to the socio-political history of Latin America, particularly Colombia. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, he wants to reconstruct the lost world of childhood by using magical realism which gives expression to the world-view of a rural people who live in isolation from modern world. By retelling the official history from the perspective of the oppressed, he reveals the fact that history is never factual and impartial but serves the interest of those who write it. Through the banana company massacre and the subsequent hide and seek over the number of dead workers, Márquez exposes the way official history becomes fabricated and distorted by authorities, and fails to provide the original occurrences. He was disgusted with the political violence and civil wars which had distraught people; he was also against capitalism, scientific and technological inventions, and so-called modernization, which are the means through which foreign culture brings corruption and brutality, dominates, exploits and oppresses the natives, and threatens the native culture and identity. By employing magical realism, he was able to recreate Colombian history to protest against the way capitalism dominated the socio-political and economic structure of the region.

  18. Impacts and tectonism in Earth and moon history of the past 3800 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The moon's surface, unlike the Earth's, displays a comparatively clear record of its past bombardment history for the last 3800 Myr, the time since active lunar tectonism under the massive premare bombardment ended. From Baldwin's (1987) tabulation of estimated ages for a representative sample of large lunar craters younger than 3800 Ma, six major cratering episodes can be discerned. These six bombardment episodes, which must have affected the Earth too, appear to match in time the six major episodes of orogenic tectonism on Earth, despite typical resolution errors of +/- 100 Myr and the great uncertainties of the two chronologies. Since more highly resolved events during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras suggest the same correlation, it is possible that large impacts have influenced plate tectonics and other aspects of geologic history, perhaps by triggering flood basalt eruptions.

  19. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  20. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadziabdic, D.; Vito, L.; Windham, M. T.; Pscheidt, J. W.; Trigiano, R. N.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 75-87 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Thousand cankers disease * Juglans nigra * Geosmithia morbida Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2014

  1. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J.P. [University Louis Pasteur, 63 Rue Saint Urbain 67100 Strasbourg (France)

    1999-09-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  2. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  3. From Melusine to MINATEC. 1956-2006. 50 years of CENG history, which has become CEA-Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This book, fully illustrated, relates 50 years of history of the nuclear research center of Grenoble (CENG), which is today the CEA-Grenoble. The book follows the chronological order, from the building up of the research center and of the Melusine reactor in the 1950's to the first steps in microelectronic research in the 1960's and to the creation in 2003 of MINATEC the first European research center on micro- and nano-technologies. (J.S.)

  4. Fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and history of falls in elderly women: a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihlborg, A; Englund, M; Åkesson, K; Gerdhem, P

    2015-08-01

    In a large cohort of elderly women followed for 10 years, we found that balance, gait speed, and self-reported history of fall independently predicted fracture. These clinical risk factors are easily evaluated and therefore advantageous in a clinical setting. They would improve fracture risk assessment and thereby also fracture prevention. The aim of this study was to identify additional risk factors for osteoporosis-related fracture by investigating the fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and self-reported history of falls. In the population-based Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study (OPRA), 1044 women were recruited at the age of 75 and followed for 10 years. At inclusion, knee extension force, standing balance, gait speed, and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined. Falls the year before investigation was assessed by questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine fracture hazard ratios (HR) with BMD, history of fracture, BMI, smoking habits, bisphosphonate, vitamin D, glucocorticoid, and alcohol use as covariates. Continuous variables were standardized and HR shown for each standard deviation change. Of all women, 427 (41%) sustained at least one fracture during the 10-year follow-up. Failing the balance test had an HR of 1.98 (1.18-3.32) for hip fracture. Each standard deviation decrease in gait speed was associated with an HR of 1.37 (1.14-1.64) for hip fracture. Previous fall had an HR of 1.30 (1.03-1.65) for any fracture; 1.39 (1.08-1.79) for any osteoporosis-related fracture; and 1.60 (1.03-2.48) for distal forearm fracture. Knee extension force did not show fracture predictability. The balance test, gait speed test, and self-reported history of fall all hold independent fracture predictability. Consideration of these clinical risk factors for fracture would improve the fracture risk assessment and subsequently also fracture prevention.

  5. Gathering the forgotten voices: an oral history of the CFHT's early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laychak, Mary Beth; Bryson, Liz

    2011-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6 meter telescopes in the world that remains in the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  6. Critical assembly: a technical history of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer years, 1943-1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddeson, Lillian; Henriksen, P.W.; Meade, R.A.; Westfall, Catherine.

    1993-01-01

    This book sets out the history of the technical developments at the Los Alamos Laboratory which produced the first atomic bombs. Based on both classified and unclassified material it looks at the methodology of the research at Los Alamos. The research and development which led to the implosion and gun weapons, the research that enabled physics, chemistry and metallurgy that enabled scientists to design the weapons and to conceive the idea of the thermonuclear bomb are all chronicled. The methodology of the 'big science' carried out in national laboratories is studied. (UK)

  7. Critical assembly: a technical history of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer years, 1943-1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoddeson, Lillian; Henriksen, P.W.; Meade, R.A.; Westfall, Catherine.

    1993-01-01

    This book sets out the history of the technical developments at the Los Alamos Laboratory which produced the first atomic bombs. Based on both classified and unclassified material it looks at the methodology of the research at Los Alamos. The research and development which led to the implosion and gun weapons, the research that enabled physics, chemistry and metallurgy that enabled scientists to design the weapons and to conceive the idea of the thermonuclear bomb are all chronicled. The methodology of the 'big science' carried out in national laboratories is studied. (UK).

  8. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Thompson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives: The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design: The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact: Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%. The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively. Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement, but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001. Conclusion: A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied.

  9. From hundreds to thousands: Widening the normal human Urinome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Santucci

    2014-12-01

    The data are related to Santucci et al. (in press [1] and available both here and at ChorusProject.org under project name “From hundreds to thousands: widening the normal human Urinome”. The material supplied to Chorus Progect.org includes technical MS spectra data only.

  10. 47 CFR 52.20 - Thousands-block number pooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aligned with any particular telecommunication industry segment, and shall comply with the same neutrality... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thousands-block number pooling. 52.20 Section 52.20 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  11. The Hospital de Santiago in Cuenca: an institution with 800 years history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Solís García del Pozo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hospital de Santiago in the city of Cuenca is one of the Spanish healthcare institutions that has maintained its activity for a longer time. Initially, this hospital was an institution for the redemption of captives in a border area of the kingdom of Castile with Al-Andalus, later it functioned as a hospital for the sick poor, maintaining its assistance activity despite the different destructions that the building has gone throughout its history. Currently, the hospital is a geriatric residence. Historical studies on hospitals have extended their scope of action, leaving the particular scope of institutional functioning and entering into areas as the hospital's relationship with the political, religious, social and economic environment. From this point of view, the hospital in Cuenca is still a little-explored ground to study these relationships in a city in interior Spain during a large part of the historical stages it has gone through, and especially from the Modern Age.

  12. Naïve observers' perceptions of family drawings by 7-year-olds with disorganized attachment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Goldberg, Susan; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R

    2004-09-01

    Previous research has succeeded in distinguishing among drawings made by children with histories of organized attachment relationships (secure, avoidant, and resistant); however, drawings of children with histories of disorganized attachment have yet to be systematically investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether naïve observers would respond differentially to family drawings of 7-year-olds who were classified in infancy as disorganized vs. organized. Seventy-three undergraduate students from one university and 78 from a second viewed 50 family drawings of 7-year-olds (25 by children with organized infant attachment and 25 by children with disorganized infant attachment). Participants were asked to (1) circle the emotion that best described their reaction to the drawings and (2) rate the drawings on 6 bipolar scales. Drawings from children classified as disorganized in infancy evoked positive emotion labels less often and negative emotion labels more often than those children classified as organized. Furthermore, drawings from children classified as disorganized in infancy received higher ratings on scales for disorganization, carelessness, family chaos, bizarreness, uneasiness, and dysfunction. These data indicate that naive observers are relatively successful in distinguishing selected features of drawings by children with histories of disorganized vs. organized attachment.

  13. All that wheezes is not asthma: a 6-year-old with foreign body aspiration and no suggestive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Amy; Gopalakaje, Saikiran; Eastham, Katherine

    2012-12-12

    The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl, presenting with a 4-month history of wheeze associated with barking cough which frequently became wet requiring antibiotics. Her care was transferred to a paediatrician with specialist interest in paediatric respiratory medicine when she had continued symptoms despite bronchodilators and oral steroids for suspected asthma. Spirometry showed a forced expiratory volume 1 of 79% with no evidence of reversibility. The child was investigated for chronic wet cough. Immunoglobulins, sweat test and chest x-ray were all normal. There was no history suggestive of foreign body aspiration (FBA). Tracheomalacia was considered in view of the nature of the cough. The recurrence of an unusual inspiratory noise prompted referral for bronchoscopy. A small piece of plastic tube was removed from the bronchus intermedius. All symptoms resolved. The importance of clinical assessment to ascertain 'wheeze' when acutely unwell is emphasised. Current literature concerning FBA is reviewed.

  14. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  15. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fa...

  16. Reproductive history, socioeconomic status and disability in the women aged 65 years or older in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Belgin; Ege, Emel; Koçoğlu, Deniz; Arslan, Selda Y; Bilgili, Naile

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are an important physiological and emotional phenomenon in their lives for most women and studies have shown that this process may have a significant impact on their health at later ages. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between functional disabilities in women over the age of 65 and their reproductive history and socioeconomic status. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 543 women aged 65 or over. A general questionnaire and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were used to collect data with face-to-face interview in home visits. Of the women 79.2% have disability. First childbirth was experienced at the average age of 19.6+/-3.3 and the average age at which the women experienced their last delivery was 32.5+/-6.3. Parity was 4.1+/-1.7. Advanced age, being widowed and illiterate, less income, being outside of the middle class and having more than four children are important determinants for later life disability. The study highlights the importance of focusing not just on the short-term effects of childbearing and socioeconomic factors, but also of taking into account the possibility of long-term effects on disability in older women.

  17. The Atomic Testing Museum: Presenting the History and Preservation of a 50 Year Journey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy E, Wade II

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of the premier test and evaluation sites belonging to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a part of the Department of Energy. Founded in 1950, it is a major domestic location for the testing of nuclear components and nuclear weapons destined for the stockpile, the nuclear deterrent of the United States. From 1951 until 1992 there were 100 atmospheric and 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the NTS. Those tests resulted in the development of a nuclear deterrent that helped prevent a world war and played a major role in the final defeat of the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Those tests lead to the development of yield measurement techniques that allowed the United States Government to take the lead in the negotiations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which took effect in 1992, ending the requirement to do routine nuclear tests. This paper describes the walk through the history of the NTS' Cold War battlefield. (authors)

  18. A brief history of 25 years (or more) of infrared imaging radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bernard R., Jr.; Orlove, Gary L.

    2003-04-01

    Modern thermal imaging radiometers are infrared systems usually endowed with some means of making surface temperature measurements of objects, as well as providing an image. These devices have evolved considerably over the past few decades, and are continuing to do so at an accelerating rate. Changes are not confined to merely camera size and user interface, but also include critical parameters, such as sensitivity, accuracy, dynamic range, spectral response, capture rates, storage media, and numerous other features, options, and accessories. Familiarity with this changing technology is much more than an academic topic. A misunderstanding or false assumption concerning system differences, could lead to misinterpretation of data, inaccurate temperature measurements, or disappointing, ambiguous results. Marketing demands have had considerable influence in the design and operation of these systems. In the past, many thermographers were scientists, engineers and researchers. Today, however, the majorities of people using these instruments work in the industrial sector and are involved in highly technical skilled trades. This change of operating personnel has effectively changed the status of these devices from a 'scientific instrument', to an 'essential tool'. Manufacturers have recognized this trend and responded accordingly, as seen in their product designs. This paper explores the history of commercial infrared imaging systems and accessories. Emphasis is placed on, but not confined to, real time systems with video output, capable of temperature measurements.

  19. Lake tourism fatalities: a 46-year history of death at Lake Powell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates tourist mortality at Lake Powell over a 46-year period. To date no comprehensive long-term investigation examining the relationship between the lake environment and tourist mortality exists. A retrospective study was conducted of all tourist fatalities between 1959 and 2005. There were 351 fatal incidents resulting in 386 deaths between 1959 and 2005. Over the 46-year period, the average number of fatalities was 8.4 (±5.26) per year. Out of all fatalities, 282 were classified as accidental, 80 were classified as natural deaths, 13 were suicides and 5 were classified as homicides. Males accounted for 80% of fatalities and tourists aged 20-29 years and 10-19 years accounted for 36% of all fatalities. The highest number of fatalities was recorded in July (74), May (64), August (63) and June (59). Out of all accidental deaths, boating (29%) and swimming (22%) were the most common pre-death activities. High winds capsizing boats and carbon monoxide poisoning from boat engines were common factors contributing to 31 boating fatalities. Fatigue and exhaustion contributed to 22 swimming deaths. Recreational boating and swimming account for over half of all accidental deaths. Tourists visiting Lake Powell for recreational purposes should be informed of the risks associated with the lake environment.

  20. Epidemiological-based childhood headache natural history study: after an interval of six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Sasmaz, Tayyar; Cakmak, Sema Erol; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Siva, Aksel

    2010-06-01

    Headache is a common problem among adolescents, and variations can be observed in headache types and characteristics. The present study aimed to reach 5562 Turkish children who were investigated six years previously in a school-based childhood headache project, and to evaluate their current headache status. Investigators interviewed the available students with structured questionnaires. New and old data were matched and analyzed. The present study included 1155 adolescents (mean age 15.2 +/- 1.1 years), with 582 boys (50.4%) and 573 girls (49.6%). The prevalence of headache was 78.7% (tension-type headache [TTH] 57.5%, migraine 18.6%, unspecified 2.6%). The prevalence of headache was 45.2% six years previously. In the intervening six years, headache prevalence increased and the headache types changed significantly (Kappa: 0.04, p < .01). The most important variation during this time was the significant increase in TTH. Analgesic use was determined in 70.2% of adolescents with headache, with this ratio being higher in migraineurs. In conclusion, there were an increase in headache prevalence and a significant change in headache types over the previous six years. It can also be suggested that new country-based management strategies are required.

  1. The unnatural history of pulmonary stenosis up to 40 years after surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, Judith A A E; Menting, Myrthe E; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Helbing, Willem A.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; van Domburg, Ron T.; Baart, Sara J; Boersma, Eric; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To provide prospective information on long-term outcome after surgical correction of valvular pulmonary stenosis (PS). Methods: Fifty-three consecutive patients operated for PS during childhood between 1968 and 1980 in one centre are followed longitudinally for 37±3.4 years, including

  2. The unnatural history of pulmonary stenosis up to 40 years after surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, Judith A. A. E.; Menting, Myrthe E.; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Helbing, Willem A.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Baart, Sara J.; Boersma, Eric; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2017-01-01

    To provide prospective information on long-term outcome after surgical correction of valvular pulmonary stenosis (PS). Fifty-three consecutive patients operated for PS during childhood between 1968 and 1980 in one centre are followed longitudinally for 37±3.4 years, including extensive in-hospital

  3. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  4. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  5. The history of fifty years of institute of electrical engineers 1947-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This book starts with the survey of a century of Korea electrical industry. It includes a business of electric power and electrical machinery industry. Next, it deals with the survey of fifty years of Korea institute electrical engineers. Then, it enumerates the articles of association, organization, board members, the role of the administrative organization, study and institute business activities in detail.

  6. The unnatural history of the ventricular septal defect: outcome up to 40 years after surgical closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Myrthe E.; Cuypers, Judith A. A. E.; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Boersma, Eric; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective data are available regarding long-term outcomes after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes>30 years after surgical VSD closure. Patients who underwent surgical VSD closure during childhood between 1968

  7. The unnatural history of the ventricular septal defect : outcome up to 40 years after surgical closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Myrthe E; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; van Domburg, Ron T; Meijboom, Folkert J; Boersma, Eric; Bogers, Ad J J C; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prospective data are available regarding long-term outcomes after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes>30 years after surgical VSD closure. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical VSD

  8. The unnatural history of the ventricular septal defect: Outcome up to 40 years after surgical closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Menting (Myrthe); J.A.A.E. Cuypers (Judith); P. Opic (Petra); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); M. Witsenburg (Maarten); A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); H. Boersma (Eric); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Few prospective data are available regarding long-term outcomes after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes >30 years after surgical VSD closure. Methods Patients who underwent

  9. Length limits fail to restructure a Largemouth Bass population: A 28‐year case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Colvin, M.E.; Shamaskin, A. C.; Bull, L. A.; Holman, T.; Jones, R.

    2017-01-01

    Length limits have been implemented by fisheries management agencies to achieve population density, size structure, and angler satisfaction objectives. By redirecting harvest towards or away from particular length‐ or age‐groups, length limits rely on harvest by anglers to maintain a population at or near a desired state. The fish population changes that follow the implementation of harvest regulations may take several years to manifest, so long‐term monitoring may be needed to adequately evaluate length limits. We used an innovative application of cluster analysis to facilitate evaluation of the effects of three consecutive length limits on a population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides over a 28‐year period in Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. A 13–16‐in protected slot length limit (10 years), followed by a 15‐in minimum length limit (MLL; 11 years), followed by a 12‐in MLL (7 years) failed to restructure the Largemouth Bass population due to what we suggest was the expansion of a voluntary catch‐and‐release attitude that started in the first decade of the study period. Various population metrics shifted towards values expected in an unharvested population, and the observed shifts can be attributed to a harvest deficit created by the prevailing catch‐and‐release attitude. Largemouth Bass harvest regulations may no longer be relevant in many waters. The utility of regulations for restructuring Largemouth Bass populations is largely dependent on harvesting attitudes that vary geographically, depending on cultural characteristics and demographics.

  10. Young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy and progressive focal cortical atrophy — What is the diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of disease progression in drug-refractory epilepsy is poorly understood. We report the case of a young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy that progressed rapidly as evidenced by the development of progressive focal cortical atrophy. She underwent biopsy that showed perinatal ischemia and a prominent inflammatory response, including T-cell infiltration and microglial activation. There was no consensus reached on the final diagnosis although the hypothesis of dual pathology (adult variant of Rasmussen's encephalitis and perinatal stroke was considered. The possible role of inflammation in the progression of epilepsy caused by a “static” lesion (perinatal stroke is discussed.

  11. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  12. Academic posts at The University of Melbourne - 28 years of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski-Nankervis, Jo-Anne; Vergara, Edward; Daniel, Deepa; Young, Doris

    2011-12-01

    General practice registrars have the opportunity to undertake an academic post during their training. This 12 month part time post provides an opportunity to train in various facets of the emerging area of primary care research. The Department of General Practice (DGP) at The University of Melbourne (UoM) has hosted academic registrars for the past 28 years. Over this time, some important changes have occurred.

  13. Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Hayward, C. C.; Vieira, J. D.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. B.; Béthermin, M.; Brodwin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Crawford, T. M.; Cunningham, D. J. M.; De Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Lacaille, K.; Litke, K. C.; Lower, S.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Miller, T. B.; Morningstar, W. R.; Murphy, E. J.; Narayanan, D.; Phadke, K. A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Sreevani, J.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M. L.; Tang, M.; Weiß, A.

    2018-01-01

    According to the current understanding of cosmic structure formation, the precursors of the most massive structures in the Universe began to form shortly after the Big Bang, in regions corresponding to the largest fluctuations in the cosmic density field. Observing these structures during their period of active growth and assembly—the first few hundred million years of the Universe—is challenging because it requires surveys that are sensitive enough to detect the distant galaxies that act as signposts for these structures and wide enough to capture the rarest objects. As a result, very few such objects have been detected so far. Here we report observations of a far-infrared-luminous object at redshift 6.900 (less than 800 million years after the Big Bang) that was discovered in a wide-field survey. High-resolution imaging shows it to be a pair of extremely massive star-forming galaxies. The larger is forming stars at a rate of 2,900 solar masses per year, contains 270 billion solar masses of gas and 2.5 billion solar masses of dust, and is more massive than any other known object at a redshift of more than 6. Its rapid star formation is probably triggered by its companion galaxy at a projected separation of 8 kiloparsecs. This merging companion hosts 35 billion solar masses of stars and has a star-formation rate of 540 solar masses per year, but has an order of magnitude less gas and dust than its neighbour and physical conditions akin to those observed in lower-metallicity galaxies in the nearby Universe. These objects suggest the presence of a dark-matter halo with a mass of more than 100 billion solar masses, making it among the rarest dark-matter haloes that should exist in the Universe at this epoch.

  14. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification

  15. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Mike [Chairman, International Committee for NDT (ICNDT) and Secretariat: The British Institute of NDT, Newton Building, St George' s Avenue, Northampton NN2 6JB (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.

  16. A 10-year review of the dose history of radiation workers in the University of Surrey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parami, V.K.

    1991-09-01

    This thesis presents data on internally and externally received doses for radiation workers whose records are kept at the Safety Office of the University of Surrey for the period 1981-1990. The distribution of doses by range is presented and analysed. The patterns of the collective equivalent dose (CED) and the average individual equivalent dose (IED) over the 10-year period are presented. The annual CED is very low, so that even the total for the 10-year period is less than 1 man-Sv. Likewise, the annual average IED is extremely low, well below the average annual dose to the U.K. population from overall sources of ionising radiation. Some relevant aspects of the 1990 ICRP Recommendations are examined and the impact of these to the 'practices' and sources of ionising radiation in the University is given consideration. The results of the 10-year review provide more evidence of over designation of radiation workers in the University. A recommendation is made to reduce the number of workers who are routinely monitored and justification and options are presented. This study is viewed as a useful database which could be of particular importance in the procedure of optimisation of radiation protection in the University of Surrey and U.K. establishments for higher education as a whole. (author)

  17. Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Lombardi, Guido P; Wann, L Samuel; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Frohlich, Bruno; Mininberg, David T; Monge, Janet M; Vallodolid, Clide M; Cox, Samantha L; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahim; Miyamoto, Michael I; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Narula, Jagat; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2013-04-06

    Atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modern human beings and related to contemporary lifestyles. However, its prevalence before the modern era is unknown. We aimed to evaluate preindustrial populations for atherosclerosis. We obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions or populations spanning more than 4000 years. Individuals from ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands were imaged. Atherosclerosis was regarded as definite if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery. Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations: 29 (38%) of 76 ancient Egyptians, 13 (25%) of 51 ancient Peruvians, two (40%) of five Ancestral Puebloans, and three (60%) of five Unangan hunter gatherers (p=NS). Atherosclerosis was present in the aorta in 28 (20%) mummies, iliac or femoral arteries in 25 (18%), popliteal or tibial arteries in 25 (18%), carotid arteries in 17 (12%), and coronary arteries in six (4%). Of the five vascular beds examined, atherosclerosis was present in one to two beds in 34 (25%) mummies, in three to four beds in 11 (8%), and in all five vascular beds in two (1%). Age at time of death was positively correlated with atherosclerosis (mean age at death was 43 [SD 10] years for mummies with atherosclerosis vs 32 [15] years for those without; phuman beings raises the possibility of a more basic predisposition to the disease. National Endowment for the Humanities, Paleocardiology Foundation, The National Bank of Egypt, Siemens, and St Luke's Hospital Foundation of Kansas City. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  19. CELIAC DISEASE IN CHILDREN. A HISTORY CASE WITH ONSET AT THE AGE OF 17 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Revnova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the most common representatives of malabsorbtion syndrome celiac disease has been diagnosed more and more often in Russia. Celiac disease is a hereditary condition with high prevalence and different symptoms called «Great Mimic». The article deals with diagnostics based on testing the antibodies to tTG, DPG, biopsies of the duodenum and gluten free diet. There is given an example of severe case of celiac disease in a 17-years-old boy with weight loss, delayed sexual development and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Gluten free diet and proper treatment led to permanent remission.

  20. The history of healthcare quality: The first 100 years 1860–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Helen Sheingold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st Century, health care systems across the world are focusing policy efforts on improving the quality of healthcare delivered to their population. In contrast, healthcare quality improvement in earlier time periods arose from a series of seemingly unrelated incidents and developments. In this paper, we sequentially review key international historical events that improved health care quality during the years 1860–1960, including innovation in health care financing, care delivery and workforce diversity. The modern nursing workforce of today continues to encounter many of these same challenges across the globe.

  1. On the radiation exposure dose and health management history during 50 years of x-ray working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomihiro

    1981-01-01

    My X-ray working history has become 50 years at the end of April, 1980. At this chance, the following data were summarized; the case numbers of X-ray photographs (517,132 cases), total amounts of radiation exposure dose (66.85 roentgen) and the results of blood test, which were experienced during past 50 years. The amounts of exposure dose during 35 years till 1965 were measured using my own method, which measured the film blackening as 30 milli-roentgen per week by certain standard method. After 1966 till 1980, the exposure dose were recorded using that of the film-badge service of Nippon Hoan Yohin Kyokai. The total amounts of exposure dose during 50 years were about 1/4 of D = 5 (N - 18). The results of blood test during last 27 years were found to be normal values. Then, it is happy to say that my body has been protected completely, from radiation hazard as a result of taking radiation protection and checking blood test always at my daily radiation works. The data of my own experiences during 50 years are summarized and reported in this paper. (author)

  2. One hundred and fifty years of Coulomb stress history along the California-Nevada border, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Alessandro; Carena, Sara

    2015-02-01

    The region north of the Garlock Fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872, Mw 7.5, Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978, the Long Valley Caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and the caldera unrest have influenced the evolution of seismicity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic Coulomb stress change (Coulomb failure stress (ΔCFS)) in the region due to both Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes and caldera inflation in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has an important influence on subsequent events, strongly encouraging faulting in northern Owens Valley while inhibiting it elsewhere. There is also a correlation between caldera inflation and seismicity in northern Owens Valley, evidenced by the west-to-east migration of earthquakes from the Long Valley Caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. Finally, we show that a total ΔCFS increase of up to 30 bars in the last 150 years has occurred on part of the White Mountains fault, making it a possible candidate for the next major earthquake in this region.

  3. New Panorama Reveals More Than a Thousand Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    By casting a wide net, astronomers have captured an image of more than a thousand supermassive black holes. These results give astronomers a snapshot of a crucial period when these monster black holes are growing, and provide insight into the environments in which they occur. The new black hole panorama was made with data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based optical telescopes. The black holes in the image are hundreds of millions to several billion times more massive than the sun and lie in the centers of galaxies. X-ray, IR & Optical Composites of Obscured & Unobscured AGN in Bootes Field X-ray, IR & Optical Composites of Obscured & Unobscured AGN in Bootes Field Material falling into these black holes at high rates generates huge amounts of light that can be detected in different wavelengths. These systems are known as active galactic nuclei, or AGN. "We're trying to get a complete census across the Universe of black holes and their habits," said Ryan Hickox of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. "We used special tactics to hunt down the very biggest black holes." Instead of staring at one relatively small part of the sky for a long time, as with the Chandra Deep Fields -- two of the longest exposures obtained with the observatory -- and other concentrated surveys, this team scanned a much bigger portion with shorter exposures. Since the biggest black holes power the brightest AGN, they can be spotted at vast distances, even with short exposures. Scale Chandra Images to Full Moon Scale Chandra Images to Full Moon "With this approach, we found well over a thousand of these monsters, and have started using them to test our understanding of these powerful objects," said co-investigator Christine Jones, also of the CfA. The new survey raises doubts about a popular current model in which a supermassive black hole is surrounded by a doughnut-shaped region, or torus, of gas. An

  4. [Quality assurance systems and occupational medicine system: an history twenty years along].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Along the last tventy years, in our country the quality assurance systems and the occupational medicine deeply interacted both in theoretical and practical fields of interest at three levels: (i) the need of preventive and therefore of occupational medicine in quality assurance systems; (ii) the need on reverse of quality in prevention and occupational mnedicine mainly in qualification and updating process; (iii) the evidence, proofs of efficacy or appropriateness of different preventive procedures and occupational physician activities; (iv) the connection with European and national legal directives and with technical or good practice norms. Finally we discuss about the role of occupational physician as the global consultant for enterprise, as a mandatory strategic technical figure in a typical multidisciplinary processes as the implementation of the quality systems.

  5. The history of antiretrovirals: key discoveries over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Within 25 years after zidovudine (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine, AZT) was first described as an inhibitor of HIV replication, 25 anti-HIV drugs have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infections: seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI): tenofovir [in its oral prodrug form: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)]; four non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine; ten protease inhibitors (PIs): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; one fusion inhibitor (FI): enfuvirtide; one co-receptor inhibitor (CRI): maraviroc and one integrase inhibitor (INI): raltegravir. These compounds are used in various drug combination (some at fixed dose) regimens so as to achieve the highest possible benefit and tolerability, and to diminish the risk of virus-drug resistance development. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Urinary incontinence persisting after childbirth: extent, delivery history, and effects in a 12-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, C; Wilson, D; Herbison, P; Lancashire, R J; Hagen, S; Toozs-Hobson, P; Dean, N; Glazener, C

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of persistent urinary incontinence (UI) 12 years after birth, and association with delivery-mode history and other factors. Twelve-year longitudinal cohort study. Maternity units in Aberdeen, Birmingham, and Dunedin. Women who returned questionnaires 3 months and 12 years after index birth. Data on all births over a period of 12 months were obtained from the units and then women were contacted by post. Persistent UI reported at 12 years, with one or more previous contact. Of 7879 women recruited at 3 months, 3763 (48%) responded at 12 years, with 2944 also having responded at 6 years; non-responders had similar obstetric characteristics. The prevalence of persistent UI was 37.9% (1429/3763). Among those who had reported UI at 3 months, 76.4% reported it at 12 years. Women with persistent UI had lower SF12 quality of life scores. Compared with having only spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVDs), women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have persistent UI (odds ratio, OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.54). This was not the case in women who had a combination of caesarean section and SVD births (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.30). Older age at first birth, greater parity, and overweight/obesity were associated with persistent UI. Of 54 index primiparae with UI before pregnancy, 46 (85.2%) had persistent UI. This study, demonstrating that UI persists to 12 years in about three-quarters of women, and that risk was only reduced with caesarean section if women had no other delivery mode, has practice implications. A longitudinal study of 3763 women showed a prevalence of persistent UI 12 years after birth of 37.9%. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. A 300-year history of Pacific Northwest windstorms inferred from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Hadley, Keith S.

    2012-07-01

    Hurricane-force winds are frequently allied with mid-latitude cyclones yet little is known about their historical timing and geographic extent over multiple centuries. This research addresses these issues by extending the historical record of major mid-latitude windstorms along North America's Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast using tree-ring data collected from old-growth (> 350 years), wind-snapped trees sampled at seven coastal sites in Oregon, USA. Our objectives were to: 1) characterize historical windstorm regimes; 2) determine the relationship between high-wind events (HWEs) and phases of the PDO, ENSO and NPI; and 3) test the hypothesis that PNW HWEs have migrated northward. We based our study on the identification of tree-growth anomalies resulting from windstorm-induced canopy changes corresponding to documented (1880-2003) and projected HWEs (1701-1880). Our methods identified all major windstorm events recorded since the late 1800s and confirmed that variations in coastal tree-growth are weakly related to temperature, precipitation, and drought, but are significantly related to peak wind speeds. These results suggest wind-induced changes in canopy conditions control tree growth at all sites. Comparisons between the tree-ring record and the PDO, NPI, and ENSO revealed a significant positive correlation between HWEs and neutral to warm PDO conditions and a slightly weaker correlation with the NPI. ENSO events were not significantly related to the occurrence of HWEs. Latitudinal groupings of our sites revealed a gradual and non-significant northerly shift of HWEs until the late 19th century followed by a significant northward shift during the past 120 years. These results mark the application of dendroanemology as a method for characterizing windstorm regimes for multiple centuries.

  8. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  9. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth [Environmental Management Advisory Board, US DoE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  10. Tales from the hundred year history of the American Physical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, H.

    1999-05-01

    The tale to be told on this occasion - a tale only slightly out of school - is that of the punctuated evolution of the APS in pursuing its hundred years old mission, "the advancement and diffusion of the knowledge of physics". For long periods this goal was pursued, singlemindedly and impressively, through scientfic meetings and the Society's journals. However, within a year of its founding, the APS,in concert with other scientific societies, had already "lobbied" successfully for the establishment of the Bureau of Standards. But then all was quiet on the public front until after World War II. Since that time there have been three waves of forays into the public arena. The first, which spanned the "McCarthy period", was in defense of the freedom of scientists to practice their profession across national boundaries; of the right to announce the results of their research even if they trod on powerful toes (the Astin case); and of individual physicists, such as E.U. Condon and J.Robert Oppenheimer,who had been unfairly accused and badly treated. The second wave occurred in the late sixties and early seventies when, initially much pushed by activist members, the Society's leadership came to grips with broad social issues, such as segregation in the South, the Equal Rights Amendment, and, eventually, arms control and nuclear weapons. The third immersion in public affairs, which is still very much in progress, can be characterized as worrying and speaking out on what physics can do for the country (provide authoritative studies on nuclear energy, renewables, directed energy weapons, etc.) and what the country can do for physics (provide more money). Although lobbying for better funding is still a relatively minor occupation of the Society, it raises the question how physics -an elitist pursuit -can be truthfully and effectively "sold" in a democratic and egalitarian society.

  11. Developing and Enacting Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching History: An Exploration of Two Novice Teachers' Growth over Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Budano, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Using artifacts of teachers' practices, classroom observations, and teacher interviews, we explore the development and enactment of 2 novices' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching history. We identify and track 4 components of PCK that are relevant to teaching history: representing history, transforming history, attending to students'…

  12. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  13. [Dermatosurgery and other interventional techniques in dermatology: a more than 2000 year-history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B

    2016-12-01

    Surgical dermatology has probably existed since the first steps of antique medicine, especially for cutaneous cancer excision and wound reparation. Wonderful descriptions of surgical flaps can be found in the Encyclopedy of Celse, a Roman doctor living in the first century AC. Major progresses in local anesthesy were achieved at the end of the XIXth century, allowing the first dermatologists of the XXth century to perform biopsies and cutaneous surgery with a good control of patient's pain. Electricity was introduced in medicine at the end of the XIXth century, and our ancestors dermatologists used it for electrocoagulation, cauterization and electric hair removal. In the « Pratique dermatologique », the first encyclopedy of dermatology published in 1900, many chapters show how important instrumental and surgical dermatology was. Pigmentary changes induced by surgery and other procedures were probably well known then but were less important than troubles due to scarring, which are mentioned in the early literature. Spontaneous or post-interventional cheloids are well discussed in the early works of Alibert, in the years 1810. This article shows that surgical dermatology is far more ancient than the creation of societies dedicated to it in the XXth century. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  14. Management of Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A 15-Year Case History of Two Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, E; Savard, E; Vargas, C; Loison-Robert, L; Cherifi, H; Bdeoui, F; Landru, M-M

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogenous genetic disorder that interferes with normal enamel formation in the absence of systemic disorders. The patients' main concerns are caries susceptibility, poor esthetics, and generalized sensitivity. There is a broad clinical spectrum, from discolorations to consequent enamel alterations. This case report describes the 15-year case study and the full-mouth rehabilitation of two siblings affected by a hypocalcified AI. Clinical Considerations: In these two patients, conservative care with stainless steel crowns and direct composite restorations was undertaken to restore function and esthetics and to reduce sensitivities in primary and mixed dentitions. The difficulties in monitoring resulted in severe infectious complications (dental abscess with cutaneous fistula), important dental defects, and loss of spaces with subsequent malocclusion. In the young adult dentition, they were treated by extractions, root canal therapies, and new restorations: stainless steel crowns for permanent molars, direct composite restorations (with strip crowns) for incisors and maxillary canines (to improve the crown morphology as well as to mask the discolorations and the malpositions), and adjusted composite crown molds using a thermoforming procedure for premolars and the mandibular canines. The main difficulties were rapid tooth surface loss, bonding to atypical enamel, developing dentition, long-term follow-up. Restoring function and esthetics in AI-affected patients is a challenge from primary to adult dentition. Early corrections are essential to avoid dental damage and for psychological benefits. This clinical report highlights the adhesive rehabilitation for anterior and premolar areas and the difficulty of patient follow-up.

  15. The Arthroscopy Association of North America Advanced Arthroscopy Traveling Fellowship: A 10-Year History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, Mary K; Waterman, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    In its brief 10-year existence, the Arthroscopy Association of North America Advanced Arthroscopy Traveling Fellowship has quickly established itself as the paramount educational experience for aspiring young surgeons in sports medicine and arthroscopy. The Traveling Fellowship is structured as a 10-day experience with visits to 3 host sites and culminates at the AANA Annual Meeting. With 4 selected fellows and an honorary "Godfather," the Traveling Fellowship affords a unique and invaluable opportunity to forge enduring friendships and rare mentorships with established leaders in the field of Arthroscopy. Potential applicants can anticipate not only developing their surgical acumen and aspects of clinical practice, but also assimilating key leadership skills, pearls on work-life balance, and a broader commitment to life-long education. The Dr. Don Johnson AANA Traveling Fellowship Alumni Group, named in honor of the two-time godfather and AANA Past President, represent an emerging class of leaders within AANA who are poised to contribute immensely to its mission of continuing medical education and collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  16. A personal perspective: 100-year history of the humoral theory of transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Paul I

    2012-04-27

    The humoral theory states that antibodies cause the rejection of allografts. From 1917 to 1929, extensive efforts were made to produce antibodies against tumors. It was finally realized that the antibodies were produced against the transplant antigens present on transplantable tumors, not against the tumor-specific antigens. To get around this problem, inbred mouse strains were developed, leading to identification of the transplant antigens determined by the H-2 locus of mice. The antibodies were hemagglutinating and cytotoxic antibodies. The analogous human leukocyte antigen system was established by analysis of lymphocytotoxic alloantibodies that were made by pregnant women, directed against mismatched antigens of the fetus. The human leukocyte antigen antibodies were then found to cause hyperacute rejection, acute rejection, and chronic rejection of kidneys. Antibodies appeared in almost all patients after rejection of kidneys. With Luminex single antigen bead technology, donor-specific antibodies could be identified before rise in serum creatinine and graft failure. Antibodies were shown to be predictive of subsequent graft failure in kidney, heart, and lung transplants: patients without antibodies had superior 4-year graft survival compared with those who did have antibodies. New evidence that antibodies are also associated with chronic failure has appeared for liver and islet transplants. Four studies have now shown that removal or reduction of antibodies result in higher graft survival. If removal of antibodies prevents chronic graft failure, final validation of the humoral theory can be achieved.

  17. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  18. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  19. Climatic history of the northeastern United States during the past 3000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Marlon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystem processes that influence Earth system feedbacks – vegetation growth, water and nutrient cycling, disturbance regimes – are strongly influenced by multidecadal- to millennial-scale climate variations that cannot be directly observed. Paleoclimate records provide information about these variations, forming the basis of our understanding and modeling of them. Fossil pollen records are abundant in the NE US, but cannot simultaneously provide information about paleoclimate and past vegetation in a modeling context because this leads to circular logic. If pollen data are used to constrain past vegetation changes, then the remaining paleoclimate archives in the northeastern US (NE US are quite limited. Nonetheless, a growing number of diverse reconstructions have been developed but have not yet been examined together. Here we conduct a systematic review, assessment, and comparison of paleotemperature and paleohydrological proxies from the NE US for the last 3000 years. Regional temperature reconstructions (primarily summer show a long-term cooling trend (1000 BCE–1700 CE consistent with hemispheric-scale reconstructions, while hydroclimate data show gradually wetter conditions through the present day. Multiple proxies suggest that a prolonged, widespread drought occurred between 550 and 750 CE. Dry conditions are also evident during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, which was warmer and drier than the Little Ice Age and drier than today. There is some evidence for an acceleration of the longer-term wetting trend in the NE US during the past century; coupled with an abrupt shift from decreasing to increasing temperatures in the past century, these changes could have wide-ranging implications for species distributions, ecosystem dynamics, and extreme weather events. More work is needed to gather paleoclimate data in the NE US to make inter-proxy comparisons and to improve estimates of uncertainty in reconstructions.

  20. 2000 Years of Grazing History and the Making of the Cretan Mountain Landscape, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy-Bapicot, Isabelle; Vannière, Boris; Iglesias, Virginia; Debret, Maxime; Delarras, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that led to the recent evolution of Mediterranean landscapes is a challenging question that can be addressed with paleoecological data. Located in the White Mountains of Crete, Asi Gonia peat bog constitutes an exceptional 2000-years-long sedimentary archive of environmental change. In this study, we document the making of the White Mountains landscape and assess human impact on ecosystem trajectories. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction is based on high-resolution analyses of sediment, pollen, dung fungal spores and charcoal obtained from a 6-m core collected from the bog. Multiproxy analyses and a robust chronological control have shed light on anthropogenic and natural processes that have driven ecological changes, giving rise to the present-day Mediterranean ecosystem. Our results suggest that sediment accumulation began during the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman period, likely due to watershed management. The evolution of the peat bog as well as vegetation dynamics in the surrounding area were linked to past climate changes but were driven by human activities, among which breeding was of great importance. Charcoal analysis reveals that fire was largely used for the construction and maintenance of sylvo-agropastoral areas. Pollen data allow the identification of three main vegetation assemblages: 1) evergreen oak forest (before ca. 850 AD), 2) heather maquis (ca. 850 to 1870 AD), 3) phrygana/steppe landscape. Rapid changes between phases in vegetation development are associated with tipping-points in ecosystem dynamics resulting from anthropogenic impact. The modern ecosystem did not get established until the 20th century, and it is characterized by biodiversity loss along with a dramatic drying of the peat bog.

  1. 150 Years of Coulomb Stress History Along the California-Nevada Border, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal and spatial correlation among earthquakes in diffuse plate boundary zones is not well understood yet. The region north of the Garlock fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley is part of a diffuse plate boundary zone, which absorbs a significant fraction of the plate motion between Pacific and North America. This area has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872 Mw 7.5 Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978 Long Valley caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has influenced the seismicity and volcanic activity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, interseismic and postseismic Coulomb stress (ΔCFS) in the region due to both earthquakes and caldera activity in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake strongly encourages faulting in northern Owens Valley. In addition, there is a correlation among smaller events, in the form of a west-to-east migration of earthquakes from Long Valley caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. The last event in this sequence, the 1986 Mw 6.3 Chalfant Valley earthquake, controls the location of over 80% of its own aftershocks, which occur in areas of positive ΔCFS and reach Mw 5.7. We also calculate the cumulative ΔCFS on several major active faults in the region. Stresses up to 30 bars and 10 bars respectively have accumulated on the White Mountains (Central section) and Deep Springs faults, comparable to the expected stress drop in an average earthquake. Because no surface ruptures more recent than 1.8 ka have been identified on these faults [dePolo, 1989; Lee et al., 2001], we consider them as likely candidates for the next major earthquake in the region.

  2. 2000 Years of Grazing History and the Making of the Cretan Mountain Landscape, Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jouffroy-Bapicot

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that led to the recent evolution of Mediterranean landscapes is a challenging question that can be addressed with paleoecological data. Located in the White Mountains of Crete, Asi Gonia peat bog constitutes an exceptional 2000-years-long sedimentary archive of environmental change. In this study, we document the making of the White Mountains landscape and assess human impact on ecosystem trajectories. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction is based on high-resolution analyses of sediment, pollen, dung fungal spores and charcoal obtained from a 6-m core collected from the bog. Multiproxy analyses and a robust chronological control have shed light on anthropogenic and natural processes that have driven ecological changes, giving rise to the present-day Mediterranean ecosystem. Our results suggest that sediment accumulation began during the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman period, likely due to watershed management. The evolution of the peat bog as well as vegetation dynamics in the surrounding area were linked to past climate changes but were driven by human activities, among which breeding was of great importance. Charcoal analysis reveals that fire was largely used for the construction and maintenance of sylvo-agropastoral areas. Pollen data allow the identification of three main vegetation assemblages: 1 evergreen oak forest (before ca. 850 AD, 2 heather maquis (ca. 850 to 1870 AD, 3 phrygana/steppe landscape. Rapid changes between phases in vegetation development are associated with tipping-points in ecosystem dynamics resulting from anthropogenic impact. The modern ecosystem did not get established until the 20th century, and it is characterized by biodiversity loss along with a dramatic drying of the peat bog.

  3. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  5. A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudabadi, Gita

    2018-01-01

    The complete assembly of viral genomes from metagenomic datasets (short genomic sequences gathered from environmental samples) has proven to be challenging, so there are significant blind spots when we view viral genomes through the lens of metagenomics. One approach to overcoming this problem is to leverage the thousands of complete viral genomes that are publicly available. Here we describe our efforts to assemble a comprehensive resource that provides a quantitative snapshot of viral genomic trends – such as gene density, noncoding percentage, and abundances of functional gene categories – across thousands of viral genomes. We have also developed a coarse-grained method for visualizing viral genome organization for hundreds of genomes at once, and have explored the extent of the overlap between bacterial and bacteriophage gene pools. Existing viral classification systems were developed prior to the sequencing era, so we present our analysis in a way that allows us to assess the utility of the different classification systems for capturing genomic trends. PMID:29624169

  6. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Nonword Repetition and Fast Mapping in 3-Year-Olds with a History of Expressive Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…

  7. [Preparation of a "chronological table of main diseases in Japanese history" for pharmacy students of the 6-year program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Iida, Kotaro

    2005-01-01

    A chronological table of the main diseases that have appeared throughout Japanese history was prepared for pharmacy students, especially for students of clinical pharmacy in the new 6-year system. In ancient times (even in the 8th century), smallpox and measles prevailed in Japan. Japanese people prayed to gods and Buddha to cure the sick. New infectious diseases, like ruebella, pest, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, etc., prevailed with the increasing exchange of culture from foreign countries. After the vaccines and the toxides were prepared, these infectious diseases were gradually stamped out in Japan early in the Meiji Era. While, public nuisances like the Minamata disease (CH3HgCl), Itaiitai disease (Cd), and atmospheric pollution with sulfurous acid gas, drug-induced suffering (Thalidomide, Sumon, AIDS, etc.) and toxin contaminations in foods have recently increased and produced new diseases. However, these diseases can be prevented if the workers in factories and government officers keep in mind the medical ethics and the ethics for pharmacists to protect the health of people from diseases. Today, cancer, diseases of cerebral vessels, heart diseases, and pneumonia are the four most important causes of death related to aging.

  8. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-05-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of 'clean' nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible.

  9. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of ‘clean’ nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible. PMID:23591504

  10. Hypothyroidism in a five-year-old boy with rhabdomyolysis and recent history of cardiac tamponade: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzana Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac tamponade is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism, and a less rare cause of pericardial effusion. The accumulation of the pericardial fluid is gradual, and often does not compromise cardiac hemodynamic function. There is a relationship between the severity and chronicity of the disease with the presence of pericardial effusion. There are few cases describing associated pericardial tamponade published in the literature. When a tamponade occurs, a concomitant provocative factor such as a viral pericarditis may be related. Our patient's case appears to be the youngest patient described so far. Case presentation We report the case of a previously healthy five-year-old Hispanic (non-indigenous boy who developed rhabdomyolysis with a history of a recent pericardial effusion and tamponade two months before that required the placement of a percutaneous pericardial drainage. Pericardial effusion was considered to be viral. Later on readmission, clinical primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and thought to be associated with the previous cardiac tamponade. He developed rhabdomyolysis, which was considered to be autoimmune and was treated with steroids. The level of creatine phosphate kinase and creatine kinase MB fraction returned to within the reference rangeone week after our patient was started on steroids and three weeks after he was started on thyroid hormones. Conclusions Physicians should consider hypothyroidism as a differential diagnosis in patients with pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion may progress and cause a cardiac tamponade with hemodynamic instability. The fact that our patient did not have any manifestations of hypothyroidism might have delayed diagnosis.

  11. Lower P300 amplitude in eight-year-old offspring of alcoholic fathers with a delinquent history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Wackermann, Paula C; Furtado, Erikson F; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the P300 amplitude as a possible vulnerability marker in children of alcoholic (COA) fathers with and without paternal delinquency. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 122 children aged 8 years (63 boys, 59 girls) were compared depending on father's alcoholism subtype: 30 COAs without paternal delinquency, 10 COAs with paternal delinquency, and 82 children of non-alcoholic and non-delinquent fathers. ERPs were recorded from Fz, Cz, and Pz, using an auditory oddball paradigm. Sinus tones of 60 dB HL were presented binaurally at 1,000 Hz (standard stimulus) and 2,000 Hz (target stimulus), at a relative frequency ratio of 80:20. Two trial blocks of 250 stimuli each were collected. Results indicated that only COAs with paternal delinquency displayed significant differences from the control group, characterized by reduced P300 amplitude at frontal site and in the second trial block. Thus, the combination of fathers' alcoholism and delinquency was more likely to relate to attenuated P300 amplitude in the offspring than paternal alcoholism alone. Our results suggest that both alcoholic and delinquent family history appear to play a role in P300 amplitude reduction in the offspring.

  12. TAU: a design for a thousand astronomical unit voyage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eubanks, D.; Alvis, J.; Bechler, E.; Lyon, W. III; McFarlane, D.; Palmrose, D.; Schmitz, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Lab. (JPL) has proposed a deep-space probe to travel to a distance of one thousand astronomical units -25 times further from the Sun than Pluto. In order to achieve this goal within the lifetime of the investigators, the mission time is set at a maximum of 50 yr. The JPL proposal postulates a design in which the probe is under powered thrust for the first 10 yr of the mission and coasts for the next 40 yr. A continuous high specific impulse, Isp (the ratio of thrust to propellant mass flow rate), low thrust propulsion system (either magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) or ion thrusters) is required in order to achieve this goal. This in turn necessitates electrical power in the megawatt range. The only power source that is practical for this situation is a nuclear reactor. It was a this point that the Nuclear Engineering Dept. at Texas A and M Univ. began its ongoing work, looking into several areas of the proposal in which a more detailed description was needed. These areas of interest were power, propulsion, heavy lift launch capabilities, and trajectory analysis. In addition to all of the boundaries previously outlined, the technology level is assumed to be that of 1995, 8 yr from now

  13. The 'thousand words' problem: Summarizing multi-dimensional data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sophisticated process sensors produce large multi-dimensional data sets. → Plant control systems cannot handle images or large amounts of data. → Various techniques reduce the dimensionality, extracting information from raw data. → Simple 1D and 2D methods can often be extended to 3D and 4D applications. - Abstract: An inherent difficulty in the application of multi-dimensional sensing to process monitoring and control is the extraction and interpretation of useful information. Ultimately the measured data must be collapsed into a relatively small number of values that capture the salient characteristics of the process. Although multiple dimensions are frequently necessary to isolate a particular physical attribute (such as the distribution of a particular chemical species in a reactor), plant control systems are not equipped to use such data directly. The production of a multi-dimensional data set (often displayed as an image) is not the final step of the measurement process, because information must still be extracted from the raw data. In the metaphor of one picture being equal to a thousand words, the problem becomes one of paraphrasing a lengthy description of the image with one or two well-chosen words. Various approaches to solving this problem are discussed using examples from the fields of particle characterization, image processing, and process tomography.

  14. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Biochemist Waldo E. Cohn, Ph.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, the Department of Energy began an oral history project as part of the Openess initiative on the documentation of the human radiation experiments. This paper presents the oral history of Waldo E Cohn, Ph.D., a Biochemist who worked for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project

  15. ICDP project DeepCHALLA: reconstructing East African climate change and environmental history over the past 250,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Van Daele, Maarten; Wolff, Christian; Waldmann, Nicolas; Meyer, Inka; Ombori, Titus; Peterse, Francien; O'Grady, Ryan; Schnurrenberger, Doug; Olago, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-meter deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change. The near-equatorial location and exceptional quality of this natural archive provide great opportunities to study tropical climate variability at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and the influence of this climate variability on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the East African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) evolved and have lived ever since. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered the sediment record of Lake Challa down to 214.8 meter below the lake floor, with almost certain 100% cover of the uppermost 121.3 meter (ca.150,000 year BP to present) and estimated 85% cover over the lower part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector in the available seismic stratigraphy. This reflector represents a 2 meter thick layer of volcanic sand and silt deposited ca.250,000 years ago, and overlies still older silty lacustrine clays deposited during early lake development. Down-hole logging produced continuous profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth scale to both the recovered cores and their three-dimensional representation in seismic stratigraphy. As readily observed through the transparent core liners, Lake Challa sediments are finely laminated throughout most of the recovered sequence. Combined with the great time span, the exquisite temporal resolution of these sediments promises to greatly increase our understanding of tropical climate and ecosystem dynamics, and create a long-awaited equatorial counterpart to the high-latitude climate records extracted from the ice sheets of Greenland

  16. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1989-01-01

    "Boyer and Merzbach distill thousands of years of mathematics into this fascinating chronicle. From the Greeks to Godel, the mathematics is brilliant; the cast of characters is distinguished; the ebb and flow of ideas is everywhere evident. And, while tracing the development of European mathematics, the authors do not overlook the contributions of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic civilizations. Without doubt, this is--and will long remain--a classic one-volume history of mathematics and mathematicians who create it." --William Dunham Author, Journey Through Genius, The Great Theorems of Mathematics "When we read a book like A History of Mathematics, we get the picture of a mounting structure, ever taller and broader and more beautiful and magnificent--and with a foundation, moreover, that is as untainted and as functional now as it was when Thales worked out the first geometrical theorems nearly 26 centuries ago." --From the Foreword by Isaac Asimov "One of the most useful and comprehensive general introductions t...

  17. Balkan Wars in Social Studies and History Course Books Instructed at Primary and Secondary Education between 1997 and 2012 Years

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    1912-1913 Balkan Wars ended with important social, economical, cultural and political results for both Southeast Europe and Ottoman Empire. It is a significant turning point for the history of Turkey as well as World History. Balkan Wars had important effects on from dawn of Modern Turkey to starting of national struggle war and coming fore of national identity wars. That’s why It is a point to be emphasized how Balkan Wars are taught in both Turkish and Balkan history books. Primary educatio...

  18. Mille modis morimur: We die in a thousand ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2017-02-01

    Dying cells subjected to apoptotic programs are engulfed by neighboring cells or by professional phagocytes, without inflammation or immunological reactions in the tissue where apoptosis takes place. Apoptotic cells release danger-associated project signals to their neighbours, through different molecular patterns, stimulate antigen production and immune responses. Microenvironmental effects with several functional consequences indicate that cell death is a complex process and may take place in several ways. This idea is expressed by the title of the Special Issue and by the title of the guest editorial "Mille modis morimur" meaning that not only multicellular organisms, but also single cells may die in a thousand ways. This idea is demonstrated by the papers serving as examples for cell death. Apoptosis was induced by clary sage oil in Candida cells. Heavy metal (Gd) induced cell motility and apoptosis was found in mammalian cells. RNA oxidation enhanced the reversion frequency of apoptosis in yeast mutants. The frequency of apoptotic micronucleus formation increased in a concentration-dependent manner by methotrexate. The antioxidant coenzyme Q10 protected renal proximal tubule cells against nicotine-induced apoptosis. The synergy of 2-deoxy-D-glucose combined with berberine induced lysosome/autophagy. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway could be regulated by glucocorticoid receptor in collaboration with Bcl-2 family proteins in developing T cells. Cylindrospermopsin induced biochemical changes led to apoptosis in plants. Mechanisms of stress seriously impacted the risk of apoptosis. Transcriptional control of apoptotic cell clearance was achieved by macrophage nuclear receptors. Finally, the clinical aspects of apoptosis-induced lymphopenia were reviewed in sepsis and other severe injuries. These examples not only support the view of many ways of cell death, but predict further potential ways to induce or reduce the risk of cell death.

  19. Spintharus flavidus in the Caribbean-a 30 million year biogeographical history and radiation of a 'widespread species'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Austin; Binford, Greta J; Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-01-01

    The Caribbean island biota is characterized by high levels of endemism, the result of an interplay between colonization opportunities on islands and effective oceanic barriers among them. A relatively small percentage of the biota is represented by 'widespread species,' presumably taxa for which oceanic barriers are ineffective. Few studies have explored in detail the genetic structure of widespread Caribbean taxa. The cobweb spider Spintharus flavidus Hentz, 1850 (Theridiidae) is one of two described Spintharus species and is unique in being widely distributed from northern N. America to Brazil and throughout the Caribbean. As a taxonomic hypothesis, Spintharus "flavidus" predicts maintenance of gene flow among Caribbean islands, a prediction that seems contradicted by known S. flavidus biology, which suggests limited dispersal ability. As part of an extensive survey of Caribbean arachnids (project CarBio), we conducted the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of S. flavidus with the primary goal of testing the 'widespread species' hypothesis. Our results, while limited to three molecular loci, reject the hypothesis of a single widespread species. Instead this lineage seems to represent a radiation with at least 16 species in the Caribbean region. Nearly all are short range endemics with several distinct mainland groups and others are single island endemics. While limited taxon sampling, with a single specimen from S. America, constrains what we can infer about the biogeographical history of the lineage, clear patterns still emerge. Consistent with limited overwater dispersal, we find evidence for a single colonization of the Caribbean about 30 million years ago, coinciding with the timing of the GAARLandia landbridge hypothesis. In sum, S. "flavidus" is not a single species capable of frequent overwater dispersal, but rather a 30 my old radiation of single island endemics that provides preliminary support for a complex and contested geological hypothesis.

  20. Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: History of building and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergazina, G.M.; Balmukhanov, S.B.

    1999-01-01

    A vast materials on history of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site creation and it building and function are presented. Authors with big reliability report one page of Kazakhstan's history. In steppe on naked place thousands of soldiers and officers, construct and military specialists have built the nuclear site on which during 40 years were conducting nuclear tests . Prolonged chronic radiation on population living near by site results to tragedy which is confessed by General Assembly of United Nations. In the book aspects of test site conversion and rehabilitation of injured population are considered. The book consists of introduction, three chapters and conclusion. The book is intended to wide circle of readers. (author)

  1. History of Antibiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  2. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. E. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  3. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO 2 and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  4. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  5. [Journal AMHA - Acta medico-historica Adriatica: 14 years of patient work on the scientific valorisation of the history of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eterović, Igor

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the first 14 years of publication of scientific journal AMHA - Acta medico‑historica Adriatica (2002-2016) are presented and shortly analysed. This journal has undoubtedly become and remained the central activity of the Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture, which has rapidly become a globally esteemed journal of history of medicine. The beginning and the context of publishing the journal with the reference to scientific meeting "Rijeka and Its Citizens in Medical History" is presented, as well as the journal's profiling into distinguished international journal and its fast development in later years. The analysis shows the growth of journal's visibility through indexation in different international journal databases, the number and ratio of scientific articles and the variety of published material. Finally, a review of the potential future directions of development and the significance of this journal within the national, regional and international context is given.

  6. Brighter than a thousand suns; Heller als tausend Sonnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungk, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This fascinating tangible report applies to all, who live face to face with the greatest danger of the 20th century. It describes the history of the atomic bomb as ''a history of real men'', who were in the summer 1939 yet able to prevent the construction of atomic bombs and the opportunity pass unused: They were moralically and politically out of touch with the threatening new invention. Jungk spreads an overwhelming material, opens up hitherto inaccessible sources, and explains in exciting way the dilemma of famous scientists, who fluctuate between the urge to research and moral distress. What has begun in the the twenties as collegial team work of young scientists, developed to a tragedy. Researchers, who felt committed alone to the scientific progress, saw very soon torn into the tension of power politics, and many of them begun to recognize that they have, how the American atomic physicists Oppenheimer expresses himself, done ''the work of the devil''. Despite sharp attacks Jungk is no moral damnation judgement. He wants to know his book understood as contribution to the large conversation, ''which may perhaps prepare a future without fear''.

  7. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  8. CAC-RA1 1958-1998. The first years of the Constituyentes Atomic Center (CAC). History of the first Argentine nuclear reactor (RA-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Palacios, Tulio A.

    1998-01-01

    After giving the milestones of the development of the Constituyentes Atomic Center since 1957, the history of the construction of the first nuclear reactor (RA-1) in Argentina, including the local fabrication of its fuel elements, is surveyed. The RA-1 reached criticality on January 17, 1958. The booklet commemorates the 40th year of the reactor operation

  9. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  10. Leiomyosarcoma of the bladder in a 16-year-old girl with a history of cyclophosphamide therapy for bilateral retinoblastoma during infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A.; Kamal, Baher A.; Eldarawani, Hamed M.; Hashim, Tariq M.

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old female with bladder leiomyosarcoma had a history of bilateral retinoblastoma at 6 months of life. She received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy after surgical enucleation. In this report, we discussed the possible role of retinoblastoma or cyclophosphamide as a target for development of bladder leiomyosarcoma. (author)

  11. History of Overweight/Obesity as Predictor of Care Received at 1-year Follow-Up in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Grace A; Forman, Sara F; Woods, Elizabeth R; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Mammel, Kathleen A; Fisher, Martin M; Ornstein, Rollyn M; Callahan, S Todd; Golden, Neville H; Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Garber, Andrea K; Rome, Ellen S; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or atypical AN with premorbid history of overweight/obesity have greater weight loss and longer illness duration than patients with no such history. However, little is known about the association of premorbid overweight/obesity and receiving inpatient medical care during treatment for an eating disorder. Using logistic regression, we sought to determine if history of overweight/obesity was associated with receiving inpatient medical care in a sample of 522 patients (mean age 15.5 years, 88% female) with AN/atypical AN. Binary results demonstrated greater percent weight loss (27.4% vs. 16.2%) and higher percent median body mass index (%mBMI, 99.8% vs. 85.2%) at presentation in those with a history of overweight/obesity (p obesity was associated with lower odds of receiving inpatient medical care (odds ratio .60 [95% confidence interval: .45-.80]) at 1-year follow-up. However, these associations were no longer significant after adjusting for %mBMI. Mediation results suggest that %mBMI fully mediates the relationship between history of overweight/obesity and inpatient medical care, in that those with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive care due to presenting at a higher weight. Our findings suggest that, despite greater degree of weight loss and no difference in duration of illness, participants with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive inpatient medical care. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Past 20,000-year history of Himalayan aridity: Evidence from oxygen isotope records in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Late Quaternary climate history of the Himalayas is inferred from sea surface salinity (SSS) changes determined from the oxygen isotope in planktonic foraminifers, in a turbidity-free, 14C-dated core from the Bay of Bengal. The heaviest d18O...

  13. The natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, and 6: a 2-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, H.; Bauer, P.; Giunti, P.; Labrum, R.; Sweeney, M.G.; Charles, P.; Durr, A.; Marelli, C.; Globas, C.; Linnemann, C.; Schols, L.; Rakowicz, M.; Rola, R.; Zdzienicka, E.; Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Fancellu, R.; Mariotti, C.; Tomasello, C.; Baliko, L.; Melegh, B.; Filla, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Szymanski, S.; Berciano, J.; Infante, J.; Timmann, D.; Boesch, S.; Hering, S.; Depondt, C.; Pandolfo, M.; Kang, J.S.; Ratzka, S.; Schulz, J.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Klockgether, T.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6.

  14. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2003-01-01

    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  15. A thousand years of earthquakes in France. Catalogue of epicenters parameters and references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.; Levret-Albaret, A.; Cushing, M.

    1996-11-01

    Considered as negligible at the worldwide scale and weak at the European scale, the seismicity of the French territory is typical of intra-continental areas with low level of crustal deformations. Therefore, the feedback period of major seismic events is long, and the seismic risk and its consequences on buildings is complex to evaluate. In todays context of urban areas development and because the number of industrial installations and collective equipments is increasing, the protection against this natural disaster even for small magnitude earthquakes is becoming a more and more important task. This statement led the French authorities to take great care of the seismic risk when the French electronuclear program started. Because of the incomplete geophysical, tectonic and seismic data available, a huge program of seismicity revision started in 1975 and has been carried out by the French Bureau of Geologic and Mining Research (BRGM) with the joint financial help of Electricite de France (EdF) and the French Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN). This work has led to the creation of the specific SIRENE database for the collection French historical macro-seismic data. This book is a catalogue of the major characteristics of historical French earthquakes (geographic coordinates, intensities, observations linked and datings) with respect to macro-seismic epicenters. This catalogue is completed by a bibliographic index, a list of references, and statistical diagrams. (J.S.)

  16. The ten-thousand year fever: rethinking human and wild primate malarias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cormier, Loretta A

    2011-01-01

    .... In this pathbreaking book Loretta Cormier integrates a wide range of data from molecular biology, ethnoprimatology, epidemiology, ecology, anthropology, and other fields to reveal the intimate...

  17. Dispersal of thermophilic Desulfotomaculum endospores into Baltic Sea sediments over thousands of years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezende, Julia Rosa de; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Hubert, Casey RJ

    2013-01-01

    S rRNA and of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes within the endospore-forming SRB genus Desulfotomaculum. The thermophilic Desulfotomaculum community in Aarhus Bay sediments consisted of at least 23 species-level 16S rRNA sequence phylotypes. In two cases, pairs of identical 16S r......RNA and dsrAB sequences in Arctic surface sediment 3000km away showed that the same phylotypes are present in both locations. Radiotracer-enhanced most probable number analysis revealed that the abundance of endospores of thermophilic SRB in Aarhus Bay sediment was ca. 104 per cm3 at the surface and decreased...... in water masses preceding sedimentation. The sources of these thermophiles remain enigmatic, but at least one source may be common to both Aarhus Bay and Arctic sediments....

  18. The ten-thousand year fever: rethinking human and wild primate malarias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cormier, Loretta A

    2011-01-01

    ... relationships between culture and environment that shape the trajectory of a parasite. She argues against the entrenched distinction between human and non-human malarias, using ethnoprimatology to develop a new understanding of cross-species exchange...

  19. High-level-waste containment for a thousand years: unique technical and research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    In the United States the present policy for disposal of high level nuclear wastes is focused on isolation of solidified wastes in a mined geologic repository. Safe isolation is to be achieved by utilizing both natural and man-made barriers which will act in concert to assure the overall conservative performance of the disposal system. The incorporation of predictable man-made barriers into the waste disposal strategy has generated some new and unique problems for the scientific community

  20. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  1. Ten Thousand Years of Environment Assessment Using Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, K.; Ide-Ektessabi, A.; Koizumi, A.; Azechi, M.

    2003-08-01

    The environment surrounding human has changed through civilization and industrialization, and through these developments, problems including the pollution from heavy metals such as lead and mercury have arisen. In this study, we analyzed major and trace elements in modern and prehistoric teeth by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis using synchrotron radiation micro beam, in order to assess the changes of the environment through the civilization and the industrialization and their affects to the human. It is suggested that teeth accumulate elements in the mineral phase, hydroxiapatite, during their formation, and because there are no significant turnovers, teeth are concerned to be indicators of the environment of the donor. We first analyzed the elements on the surface of tooth from modern individual and tooth from human remains of Jomon period to assess the heavy metal concentration and effect of the diagenesis. The adhering ground elements on the prehistoric teeth showed high amount of Ti, Fe, Mn and other metallic elements.

  2. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  3. Full Vector Studies of the Last 10 Thousand Years Derived From The East Maui Volcano Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Dekkers, M. J.; Bohnel, H.; Hagstrum, J. T.; Champion, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    We have determined the paleointensity of nine lavas flows that recorded the last 10 kyrs of geomagnetic field behavior from the youngest and largest of the two edifices of the island of Maui (i.e. Hana Volcanics, East Maui) with the multispecimen parallel differential pTRM method [Dekkers and Böhnel, EPSL, 248, 508-517, 2006]. The flows are characterized by irreversible Curie curves indicating two kinds of magnetic carriers: one almost pure magnetite and the second one Ti-rich magnetite with possible traces of titanomaghemite. The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that low-coercivity grains carry the NRM. Magnetic minerals from all of these flows are scattered within the PSD range with the exception of site HKAM (age 4.07±+0.09 ka) that lies in the SD range. The multispecimen method involves giving a laboratory pTRM to pristine specimens in different field strengths parallel to the original TRM; note that all pTRMs are given within the same range. From an existing sample collection for paleosecular variation studies [Herrero-Bervera and Valet, PEPI, 161, 267-280, 2007] we processed samples from 9 flows for paleointensity determinations ranging in age from 0.830.06 ka to 8.19±0.06 ka. pTRMs were given by in-field heating and cooling from 175 and to 260°C to avoid alteration. Low-field susceptibility variation appeared to be less than 10%, and sample sets from a few flows were heated to two different temperatures to check for consistency of results. All flows yielded good quality data. The paleointensity values increase to ~46 microTesla at ~ 2.2 ka and drop to ~22 microTesla at ~3.5 ka. At ~8.2 ka, ~39 microTesla is obtained, i.e. slightly higher than the present-day value (36 microTesla). Our paleointensity results (at least 7 flows) correlate well with the absolute paleointensity global determinations. The influence of a recently proposed domain-state correction [Fabian and Leonhardt, 2010, EPSL] on the paleointensity values will be investigated and shown.

  4. Commentary on The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucifix, M.; Loutre, M.F.; Berger, A.

    2005-01-01

    Bill Ruddiman (Climatic Change, 61, 261-293, 2003) recently suggested that early civilisations could have saved us from an ice age because land management over substantial areas caused an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Ruddiman suggests a decreasing natural course of the Holocene greenhouse gases concentrations and sea-level by referring to analogous situations in the past, namely the last three interglacials. An examination of marine isotopic stage 11 would perhaps make Ruddimans argument even more thought-challenging. Yet, the hypothesis of a natural lowering of CO2 during the Holocene contradicts recent numerical simulations of the Earth carbon cycle during this period. We think that the only way to resolve this conflict is to properly assimilate the palaeoclimate information in numerical climate models. As a general rule, models are insufficiently tested with respect to the wide range of climate situations that succeeded during the Pleistocene. In this comment, we present three definitions of palaeoclimate information assimilation with relevant examples. We also present original results with the Louvain-la-Neuve climate-ice sheet model suggesting that if, indeed, the Holocene atmospheric CO2 increase is anthropogenic, a late Holocene glacial inception is plausible, but not certain, depending on the exact time evolution of the atmospheric CO2 concentration during this period

  5. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  6. The ten-thousand year fever: rethinking human and wild primate malarias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cormier, Loretta A

    2011-01-01

    .... She also shows how current human-environment interactions, including deforestation and development, create the potential for new forms of malaria to threaten human populations. This book is a model of interdisciplinary integration that will be essential reading in fields from anthropology and biology to public health"--Provided by publisher.

  7. Peruvian sediments as recorders of an evolving hiatus for the last 22 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Zeynep; Schönfeld, Joachim; Glock, Nicolaas; Dengler, Marcus; Mosch, Thomas; Sommer, Stefan; Elger, Judith; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian continental margin is characterized by the presence of one of the strongest and most distinct Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) in today's oceans. Therefore, it has long been in the focus of oceanographic and geological investigations. Observations indicate that OMZs are expanding in relation with currently changing climate. To advance understanding of the temporal evolution of OMZs and climate change, complete paleoceanographic and palaeoclimatological reconstructions are needed. However, the development of paleoenvironmental scenarios for the period since the Last Glacial Maximum at this region was hampered by a ubiquitous hiatus and short-term interruptions of the stratigraphical record. In the present study, we combined the stratigraphical information from 31 sediment cores from the Peruvian margin located between 3 and 18°S and water depths of 90 to 1300 m within and below today's OMZ, in order to determine the extent of the hiatus and assess the responsible mechanisms. A widespread unconformity and related erosional features, omission surfaces and phosphorites, were observed in sediment cores from the area south of 7°S, depicting a prograding feature on the continental slope from south to north during the deglaciation. Combining recent oceanographic and sedimentological observations, it is inferred that, tide-topography interaction and resulting non-linear internal waves (NLIWs) shape the slope by erosion, carry sediments upslope or downslope and leave widespread phosphoritic lag sediments, while the Peru Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) transports the resuspended sediments southward causing non-deposition. This exceptional sedimentary regime makes the Peruvian margin a modern analogue for such environments. Overall, our compilation of downcore records showed that enhanced bottom currents due to tide-topography interaction were progressively evolving and affected a wider area with the onset of the last deglaciation. Elevated tidal amplitudes and variability of mid-depth water masses (i.e.; density changes) and hydrodynamics in relation with changing climate were potential reasons of this evolving feature of erosion and reworking. Additionally, erosion and non-deposition was observed widest and even was encountered on the continental shelf during the early Holocene, potentially indicating a strong phase of the PCUC mirroring today's El Niño-like conditions.

  8. Depositional history and tectonic regimes within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian shield during the last 1300 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    2006-05-01

    This report is a literature review, which describes the occurrences of Meso- and Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks in Finland and their depositional history The report also summarizes the tectonic and magmatic events within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian Shield during the last 1200 - 1300 million years. Mesoproterozoic (Middle Riphean) and Neoproterozoic (Late Vendian) sandstones and siltstones are presently found only in some tectonically protected basins, e.g., Satakunta and Muhos grabens, Bothnian Sea basin and Bothnian Bay basin, or in the impact structures, but they may have originally distributed over a much larger area. During the Lower and Middle Cambrian, arenaceous and argillaceous sediments were probably deposited in most of the western, southern and central Finland. During the Ordovician, carbonates were deposited in an epicontinental sea with repeated transgressions and regressions. In several occasions, the Bothnian Sea and Aaland Sea basins, as well as southern and south-western Finland were covered by the sea, and in the Middle Ordovician, the sea reached as far as central Finland. No Late Palaeozoic (Silurian to Permian) sedimentary rocks have been recognized. The apatite fission track studies indicate, however, that extensive Silurian to Devonian deposits most likely covered large parts of the Fennoscandian Shield, with an estimated thickness of 3 - 4 km in Sweden and ca. 1 km in Finland. In eastern Lapland, the clay bed of Akanvaara was deposited in early Tertiary (Eocene) under marine conditions. The Mesoproterozoic tectonics was dominated by the Sveconorwegian orogeny (ca. 1250 - 900 Ma), which mainly affected the present south-western Sweden and southern Norway. In Finland, the 'Postjotnian' olivine diabases, dated at 1270 - 1250 Ma, are considered to be connected to the initial rifting at the onset of the orogeny. After the Sveconorwegian orogeny, the Fennoscandian Shield was part of the worldwide supercontinent

  9. Bitola Destination for Cultural Tourism – 7000 Years of History – (From Gurgur through to Heraclea Bitola)

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Bitola is a major city in the country with several millennium history. It is a city which played hundreds of important historical events, town center of provinces, cities that were born, lived or resided important historical figures, and the city its cultural - historical heritage tourist successfully managed. In Bitola, today, are the most important tourist valorized cultural - historical monuments, events and ambient parts. Bitola, the more tourism fairs in Europe...

  10. 100 years of X-rays, 20 years of absorption spectroscopy with the synchrotron radiation: history, principles and a few examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowicz, A.; Moscovici, J.; Mimouni, A.

    1995-01-01

    The centenary of the discovery of X-rays is the occasion to summarize the history of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its development on synchrotron radiation sources, to give the underlying principles and to illustrate the possible uses of this spectroscopy by three examples: (a) the structural characterization of disordered spin transition coordination compounds by EXAFS spectroscopy; (b) the ligand binding to vitamin B 12 by XANES spectroscopy; and (c) the chemical analysis of sulfur compounds included in fly-ashes by low-energy XANES spectroscopy. (authors). 23 refs., 8 figs

  11. A Simple Physics-Based Model Predicts Oil Production from Thousands of Horizontal Wells in Shales

    KAUST Repository

    Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-10-18

    Over the last six years, crude oil production from shales and ultra-deep GOM in the United States has accounted for most of the net increase of global oil production. Therefore, it is important to have a good predictive model of oil production and ultimate recovery in shale wells. Here we introduce a simple model of producing oil and solution gas from the horizontal hydrofractured wells. This model is consistent with the basic physics and geometry of the extraction process. We then apply our model thousands of wells in the Eagle Ford shale. Given well geometry, we obtain a one-dimensional nonlinear pressure diffusion equation that governs flow of mostly oil and solution gas. In principle, solutions of this equation depend on many parameters, but in practice and within a given oil shale, all but three can be fixed at typical values, leading to a nonlinear diffusion problem we linearize and solve exactly with a scaling

  12. Evaluation of mammographic surveillance services in women aged 40-49 years with a moderate family history of breast cancer: a single-arm cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S W; Mackay, J; Thomas, S; Anderson, E; Chen, T H H; Ellis, I; Evans, G; Fielder, H; Fox, R; Gui, G; Macmillan, D; Moss, S; Rogers, C; Sibbering, M; Wallis, M; Warren, R; Watson, E; Whynes, D; Allgood, P; Caunt, J

    2013-03-01

    Women with a significant family history of breast cancer are often offered more intensive and earlier surveillance than is offered to the general population in the National Breast Screening Programme. Up to now, this strategy has not been fully evaluated. To evaluate the benefit of mammographic surveillance for women aged 40-49 years at moderate risk of breast cancer due to family history. The study is referred to as FH01. This was a single-arm cohort study with recruitment taking place between January 2003 and February 2007. Recruits were women aged women were offered annual mammography for at least 5 years and observed for the occurrence of breast cancer during the surveillance period. The age group 40-44 years was targeted so that they would still be aged women, 94% of whom were aged women aged 40-49 years with a significant family history of breast or ovarian cancer is both clinically effective in reducing breast cancer mortality and cost-effective. There is a need to further standardise familial risk assessment, to research the impact of digital mammography and to clarify the role of breast density in this population. National Research Register N0484114809. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 17, No. 11. See the HTA programme website for further project information.

  13. LIAS light – Towards the ten thousand species milestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Rambold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 12 years, the lichen trait database LIAS light as a component of the LIAS information system, has grown to a considerable pool of descriptive data based on 71 different qualitative, quantitative, and text characters, for nearly 10.000 lichen taxa, being phylogenetically arranged according to the MycoNet classification. It includes information on morphological, ecological and chemical traits. Multilinguality or internationalization options have become a central challenge of the project. At present, 18 language versions of the database and web interface exist. LIAS light data are accessible in DELTA format and to be used locally and web browser-based, via NaviKey applet.

  14. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study are to analyse the association between marital status at age 24, 29, 34, and 39 years and subsequent mortality in a cohort of men born in 1953 (sensitive period); to study the impact of number of years married, number of years divorced/widowed, and number...... of Copenhagen, Denmark. Marital status in 1992 as well as start and termination of all previous marital status events from 1968 to 1992 were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Were hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from age 40 to 49 years. RESULTS: We found...... a strong protective effect of being married compared with never being married or divorced/widowed at every age. The association increased in strength with increasing age. Number of years divorced was associated with increased mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner at age 34 and 39 years. One or more...

  15. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  16. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders.

  17. BITOLA DESTINATION FOR CULTURAL TOURISM – 7000 YEARS OF HISTORY – (FROM GURGUR THROUGH TO HERACLEA BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitola is a major city in the country with several millennium history. It is a city which played hundreds of important historical events, town center of provinces, cities that were born, lived or resided important historical figures, and the city its cultural - historical heritage tourist successfully managed. In Bitola, today, are the most important tourist valorized cultural - historical monuments, events and ambient parts. Bitola, the more tourism fairs in Europe, successfully launched its cultural - historical heritage and cultural events, becoming the most avant-garde tourist destination in cultural tourism in the Balkans.

  18. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz`s research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments.

  19. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz's research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments

  20. One thousand cases of severe occupational contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    Background. Occupational contact dermatitis is frequent, and further understanding of the epidemiology will improve the basis of its prevention. Objectives. To identify occupations at risk for severe occupational contact dermatitis. Methods. The last 1000 cases of severe occupational contact...... dermatitis seen at our department were identified. Results. The study population comprised 618 females and 382 males. The mean age at onset of irritant contact dermatitis was significantly lower than the mean age at onset of allergic contact dermatitis for both sexes, irrespective of the presence of atopic....... Occupational contact dermatitis remains frequent, even if only severe cases are considered. It is a concern that no effective, systematic interventions and prevention schemes have been launched in Europe, despite documentation of a significant problem overmany years, and knowledge of risk occupations and risk...

  1. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450–950), the Inca empires (AD 1450–1532), colonial times (AD 1532–1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity. PMID:26601147

  2. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity.

  3. Materials for the history of the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan: the Chapter resolutions of the years 1456-1498

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Albini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of charity and assistance in Milan at the end of the Middle Ages has as basic term of reference the documentary sources of the Ospedale Maggiore, the new great hospital result of a long process of reform that took place in the course of the 15th century. The Chapter of the Ospedale Maggiore became a management centre which planned and controlled the activities of other charitable-attendance structures, the most important of them represented in the corporative administrative body of the Ospedale Maggiore itself. The Ospedale Maggiore Chapter left evidence of its meetings and decisions in more than 3000 proceedings, registered in seven records. The board resolutions of the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan are a basic source for the history of hospitals of all Lombardy. Moreover, they shed light on economic, social and political dynamics of the Duchy of Milan at the end of Quattrocento: the organization of the Ospedale Maggiore board highlights on politics and strategies of the ruling groups of Milan and of the Sforza dynasty as well. Object of this work is the edition, in the form of regestum, of the Ospedale Maggiore Chapter resolutions; a map of the country estate, land, farms, mills, of the Ospedale Maggiore, is edited too.

  4. Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard; Clark, Adam Thomas

    2017-07-01

    For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions. Our results show that models that incorporate both temperature and topographic changes are better able to predict these patterns, suggesting that both processes may have played an important role in driving plethodontid evolution in the region. Additionally, our model (whose annotated source code is included as a supplement) represents a proof of concept to encourage future work that takes advantage of recent advances in computing power to combine models of ecology, evolution, and earth history to better explain the abundance and distribution of species over time.

  5. History of radiation protection in the Czech Republic. Ten years of the National Radiation Protection Institute, 1995-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the publication, highlighting the history of radiation protection in the country which today is the Czech Republic, is divided into the following sections: Inception of the field of science and applications 'Protection from ionizing radiation'; Beginnings of work with ionizing radiation in the Czech lands; Formulation of the first health physics and radiation protection requirements in the Czech lands; Beginnings of institutionalization of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia after World War II; The Clinic and Institute of Occupational Medicine in Prague; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Prague and the regional Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Bratislava; Peaceful uses of atomic energy in Czechoslovakia; First man-made radioisotopes in Czechoslovakia; Health rules and standards applicable to work with ionizing radiation; The responsibilities of the Ministry of Health in the area of health physics and radiation protection within peaceful uses of atomic energy in the Czech Socialist Republic; Research Institute of Health Physics; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Prevention of Occupational Diseases in the Mining and Processing of Radioactive Raw Materials; Health physics and radiation protection in sectorial and national research plans; Health Physics Centre, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology; National Radiation Protection Institute (as a subsidiary of the State Office for Nuclear Safety). The second part of the publication gives details of the recent history of the National Radiation Protection Institute. (P.A.)

  6. [Value of history and clinical and laboratory data for the diagnosis of dehydration due to acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Aurel, Marie; Hue, Valérie; Martinot, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Acute diarrhea is frequent, costly because of the number of hospital admissions required, and sometimes serious, even fatal to children in France. The clinical diagnosis of dehydration is difficult, but essential to determine management. To summarize the published data on the value of clinical history, clinical signs and laboratory results for diagnosing dehydration during acute diarrhea in young (1 month-5 years) non-malnourished children. Four databases (Medline, INIST, Ovid, and Cochrane) were searched through November 2006, with the key words "dehydration" subcategories "diagnosis, or etiology, or history", "diarrhea" subcategory "diagnosis", and age limits "infant or preschool child". We selected the articles and reviews that included as an endpoint for dehydration "weight gain > 5% after recovery" (the gold standard). Thirteen studies were selected. No single clinical history item, clinical sign or laboratory value was sufficient to discriminate between children with and without dehydration. The reproducibility of clinical signs varied substantially between studies. Persistent skin folds and signs of vasoconstriction contributed the most information, with good specificity but sensitivity dehydration. No dehydration scale has been validated. None of the studies selected had a very high level of proof (level 1 and 2); neither signs nor scores have been validated internally or externally because of the low number of subjects. The diagnosis of dehydration due to acute diarrhea in young children depends on the number of signs present, since no individual element of clinical history, clinical picture or laboratory tests distinguished dehydration. Other studies are necessary.

  7. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  8. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  9. Controllable thousand-port low-latency optical packet switch architecture for short link applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Lucente, S.; Nazarathy, J.; Raz, O.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of a low-latency optical packet switch architecture that is controllable while scaling to over thousand ports is investigated in this paper. Optical packet switches with thousand of input/output ports are promising devices to improve the performance of short link applications in

  10. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  11. The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Vogel, Adam; Pezic, Angela; Mensah, Fiona; Conway, Laura; Bavin, Edith; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method: This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and…

  12. Association Between History of Multiple Concussions and Health Outcomes Among Former College Football Players: 15-Year Follow-up From the NCAA Concussion Study (1999-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Thomas, Leah C; Simon, Janet E; McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has examined associations between concussion history and adverse health outcomes among former professional football players. Less is known about the potential effects of concussion among former college football players without additional exposure at the professional level. To examine the association between concussion and adverse health outcomes in a cohort of former college football players without exposure to professional football, 15 years after their playing careers ended. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A sample of 204 former collegiate football players (23.4% of eligible athletes with available contact information)-all of whom played at least 1 season of football from 1999 to 2001 in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and had no professional football exposure-completed a general health survey that assessed lifetime concussion history and included the following: the Veterans RAND 36 Item Health Survey, containing a physical composite score (PCS) and mental composite score (MCS); the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire; and the 4-item CAGE alcohol dependence questionnaire (for "cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers"). Multivariable binomial regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs while controlling for demographics and playing history covariates through forward selection model building. Most participants reported a concussion history (84.3%). Overall, 22.1% and 39.2% of participants reported a PCS and an MCS history of multiple concussions and adverse health outcomes were found among former collegiate football players without professional football exposure but were limited to those reporting ≥3 prior concussions. Because only 23.4% of eligible athletes responded to the survey, the possibility of ascertainment bias exists, and our findings should thus be interpreted with some caution. Continued examination within nonprofessional

  13. Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: an audit of one thousand adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V; Carruthers, H R; Morris, J; Hasan, S S; Archbold, S; Whorwell, P J

    2015-05-01

    Gut-focused hypnotherapy improves the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with benefits being sustained for many years. Despite this, the technique has not been widely adopted by healthcare systems, possibly due to relatively small numbers in published studies and uncertainty about how it should be provided. To review the effect of hypnotherapy in a large cohort of refractory IBS patients. One thousand IBS patients fulfilling Rome II criteria, mean age 51.6 years (range 17-91 years), 80% female, receiving 12 sessions of hypnotherapy over 3 months, were studied. The primary outcome was a 50 point reduction in the IBS Symptom Severity Score. The fall in scores for Noncolonic Symptoms, Quality of Life and Anxiety or Depression, were secondary outcomes. The Federal Drug Administration's recommended outcome of a 30% or more reduction in abdominal pain was also recorded. Overall, 76% met the primary outcome which was higher in females (females: 80%, males: 62%, P hypnotherapy is an effective intervention for refractory IBS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A spike sorting toolbox for up to thousands of electrodes validated with ground truth recordings in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Deny, Stéphane; Gardella, Christophe; Stimberg, Marcel; Jetter, Florian; Zeck, Guenther; Picaud, Serge; Duebel, Jens

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, multielectrode arrays and large silicon probes have been developed to record simultaneously between hundreds and thousands of electrodes packed with a high density. However, they require novel methods to extract the spiking activity of large ensembles of neurons. Here, we developed a new toolbox to sort spikes from these large-scale extracellular data. To validate our method, we performed simultaneous extracellular and loose patch recordings in rodents to obtain ‘ground truth’ data, where the solution to this sorting problem is known for one cell. The performance of our algorithm was always close to the best expected performance, over a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios, in vitro and in vivo. The algorithm is entirely parallelized and has been successfully tested on recordings with up to 4225 electrodes. Our toolbox thus offers a generic solution to sort accurately spikes for up to thousands of electrodes. PMID:29557782

  15. History of human papillomavirus, warts and cancer: what do we know today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onon, Toli S

    2011-10-01

    Human papillomavirus has been a cause of infection in humans for thousands of years. The history of papillomaviruses, knowledge of their causative role in benign and malignant disease, and their structural characteristics have led to the development of vaccines to prevent cervical and anogenital cancers. Many questions remain unanswered before HPV vaccines can be optimised; however, the concept of virtual eradication of cervical cancer is not impossible, and remains a realistic aspiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine”: The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: “History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine” (German: “Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin”, abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed. PMID:28584871

  17. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  18. Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history using hydrological model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1951–2009 drought history of China is reconstructed using daily soil moisture values generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface macroscale hydrology model. VIC is applied over a grid of 10 458 points with a spatial resolution of 30 km × 30 km, and is driven by observed daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 624 long-term meteorological stations. The VIC soil moisture is used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI, which can be used as a measure of the severity of agricultural drought on a global basis. We have developed a SMAPI-based drought identification procedure for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As a result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that the severe drought events of 1978, 2000 and 2006 are well reconstructed, which indicates that the SMAPI is capable of identifying the onset of a drought event, its progression, as well as its termination. Spatial and temporal variations of droughts in China's nine drought study regions are studied. Our result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought. Regionally, an upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions (Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North from 1951–2009. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been weak in the rest of the five regions (South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet. Xinjiang has even been showing steadily wetter since the 1950s. Two regional dry centres are discovered in China as the result of a combined analysis on the occurrence of drought events from both grid points and drought study regions. The first centre is located in the area partially covered by the North

  19. Heathlands, fire and grazing. A palaeoenvironmental view of Las Hurdes (Cáceres, Spain history during the last 1200 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abel-Schaad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The diachronic study of vegetation change through palynological analysis of sedimentary deposits is an essential tool both to design sound strategies on landscape  management and to understand its anthropogenic dynamics.Area of study. La Meseguera mire (Ladrillar, Cáceres, Spain is located in the Hurdes region in the western part of Iberian Central System and started to develop at the beginning of the Islamic period (ca. 770 cal AD, in an area widely dominated by heathland.  Material and methods. Pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs and charcoal accumulation rate (CHAR combined with historical data are useful indicators to assess the increasing role of human influence on vegetation.Main results. The use of fire and livestock husbandry represents the main drivers of landscape change in the course of the history. The establishment of forest afforestation plans, from the middle of 20th century, changed substantially the regional features. The sporadic presence of beech pollen is detected until 16th century, which implies the most western location in the Iberian Central Mountain System.Research highlights. The integration of pollen analysis and historical data is an essential tool when studying the changes in Holocene vegetation. These changes have been mainly driven by anthropogenic disturbances, more specifically by fire and livestock husbandry.Key Words: Anthropogenic dynamics; Central Mountain System; microcharcoals; non-pollen palynomorphs.  

  20. A 40-Year History of End-of-Life Offerings in US Medical Schools: 1975-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, George E

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study of US medical schools over a 40-year period was to ascertain their offerings on end-of-life (EOL) issues. At 5-year intervals, beginning in 1975, US medical schools were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine their EOL offerings. Data were reported with frequency distributions. The Institute of Medicine has encouraged more emphasis on EOL issues over the past 2 decades. Findings revealed that undergraduate medical students in the United States are now exposed to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine. The inclusion of EOL topics has definitely expanded over the 40-year period as findings reveal that US undergraduate medical students are currently exposed in over 90% of programs to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine, with the emphasis on these topics varying with the medical programs. Such inclusion should produce future favorable outcomes for undergraduate medical students, patients, and their families.

  1. Effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance on purchase price of Thoroughbreds at 2-year-old in-training sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie A; Brown, Murray P; Chmielewski, Terese L; Trumble, Troy N; Zimmel, Dana N; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training. Prospective study. 51 Thoroughbreds. Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA. Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales. Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.

  2. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  3. A ∼180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, F. S.; Drescher-Schneider, R.; Furrer, H.; Graf, H. R.; Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F.; Riedi, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a ∼ 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between ∼ 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called M ammoth peat , previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  4. A {approx}180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, F. S. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Drescher-Schneider, R. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Karl-Fanzen-Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria); Furrer, H. [Palaeontologisches Institut und Museum, Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Graf, H. R. [Matousek, Baumann und Niggli AG, Baden (Switzerland); Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Riedi, M. A. [Marc A. Riedi, Susenbuehlstrasse 41, Chur (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a {approx} 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between {approx} 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called {sup M}ammoth peat{sup ,} previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  5. Lifestyle and health status in a sample of Swedish women four years after pregnancy: a comparison of women with a history of normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Margareta; Winkvist, Anna; Mogren, Ingrid

    2015-03-13

    Despite the recommendations to continue the regime of healthy food and physical activity (PA) postpartum for women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the scientific evidence reveals that these recommendations may not be complied to. This study compared lifestyle and health status in women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM with women who had a normal pregnancy and delivery. The inclusion criteria were women with GDM (ICD-10: O24.4 A and O24.4B) and women with uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery in 2005 (ICD-10: O80.0). A random sample of women fulfilling the criteria (n = 882) were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. A questionnaire was sent by mail to eligible women approximately four years after the pregnancy. A total of 444 women (50.8%) agreed to participate, 111 diagnosed with GDM in their pregnancy and 333 with normal pregnancy/delivery. Women with previous GDM were significantly older, reported higher body weight and less PA before the index pregnancy. No major differences between the groups were noticed regarding lifestyle at the follow-up. Overall, few participants fulfilled the national recommendations of PA and diet. At the follow-up, 19 participants had developed diabetes, all with previous GDM. Women with previous GDM reported significantly poorer self-rated health (SRH), higher level of sick-leave and more often using medication on regular basis. However, a history of GDM or having overt diabetes mellitus showed no association with poorer SRH in the multivariate analysis. Irregular eating habits, no regular PA, overweight/obesity, and regular use of medication were associated with poorer SRH in all participants. Suboptimal levels of PA, and fruit and vegetable consumption were found in a sample of women with a history of GDM as well as for women with normal pregnancy approximately four years after index pregnancy. Women with previous GDM seem to increase their PA after childbirth, but still they perform their PA at

  6. A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

  7. The rise and fall of traditional forest management in southern Moravia: A history of the past 700 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, Nov 1 (2014), s. 104-115 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : archival sources * coppicing * GIS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.660, year: 2014

  8. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  9. Species delimitation and phylogenetic reconstruction of the sinipercids (Perciformes: Sinipercidae) based on target enrichment of thousands of nuclear coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuli; Zhao, Jinliang; Li, Chenhong

    2017-06-01

    The sinipercids are freshwater fishes endemic to East Asia, mainly in China. Phylogenetic studies on the sinipercids have made great progress in the last decades, but interspecific relationships and evolutionary history of the sinipercids remain unresolved. Lack of distinctive morphological characters leads to problems in validating of some species, such as Siniperca loona. Moreover, genetic data are needed to delimitate species pairs with explicit hypothesis testing, such as in S. chuatsi vs. S. kneri and Coreoperca whiteheadi vs. C. liui. Here we reconstructed phylogeny of the sinipercids with an unprecedented scale of data, 16,943 loci of single-copy coding sequence data from nine sinipercid species, eight putative sister taxa and two outgroups. Targeted sequences were collected using gene enrichment and Illumina sequencing, yielding thousands of protein coding sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) data. Maximum likelihood and coalescent species tree analyses resulted in identical and highly supported trees. We confirmed that the centrarchids are sister to the sinipercids. A monophyletic Sinipercidae with two genera, Siniperca and Coreoperca was also supported. Different from most previous studies, S. scherzeri was found as the most basal taxon to other species of Siniperca, which consists of two clades: a clade having S. roulei sister to S. chuatsi and S. kneri, and a clade consisting S. loona sister to S. obscura and S. undulata. We found that both S. loona and C. liui are valid species using Bayes factor delimitation (BFD ∗ ) based on SNPs data. Species delimitation also provided decisive support for S. chuatsi and S. kneri being two distinct species. We calibrated a chronogram of the sinipercids based on 100 loci and three fossil calibration points using BEAST, and reconstructed ancestral ranges of the sinipercids using Lagrange Analysis (DEC model) and Statistical Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (S-DIVA) implemented in RASP. Divergence time

  10. THE CHALLENGES OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HISTORY-CRITICAL PEDAGOGY IN EARLY YEARS OF BASIC EDUCATION ITAIPULÂNDIA-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Sidinei Balzan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is situated within the history of education and its purpose is to investigate the challenges of institutionalization of historical-critical pedagogy (PHC at the early elementary school years in municipal network Itaipulândia-PR. In it, we try to analyze briefly articulated with the proposals and actions carried out over several years, especially in 2010 itaipulandiense educational trajectory. These achievements currently make up the municipal public education policy that includes training programs that articulate with better working conditions, teaching and learning. Based on documents and literature review, discuss and seek to understand how the teachers of this county propositions developed from the study of the major challenges that the historical-critical pedagogy faces in Brazilian education, using experiences, educational programs and projects of State Governments and federal. In addressing the specific conditions that focus on education, the school and the organization of the teaching work through the analysis of its historical and educational history, we intend to analyze the process of institutionalization and implementation of this pedagogical trend in the early years of basic education in the municipality of Itaipulândia.

  11. LHC Computing Grid Project Launches intAction with International Support. A thousand times more computing power by 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first phase of the LHC Computing Grid project was approved at an extraordinary meeting of the Council on 20 September 2001. CERN is preparing for the unprecedented avalanche of data that will be produced by the Large Hadron Collider experiments. A thousand times more computer power will be needed by 2006! CERN's need for a dramatic advance in computing capacity is urgent. As from 2006, the four giant detectors observing trillions of elementary particle collisions at the LHC will accumulate over ten million Gigabytes of data, equivalent to the contents of about 20 million CD-ROMs, each year of its operation. A thousand times more computing power will be needed than is available to CERN today. The strategy the collabortations have adopted to analyse and store this unprecedented amount of data is the coordinated deployment of Grid technologies at hundreds of institutes which will be able to search out and analyse information from an interconnected worldwide grid of tens of thousands of computers and storag...

  12. The History of Neurosurgery at the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, with Some Personal Recollections from 1948 Onwards: The Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The National Hospital, Queen Square, London was founded as a charitable institution in 1860, becoming the first dedicated neuroscience hospital in the world. Sir Victor Horsley, the first neurosurgeon was appointed in 1886, and since that time, Queen Square neurosurgeons have been prominent on the World neurosurgical stage, including Sir Wylie McKissock and Prof Lindsay Symon, inter alia. This article gives the history taken from both published records and personal stories, recorded by a neurosurgeon who has worked at the hospital for thirty five years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 100 years from the invention of X-rays. From the history of the radiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutarna, A.

    1996-01-01

    The survey of the development of radiology after the First World War (after disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) as well as after the Second World War in Slovakia is given. Attention is dedicated to the development of radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic methods in Slovakia, as well as to personal occupation of the heads of radiologic clinics. In the last decade radiologic working-places and the departments are equipped with modern and efficient techniques. While in the year 1962 a number of the radiologists was about 90 doctors, in the year 1995 a number more than 360 doctors was registered from which are 80 doctors of radiotherapy. A number of radiologic assistants is about 1200. In Slovak hospitals are about 370 departments of radiology and more than 300 radiodiagnostic working-places and 12 departments of radiotherapy. 29 refs

  14. The Russian Orthodox and Catholic Church in 1980 – the 1990th Years: to History of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Koroleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In article relationship of Russian Orthodox Church and Catholic in 1980 – the 1990th years is considered. Dialogue development between them had not only internal political, but also foreign policy value. One of the most painful questions in relationship of Russian Orthodox Church and the question of the uniatsky church earlier existing in the territory of Ukraine and Belarus and restored in the second half of the 1980th years was Catholic. Divergences in a number of theological questions remained. In particular, it belonged to the doctrine confirmed with the Second Vatican Cathedral about Papal infallibility and a primacy of the Roman High priest. Peacekeeping activity was that sphere where the Russian Orthodox and Catholic churches most successfully cooperated though rivalry was present and here.

  15. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Robert Edmund Rowland, Ph.D., January 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides a transcript of an oral interview with Dr. Robert Edmund Rowland by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research on January 27, 1995. Dr. Rowland was involved with the study of radium in the human body since 1950 and relates his knowledge of over 40 years of study of radium in the human body including dial painters, inmates of Elgin State Hospital, and other treated therapeutically with radium

  16. An Analysis of the History of Taiwanese Character and Moral Education (1949-2014 and Its Implications for the 12-Year Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hua Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze the history of character and moral education (CME during the past 65 years in Taiwan to form a complete image of CME and provide suggestions for the formulation and implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines. Concretely, the researchers reviewed the documents and literature of CME and divided the history from 1949 to 2014 into three phases - the Martial Law Phase, the Post-Martial Law Phase, and the 9-Year Curriculum Phase. During the Martial Law Phase, although CME was taught as a stand-alone subject, it played a role in transmitting political ideology. During the Post-Martial Law Phase, the goal was to implement a student-centered curriculum, but the period was too short to achieve total transformation. During the 9-Year Curriculum Phase, CME was omitted from the Curriculum Guidelines and replaced by the ‘Character and Moral Education Improving Project’ proclaimed by the Ministry of Education. As a result, CME was passively infused into the curriculum during this phase. Finally, the researchers proposed several suggestions as follows: The centrality of CME should be emphasized in the National Curriculum Guidelines to correspond to the public’s expectations and current international trends. Concrete contents of CME should be actively incorporated into the Curriculum Guidelines of each learning area in order to ensure effective integration and applicable transformation. Also, CME should be fully implemented in the 12-Year Basic Education Plan and include values of social justice and multiple developmental strategies.

  17. 100 years of Drosophila research and its impact on vertebrate neuroscience: a history lesson for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellen, Hugo J; Tong, Chao; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Discoveries in fruit flies have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuroscience. The use of an unparalleled wealth of tools, many of which originated between 1910–1960, has enabled milestone discoveries in nervous system development and function. Such findings have triggered and guided many research efforts in vertebrate neuroscience. After 100 years, fruit flies continue to be the choice model system for many neuroscientists. The combinational use of powerful research tools will ensure that this model organism will continue to lead to key discoveries that will impact vertebrate neuroscience.

  18. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics: building on the 20-year history of a BCS Health peer review journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available After 20-years as Informatics in Primary Care the journal is renamed Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. The title was carefully selected to reflect that:(1 informatics provides the opportunity to innovate rather than simply automates;(2 implementing informatics solutions often results in unintended consequences, and many implementations fail and benefits and innovations may go unrecognised;(3 health informatics is a boundary spanning discipline and is by its very nature likely to give rise to innovation.Informatics is an innovative science, and informaticians need to innovate across professional and discipline boundaries.

  19. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...... on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article is partly based on a Danish paper to be published in the Centenary Jubilee book of the Danish Surgical Society...

  20. Natural History of Parkinson's Disease in the Province of Segovia: Disability in a 20 Years Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jacinto; García Olmos, Luis Miguel; Mendoza, Amelia; Martínez Pueyo, Ángel; Clavería, Luis Erik

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease mainly affects the elderly population causing a progressive functional disability with motor, psychic, and cognitive deterioration. This study was carried out to evaluate disability caused by Parkinson's disease by analyzing the median time to reach Hoehn and Yahr stage III and to investigate predictor variables based on a 20-year longitudinal follow-up study. We examined 273 patients with Parkinson's disease recruited between 1978 and 1998. We performed a survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method to determine the time to disability and we used a Cox regression model to adjust prognosis factors. The median time to reach Hoehn and Yahr stage III was 7.73 years (95% CI: 5.95-8.05). Independent predictors of disability were: age at onset, the hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.12; UPDRS II (activities of daily living) HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14; and akinesia and rigidity at onset HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.24. Patients with Parkinson's disease evolve gradually toward disability, and prognostic factors of this evolution were identified. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Natural history and management of Fanconi anemia patients with head and neck cancer: A 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, David I; Patel, Krupa R; Auerbach, Arleen D; Kennedy, Jennifer; Lach, Francis P; Sanborn, Erica; Cohen, Marc A; Kuhel, William I; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    To describe the management and outcomes of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cohort study. Demographic information, prognostic factors, therapeutic management, and survival outcomes for FA patients enrolled in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry who developed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were analyzed. Thirty-five FA patients were diagnosed with HNSCC at a mean age of 32 years. The most common site of primary cancer was the oral cavity (26 of 35, 74%). Thirty patients underwent surgical resection of the cancer. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy with an average radiation dose of 5,050 cGy. The most common toxicities were high-grade mucositis (9 of 16, 56%), hematologic abnormalities (8 of 16, 50%), and dysphagia (8 of 16, 50%). Three patients received conventional chemotherapy and had significant complications, whereas three patients who received targeted chemotherapy with cetuximab had fewer toxicities. The 5-year overall survival rate was 39%, with a cause-specific survival rate of 47%. Fanconi anemia patients have a high risk of developing aggressive HNSCC at an early age. Fanconi anemia patients can tolerate complex ablative and reconstructive surgeries, but careful postoperative care is required to reduce morbidity. The treatment of FA-associated HNSCC is difficult secondary to the poor tolerance of radiation and chemotherapy. However, radiation should be used for high-risk cancers due to the poor survival in these patients. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. A 58-Year-Old Woman with Left-Sided Weakness and a History of a Pediatric Brain Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaakir Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An uncommon but well-established complication of cranial irradiation is secondary neoplasm. This case presentation documents a radiation-induced malignant glioma 55 years after being diagnosed with “cerebral sarcoma,” now defined as atypical meningioma. This not only represents the longest reported latency period for a patient initially receiving over 30 Gy, but also provides a valuable historical perspective of neuro-oncology. Clinical Presentation: A 58-year-old female presenting with progressive left-sided upper and lower extremity weakness with a past medical history significant for “cerebral sarcoma” was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. This patient had previously been treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy via a 280-kVP orthovoltage machine and received 3,390 rad to the posterior three-quarters of the skull for “cerebral sarcoma.” Conclusion: A comprehensive investigation of the past medical history helped uncover a mysterious pediatric diagnosis, helped drive the management 5 decades later, and serves as a reminder that seemingly safe interventions may still cause harm.

  3. Long term (>1 year) postpartum glucose tolerance status among Indian women with history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by IADPSG criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Alpesh; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalaivani, Mani; Sankar, M Jeeva; Kachhawa, Garima; Bhatla, Neerja; Gupta, Nandita; Tandon, Nikhil

    2018-05-24

    To determine prevalence of long term dysglycemia and its risk factors among women with history of GDM diagnosed using IADPSG criteria at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Women with GDM diagnosed between 2012 and 2016 were invited. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, medical data were collected and 75 gm OGTT with serum insulin estimation, HbA1c and fasting lipid profile were done at the hospital visit. Women (N = 267) were tested at 32.5 (±4.6) years of age and at a median (q 25- q 75 ) of 20 (12-44) months following the index delivery. Dysglycemia was found in 57.7% by ADA criteria [Diabetes in 10.5% and prediabetes in 47.2%]. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease were significantly more prevalent among these women. On multivariable analysis, HOMA-IR correlated positively, while insulinogenic index correlated negatively with postpartum dysglycemia. This is possibly the first long term (>1 year) glucose tolerance outcome study in South Asian women with history of GDM diagnosed by IADPSG criteria, which demonstrates significantly elevated risk of postpartum dysglycemia. While the IADPSG criteria identify women with a lower future conversion to diabetes compared with previous criteria, prediabetes conversion remains high, thereby offering an opportunity to intervene early and prevent progression to future diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and diagnosis characteristics of breast cancers in women with a history of radiotherapy in the first 30years of life: A French multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, C; Supiot, S; Oberlin, O; Helfre, S; Vigneron, C; Brillaud-Meflah, V; Bernier, V; Laprie, A; Ducassou, A; Claude, L; Mahé, M A; de Vathaire, F

    2017-08-01

    Irradiation (>3Gy) to the breast or axillae before 30years of age increases the risk of secondary breast cancer (SBC). The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical characteristics of SBC and the way of diagnosis in young women (before the age of national screening) in France who had received previous radiotherapy for a childhood or a young adulthood cancer. This retrospective, multicentre study reviewed the medical records of women with SBC before the age of the national screening who had received irradiation (≥3Gy) on part or all of the breast before 30years of age, for any type of tumour except BC. A total of 121 SBC were detected in 104 women with previous radiotherapy. Twenty percent of SBC were detected during regular breast screening and 16% of the women had a regular radiological follow-up. Our results points out that the main proportion of childhood cancer survivors did not benefit from the recommended breast cancer screening. This result is comparable to other previously published studies in other countries. A national screening programme is necessary and should take into account the patient's age, family history, personal medical history and previous radiotherapy to reduce the number of SBC diagnosed at an advanced stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Country Report: Civic and Citizenship Education in Italy: Thousands of Fragmented Activities Looking for a Systematization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bombardelli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present paper we describe how civic and citizenship education takes place in Italy, trying to identify strengths and weaknesses, with the aims both of understanding the situation and of identifying possible measures for improvement. Methods: The methodology implies an analysis of the official guidelines by the Ministry in this field, a short view of the research publications of the last 30 years, the informal observation of the daily teaching at school from the personal experience of the authors in Italy. Findings: First of all we study the concept of civic and citizenship education, and focus on the curriculum of civic and citizenship education (aims, teaching approaches, taught time, methods and means in the school system, including the school culture and the experiences of participation inside school; we investigate the teacher training and role, the informal and non-formal influences in this educational field, and conclude dealing with the student assessment, and the evaluation of the outcomes. In the daily practice there are thousands of activities for civic and citizenship education, but a systematic design is lacking.

  6. Are Central Africa′s Protected Areas Displacing Hundreds of Thousands of Rural Poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing debate over the impacts of protected areas on rural communities in central Africa has become increasingly polarized in recent years, even as definitions of displacement have shifted from outright expulsion to economic dislocation precipitated by lost access to natural resources. Although forcible removal of communities to make way for the creation of National Parks has certainly occurred in the past in some parts of the world, we contend that not a single individual has been physically removed from any of the protected areas created in central Africa over the past decade, despite claims to the contrary of hundreds of thousands of "conservation refugees." Furthermore, we recognize that a scarcity of data precludes impartial evaluation of the potential impacts of economic displacement of local communities living adjacent to protected areas, and we call for a concerted effort by conservationists and the social scientists who criticize conservation efforts, in order to measure the effects of protected areas on livelihoods, and to work towards a more socially responsible conservation paradigm.

  7. Detailed history of atmospheric trace elements from the Quelccaya ice core (Southern Peru) during the last 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, C.; Gabrielli, P.; Thompson, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase in trace element concentrations, for example Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Pb, Bi, and U, in polar snow and ice has provided compelling evidence of a hemispheric change in atmospheric composition since the nineteenth century. This change has been concomitant with the expansion of the Industrial Revolution and points towards an anthropogenic source of trace elements in the atmosphere. There are very few low latitude trace element ice core records and these are believed to be sensitive to perturbations of regional significance. To date, these records have not been used to document a preindustrial anthropogenic impact on atmospheric composition at low latitudes. Ice cores retrieved from the tropical Andes are particularly interesting because they have the potential to reveal detailed information about the evolution and environmental consequences of mineral exploitation related to the Pre Inca Civilizations, the Inca Empire (1438-1533 AD) and the subsequent Spanish invasion and dominance (1532-1833 AD). The chemical record preserved in the ice of the Quelccaya ice cap (southern Peruvian Andes) offers the exceptional opportunity to geochemically constrain the composition of the tropical atmosphere at high resolution over the last ~1200 years. Quantification of twenty trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) was performed by ICP-SFMS over 105 m of the Quelccaya North Dome core (5600 m asl, 128.57 m) by analyzing 2450 samples. This provides the first atmospheric trace element record in South America spanning continuously and at high resolution for the time period between 1990 and 790 AD. Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Sb, Sn, Pb and Zn show increases in concentration and crustal enrichment factor starting at different times between 1450 and 1550 AD, in concomitance with the expansions of the Inca Empire and, subsequently, the Spanish Empire well before the inception of the Industrial Revolution. This

  8. Coral Bleaching Susceptibility Is Decreased following Short-Term (1–3 Year Prior Temperature Exposure and Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Haslun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral exposed to short periods of temperature stress (≥1.0°C above mean monthly maximum and/or increased frequencies of high temperatures may bolster resilience to global warming associated with climate change. We compared Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767; Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Faviidae from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS and the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS. Thermal stress has been reported frequently within the FKNMS; however, corals in the FGBNMS experience nominal exposures to similar stressors. Corals were exposed to three temperatures (27°C, 31°C, and 35°C for 72 h. Colonies from the FKNMS lost significantly fewer viable and necrotic zooxanthellae under conditions of acute stress (35°C than the FGBNMS colonies. This indicates that the FKNMS corals are less temperature-sensitive than those in the FGBNMS. The observed differences point to greater prior temperature exposure and adaptation in the former versus the latter site when correlated to previous years of thermal exposure.

  9. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  10. Archaeological Discoveries in the People’s Republic of China and Their Contribution to the Understanding of Chinese History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available More than eight decades ago, the distinguished Chinese scholar Hu Shi (1891–1962 wrote an essay titled ‘My Views on Ancient History’, in which he said: My outlook regarding ancient history is, for the present, we should shorten the study of ancient history by two or three thousand years, and start our researches from the Book of Odes. When archaeology has become well developed, then we can slowly extend [our understanding of ancient history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty, using excavated historical evidence. Today, over eighty years later, Chinese history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty has been steadily reconstructed, step by step, from archaeological discoveries, without which, even the well-recognized deserved brilliance of ancient history, since the Eastern Zhou dynasty, would be dimmed.

  11. Surgical intervention for paediatric liver injuries is almost history - a 12-year cohort from a major Scandinavian trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomohide; Skattum, Jorunn; Engelsen, Peder; Eken, Torsten; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Pål Aksel

    2016-11-29

    Although nonoperative management (NOM) has become standard care, optimal treatment of liver injuries in children is still challenging since many of these patients have multiple injuries. Moreover, the role of angiography remains poorly defined, and a high index of suspicion of complications is warranted. This study reviews treatment and outcomes in children with liver injuries at a major Scandinavian trauma centre over a 12-year period. Patients trauma registry and medical records. A total of 66 children were included. The majority was severely injured as reflected by a median injury severity score of 20.5 (mean 22.2). NOM was attempted in 60 (90.9%) patients and was successful in 57, resulting in a NOM success rate of 95.0% [95% CI 89.3 to 100]. Only one of the three NOM failures was liver related, occurred in the early part of the study period, and consisted in operative placement of drains for bile leak. Two (3.0%) patients underwent angiographic embolization (AE). Complications occurred in 18 (27.3% [95 % CI 16.2 to 38.3]) patients. Only 2 (3.0%) patients had liver related complications, in both cases bile leak. Six (9.1%) patients underwent therapeutic laparotomy for non-liver related injuries. Two (3.0%) patients died secondary to traumatic brain injury. This single institution paediatric liver injury cohort confirms high attempted NOM and NOM success rates even in patients with high grade injuries and multiple accompanying injuries. AE can be a useful NOM adjunct in the treatment of paediatric liver injuries, but is seldom indicated. Moreover, bile leak is the most common liver-related complication and the need for liver-related surgery is very infrequent. NOM is the treatment of choice in almost all liver injuries in children, with operative management and interventional radiology very infrequently indicated.

  12. Sapiens a brief history of humankind

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Yuval Noah

    2015-01-01

    From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also comp...

  13. History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka

    2014-02-14

    The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status. Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included. Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires. We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: 'permanent', 'high level', 'strengthening' and 'poor level' of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model. Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

  14. One thousand thermal cycles of magnesium chloride hexahydrate as a promising PCM for indoor solar cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Heniti, S.; Al-Agel, F.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Al-Marzouki, F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Solar cookers must contain a PCM for cooking indoors. → MgCl 2 .6H 2 O when it cycled in a sealed container. → MgCl 2 .6H 2 O shows maximum of 0.1-3.5 o C of supercooling. → MgCl 2 .6H 2 O is a promising PCM for thermal energy storage. -- Abstract: Cooking is the major necessity for people all over the world. It accounts for a major share of energy consumption in developing countries. There is a critical need for the development of alternative, appropriate, affordable methods of cooking for use in developing countries. There is a history for solar cooking since 1650 where they are broadly divided into direct or focusing type, box-type and indirect or advanced solar cookers. The advanced solar cookers have the advantage of being usable indoors and thus solve one of the problems, which impede the social acceptance of solar cookers. The advanced type solar cookers are employing additional solar units that increase the cost. Therefore, the solar cooker must contain a heat storage medium to store thermal energy for use during off-sunshine hours. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the melting/solidification fast thermal cycling of commercial grade magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl 2 .6H 2 O) on its thermo-physical properties; such as melting point and latent heat of fusion, to be used as a storage medium inside solar cookers. One thousand cycles have been performed in a sealed container under the extra water principle. The thermo-physical properties are measured using the differential scanning calorimetric technique. It is indicated that MgCl 2 .6H 2 O with the extra water principle and hermetically sealing of the container is a promising phase change material (PCM) for cooking indoors and during law intensity solar radiation periods. It is also found from the melting/solidification behavior of MgCl 2 .6H 2 O that it is solidify almost without supercooling; except in few cases where it showed maximum of 0

  15. Tempo and mode of genomic mutations unveil human evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    Mutations that have occurred in human genomes provide insight into various aspects of evolutionary history such as speciation events and degrees of natural selection. Comparing genome sequences between human and great apes or among humans is a feasible approach for inferring human evolutionary history. Recent advances in high-throughput or so-called 'next-generation' DNA sequencing technologies have enabled the sequencing of thousands of individual human genomes, as well as a variety of reference genomes of hominids, many of which are publicly available. These sequence data can help to unveil the detailed demographic history of the lineage leading to humans as well as the explosion of modern human population size in the last several thousand years. In addition, high-throughput sequencing illustrates the tempo and mode of de novo mutations, which are producing human genetic variation at this moment. Pedigree-based human genome sequencing has shown that mutation rates vary significantly across the human genome. These studies have also provided an improved timescale of human evolution, because the mutation rate estimated from pedigree analysis is half that estimated from traditional analyses based on molecular phylogeny. Because of the dramatic reduction in sequencing cost, sequencing on-demand samples designed for specific studies is now also becoming popular. To produce data of sufficient quality to meet the requirements of the study, it is necessary to set an explicit sequencing plan that includes the choice of sample collection methods, sequencing platforms, and number of sequence reads.

  16. Eusociality in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzig, Laura

    2014-03-01

    For more than 100,000 years, H. sapiens lived as foragers, in small family groups with low reproductive variance. A minority of men were able to father children by two or three women; and a majority of men and women were able to breed. But after the origin of farming around 10,000 years ago, reproductive variance increased. In civilizations which began in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China, and then moved on to Greece and Rome, kings collected thousands of women, whose children were supported and guarded by thousands of eunuchs. Just a few hundred years ago, that trend reversed. Obligate sterility ended, and reproductive variance declined. For H. sapiens, as for other organisms, eusociality seems to be an effect of ecological constraints. Civilizations rose up in lake and river valleys, hemmed in by mountains and deserts. Egalitarianism became an option after empty habitats opened up.

  17. Quinina: 470 anos de história, controvérsias e desenvolvimento Quinine: 470 years of history, controversy and science development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ricardo Marques de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After 470 years, a history of development, international seed smuggling and scientific development that caused deep changes in our society, has reached an end. In 1638, the countess of Chinchón contracted a disease while in the Amazon rain forest and was healed by a potion used by the native inhabitants. In 1856, William H. Perkin while attempting to obtain synthetic quinine, discovered the mauveína, a molecule that changed the world. The synthesis of quinine was also the subject of a bitter controversy among two excellent scientists of the 20th century. During centuries, quinine was the only hope against malaria disease and its exploration almost extinguished the Cinchona tree.

  18. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  19. CONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE PRESENTED IN THE TEXTBOOKS OF THE EARLY YEARS IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenyffer Soares Estival Murça

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the History of Science (HC in science teaching and textbooks (LD has been gaining ground in discussions involving teacher training, may be one way to combat naive conceptions about the Nature of Science (NDC. The present study sought to identify and analyze the presence of HC in the collection of Sciences textbook intended for the early years of elementary school (1st to 5th year, the largest acquisition for public schools in the state of Goiás. The collection of LDs used was approved in PNLD 2013-2015 collection, Open Door Collection (2011. Insertion of HC, by using categorization information for HC were analyzed. The analysis revealed eight inserted in the collection (Human Body, Energy, Evolution, Interaction, Environment, Health, Technology and Universe Theme, where were possible to identify only 17 inserts HC, surface and related mode of knowledge production. Thus, it is concluded that the insertion of the HC in the early years still gives a very modest way, should be reconsidered and discussed in training courses for teachers.

  20. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  1. Factors controlling the geochemical evolution of fumarolic encrustations, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodosky, L.G.; Keith, T.E.C.

    1993-01-01

    Factor and canonical correlation analysis of geochemical data from eight fossil fumaroles suggest that six major factors controlled the formation and evolution of fumarolic encrustations on the 1912 ash-flow sheet in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS). The six-factor solution model explains a large proportion (low of 74% for Ni to high of 99% for Si) of the individual element data variance. Although the primary fumarolic deposits have been degraded by secondary alteration reactions and up to 75 years of weathering, the relict encrustations still preserve a signature of vapor-phase element transport. This vapor-phase transport probably occurred as halide or oxyhalide species and was significant for As, Sb and Br. At least three, and possibly four, varied temperature leaching events affected the fumarolic deposits. High-temperature gases/liquids heavily altered the ejecta glass and mineral phases adjacent to the fumarolic conduit. As the fumaroles cooled. Fe-rich acidic condensate leached the ejecta and primary fumarolic deposits and resulted in the subsequent precipitation of Fe-hydroxides and/or Fe-oxides. Low- to ambient-temperature leaching and hydration reactions generated abundant hydrated amorphous phases. Up to 87% of the individual element data variance is apparently controlled by the chemistry of the ejecta on which the relict encrustations are found. This matrix chemistry factor illustrates that the primary fumarolic minerals surrounding the active VTTS vents observed by earlier workers have been effectively removed by the dissolution reactions. Element enrichment factors calculated for the VTTS relict encrustations support the statistical factor interpretations. On the average, the relict encrustations are enriched, relative to visibly unaltered matrix protolith, in As, Br, Cr, Sb, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, and LOI (an indirect measure of sample H2O content). ?? 1993.

  2. The natural history of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in the community and its effects on survival: a longitudinal 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, A C; Forman, D; Bailey, A G; Axon, A T R; Moayyedi, P

    2013-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) are common in the community. However, few studies have examined their long-term natural history, or impact on survival. To examine these issues in individuals recruited into a community-based screening programme for Helicobacter pylori in 1994. Data on mortality and cause of death at 10 years were obtained from the Office for National Statistics. Baseline demographic data, lifestyle factors, gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life were recorded at study entry. The effect of all these factors on persistent and new-onset GERS, and 10-year mortality, were examined using univariate and multivariate analysis, with results expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HR) with 99% confidence intervals (CI). Of 3967 individuals providing complete GERS data at baseline and 10 years, 549 (13.8%) had GERS at baseline. Of these, 183 (33.3%) had persistent symptoms. Among 3418 individuals asymptomatic at baseline, approximately 0.8% per year developed new-onset GERS. No predictors of persistent GERS were identified. New-onset symptoms were associated with lower quality of life or presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at baseline, and higher body mass index (BMI) at 10 years. There were 8331 (99.1%) of 8407 subjects providing complete GERS data at baseline, 1289 (15.5%) of whom were symptomatic. Presence of GERS at baseline did not affect survival (HR: 0.84; 99% CI: 0.44-1.59). Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms persisted in one-third of individuals, whilst new-onset gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms were associated with poor quality of life, irritable bowel syndrome and higher body mass index. Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms did not impact adversely on survival. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Storms in a lagoon: the flooding history of Schokland (Noordoostpolder, The Netherlands) during the last 1200 years derived from geological and historical archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Biggelaar, Don; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Van Balen, Ronald; Kasse, Kees

    2013-04-01

    Flevoland (central part of the Netherlands) is an area of long-term discontinuous deposition, which has been reclaimed from the Zuiderzee in the 20th century. The Zuiderzee was an inlet of the North Sea, which came into existence during Medieval times at the expense of vast peat swamps. The inhabitants of the Zuiderzee area have a long tradition of living and struggling with water. For Schokland, located in the northern part of Flevoland (The Netherlands) and its inhabitants, this tradition started at around AD 800 when peat formation came to an end in the former Flevo lagoon region. Since that time, a surficial clay cover was deposited on Schokland. The top of the peat underlying the clay is dated at ~1200 BP, while the top is dated up to ~70 BP, implying that the clay was deposited during the Medieval to Recent occupation of the former Flevo lagoon region. We have studied the clay sequence with the combined use of geological and historical archives in order to determine the most recent flooding history of Flevoland (last 1200 years). Field data, lab analyses (grainsize anlyses, TOC, pollen, microfossils) and a literature study show that storm events had a major impact on both the sedimentary and the anthropogenic history of Schokland. A comparison between geological data and documented historical storms is made and possible remnants of the eleven major storm events, mentioned in the historical sources, that eroded parts of Schokland are identified in the subsurface of the area in the form of spikes with coarser sediment relative to the background sedimentation.

  4. The Last Hundred Years of Land Use History in the Southern Part of Valdai Hills (European Russia: Reconstruction by Pollen and Historical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novenko Elena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The last one hundred years of land use history in the southern part of Valdai Hills (European Russia were reconstructed on the base of high resolution pollen data from the peat monolith taken from the Central Forest State Reserve supplementing with historical records derived from maps of the General Land Survey of the 18th and 19th centuries and satellite images. According to the created age model provided by dating using radio-nuclides 210Pb and 137Cs, pollen data of the peat monolith allow us to reconstruct vegetation dynamics during the last one hundred years with high time resolution. The obtained data showed that, despite the location of the studied peatland in the center of the forest area and rather far away from possible croplands and hayfields, the pollen values of plants – anthropogenic indicators (Secale sereale, Centaurea cyanus, Plantago, Rumex, etc. and micro-charcoal concentration are relatively high in the period since the beginning of the 20th century to the 1970s, especially in the peat horizon formed in the 1950s. In the late 1970s – the early 1980s when the pollen values of cereals gradually diminished in assemblages, the quantity of pollen of other anthropogenic indicators were also significantly reduced, which reflects the overall processes of the agriculture decline in the forest zone of the former USSR.

  5. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Viola, Patrizia; Ianieri, Manuel Maria; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four "emergent" genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.

  6. Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes: The Dialogic Narrative in the Educational Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jafar, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the story of "Sadako and the thousand paper cranes" by Coerr (1977) to discover similarities between the events of August 1945 in Hiroshima and the events of August 1990 in Kuwait. The participants in a children's literature class at Kuwait University folded paper cranes and wrote in their journals to answer two…

  7. Direct Mutagenesis of Thousands of Genomic Targets using Microarray-derived Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Kosuri, Sriram; Genee, Hans Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) allows simultaneous mutagenesis of multiple target sites in bacterial genomes using short oligonucleotides. However, large-scale mutagenesis requires hundreds to thousands of unique oligos, which are costly to synthesize and impossible to scale-up by ...

  8. De novo genome assembly of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruna A. Schuelke; Anthony Westbrook; Kirk Broders; Keith Woeste; Matthew D. MacManes

    2016-01-01

    Geosmithia morbida is a filamentous ascomycete that causes thousand cankers disease in the eastern black walnut tree. This pathogen is commonly found in the western U.S.; however, recently the disease was also detected in several eastern states where the black walnut lumber industry is concentrated. G. morbida is one of two...

  9. Ongoing hydrothermal heat loss from the 1912 ash-flow sheet, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeweg, N.; Keith, T.E.C.; Colvard, E.M.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    The June 1912 eruption of Novarupta filled nearby glacial valleys on the Alaska Peninsula with ash-flow tuff (ignimbrite), and post-eruption observations of thousands of steaming fumaroles led to the name 'Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes' (VTTS). By the late 1980s most fumarolic activity had ceased, but the discovery of thermal springs in mid-valley in 1987 suggested continued cooling of the ash-flow sheet. Data collected at the mid-valley springs between 1987 and 2001 show a statistically significant correlation between maximum observed chloride (Cl) concentration and temperature. These data also show a statistically significant decline in the maximum Cl concentration. The observed variation in stream chemistry across the sheet strongly implies that most solutes, including Cl, originate within the area of the VTTS occupied by the 1912 deposits. Numerous measurements of Cl flux in the Ukak River just below the ash-flow sheet suggest an ongoing heat loss of ???250 MW. This represents one of the largest hydrothermal heat discharges in North America. Other hydrothermal discharges of comparable magnitude are related to heat obtained from silicic magma bodies at depth, and are quasi-steady on a multidecadal time scale. However, the VTTS hydrothermal flux is not obviously related to a magma body and is clearly declining. Available data provide reasonable boundary and initial conditions for simple transient modeling. Both an analytical, conduction-only model and a numerical model predict large rates of heat loss from the sheet 90 years after deposition.

  10. Forty-two years of Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica: Some history and musings on the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    After 42 years of continuously publishing the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, we cast a short retrospective view on its history and we share our plans for the future. RMxAA was founded in 1974. Founding editors were P. Pishmish, E. Mendoza and S. Torres-Peimbert. RMxAA has published original research papers in all areas of astronomy, astrophysics and related fields. Until 1994 RMxAA also published the proceedings of astronomical conferences held in México and Latin America. Since 1995 a Series devoted exclusively to such proceedings was founded, RMxAC, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias). All papers submitted to RMxAA are sent to internationally recognized experts to be strictly refereed. RMxAA is included in Current Contents, Science Citation Index and other relevant international indexes. Both publications are fully integrated into the ADS. Their contents have always been freely available to the general public. All this ensures a wide international visibility, comparable to that of the best astronomical journals. The impact factor of RMxAA has varied over the years, mostly as a consequence of small number statistics. The average impact factor is about 2.4, far larger than that of all but a few Latin American scientific journals. The editorial independence of RMxAA, the fact that there are no page charges for authors, and that the printed version is distributed free of charge to astronomical libraries all over the world motivate us to look forward with optimism to many more years of publication. In view of recent developments in the scientific publishing field, we have applied to obtain the DOI for the published papers, and are in the process of becoming an all-electronic publication.

  11. The history of the tetracyclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark L; Levy, Stuart B

    2011-12-01

    The history of the tetracyclines involves the collective contributions of thousands of dedicated researchers, scientists, clinicians, and business executives over the course of more than 60 years. Discovered as natural products from actinomycetes soil bacteria, the tetracyclines were first reported in the scientific literature in 1948. They were noted for their broad spectrum antibacterial activity and were commercialized with clinical success beginning in the late 1940s to the early 1950s. The second-generation semisynthetic analogs and more recent third-generation compounds show the continued evolution of the tetracycline scaffold toward derivatives with increased potency as well as efficacy against tetracycline-resistant bacteria, with improved pharmacokinetic and chemical properties. Their biologic activity against a wide spectrum of microbial pathogens and their uses in mammalian models of inflammation, neurodegeneration, and other biological systems indicate that the tetracyclines will continue to be successful therapeutics in infectious diseases and as potential therapeutics against inflammation-based mammalian cell diseases. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. A History of Court and Commoner Clothing in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C. Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trần Quang Đức. Ngàn năm áo mũ: Lich sử trang phục Việt Nam giai đoạn 1009–1945 [One thousand years of caps and robes: A history of Vietnamese clothing in the period 1009–1945]. TP Hồ Chí Minh: Nhã Nam, 2013. ISBN: 1467557900. Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. Based on an extensive examination of Vietnamese, Chinese, European, and even Korean sources—most of which only briefly mention clothing in various periods—Đức has succeeded in producing a comprehensive overview of the clothing of Vietnamese rulers and their officials; when possible, he also comments on the dress of other segments of society, such as the military and commoners. One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the Tây Sơn, and the Nguyễn. Đức begins each chapter with an overview of the history of that dynasty’s styles of court dress and then goes into a detailed description of exactly which types of cap and robe the ruler and his officials wore, and in what ways these caps and robes extended previous practices or were innovations. He follows his examination of court dress with a discussion of military and commoner attire. The chapter introductions provide a concise history of changes in court clothing across time, while the detailed discussions of the caps and robes from each period offer a deeper level of understanding...

  13. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A; Akawung, Alianu K; Whelan, Heather K; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J

    2017-02-13

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39-81 years) recruited from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation.

  14. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart’s private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  15. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N

    2016-07-15

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart's private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  16. EnviroInfo 2016. Environmental informatics. Stability, continuity, innovation. Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, Volker; Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank; Wittmann, Jochen (eds.) [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    This book covers selected keynotes, short papers and work in progress papers of the 30th edition of the long standing and established international and interdisciplinary conference series on leading environmental information and communication technologies (Envirolnfo 2016). The conference was held in September 14 - 16, 2016 at the Hochschule fiir Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin (HTW Berlin), University of Applied Sciences. Basic topics that were covered under the central focus ''Environmental Informatics - Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history'' were applications of geographical information systems, environmental modelling and simulation, risk management, material and energy flow management, climate change, tools and database applications and other aspects with regard to the main topic ICT and the environment. Due to the interdisciplinary character of environmental informatics, one important goal of this conference was to bring experts from industry, research and education together to exchange ideas and proposals for solution of urgent problems and needs in the field on environmental protection and it's IT-support. Three papers are separately analyzed for this database.

  17. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Whelan, Heather K.; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39–81 years) recruited from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation. PMID:28208819

  18. Nutritional and metabolic programming during the first thousand days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Agosti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest scientific acquisitions are demonstrating what has already been hypothesized for more than twenty years about the development of the state of health/illness of individuals. Indeed, certain stimuli, if applied to a sensible phase of development, are able to modify, through epigenetic mechanisms, gene expression of DNA, resulting in adaptive modifications of phenotype to the environment, which may reflect negatively on the health of every individual. This concept, applied to nutrition, has opened up important prospects for research in this area. The nutritional history of an individual, linked to the development of a healthy state, would begin very early. In fact, since the pregnancy and for the next two years (for a total of about 1000 days, the maternal eating habits, the type of breastfeeding and then the main stages of nutrition in the evolutionary phase represent those sensitive moments, essential for the development of important endocrine, metabolic, immunological alterations, better known as metabolic syndrome. This condition would represent the physiopathogenetic basis for explaining a series of disorders, known as non communicable diseases (NCDs such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascolar disease and all those conditions that today affect the health of most industrialized countries and through the years are emerging especially in developing countries (South America, Asia, where new environmental conditions and increased food availability are changing food habits, with far-reaching public health impacts. This paper analyzes these new nutritional perspectives and the main implications of what has been termed the 1000-day theory.

  19. Job insecurity and the use of antidepressant medication among Danish employees with and without a history of prolonged unemployment: a 3.5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, R; Thielen, K; Nygaard, E

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether job insecurity predicts incident use of antidepressant medication and whether the association is modified by a history of prolonged unemployment.......A study was undertaken to investigate whether job insecurity predicts incident use of antidepressant medication and whether the association is modified by a history of prolonged unemployment....

  20. The Intricacies of Education about the Holocaust in Poland. Ten Years after the Jedwabne Debate, What Can Polish School Students Learn about the Holocaust in History Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, Jolanta; Szuchta, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, disparities have grown between history and the memory of the Holocaust. Debates on Polish-Jewish relations during the Holocaust and empirical studies in the field of education reveal that there is a gap between research and education. The emphasis in this paper is on the content of new history textbooks published after…

  1. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis independent of autoimmune pancreatitis. A recurrent case after a 5-year history of spontaneous remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideaki; Miyachi, Yasutaka

    2009-07-06

    A new clinicopathological concept of IgG4-related sclerosing disease affecting various organs has recently been proposed in relation to autoimmune pancreatitis. This report describes the case of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis independent of autoimmune pancreatitis, which recurred after a long period of spontaneous remission. An 80-year-old Japanese man presented with obstructive jaundice owing to a hepatic hilum bile duct stricture. Coincidentally, a soft tissue mass surrounding the abdominal aorta, suggesting retroperitoneal fibrosis, was identified. Unexpectedly, spontaneous regression of obstructive jaundice together with retroperitoneal fibrosis occurred. The presence of high serum IgG4 concentrations measured later led us to consider a possible association with autoimmune pancreatitis; however, there were no clinical features confirming autoimmune pancreatitis. After a 5-year history of spontaneous clinical remission, there was an elevation of serum IgG4 levels and renal dysfunction owing to bilateral hydronephrosis caused by a reemergence of the retroperitoneal mass. Evaluation by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a biliary stricture, suggesting sclerosing cholangitis which was observed without the presence of any pancreatic duct abnormality. The subsequent excellent results obtained using steroid therapy, namely the decrease in serum IgG4 levels and the regression of the retroperitoneal mass, strongly suggested that the present case was an IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Aside from high serum IgG4 concentrations, markedly elevated levels of serum IgE was found retrospectively, although the clinical significance remains unknown. When we encounter fibrotic diseases of unknown etiology, we should measure serum IgG4 concentrations and monitor the disease activity over long periods even after achieving clinical remission.

  2. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappacosta R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotypingA Letter to the editor has been received and published for this articleCorrigendum for this paper has been published

  3. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babek, O. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Palacky Univ., Olomouc (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geology; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Machat, J.; Klanova, J. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Nehyba, S.; Zeman, J.; Famera, M. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Francu, J. [Czech Geological Survey, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the {sup 137}Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  4. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babek, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the 137 Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  5. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  6. Analysis of results of checks IMRT in almost a thousand patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richart, J.; Doval, S.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Depieaggio, M.; Rodriguez, S.; Santos, M.

    2013-01-01

    Since November 2006 IMRT treatments being made in the mode of sliding-window in our Hospital. The major sites of application of this technique are: head and neck, prostate, and gynecological. Specific checks are performed of each plan both yield and analysis ionometric extent in which a dummy was exported IMRT plan. Over one thousand patients, the objective of this work is the presentation and analysis of results. (Author)

  7. Gender Discrimination in Orhan Pamuk's 'Snow' and Khaled Hosseini's 'A Thousand Splendid Suns'

    OpenAIRE

    Iis Sugianti

    2018-01-01

    Women's life without discrimination or violence is the freedom and entitlement of women's rights. The objective of the study is to achieve the idea. Dealing with it, the researcher applies feminism approach proposed by Damewood's theory of gender discrimination. Gender discrimination refers to the practice of granting or denying rights or privilege to a person based on his/her gender that is longstanding and acceptable to both genders. The novel `Snow` and `A Thousand Splendid Suns` focus on ...

  8. The Study of Simplification and Explicitation Techniques in Khaled Hosseini's “A Thousand Splendid Suns”

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Kafipour

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and learning strategies help facilitate teaching and learning. Among them, simplification and explicitation strategies are those which help transferring the meaning to the learners and readers of a translated text. The aim of this study was to investigate explicitation and simplification in Persian translation of novel of Khaled Hosseini's “A Thousand Splendid Suns”. The study also attempted to find out frequencies of simplification and explicitation techniques used by the translator...

  9. Effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding during the first year postpartum in the first baby study: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2014-07-15

    Miscarriage, the unexpected loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation, may have a negative effect on a mother's perception of herself as a capable woman and on her emotional health when she is pregnant again subsequent to the miscarriage. As such, a mother with a history of miscarriage may be at greater risk for difficulties navigating the process of becoming a mother and achieving positive maternal-infant bonding with an infant born subsequent to the loss. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding after the birth of a healthy infant to test the hypothesis that women with a history of miscarriage have decreased maternal-infant bonding compared to women without a history of miscarriage. We completed secondary analysis of the First Baby Study, a longitudinal cohort study, to examine the effect of a history of miscarriage on maternal-infant bonding at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after women experienced the birth of their first live-born baby. In a sample of 2798 women living in Pennsylvania, USA, we tested our hypothesis using linear regression analysis of Shortened Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (S-PBQ) scores, followed by longitudinal analysis using a generalized estimating equations model with repeated measures. We found that women with a history of miscarriage had similar S-PBQ scores as women without a history of miscarriage at each of the three postpartum time points. Likewise, longitudinal analysis revealed no difference in the pattern of maternal-infant bonding scores between women with and without a history of miscarriage. Women in the First Baby Study with a history of miscarriage did not differ from women without a history of miscarriage in their reported level of bonding with their subsequently born infants. It is important for clinicians to recognize that even though some women may experience impaired bonding related to a history of miscarriage, the majority of women form a healthy bond

  10. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  11. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  12. Teaching-service integration and social impact in 50 years of public health history School of Dentistry of the “Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To verify the projects and programs developed during the course of 50-year history of School of Dentistry Aracatuba of the “Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (State of São Paulo -Brazil, in the public health area, in agreement with the dental models of attendance and considering the background and the progress of the Public Health policies in Brazil, with the aim of reporting on the experience of integrating teaching-service, professional education and the social impact. A documentary research of a descriptive nature was conducted, by consulting the institutional files of the Dental Faculty, considering; official texts, reports, documents, databases and publications, with reference to the period from 1957 to 2007. The descriptive analysis demonstrated that the main actions developed were: Campaign for home filters, Campaign for construction of Wells and Sewages, Campaign for Fluoridation of the Araçatuba and Area Water Supply, Epidemiologic Surveys, Extramural Dental services, Extension projects; Attendance to pregnant women, the elderly and children, Oral cancer prevention program, Program for Heterogeneous Fluoride control, Creation of master’s degree program, Municipal health counselor training courses, Training of State of São Paulo Family Health Program community agents and teams, Advisory services to municipalities and production of didactic-pedagogic materials for health education. Several programs have been and are being developed, with successful health practices in the area, accompanying the progress of health policies and promoting professional education with integration of the university into the local health and community services.

  13. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  14. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  15. Radial velocities for the HIPPARCOS-Gaia Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Eilers, A.-C.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The Hundred-Thousand-Proper-Motion (HTPM) project will determine the proper motions of ~113 500 stars using a ~23-year baseline. The proper motions will be based on space-based measurements exclusively, with the Hipparcos data, with epoch 1991.25, as first epoch and with the first intermediate-release Gaia astrometry, with epoch ~2014.5, as second epoch. The expected HTPM proper-motion standard errors are 30-190 μas yr-1, depending on stellar magnitude. Aims: Depending on the astrometric characteristics of an object, in particular its distance and velocity, its radial velocity can have a significant impact on the determination of its proper motion. The impact of this perspective acceleration is largest for fast-moving, nearby stars. Our goal is to determine, for each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, the radial-velocity standard error that is required to guarantee a negligible contribution of perspective acceleration to the HTPM proper-motion precision. Methods: We employ two evaluation criteria, both based on Monte-Carlo simulations, with which we determine which stars need to be spectroscopically (re-)measured. Both criteria take the Hipparcos measurement errors into account. The first criterion, the Gaussian criterion, is applicable to nearby stars. For distant stars, this criterion works but returns overly pessimistic results. We therefore use a second criterion, the robust criterion, which is equivalent to the Gaussian criterion for nearby stars but avoids biases for distant stars and/or objects without literature radial velocity. The robust criterion is hence our prefered choice for all stars, regardless of distance. Results: For each star in the Hipparcos catalogue, we determine the confidence level with which the available radial velocity and its standard error, taken from the XHIP compilation catalogue, are acceptable. We find that for 97 stars, the radial velocities available in the literature are insufficiently precise for a 68.27% confidence

  16. History of Smallpox and Its Spread in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thèves, Catherine; Crubézy, Eric; Biagini, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. The disease was officially declared eradicated in 1979 following intensive vaccination campaigns.Paleomicrobiology dedicated to variola virus is restricted to few studies, most unsuccessful, involving ancient material. Only one recent approach allowed the identification of viral DNA fragments from lung tissue of a 300-year-old body excavated from permafrost in Eastern Siberia; phylogenetic analysis revealed that this ancient strain was distinct from those described during the 20th century.

  17. Risk Factors for Wheezing, Eczema and Rhinoconjunctivitis in the Previous 12 Months among Six-Year-Old Children in Himeji City, Japan: Food Allergy, Older Siblings, Day-Care Attendance and Parental Allergy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among Japanese children, food allergy and parents' history of allergy are risk factors for WP, ES or RS. However, early day-care attendance and presence of older siblings might be protective factors against RS. Infections in early life may affect the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in six-year-old children.

  18. Large scale exact quantum dynamics calculations: Ten thousand quantum states of acetonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Thomas; Poirier, Bill

    2015-03-01

    'Exact' quantum dynamics (EQD) calculations of the vibrational spectrum of acetonitrile (CH3CN) are performed, using two different methods: (1) phase-space-truncated momentum-symmetrized Gaussian basis and (2) correlated truncated harmonic oscillator basis. In both cases, a simple classical phase space picture is used to optimize the selection of individual basis functions-leading to drastic reductions in basis size, in comparison with existing methods. Massive parallelization is also employed. Together, these tools-implemented into a single, easy-to-use computer code-enable a calculation of tens of thousands of vibrational states of CH3CN to an accuracy of 0.001-10 cm-1.

  19. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  20. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  1. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  2. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  3. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  4. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  5. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  6. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  7. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  8. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  9. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  10. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  11. Paleoceanographic history of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, during the past 15,000 years based on diatoms, silicoflagellates, and biogenic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J.A.; Bukry, D.; Dean, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution records of calcium carbonate, biogenic opal, diatoms, and silicoflagellates from western Guaymas Basin gravity core GGC55 and piston core JPC56 and eastern Guaymas Basin DSDP Site 480 reveal a complex paleoceanographic history of the central Gulf of California during the past 15,000 years. Prior to ??? 6.2 ka, the eastern and western Guaymas Basin proxy records were remarkably similar. After conditions similar to those of today during the B??lling-Allerod, the Younger Dryas (YD) saw a major drop in diatom production, coincident with increased calcium carbonate and tropical microfossils suggestive of El Nin??o-like conditions. Biosiliceous productivity began increasing during the latter part of the YD, but it was only during the earliest Holocene (11.6 to 11.0 ka) that conditions similar to those of the B??lling-Allerod returned to the central Gulf. Between around 11.0 and 6.2 ka, tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates were virtually absent from the central Gulf, as relatively cooler and fresher surface waters resembling those of the modern northern Gulf were present in the central Gulf. Beginning at about 6.2 ka, tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates began increasing in the central Gulf, and coccoliths returned to western Gulf sediments. The onset of modern-day monsoon conditions in the American Southwest required the presence of warm SSTs in the northern Gulf, which probably did not occur until after about 5.4 ka, when tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates became relatively common in the central Gulf. Modern east-west contrasts, which arise from late winter-early spring coastal upwelling on the mainland side and lower diatom productivity on the western side of the Gulf, commenced between 6.2 and 5.4 ka, possibly due to a shift in the direction of late winter-early spring winds more towards the southeast, or down the axis of the Gulf. This proposed wind shift might have ultimately been due to a late Holocene strengthening of ENSO-like conditions

  12. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  13. Weapons of Maths Instruction: A Thousand Years of Technological Stasis in Arrowheads from the South Scandinavian Middle Mesolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevan Edinborough

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results from my doctoral research into the evolution of bow-arrow technology using archaeological data from the south Scandinavian Mesolithic (Edinborough 2004. A quantitative approach is used to describe the morphological variation found in samples taken from over 3600 armatures from nine Danish and Swedish lithic assemblages. A linked series of statistical techniques determines the two most significant metric variables across the nine arrowhead assemblages in terms of the cultural transmission of arrowhead technology. The resultant scatterplot uses confidence ellipses to reveal highly distinctive patterns of morphological variation that are related to population-specific technological traditions. A population-level hypothesis of a socially constrained transmission mechanism is presented that may explain the unusually long period of technological stasis demonstrated by six of the nine arrowhead phase-assemblages.

  14. A record of the last 460 thousand years of upper ocean stratification from the central Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Peeters, F.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The upper branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation predominantly enters the Atlantic Ocean through the southeast, where the subtropical gyre is exposed to the influence of the Agulhas leakage (AL). To understand how the transfer of Indian Ocean waters via the AL affected the upper

  15. Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Hydrogen-Helium gas mixtures at Thousands of Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Martin; Frommhold, Lothar; Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2010-10-01

    The interaction-induced absorption by collisional pairs of H2 molecules is an important opacity source in the atmospheres of the outer planets and cool stars ^[1]. The emission spectra of cool white dwarf stars differ significantly in the infrared from the expected blackbody spectra of their cores, which is largely due to absorption by collisional H2--H2, H2--He, and H2--H complexes in the stellar atmospheres. Using quantum-chemical methods we compute the atmospheric absorption from hundreds to thousands of kelvin ^[2]. Laboratory measurements of interaction-induced absorption spectra by H2 pairs exist only at room temperature and below. We show that our results reproduce these measurements closely ^[2], so that our computational data permit reliable modeling of stellar atmosphere opacities even for the higher temperatures ^[2]. [1] L. Frommhold, Collision-Induced Absorption in Gases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 1993 and 2006 [2] Xiaoping Li, Katharine L. C. Hunt, Fei Wang, Martin Abel, and Lothar Frommhold, ``Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Molecular Hydrogen Pairs at Thousands of Kelvin'', International Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2010, Article ID 371201, 11 pages, 2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/371201

  16. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-04

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Test-based age-of-acquisition norms for 44 thousand English word meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Biemiller, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) is an important variable in word recognition research. Up to now, nearly all psychology researchers examining the AoA effect have used ratings obtained from adult participants. An alternative basis for determining AoA is directly testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages. In educational research, scholars and teachers have tried to establish the grade at which particular words should be taught by examining the ages at which children know various word meanings. Such a list is available from Dale and O'Rourke's (1981) Living Word Vocabulary for nearly 44 thousand meanings coming from over 31 thousand unique word forms and multiword expressions. The present article relates these test-based AoA estimates to lexical decision times as well as to AoA adult ratings, and reports strong correlations between all of the measures. Therefore, test-based estimates of AoA can be used as an alternative measure.

  18. Aerodynamic problems of cable-stayed bridges spanning over one thousand meters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Airong; Ma Rujin; Wang Dalei

    2009-01-01

    Tbe elongating of cable-stayed bridge brings a series of aerodynamic problems. First of all, geometric nonlin-ear effect of extreme long cable is much more significant for cable-stayed bridge spanning over one thousand meters. Lat-eral static wind load will generate additional displacement of long cables, which causes the decrease of supporting rigidi-ty of the whole bridge and the change of dynamic properties. Wind load, being the controlling load in the design of ca-hie-stayed bridge, is a critical problem and needs to be solved. Meanwhile, research on suitable system between pylon and deck indicates fixed-fixed connection system is an effective way for improvement performance of cable-stayed bridges under longitudinal wind load. In order to obtain aerodynamic parameters of cable-stayed bridge spanning over one thou-sand meters, identification method for flutter derivatives of full bridge aero-elastic model is developed in this paper. Furthermore, vortex induced vibration and Reynolds number effect are detailed discussed.

  19. Leveraging the Thousands of Known Planets to Inform TESS Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The Solar System furnishes our most familiar planetary architecture: many planets, orbiting nearly coplanar to one another. However, a typical system of planets in the Milky Way orbits a much smaller M dwarf star, and these stars furnish a different blueprint in key ways than the conditions that nourished evolution of life on Earth. With ensemble studies of hundreds-to-thousands of exoplanets, I will describe the emerging links between planet formation from disks, orbital dynamics of planets, and the content and observability of planetary atmospheres. These quantities can be tied to observables even in discovery light curves, to enable judicious selection of follow-up targets from the ground and from space. After TESS exoplanet discoveries start in earnest, the studies of individual planets with large, space-based platforms comprise the clear next step toward understanding the hospitability of the Milky Way to life. Our success hinges upon leveraging the many thousands of planet discoveries in hand to determine how to use these precious and limited resources.

  20. Refrigeration a history

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Carroll

    2015-01-01

    For thousands of years, humans coped with heat by harvesting and storing natural ice and devising natural cooling systems that utilized ventilation and evaporation. By the mid 1800s, people began developing huge refrigeration machines to manufacture ice. By the early 1900s, engineers developed electric domestic refrigerators, which by 1927 were affordable convenient household appliances. By then, an increasingly sophisticated public demanded more modern-looking appliances than engineers could produce, and a new breed of designers entered the manufacturing world to provide them. During the Depr

  1. [History of Polish botanical and mycological researches on sheets of land of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic in the years 1977-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr; Olech, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The work includes a description of the period from the moment of setting up Polish Polar Station on King George Island (1977) to the end of International Polar Year IV in 2009. Researches on flower plants focused, among others, on plants' morphology, morphological composition of the pollen and anatomical ultra-structure of the leaves. There were also carried out biochemical and other searches for the internal mutability. Within physiological studies one concentrated on the problem of reaction to temperature stress. Biological researches focused mainly on solving taxonomic and bio-geographic problems. Finally, were published several monographs and, among others, the first in history complete description of moss' flora of the whole of Antarctic (2008). Research works over algae included also such issues as floristics, bio-geography, taxonomy and ecology (for instance, the rookery's impact on distribution of algae, or the influence of inanimate factors on dynamics of condensing the Diatoma in different water and soil-bound tanks). Up till now, within mycological investigations has been identified a variety of lichen fungi that for the most part of Antarctic are a novelty. There were scientifically described new for science genera and species of Western Antarctic. Lichenological studies were made in the field of taxonomy, geography, lichenometry, biochemistry of lichens, lichenoindication, ecophysiology and from the point of analysis of base metals' content. There were also described new for science species. Since 1991, were published the results of searches for the base metals' content and vestigial chemical elements in lichens' thallus. Ecophysiological researches concerned both micro-climatic conditions' impact on primary production and lichens' adaptation to a very cold climate. One discovered a mechanism of two-phase hydratization/dehydratization of lichens' thallus. On the ground of palaeobotanical analyzes was reconstructed a development of flora in Western

  2. Atmospheric Deposition History of Trace Metals and Metalloids for the Last 200 Years Recorded by Three Peat Cores in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunshan Bao

    2015-03-01

    , even after the ban of leaded gasoline use in China. Emissions from coal and leaded gasoline combustions in northern China are regarded as one of the major sources of anthropogenic Pb input in this region; meanwhile, the long-distance transportation of Pb-bearing aerosols from Mongolia should be also taken into consideration. The reconstructed history of TMs’ pollution over the past ca. 200 years is in agreement with the industrial development in China and clearly illustrates the influence of human activities on local rural environments. This study shows the utility of taking multi-cores to show the heterogeneity in peat accumulation and applying PCA, EF and Pb isotope methods in multi-proxies analyses for establishing a high resolution geochemical metal record from peatland.

  3. Role of adiposity and lifestyle in the relationship between family history of diabetes and 20-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in US women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Riet, E.; Dekker, J.M.; Sun, Q.; Nijpels, G.; Hu, F.B.; van Dam, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate to what extent the association between family history of diabetes and risk of type 2 diabetes can be explained by excess adiposity and lifestyle risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We analyzed data from 73,227 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study cohort.

  4. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  5. Lifestyle intervention in prevention of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: one-year results of the FIN-D2D project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Nina; Jokelainen, Jari; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Oksa, Heikki; Saaristo, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Vanhala, Mauno; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may have barriers to lifestyle changes, and the previous results of lifestyle interventions are contradictory reporting either favorable outcomes or no significant beneficial effects. Our aim was to compare cardio-metabolic risk profile and responses to a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in women with and without history of GDM. The Implementation Project of the Program for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (FIN-D2D) was conducted in Finland in five hospital districts. Altogether 1,661 women aged ≤45 years participated in the program. One-year follow-up was available for 393 women who did not have screen-detected T2D at baseline, and 265 of them had at least one intervention visit [115 (43.4%) women with history of GDM and 150 (56.6%) without history of GDM]. At baseline, women with GDM had similar baseline glucose tolerance but better anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and lipid profile than women without GDM after adjustment for age. Beneficial changes in cardiovascular risk profile existed among women with and without GDM during follow-up and the effect of lifestyle intervention was similar between the groups, except that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved only in women with GDM. Altogether, 4.0% of those with GDM and 5.0% of those without GDM developed T2D (p=0.959 adjustment for age). The effect of a 1-year lifestyle intervention in primary healthcare setting was similar regardless of history of GDM, both women with and without GDM benefitted from participation in the lifestyle intervention.

  6. National History Day 1997 Supplement: Triumph & Tragedy in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Cathy

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the procedures, standards, and topics involved in the 1997 National History Day. National History Day is a year-long contest where students research primary sources and prepare papers, projects, performances, and media based on a historical theme. The 1997 theme is "Triumph and Tragedy in History." (MJP)

  7. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  8. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan's work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL

  9. PetaScale calculations of the electronic structures of nanostructures with hundreds of thousands of processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Zhao, Zhengji; Meza, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is the most widely used ab initio method in material simulations. It accounts for 75% of the NERSC allocation time in the material science category. The DFT can be used to calculate the electronic structure, the charge density, the total energy and the atomic forces of a material system. With the advance of the HPC power and new algorithms, DFT can now be used to study thousand atom systems in some limited ways (e.g, a single selfconsistent calculation without atomic relaxation). But there are many problems which either requires much larger systems (e.g, >100,000 atoms), or many total energy calculation steps (e.g. for molecular dynamics or atomic relaxations). Examples include: grain boundary, dislocation energies and atomic structures, impurity transport and clustering in semiconductors, nanostructure growth, electronic structures of nanostructures and their internal electric fields. Due to the O(N 3 ) scaling of the conventional DFT algorithms (as implemented in codes like Qbox, Paratec, Petots), these problems are beyond the reach even for petascale computers. As the proposed petascale computers might have millions of processors, new computational paradigms and algorithms are needed to solve the above large scale problems. In particular, O(N) scaling algorithms with parallelization capability up to millions of processors are needed. For a large material science problem, a natural approach to achieve this goal is by divide-and-conquer method: to spatially divide the system into many small pieces, and solve each piece by a small local group of processors. This solves the O(N) scaling and the parallelization problem at the same time. However, the challenge of this approach is for how to divide the system into small pieces and how to patch them up without the trace of the spatial division. Here, we present a linear scaling 3 dimensional fragment (LS3DF) method which uses a novel division-patching scheme that cancels out the

  10. Analysis of one thousand liver scans carried out using technetium phytate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, J; de Laforte, C; Roux, F; Bisset, J P; Paulin, R [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1977-10-01

    One thousand liver scans were carried out using technetium phytate. This soluble compound is transformed in the circulating blood into a colloid by chelation of serum calcium, thereby forming a macromolecular phytate of calcium and technetium. The presenting symptoms are compared with the isotopic findings. This microcolloid has the advantages common to all technetium tracers and, in addition, is easy to prepare and has the advantage of a distribution between the liver, spleen, and bone of the same type as that seen with colloidal gold 198 without the dosimetric problems associated with the latter. Although it has a level of hepatic fixation which is less than that of certain sulphide complexes of technetium it appears to provide a better reflection of the colloidopexic function of the liver.

  11. The Subaltern Voice in A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled Khosseini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Soraya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Life in Afghanistan puts female as the second sex and the victims of patriarchy. In the eye of Orientalism, women are the east. Thus, they can be colonized and suppressed (the subaltern. This study was designed to answer the question how was the voice of the subaltern being represented by the characters in the novel A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled Khosseini. Library research was applied in this study. Data were  analyzed using postcolonial theory, specifically from Gayatri Spivak. The conclusion presents that both characters, Mariam and Laila is the representation of the subaltern who created voice to fight against the oppression. Between Mariam, the symbol of traditional woman, and Laila, the symbol of modern woman, only Laila who can reach the freedom. However, it is impossible to achieve without the courage and sacrifice of Mariam 

  12. Analysis of one thousand liver scans carried out using technetium phytate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, J.; Laforte, C. de; Roux, F.; Bisset, J.P.; Paulin, R.

    1977-01-01

    One thousand liver scans were carried out using technetium phytate. This soluble compound is transformed in the circulating blood into a colloid by chelation of serum calcium, thereby forming a macromolecular phytate of calcium and technetium. The presenting symptoms are compared with the isotopic findings. This microcolloid has the advantages common to all technetium tracers and, in addition, is easy to prepare and has the advantage of a distribution between the liver, spleen and bone of the same type as that seen with colloidal gold 198 without the dosimetric problems associated with the latter. Although it has a level of hepatic fixation which is less than that of certain sulphide complexes of technetium it appears to provide a better reflection of the colloidopexic function of the liver [fr

  13. A microneedle array able to inject tens of thousands of cells simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Gregory H.; Burnett, Sandra; Jensen, Brian D.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a biological microelectromechanical system for injecting foreign particles into thousands of cells simultaneously. The system inserts an array of microneedles into a monolayer of cells, and the foreign particles enter the cells by diffusion. The needle array is fabricated using a series of deep reactive ion etches and produces about 4 million needles that average 1 μm in diameter and 8 μm in length with 10 μm spacing. The insertion of the needles is controlled through a compliant suspension. The compliant suspension was designed to provide for needle motion into the cells while restraining rotations or transverse motions that could result in tearing of the cell membranes. Testing was performed using propidium iodide, a membrane impermeable dye, injected into HeLa cells. Average cell survivability was found to be 97.7%, and up to 97.9% of the surviving cells received the propidium iodide.

  14. A microneedle array able to inject tens of thousands of cells simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichert, Gregory H; Jensen, Brian D; Burnett, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a biological microelectromechanical system for injecting foreign particles into thousands of cells simultaneously. The system inserts an array of microneedles into a monolayer of cells, and the foreign particles enter the cells by diffusion. The needle array is fabricated using a series of deep reactive ion etches and produces about 4 million needles that average 1 μm in diameter and 8 μm in length with 10 μm spacing. The insertion of the needles is controlled through a compliant suspension. The compliant suspension was designed to provide for needle motion into the cells while restraining rotations or transverse motions that could result in tearing of the cell membranes. Testing was performed using propidium iodide, a membrane impermeable dye, injected into HeLa cells. Average cell survivability was found to be 97.7%, and up to 97.9% of the surviving cells received the propidium iodide. (paper)

  15. 3D DOCUMENTATION AND DATA MANAGEMENT IN THE DAZU THOUSAND-HAND BODHISATTVA STATUE IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently different types 3D data of many cultural heritage are collected, however, how to store and manage these data problem. This paper presents a new solution regarding cultural 3D information fine reconstruction and data management based on 3D modeling. These data were stored with the file system and database, which improved the efficiency of data retrieval; on this basis, hyper-fine 3D models of cultural relics were established. Fine 3D information model based on this method can be used for 3D statistics, virtual restoration and change detection, etc. It can provide a scientific basis for the field of conservation and restoration of cultural relics, but can also provide a reference for fine 3D reconstruction to be applied to other cultural relics. Finally, the Dazu Thousand-hand Bodhisattva has been taken as an example, which verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the program.

  16. Gender Discrimination in Orhan Pamuk's 'Snow' and Khaled Hosseini's 'A Thousand Splendid Suns'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sugianti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Women's life without discrimination or violence is the freedom and entitlement of women's rights. The objective of the study is to achieve the idea. Dealing with it, the researcher applies feminism approach proposed by Damewood's theory of gender discrimination. Gender discrimination refers to the practice of granting or denying rights or privilege to a person based on his/her gender that is longstanding and acceptable to both genders. The novel `Snow` and `A Thousand Splendid Suns` focus on gender discrimination, violence, oppression, and struggle to fight against them. The researcher explores how gender discrimination, patriarchy culture and most of violence and oppression happened in family and country. The phenomenon of violence is not only a discrimination done by husbands who do gender discrimination in family, but also a fight done by a wife to fight against them, it depends on its case. In `Snow`, the women character faced many problems related to their headscarves. They are discriminated by their government and parents. Kadife is depicted as a brave woman. She tries to defend women‟s right in Kars to keep on using their headscarves. While in A `Thousand Splendid Suns`, the limitation of women`s activity happened. Women are banned to get education and they should stay at home. Mariam and Laila get oppression and violence by their husband. Their struggle is shown in the murder of their husband, Rasheed. The unstable practice of gender discrimination was continuously preserved by the culture, not religion. It was like a patriarchal culture that is one of clear examples of the women phenomena in the world and it can be in the form of prohibition and limitation of the role of women in the public area.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION IN THE CITIES WITH POPULATION FROM 250 TO 500 THOUSAND INHABITANTS (on the example of the cities of the Ural Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mikhaylovna Shentsova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In article history of construction of high-rise buildings, features of perception of high-rise buildings in the urban environment what factors influence the choice of the site of high-rise buildings are considered. Such concepts as “skyscraper”, “a high-rise dominant” reveal. Also, the analysis of existence of high-rise buildings of the large cities with population from 250 to 500 thousand residents of the Ural Federal District is provided: Barrow, Nizhny Tagil, Nizhnevartovsk, Surgut and Magnitogorsk. And also the analysis of a town-planning situation of Magnitogorsk where the possible, most probable and offered places for an arrangement of high-rise buildings on crossing or end of axes of streets are revealed is given. Work purpose – the analysis of high-rise construction in the large cities of the Ural Federal District with population from 250 to 500 thousand inhabitants. Method or methodology of carrying out work: in article methods of the theoretical and visual analysis, observation, and also studying literary and the Internet of sources were used. Results: the systematized theoretical material in the field of architecture and town planning of the cities of the Ural Federal District is received. Scope of results: the received results can be applied in the field of architectural education and practical architectural activities.

  18. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergström, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y; Crawford, Jacob E; Heupink, Tim H; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Levkivskyi, Ivan P; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Søren; Campos, Paula F; Clark, Warren; Ellingvåg, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; McAllister, Peter J; Mentzer, Alexander J; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma'run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H; Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-10-13

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ~10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert.

  19. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo

    2016-09-20

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  20. A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Westaway, Michael C.; Muller, Craig; Sousa, Vitor C.; Lao, Oscar; Alves, Isabel; Bergströ m, Anders; Athanasiadis, Georgios; Cheng, Jade Y.; Crawford, Jacob E.; Heupink, Tim H.; Macholdt, Enrico; Peischl, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; Schiffels, Stephan; Subramanian, Sankar; Wright, Joanne L.; Albrechtsen, Anders; Barbieri, Chiara; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Eriksson, Anders; Margaryan, Ashot; Moltke, Ida; Pugach, Irina; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Levkivskyi, Ivan P.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Ni, Shengyu; Racimo, Fernando; Sikora, Martin; Xue, Yali; Aghakhanian, Farhang A.; Brucato, Nicolas; Brunak, Sø ren; Campos, Paula F.; Clark, Warren; Ellingvå g, Sturla; Fourmile, Gudjugudju; Gerbault, Pascale; Injie, Darren; Koki, George; Leavesley, Matthew; Logan, Betty; Lynch, Aubrey; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; McAllister, Peter J.; Mentzer, Alexander J.; Metspalu, Mait; Migliano, Andrea B.; Murgha, Les; Phipps, Maude E.; Pomat, William; Reynolds, Doc; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Siba, Peter; Thomas, Mark G.; Wales, Thomas; Wall, Colleen Ma’ run; Oppenheimer, Stephen J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard; Dortch, Joe; Manica, Andrea; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazó n; Bowern, Claire; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Mailund, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Nielsen, Rasmus; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Excoffier, Laurent; Lambert, David M.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    The population history of Aboriginal Australians remains largely uncharacterized. Here we generate high-coverage genomes for 83 Aboriginal Australians (speakers of Pama-Nyungan languages) and 25 Papuans from the New Guinea Highlands. We find that Papuan and Aboriginal Australian ancestors diversified 25-40 thousand years ago (kya), suggesting pre-Holocene population structure in the ancient continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea and Tasmania). However, all of the studied Aboriginal Australians descend from a single founding population that differentiated ∼10-32 kya. We infer a population expansion in northeast Australia during the Holocene epoch (past 10,000 years) associated with limited gene flow from this region to the rest of Australia, consistent with the spread of the Pama-Nyungan languages. We estimate that Aboriginal Australians and Papuans diverged from Eurasians 51-72 kya, following a single out-of-Africa dispersal, and subsequently admixed with archaic populations. Finally, we report evidence of selection in Aboriginal Australians potentially associated with living in the desert. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved

  1. Population structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo M. Zerillo; Jorge Ibarra Caballero; Keith Woeste; Andrew D. Graves; Colleen Hartel; Jay W. Pscheidt; Jadelys Tonos; Kirk Broders; Whitney Cranshaw; Steven J. Seybold; Ned Tisserat

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but...

  2. The Anthropocene era. The Earth, the history and us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneuil, Christophe; Fressoz, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    As some scientists state that the Earth entered the Anthropocene era which is an anthropogenic geological revolution: the traces of our urban, consumption, chemical and nuclear era will remain in the planet geological archives for thousands and even millions of years, and will result in huge difficulties for human societies. Between science and history, the authors give an overview of a development model which has become unsustainable: studies which highlighted the impossibility of an indefinite growth in the 1970's have been ignored, and instead of taking the three dimensions involved in sustainable development (economy, social, environment), into account, environment tends to become only a new item in firm accounting (markets of eco-systemic services, the biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere about to become simple subsystems of the financial and merchandising sphere)

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiation biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D., conducted December 22, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview of Dr. Marvin Goldman by representatives of DOE's Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Goldman was chosen for this interview because of his work on bone-seeking radionuclides. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Goldman related his experiences concerning his training and work at Rochester University, his work at Brookhaven National Laboratory, his participation in the Beagle Studies at University of California at Davis, his work with the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident, his consultation work with Russian authorities on the health and ecological effects in their history, and finally his opinions and recommendations on human radiation research and the environmental cleanup of DOE sites

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  5. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  6. The Fifteen-Year Attitude History of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Radiator and Collection Efficiencies for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Cooke, William J.; Koehler, H.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator assembly was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) during the summer of 2009. Immediately apparent was a distinct biasing of the largest 45 impact features towards one side of the radiator, in contrast to an approximately uniform distribution of smaller impacts. Such a distribution may be a consequence of the HST s attitude history and pointing requirements for the cold radiator, or of environmental effects, such as an anisotropic distribution of the responsible population in that size regime. Understanding the size-dependent spatial distribution of impact features is essential to the general analysis of these features. We have obtained from GSFC a 15 minute temporal resolution record of the state vector (Earth Centered Inertial position and velocity) and HST attitude, consisting of the orientation of the velocity and HST-sun vectors in HST body coordinates. This paper reviews the actual state vector and attitude history of the radiator in the context of the randomly tumbling plate assumption and assesses the statistical likelihood (or collection efficiency) of the radiator for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environments. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Meteoroid Environment Model is used to assess the micrometeoroid component. The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) is used to model the orbital debris component. Modeling results are compared with observations of the impact feature spatial distribution, and the relative contribution of each environmental component are examined in detail.

  7. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  8. Transcription Factors Bind Thousands of Active and InactiveRegions in the Drosophila Blastoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Yong; MacArthur, Stewart; Bourgon, Richard; Nix, David; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Hechmer, Aaron; Simirenko, Lisa; Stapleton, Mark; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Chu, Hou Cheng; Ogawa, Nobuo; Inwood, William; Sementchenko, Victor; Beaton, Amy; Weiszmann, Richard; Celniker, Susan E.; Knowles, David W.; Gingeras, Tom; Speed, Terence P.; Eisen, Michael B.; Biggin, Mark D.

    2008-01-10

    Identifying the genomic regions bound by sequence-specific regulatory factors is central both to deciphering the complex DNA cis-regulatory code that controls transcription in metazoans and to determining the range of genes that shape animal morphogenesis. Here, we use whole-genome tiling arrays to map sequences bound in Drosophila melanogaster embryos by the six maternal and gap transcription factors that initiate anterior-posterior patterning. We find that these sequence-specific DNA binding proteins bind with quantitatively different specificities to highly overlapping sets of several thousand genomic regions in blastoderm embryos. Specific high- and moderate-affinity in vitro recognition sequences for each factor are enriched in bound regions. This enrichment, however, is not sufficient to explain the pattern of binding in vivo and varies in a context-dependent manner, demonstrating that higher-order rules must govern targeting of transcription factors. The more highly bound regions include all of the over forty well-characterized enhancers known to respond to these factors as well as several hundred putative new cis-regulatory modules clustered near developmental regulators and other genes with patterned expression at this stage of embryogenesis. The new targets include most of the microRNAs (miRNAs) transcribed in the blastoderm, as well as all major zygotically transcribed dorsal-ventral patterning genes, whose expression we show to be quantitatively modulated by anterior-posterior factors. In addition to these highly bound regions, there are several thousand regions that are reproducibly bound at lower levels. However, these poorly bound regions are, collectively, far more distant from genes transcribed in the blastoderm than highly bound regions; are preferentially found in protein-coding sequences; and are less conserved than highly bound regions. Together these observations suggest that many of these poorly-bound regions are not involved in early

  9. Evolving T-cell vaccine strategies for HIV, the virus with a thousand faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    HIV's rapid global spread and the human suffering it has left in its wake have made AIDS a global heath priority for the 25 years since its discovery. Yet its capacity to rapidly evolve has made combating this virus a tremendous challenge. The obstacles to creating an effective HIV vaccine are formidable, but there are advances in the field on many fronts, in terms of novel vectors, adjuvants, and antigen design strategies. SIV live attenuated vaccine models are able to confer protection against heterologous challenge, and this continues to provide opportunities to explore the biological underpinnings of a protective effect (9). More indirect, but equally important, is new understanding regarding the biology of acute infection (43), the role of immune response in long-term non-progression (6,62, 81), and defining characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies (4). In this review we will focus on summarizing strategies directed towards a single issue, that of contending with HIV variation in terms of designing aT-cell vaccine. The strategies that prove most effective in this area can ultimately be combined with the best strategies under development in other areas, with the hope of ultimately converging on a viable vaccine candidate. Only two large HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been completed and both have failed to prevent infection or confer a benefit to infected individual (23,34), but there is ample reason to continue our efforts. A historic breakthrough came in 1996, when it was realized that although the virus could escape from a single antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, it could be thwarted by a combination of medications that simultaneously targeted different parts of the virus (HAART) (38). This revelation came after 15 years of research, thought, and clinical testing; to enable that vital progress the research and clinical communities had to first define and understand, then develop a strategy to counter, the remarkable evolutionary potential of the

  10. A Third Approach to Gene Prediction Suggests Thousands of Additional Human Transcribed Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusman, Gustavo; Qin, Shizhen; El-Gewely, M. Raafat; Siegel, Andrew F; Roach, Jared C; Hood, Leroy; Smit, Arian F. A

    2006-01-01

    The identification and characterization of the complete ensemble of genes is a main goal of deciphering the digital information stored in the human genome. Many algorithms for computational gene prediction have been described, ultimately derived from two basic concepts: (1) modeling gene structure and (2) recognizing sequence similarity. Successful hybrid methods combining these two concepts have also been developed. We present a third orthogonal approach to gene prediction, based on detecting the genomic signatures of transcription, accumulated over evolutionary time. We discuss four algorithms based on this third concept: Greens and CHOWDER, which quantify mutational strand biases caused by transcription-coupled DNA repair, and ROAST and PASTA, which are based on strand-specific selection against polyadenylation signals. We combined these algorithms into an integrated method called FEAST, which we used to predict the location and orientation of thousands of putative transcription units not overlapping known genes. Many of the newly predicted transcriptional units do not appear to code for proteins. The new algorithms are particularly apt at detecting genes with long introns and lacking sequence conservation. They therefore complement existing gene prediction methods and will help identify functional transcripts within many apparent “genomic deserts.” PMID:16543943

  11. SWAP-Assembler: scalable and efficient genome assembly towards thousands of cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jintao; Wang, Bingqiang; Wei, Yanjie; Feng, Shengzhong; Balaji, Pavan

    2014-01-01

    There is a widening gap between the throughput of massive parallel sequencing machines and the ability to analyze these sequencing data. Traditional assembly methods requiring long execution time and large amount of memory on a single workstation limit their use on these massive data. This paper presents a highly scalable assembler named as SWAP-Assembler for processing massive sequencing data using thousands of cores, where SWAP is an acronym for Small World Asynchronous Parallel model. In the paper, a mathematical description of multi-step bi-directed graph (MSG) is provided to resolve the computational interdependence on merging edges, and a highly scalable computational framework for SWAP is developed to automatically preform the parallel computation of all operations. Graph cleaning and contig extension are also included for generating contigs with high quality. Experimental results show that SWAP-Assembler scales up to 2048 cores on Yanhuang dataset using only 26 minutes, which is better than several other parallel assemblers, such as ABySS, Ray, and PASHA. Results also show that SWAP-Assembler can generate high quality contigs with good N50 size and low error rate, especially it generated the longest N50 contig sizes for Fish and Yanhuang datasets. In this paper, we presented a highly scalable and efficient genome assembly software, SWAP-Assembler. Compared with several other assemblers, it showed very good performance in terms of scalability and contig quality. This software is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/swapassembler.

  12. THE STUDY OF SIMPLIFICATION AND EXPLICITATION TECHNIQUES IN KHALED HOSSEINI'S “A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning strategies help facilitate teaching and learning. Among them, simplification and explicitation strategies are those which help transferring the meaning to the learners and readers of a translated text. The aim of this study was to investigate explicitation and simplification in Persian translation of novel of Khaled Hosseini's “A Thousand Splendid Suns”. The study also attempted to find out frequencies of simplification and explicitation techniques used by the translators in translating the novel. To do so, 359 sentences out of 6000 sentences in original text were selected by systematic random sampling procedure. Then the percentage and total sums of each one of the strategies were calculated. The result showed that both translators used simplification and explicitation techniques significantly in their translation whereas Saadvandian, the first translator, significantly applied more simplification techniques in comparison with Ghabrai, the second translator. However, no significant difference was found between translators in the application of explicitation techniques. The study implies that these two translation strategies were fully familiar for the translators as both translators used them significantly to make the translation more understandable to the readers.

  13. The Study of Simplification and Explicitation Techniques in Khaled Hosseini's “A Thousand Splendid Suns”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning strategies help facilitate teaching and learning. Among them, simplification and explicitation strategies are those which help transferring the meaning to the learners and readers of a translated text. The aim of this study was to investigate explicitation and simplification in Persian translation of novel of Khaled Hosseini's “A Thousand Splendid Suns”. The study also attempted to find out frequencies of simplification and explicitation techniques used by the translators in translating the novel. To do so, 359 sentences out of 6000 sentences in original text were selected by systematic random sampling procedure. Then the percentage and total sums of each one of the strategies were calculated. The result showed that both translators used simplification and explicitation techniques significantly in their translation whereas Saadvandian, the first translator, significantly applied more simplification techniques in comparison with Ghabrai, the second translator. However, no significant difference was found between translators in the application of explicitation techniques. The study implies that these two translation strategies were fully familiar for the translators as both translators used them significantly to make the translation more understandable to the readers.

  14. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  15. The exhibition Namibia-Germany: a shared/divided history. Resistance, violence, memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Himmelheber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The year 2004 was the centenary of the outbreak of a colonial war in former German South West Africa in which thousands of Africans were killed by the colonial power. Although of crucial importance for Namibia, the war had not entered public memory in Germany. The exhibition aimed at presenting colonial history, as well as the contemporary relationships between the two countries, showing a ‘shared’ and a ‘divided’ history. The exhibition created a public debate, which certainly supported the initiative of the German Minister of Economic Co-operation and Development to deliver an apology at the commemoration in August 2004 in Namibia. The article is a post-reflection of one of the co-curators on the exhibition putting it into a larger context and reviewing it concurrently.

  16. The Challenge of World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Cristobal T.

    2012-01-01

    The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

  17. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  18. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  19. A history of childhood trauma is associated with slower improvement rates: Findings from a one-year follow-up study of patients with a first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Andreassen, Ole A; Aminoff, Sofie R; Færden, Ann; Romm, Kristin L; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Berg, Akiah O; Simonsen, Carmen; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-05-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether childhood trauma was associated with more severe clinical features in patients with first-episode psychosis, both at the initial assessment and after one year. Ninety-six patients with a first-episode of a DSM-IV diagnosis of psychosis, in addition to 264 healthy controls from the same catchment area, were recruited to the TOP NORMENT study. A history of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Function and symptom severity were measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale divided into function (GAF-F) and symptoms (GAF-S), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). All clinical assessments were completed at two time points: At an initial assessment within the first year of initiating treatment for psychosis and after one year. Childhood trauma was associated with significantly reduced global functioning and more severe clinical symptoms at both baseline and follow-up, whereas emotional neglect was associated with a significantly reduced improvement rate for global functioning (GAF-F) over the follow-up period. Our data indicate that patients with first-episode psychosis who report a history of childhood trauma constitute a subgroup characterized by more severe clinical features over the first year of treatment, as well as slower improvement rates.

  20. ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, C.; Verschuren, D.; Van Daele, M. E.; Waldmann, N.; Meyer, I.; Lane, C. S.; Van der Meeren, T.; Ombori, T.; Kasanzu, C.; Olago, D.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short

  1. Music as therapy in early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The notion of music as therapy is based on ancient cross-cultural beliefs that music can have a "healing" effect on mind and body. Explanations for the therapeutic mechanisms in music have almost always included cultural and social science-based causalities about the uses and functions of music in society. However, it is also important to note that the view of music as "therapy" was also always strongly influenced by the view and understanding of the concepts and causes of disease. Magical/mystical concepts of illness and "rational" medicine probably lived side by side for thousands of years. Not until the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries were the scientific foundations of medicine established, which allowed the foundations of music in therapy to progress from no science to soft science and most recently to actual brain science. Evidence for "early music therapy" will be discussed in four broad historical-cultural divisions: preliterate cultures; early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Israel; Greek Antiquity; Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque. In reviewing "early music therapy" practice, from mostly unknown periods of early history (using preliterate cultures as a window) to increasingly better documented times, including preserved notation samples of actual "healing" music, five theories and applications of early music therapy can be differentiated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Geochemistry of waters in the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes region, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.; White, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8??C in early summer and from 15 to 17??C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the downvalley parts of the rivers draining the 1912 deposits are mainly mixtures of cold meteoric waters and thermal waters of which the mid-valley thermal spring waters are representative. The weathering reactions of cold waters with the 1912 deposits appear to have stabilized and add only subordinate amounts of chemical constituents to the rivers relative to those contributed by the thermal waters. Isotopic data indicate that the mid-valley thermal spring waters are meteoric, but data is inconclusive regarding the heat source. The thermal waters could be either from a shallow part of a hydrothermal system beneath the 1912 vent region or from an incompletely cooled, welded tuff lens deep in the 1912 ash-flow sheet of the upper River Lethe area. Bicarbonate-sulfate waters resulting from interaction of near-surface waters and the cooling 1953-1968 southwest Trident plug issue from thermal springs south of Katmai Pass and near Mageik Creek, although the Mageik Creek spring waters are from a well-established, more deeply circulating hydrothermal system. Katmai caldera lake waters are a result of acid gases from vigorous drowned fumaroles dissolving in lake waters composed of snowmelt and precipitation. ?? 1992.

  3. Under Connecticut Skies: Exploring 100 Years of Astronomy at Van Vleck Observatory in Middletown, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Roy E.; Williams, Amrys; Erickson, Paul; Herbst, William; Redfield, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Under Connecticut Skies examines the history of astronomy at Van Vleck Observatory, located on the campus of Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. Since its dedication in June of 1916, Van Vleck has been an important site of astronomical research, teaching, and public outreach. Over a thousand visitors pass through the observatory each year, and regular public observing nights happen year-round in cooperation with the Astronomical Society of Greater Hartford. Our project explores the place-based nature of astronomical research, the scientific instruments, labor, and individuals that have connected places around the world in networks of observation, and the broader history of how observational astronomy has linked local people, amateur observers, professional astronomers, and the tools and objects that have facilitated their work under Connecticut’s skies over the past 100 years. Our research team has produced a historical exhibition to help commemorate the observatory’s centennial that opened to the public in May of 2016. Our work included collecting, documenting, and interpretting this history through objects, archival documents, oral histories, photographs, and more. The result is both a museum and a working history "laboratory" for use by student and professional researchers. In addition to the exhibit itself, we have engaged in new interpretive programs to help bring the history of astronomy to life. Future work will include digitization of documents and teaching slides, further collection of oral histories, and expanding the collection to the web for use by off-site researches.

  4. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  5. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  6. Rewriting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  7. The formative years of relativity the history and meaning of Einstein's Princeton lectures : featuring Einstein's classic text The meaning of relativity in its historical context

    CERN Document Server

    Gutfreund, Hanoch

    2017-01-01

    First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein's masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein's insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jurgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein's achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein's ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity's meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of it...

  8. A short note from the history of traditional music of the Serbs in Vojvodina: To mark two hundred years of the first recorded wedding song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known wedding song 'Odbi se grana od jorgovana' dates back to 1815 when it was recorded by Franciszek Mirecki. It was sung to him by a woman who was Vuk Stefanović Karadžić's informant (Dević, 1991: 129. Specific in its character and melodic pattern, the wedding song held an important position in the wedding ceremony of native Serbs in the region of present-day Vojvodina. In the year of 2015 it had been exactly two hundred years since it was first notated.

  9. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  10. From Performance to Decision Processes in 33 Years: A History of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes under James C. Naylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber

    1998-12-01

    For the past 33 years, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes has thrived under a single editor. That editor, James C. Naylor, is retiring from his long stewardship. This article chronicles the course of the journal under Jim's direction and marks some of the accomplishments and changes over the past three decades that go to his credit. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Over ten thousand cases and counting: acidbase.org is serving the critical care community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, Paul W G; Van Regenmortel, Niels; Gatz, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Acidbase.org has been serving the critical care community for over a decade. The backbone of this online resource consists of Peter Stewart's original text "How to understand Acid-Base" which is freely available to everyone. In addition, Stewart's Textbook of Acid Base, which puts the theory in today's clinical context is available for purchase from the website. However, many intensivists use acidbase.org on a daily basis for its educational content and in particular for its analysis module. This review provides an overview of the history of the website, a tutorial and descriptive statistics of over 10,000 queries submitted to the analysis module.

  12. Effectiveness of antidepressants: an evidence myth constructed from a thousand randomized trials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidis John PA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Antidepressants, in particular newer agents, are among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide with annual sales of billions of dollars. The introduction of these agents in the market has passed through seemingly strict regulatory control. Over a thousand randomized trials have been conducted with antidepressants. Statistically significant benefits have been repeatedly demonstrated and the medical literature is flooded with several hundreds of "positive" trials (both pre-approval and post-approval. However, two recent meta-analyses question this picture. The first meta-analysis used data that were submitted to FDA for the approval of 12 antidepressant drugs. While only half of these trials had formally significant effectiveness, published reports almost ubiquitously claimed significant results. "Negative" trials were either left unpublished or were distorted to present "positive" results. The average benefit of these drugs based on the FDA data was of small magnitude, while the published literature suggested larger benefits. A second meta-analysis using also FDA-submitted data examined the relationship between treatment effect and baseline severity of depression. Drug-placebo differences increased with increasing baseline severity and the difference became large enough to be clinically important only in the very small minority of patient populations with severe major depression. In severe major depression, antidepressants did not become more effective, simply placebo lost effectiveness. These data suggest that antidepressants may be less effective than their wide marketing suggests. Short-term benefits are small and long-term balance of benefits and harms is understudied. I discuss how the use of many small randomized trials with clinically non-relevant outcomes, improper interpretation of statistical significance, manipulated study design, biased selection of study populations, short follow-up, and selective and distorted

  13. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  14. Linking growth to environmental histories in central Baltic young-of-the-year sprat, Sprattus sprattus : an approach based on otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, H.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Voss, R.

    2006-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed 'window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back-calculat......Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed 'window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back......-calculated days of first feeding (DFF), was narrow compared to the extended spawning season of sprat in the Baltic Sea (mean +/- SD = 22 June +/- 14.1 days) and indicated that only individuals born in summer survived until October 2002. Within the group of survivors, individuals born later in the season exhibited...

  15. Publication of the Korea-WHO Cooperation History - 70 Years of Working Together for Heath: World Health Organization and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Lee, Dong Woo; Choe, Young June; Choe, Seung Ah; Park, No Yai

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) have been in collaborative efforts with the Republic of Korea in keeping of and for better health for all for the past decades. From the control of parasites to building of community health system in rural places, the works has now resulted in healthier Korea than ever, and has transformed the role of engaging as the world leader in contribution of health and development. Seventy years of independence, war, and poverty, transforming from a recipient country of official development assistance to a significant donor to the global society, we have emphasized the importance of international cooperation and the role of WHO in the past years in Korea and neighboring countries. Looking back of the past is meaningful to diagnose the present problems, and to foresee the future of our world.

  16. Management of women with BRCA mutations: a 41-year-old woman with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine

    2011-06-01

    Ms E, a 41-year-old BRCA1 mutation carrier, was diagnosed 4 years ago as having breast cancer and opted for breast-conserving therapy. Prior to receiving chemotherapy, she harvested her eggs through in vitro fertilization and subsequently used preimplantation genetic diagnosis; 3 months ago she delivered a healthy boy. This review examines the prevalence of BRCA mutations in women with breast cancer, as well as current recommendations for surgery and systemic therapy in these women. In particular, the risk of a contralateral breast cancer is reviewed to help guide the choice of prophylactic mastectomies vs breast-conserving therapy. The technology of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and genetic testing in relatives of mutation carriers is discussed.

  17. A brief history of space and time: the scope-year index as a patent value indicator based on families and renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Nicolas van Zeebroeck

    2007-01-01

    The renewal of patents and their geographical scope for protection constitute two essential dimensions in a patent’s life, and probably the most frequently used patent value indicators. The intertwining of these dimensions (the geographical scope of protection may vary over time) makes their analysis complex, as any measure along one dimension requires an arbitrary choice on the second. This paper proposes a new indicator of patent value, the Scope-Year index, combining the two dimensions. Th...

  18. Children with a History of Premature Adrenarche Have Good Health-Related Quality of Life at the Age of 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatta, Jani; Sintonen, Harri; Utriainen, Pauliina; Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2018-01-01

    Children with premature adrenarche (PA) are taller and more overweight than their healthy peers, and PA girls have a slightly accelerated pubertal development. There is some evidence that early exposure to androgens may have an influence on psychosocial development. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PA children at the age of 12 years. The HRQoL was assessed for 43 PA (36 girls) and 63 control children (52 girls) at the median age of 12.0 years using the standardized 16D instrument, and the scores of the PA children were compared to those of the control children and reference population. The mean overall HRQoL scores did not differ between PA and control girls, PA and control boys, or all PA and control children or the reference population. Independently of PA, overweight girls had a lower mean overall HRQoL score than lean girls, and both overweight girls and boys were on average worse off on the dimension of appearance than their lean peers. PA children have as good self-rated HRQoL as their peers at the age of 12 years. Overweight is associated with a worse HRQoL profile independently of PA. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for a 4500-year history of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis at Yaquina River estuary, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graehl, Nicholas A; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Engelhart, Simon E.

    2015-01-01

    intervals.The comparison of the Yaquina Bay earthquake record to similar records at other Cascadia coastal sites helps to define potential patterns of rupture for different earthquakes, although inherent uncertainty in dating precludes definitive statements about rupture length during earthquakes. We infer that in the first half of the last millennia, the northern Oregon part of the subduction zone had a different rupture history than the southern Oregon part of the subduction zone, and we also infer that at ca. 1.6 ka, two earthquakes closely spaced in time together ruptured a length of the megathrust that extends at least from southwestern Washington to southern Oregon.

  20. A 10-year follow-up to determine the effect of YAG laser iridotomy on the natural history of pigment dispersion syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano A; Ungaro, Nicola; Tardini, Maria Grazia; Ghirardini, Stella; Carta, Arturo; Mora, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Prospective long-term analyses of the role of drug-induced mydriasis and laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) are needed to identify and manage the eyes of patients with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) at risk for progressing to ocular hypertension. To assess the 10-year incidence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in the 2 eyes of patients with PDS, with 1 eye that underwent LPI and the other that did not. In a randomized clinical trial in the glaucoma research unit at the University Hospital of Parma, Italy, 72 patients with PDS underwent phenylephrine testing. Of these 72 patients, 29 (58 eyes) tested positive for succeeding IOP elevation, and 43 (59 eyes) tested negative. For the 29 high-risk patients (all in both eyes), one eye was randomly assigned to LPI, and the fellow eye was left untreated. For the 43 low-risk patients, the affected eyes were left untreated. An IOP elevation of 5 mm Hg or higher vs baseline (daily phasing) was considered to be a significant increase (ie, an event). In the high-risk group, 3 of 21 eyes that underwent LPI (14.3%) and 13 of 21 untreated eyes (61.9%) showed an increase in IOP of 5 mm Hg or higher during the follow-up period; 4 of 35 low-risk eyes (11.4%) showed a similar increase. Event-free mean (SD) time was 7.99 (0.43) years for high-risk treated eyes, 3.89 (0.68) years for high-risk untreated eyes, and 7.16 (0.23) years for low-risk eyes. The log-rank test showed the following: P < .001 for treated high-risk eyes vs untreated high-risk eyes, P = .74 for treated high-risk eyes vs low-risk eyes, and P < .001 for untreated high-risk eyes vs low-risk eyes. At the end of the 10-year follow-up, (1) approximately one-third of the whole PDS patient population showed an IOP increase of 5 mm Hg or higher in at least 1 eye; (2) phenylephrine testing identified eyes at high risk for developing IOP elevation; and (3) LPI, when performed on high-risk eyes, reduced the rate of IOP elevation to the same level as the low-risk eyes

  1. A history of gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alward, Wallace L M

    2011-01-01

    The first view of the iridocorneal angle in a living human occurred accidentally in the late 1800s. Lenses were first used to see the angle in 1914, but practical gonioscopy would not come into existence for many years as the slitlamp and lenses that could be used at the slitlamp were developed. This article reviews the history of gonioscopy.

  2. Observing Children Learning History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the suitability of two kinds of history curricula for the varying levels of cognitive development of 9- to 11-year-olds. Fifteen British students studied the Victorian Era using transcripts of original documents, while 15 classmates used standard textbooks. The documents seemed to give students greater awareness of the evidence sources.…

  3. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...

  4. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  5. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  6. Environmental History

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  7. Natural History of Dependency in the Elderly: A 24-Year Population-Based Study Using a Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjolo, Arlette; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Delva, Fleur; Dartigues, Jean-François; Pérès, Karine

    2016-02-15

    We aimed to describe the hierarchical structure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and trajectories of dependency before death in an elderly population using item response theory methodology. Data were obtained from a population-based French cohort study, the Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID) Study, of persons aged ≥65 years at baseline in 1988 who were recruited from 75 randomly selected areas in Gironde and Dordogne. We evaluated IADL and ADL data collected at home every 2-3 years over a 24-year period (1988-2012) for 3,238 deceased participants (43.9% men). We used a longitudinal item response theory model to investigate the item sequence of 11 IADL and ADL combined into a single scale and functional trajectories adjusted for education, sex, and age at death. The findings confirmed the earliest losses in IADL (shopping, transporting, finances) at the partial limitation level, and then an overlapping of concomitant IADL and ADL, with bathing and dressing being the earliest ADL losses, and finally total losses for toileting, continence, eating, and transferring. Functional trajectories were sex-specific, with a benefit of high education that persisted until death in men but was only transient in women. An in-depth understanding of this sequence provides an early warning of functional decline for better adaptation of medical and social care in the elderly. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Efficacy of Heat Treatment for the Thousand Cankers Disease Vector and Pathogen in Small Black Walnut Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Mayfield; S. W. Fraedrich; A. Taylor; P. Merten; S. W. Myers

    2014-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarõ´k, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically...

  9. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Steven J. Seybold; Andrew D. Graves; Richard. Stouthamer

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties...

  10. First report of Geosmithia morbida on ambrosia beetles emerged from thousand cankers-diseased Juglans nigra in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; M. McDermott-Kubeczko; T. J. Stewart; M. D. Ginzel

    2016-01-01

    Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) is a highly-valued species for timber and nut production in the eastern United States. Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the interaction of the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) and the canker fungus Geosmithia morbida (Tisserat et al. 2009), was first...

  11. RUMD: A general purpose molecular dynamics package optimized to utilize GPU hardware down to a few thousand particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Nicholas; Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    RUMD is a general purpose, high-performance molecular dynamics (MD) simulation package running on graphical processing units (GPU’s). RUMD addresses the challenge of utilizing the many-core nature of modern GPU hardware when simulating small to medium system sizes (roughly from a few thousand up...

  12. To the History of Financial and Economic Activity of the Volga River Transport During the NEP and the First Five-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Volga transport for 10 years (1923-1934 was influenced by all those changes which happened in the national economy of the country during the periods of the New Economic Policy and its transition to the forced industrialization. Since 1923 attempts of its delivery to concession in connection with the project of creation of the Volga-Don-Azov Sea hydraulic engineering constructions by means of the Western firms and banks took place. In 1929 those attempts ended without any results. Most likely, threat of outflow from the USSR of scarce currency in the form of profits of concessionaires was the main cause. That threat moved promises of foreign firms to significantly modernize and expand the Volga transport with all its coastal infrastructure, and also to promote creation of “new freights” in a zone of operations of the Volga fleet. Up to its reorganization in 1934 the Volga fleet constantly experienced the financial and technical difficulties caused by wear of watercrafts, low tariffs for a cargo transportation, etc. However, these low tariffs allowed the large new enterprises and constructions of the first five-year plans period to reduce their transport expenses. It favorably affected the process of industrialization of the Volga region and other ones. Losses on freight transportation were offset by the Volga water transport due to passenger traffic by increasing the high efficiency of passenger capacity of ships, an intensification of a passenger traffic and increase of a passenger tariff.

  13. A history of Guy's, King's and St. Thomas' hospitals from 1649 to 2009: 360 years of innovation in science and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz; Agha, Maliha

    2011-01-01

    Much has been achieved in the scientific and surgical fields over the last 360 years. Some institutions have contributed disproportionately to these advances. The medical schools and hospitals of Guy's (est. 1721), King's (est. 1840) and St. Thomas' (est. 1173) seem to provide a focus and a catalyst for much innovation and creativity dating back to 1608. This review sets to provide an overview of the major contributors to surgical advances at these institutions over the last 360 years and what factors affected unique to these institutions contributed to the climate of discovery. It is based on a lecture given to the Osler Club of London (est. 1928) at the Royal College of Physicians in London on 4 November 2010. It is the author's premise that the people and the discoveries they made within these institutions within three square miles of London changed the practice and understanding of science and healthcare as we know it today. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The natural history of takotsubo syndrome: a two-year follow-up study with myocardial sympathetic and perfusion G-SPECT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestini, Stelvio; Mazzeo, Christian; Castagnoli, Antonio [Nuclear Medicine Unit, N.O.P. - S. Stefano, U.S.L. Toscana Centro, Deptartment of Diagnostic Imaging, Prato (Italy); Pestelli, Francesco; Leoncini, Mario; Bellandi, Francesco [Cardiovascular Unit, N.O.P. - S. Stefano, U.S.L, Toscana Centro, Deptartment of Internal Medicine, Prato (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Nuclear Medicine Unit, University II Naples, Deptartment of Diagnostic Imaging, Naples (Italy); Carrio, Ignasi [Hospital Sant Pau, Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate changes in sympathetic activity, perfusion, and left ventricular (LV) functionality in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) patients from onset (T{sub 0}) to post-onset conditions at 1 month (T{sub 1}), 1-2 years (T{sub 2}, T{sub 3}). Twenty-two patients (70 ± 11 years) underwent serial gated single photon emission tomography (G-SPECT) studies with {sup 123}I-mIBG and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi. Statistics were performed using ANOVA/Sheffe post-hoc, correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (p < 0.05). Patients presented at T{sub 0} with LV ballooning and reduced early-late mIBG uptake (95%, 100%), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF){sub G-SPECT} (86%) and perfusion (77 %). Adrenergic dysfunction was greater in apex, it overlaps with contractile impairment, and both were more severe than perfusion defect. During follow-up, LVEF{sub G-SPECT}, contractility, and perfusion were normal, while 82% and 90% of patients at T{sub 1} and 50% at T{sub 2} and T{sub 3} continued to show a reduced apical early-late mIBG distribution. These patients presented at T{sub 0}-T{sub 1} with greater impairment of adrenergic function, contractility, and perfusion. A relationship was present within innervation and both perfusion and contractile parameters at T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}, and between the extent of adrenergic defect at T{sub 3} and both the defect extent and age at T{sub 0} (cut-off point 42.5%, 72 years). Outcome for TTC is not limited to a reversible contractile and perfusion abnormalities, but it includes residual adrenergic dysfunction, depending on the level of adrenergic impairment and age of patients at onset. The number of patients, as well as degree of perfusion abnormalities were found to be higher than those previously reported possibly depending on the time-interval between hospital admission and perfusion scan. (orig.)

  15. Climate history of the Tibetan Plateau for the last 1500 years as inferred from stable carbon isotopes in three-rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, G.; Schleser, G.H.; Braeuning, A.

    2002-01-01

    For the south-eastern part of Tibet, i.e. Qamdo, a carbon isotope chronology from spruce and juniper trees, covering the last 400 and 1600 years, respectively, has been developed. Juniper tree-rings were sampled in pentad blocks, whereas the spruce chronology is annually resolved in order enable appropriate calibration of isotope data with the short instrumental temperature record available. The chronology shows a number of different climatic phases which have their analogues in Europe and North America. A short warm phase between 1200 and 1300AD appears to correspond to the Mediaeval Warm Period and a larger cool phase from about 1450 to 1600AD appears to correspond to the Little Ice Age with a short recurring episode around 1850. The current results suggest that the observed events may have occurred over the entire Northern Hemisphere, though they do not seem to have been contemporaneous with Europe and North America. (author)

  16. The chronic encephalopathy of Parry Romberg Syndrome and en coupe de sabre with a 31-year-history in a West Indian woman: clinical, immunologic and neuroimaging abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Seegobin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/ en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy. Clinical, immunologic and neuroradiological abnormalities are discussed. In some cases, this illness can run a benign and stable course.

  17. Fossil and active fumaroles in the 1912 eruptive deposits, Valley of ten thousand smokes, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, T.E.C.

    1991-01-01

    Fumaroles in the ash-flow sheet emplaced during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta were intensely active throughout the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) when first studied in 1917. Fumarole temperatures recorded in 1919 were as hot as 645??C. Influx of surface waters into the hot ash-flow sheet provided the fluid flow to sustain the fumaroles but also enhanced cooling so that by the mid-1930's vigorous activity survived only in the vent region. Configuration and distribution of high-temperature fissure fumaroles tens of meters long, that are prevalent in the middle and upper VTTS, were controlled largely by sintering and degree of welding, which in turn controlled fracturing and permeability of the ash-flow tuff. One fracture type developed parallel to the enclosing valley walls during compaction of the ash-flow sheet. Another type extends across the VTTS nearly perpendicular to the flow direction. A third type of randomly oriented fractures developed as cooling contraction cracks during vapor-phase devitrification. In distal parts of the ash-flow sheet where the tuff is nonwelded, prominent fumaroles have irregular funnel-shaped morphologies. Fumarole distribution in the nonwelded part of the ash-flow sheet is concentrated above pre-emplacement river channels. The hottest, longest-lived fumaroles occurred in the upper VTTS near the 1912 vent where the ash-flow sheet is thicker, more indurated, and on average more mafic (richer in dacite and andesite) in contrast to the thinner, nonwelded rhyolitic tuff in the distal part of the sheet. Fumarolic activity was less intense in the distal part of the tuff because of lower emplacement temperatures, more diffuse fumarole conduits in the nonwelded tuff, and the thinness of the ash-flow sheet. Chemical leaching of ash-flow tuff by hot rising fluids took place adjacent to fumarolic conduits in deep parts of the fumaroles. Deposition of incrustation minerals, the components of which were carried upward by fumarolic gases

  18. Experience and Life History. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salling Olesen, Henning

    The Life History Project at Denmark's Roskilde University is a 5-year research project that was initiated in 1998 to examine learning and participation in adult and continuing education from a life history perspective. The project was designed to build on a broad range of qualitative interview studies and case studies into learning processes. The…

  19. History of human activity in last 800 years reconstructed from combined archive data and high-resolution analyses of varved lake sediments from Lake Czechowskie, Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Ott, Florian; Obremska, Milena; Kaczmarek, Halina; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to reconstruct human and landscape development in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 800 years. We apply an approach that combines historic maps and documents with pollen data. Pollen data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of 5 years. The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). We applied the REVEALS model to translate pollen percentage data into regional plant abundances. The interpretation of the pollen record is furthermore based on pollen accumulation rate data. The pollen record and historic documents show similar trends in vegetation development. During the first phase (AD 1200-1412), the Lake Czechowskie area was still largely forested with Quercus, Carpinus and Pinus forests. Vegetation was more open during the second phase (AD 1412-1776), and reached maximum openness during the third phase (AD 1776-1905). Furthermore, intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests during this period. Since the early 20th century, the forest cover increased again with dominance of the Scots pine in the stand. While pollen and historic data show similar trends, they differ substantially in the degree of openness during the four phases with pollen data commonly suggesting more open conditions. We discuss potential causes for this discrepancy, which include unsuitable parameters settings in REVEALS and unknown changes in forest structure. Using pollen accumulation data as a third proxy record we aim to identify the most probable causes. Finally, we discuss the observed vegetation change in relation the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10

  20. Variability in terrigenous sediment supply offshore of the Rio de la Plata (Uruguay) recording the continental climatic history over the past 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L.; García-Rodríguez, F.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2015-04-01

    The continental shelf adjacent to the Río de la Plata (RdlP) exhibits extremely complex hydrographic and ecological characteristics which are of great socio-economic importance. Since the long-term environmental variations related to the atmospheric (wind fields), hydrologic (freshwater plume), and oceanographic (currents and fronts) regimes are little known, the aim of this study is to reconstruct the changes in the terrigenous input into the inner continental shelf during the Late Holocene period (associated with the RdlP sediment discharge) and to unravel the climatic forcing mechanisms behind them. To achieve this, we retrieved a 10 m long sediment core from the RdlP mud depocenter at a depth of 57 m (GeoB 13813-4). The radiocarbon age control indicated an extremely high sedimentation rate of 0.8 cm per year, encompassing the past 1200 years (750-2000 AD). We used element ratios (Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K) as regional proxies for the fluvial input signal, and the variations in relative abundance of salinity-indicative diatom groups (freshwater vs. marine-brackish) to assess the variability in terrigenous water and sediment discharge. Ti / Ca, Fe / Ca, Ti / Al, Fe / K and the freshwater diatom group showed the lowest values between 850 and 1300 AD, while the highest values occurred between 1300 and 1850 AD. The variations in the sedimentary record can be attributed to such regional and global climatic episodes as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA), both of which had a significant impact on rainfall and wind patterns over the region. During the MCA, a northward migration of the Intertropical Confluence Zone (ITCZ) could explain the lowest element ratios (indicative of a lower terrigenous input) and a marine-dominated diatom record, both indicative of a reduced RdlP freshwater plume. In contrast during the LIA, the southward migration of the ITCZ accompanied by El Niño-like state conditions may have led to an expansion of

  1. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  2. 'Am I really gonna go sixty years without getting cancer again?' Uncertainty and liminality in young women's accounts of living with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    Although much research has examined the experience of breast cancer, the distinctive perspectives and lives of young women have been relatively neglected. Women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 45, and who had completed their initial treatment, were interviewed, and social constructionist grounded theory methods were used to analyse the data. The end of initial treatment was accompanied by a sense of unease and uncertainty in relation to recurrence and survival, and also fertility and menopausal status. The young women's perceptions about the future were altered, and their fears about recurrence were magnified by the possibility of many decades ahead during which breast cancer could recur. The implications for the young women's life course, in terms of whether they would be able to have children, would not become clear for several years after initial treatment. This resulted in a liminal state, in which young women found themselves neither cancer-free nor cancer patients, neither pre- nor post-menopausal, neither definitively fertile nor infertile. This liminal state had a profound impact on young women's identities and sense of agency. This extends previous understanding of life after cancer, exploring the age-related dimensions of liminality.

  3. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  4. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...

  5. Criminal Justice History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krause

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.

  6. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Is an Inuit Literary History Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keavy

    2010-01-01

    In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…

  8. [(Neurological CPC-59). A 65-year-old man with a history of gastric cancer who presented progressive loss of vision, memory loss and consciousness disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, C; Matsumine, H; Suzuki, K; Saito, A; Ohtaka, M; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Hayakawa, M; Kanai, J; Mizuno, Y

    1997-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old man with progressive loss of vision and consciousness disturbance. The patient was well until his age of 63 when he was found to have a gastric cancer. He was treated by the tumor resection and chemotherapy; he was apparently well, but hepatic metastases were found in the next year (1996). In June, 1996, he noted an onset of blurred vision more on the left. He was admitted to the ophthalmology service of our hospital on July 14, 1996. His vision was 0.8 on the right and 0.15 on the left. He was treated with oral prednisolone with slight improvement. He was also found to have IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy; Bence-Jones protein was positive and a bone marrow aspiration revealed that approximately 10% of bone marrow cells were atypical plasma cells. His vision had progressively got worse and he became blind by the end of October 1996. A chest X-ray and cranial CT scan revealed multiple abnormal nodular densities. In the middle of November 1996, he became confused, disoriented and agitated. His mental symptoms had progressively became worse, and a neurologic consultation was asked on December 10, 1996. Neurologic examination revealed that he was somnolent with decreased attention to his surroundings. He showed marked disorientation and memory loss. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. He was able to recognize only light and dark. Pupils were moderately dilated with very sluggish light reflex remained. Vertical gaze was moderately restricted and horizontal nystagmus was noted upon left and right lateral gaze. The remaining of the neurologic examination were unremarkable. General physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly; the liver was palpable by 3 cm below the right costal margin. Laboratory examination revealed anemia (Hb10.1 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (43,000/microliter). A cranial CT scan and MRI revealed a mass lesion in involving the chiasmatic and bilateral hypothalamic areas. The tumor showed intense homogeneous

  9. About the science-theoretical measuring of history of revolutionary shocks in Russia (to the 100 year of February and October, 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the comprehension of the science-theoretical tool of research of revolutionary shocks in Russia. The 100-years-old anniversary of revolutionary shocks in Russia pulls out before researchers the vital task of complex comprehension of reasons, character and consequences of revolution. Scientific tasks which stood before the scientists of soviet epoch lay mainly inplane illumination of event of revolution and Civil war as displays of fight of «leading revolutionary class» — proletariat at the head with bolshevist communist party with «regressive classes» — bourgeoisie, squires, clergy, the «kulak». Within the framework of this main approach, researchers succeeded to form the fully integral scientific picture of social and political conflict of 1917-1922 years, on the whole to expose his motive forces, leading political actors, to trace the dynamics of events.However and presently to a full degree the task of comprehensive scientific analysis of structural-functional features of becoming and evolution of organs of power saves the actuality, which functioned within the framework of the different political modes, including modes of antibolshevist orientation. The important element of search is an exposure of specific of mutual relations of public institutions, basic directions of policy, historical factors which stipulated acceptance and practical realization of important administrative decisions.Іnstitucional approach must organically complement dominant to this day in scientific literature historical-event approach. Institucional approach consists in that a look to the social and political process is inplane not «from» (as in the historical-event measuring outside, and, vice versa, «from within». In obedience to this approach, research attention applies foremost on subsoil and on organization of administrative mechanisms, internal logic of acceptance both key and, on the face of it, second-rate decisions

  10. Adding left atrial appendage closure to open heart surgery provides protection from ischemic brain injury six years after surgery independently of atrial fibrillation history: the LAACS randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Hansen, Jesper; Holme, Susanne J V; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon; Carranza, Christian L; Greve, Anders M; Al-Farra, Gina; Riis, Robert G C; Nilsson, Brian; Clausen, Johan S R; Nørskov, Anne S; Kruuse, Christina R; Rostrup, Egill; Dominguez, Helena

    2018-05-23

    Open heart surgery is associated with high occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), subsequently increasing the risk of post-operative ischemic stroke. Concomitant with open heart surgery, a cardiac ablation procedure is commonly performed in patients with known AF, often followed by left atrial appendage closure with surgery (LAACS). However, the protective effect of LAACS on the risk of cerebral ischemia following cardiac surgery remains controversial. We have studied whether LAACS in addition to open heart surgery protects against post-operative ischemic brain injury regardless of a previous AF diagnosis. One hundred eighty-seven patients scheduled for open heart surgery were enrolled in a prospective, open-label clinical trial and randomized to concomitant LAACS vs. standard care. Randomization was stratified by usage of oral anticoagulation (OAC) planned to last at least 3 months after surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of post-operative symptomatic ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or imaging findings of silent cerebral ischemic (SCI) lesions. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, 14 (16%) primary events occurred among patients receiving standard surgery vs. 5 (5%) in the group randomized to additional LAACS (hazard ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p = 0.02). In per protocol analysis (n = 141), 14 (18%) primary events occurred in the control group vs. 4 (6%) in the LAACS group (hazard ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.0, p = 0.05). In a real-world setting, LAACS in addition to elective open-heart surgery was associated with lower risk of post-operative ischemic brain injury. The protective effect was not conditional on AF/OAC status at baseline. LAACS study, clinicaltrials.gov NCT02378116 , March 4th 2015, retrospectively registered.

  11. 8800 years of high-altitude vegetation and climate history at the Rutor Glacier forefield, Italian Alps. Evidence of middle Holocene timberline rise and glacier contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badino, Federica; Ravazzi, Cesare; Vallè, Francesca; Pini, Roberta; Aceti, Amelia; Brunetti, Michele; Champvillair, Elena; Maggi, Valter; Maspero, Francesco; Perego, Renata; Orombelli, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Sedimentary archives at or near the timberline ecotone in Alpine glaciated areas contain records to study Holocene climate change and the interplay between climate, ecosystems, and humans. We focused on records of timberline and glacier oscillations in the Rutor Glacier forefield (Western Italian Alps) in the last 8800 years. Human activity in this area was negligible for most of the Holocene. We adopted an integrative stratigraphic approach including proxies for glacier advance and timberline estimation, sedimentary events, and reconstructed temperatures. Changes in timberline ecotone correlate to climate until the Middle Ages. Pollen-stratigraphic evidence of a primary plant succession highlights a lag beween local deglaciation and the first reliable 14C age. The radiocarbon chronology points to a prolonged phase of glacier contraction between 8.8 and 3.7 ka cal BP. Even later the glacier remained within its LIA limits. Between 8.4 and 4 ka cal BP MAT-inferred TJuly fluctuated near 12.4 °C, ca. 3.1 °C higher than today. During this period, a Pinus cembra forest belt grew at 2600 m asl with an upper limit of tree groves placed 434 ± 310 m above the current open forest limit. This Holocene phase of thermal maximum ended between 3.98 and 3.51 ± 70 ka cal BP and with a substantial rearrangement of forest composition; temperature reconstruction shows a decrease of 1.8 °C. This climate deterioration concluded the Subboreal thermal optimum, mirroring glacial advances widely documented in the Alps. The Rutor Glacier advanced at ca. AD 1093 ± 65, and remained inside the LIA maximum extent. The LIA started since AD 1594, and culminated between AD 1751 and 1864.

  12. [A 50-year history of new drugs in Japan-the development and progress of anti-diabetic drugs and the epidemiological aspects of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hikaru; Murai, Yuriko; Ozawa, Terutaka

    2003-01-01

    The development and progress of antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin preparations and hypoglycemic drugs) are retrospectively investigated in Japan. Their influences on the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its epidemiological aspects are also discussed. 1) Insulin preparations: Insulin was introduced for DM therapy in 1925, two or three years after its discovery in Canada. The preparations were raw extracts of bovine or porcine pancreas. These did not prevail widely in Japan because of the low incidence of DM before World Wan II. After the war, a shortage of mammalian materials compelled the use of fish pancreatic tissues such as bonito and/or tuna for insulin production. Insulin infection, so-called regular insulin, was first promoted in the 6th "Pharmacopoeia Japonica" (JP6) in 1951 and has been maintained to the present edition (JP14, 2001). Although depot-type insulin preparations were developed in the USA and Europe during the war, the introduction of those preparations to Japan was delayed until 1951, when Protamine zinc insulin appeared. Globin zinc insulin and Isophane insulin were introduced for clinical use in 1952 and 1955, respectively. These were also adopted for JP7 (1961). Biphasic-type insulin, which has a rapid onset and long duration of activity, appeared in 1965. Purified preparations from bovine or porcine sources have been available since 1980, which might be a strong reason for the decrease in insulin allergy. Insulin from animal origin has been supplied for almost 60 years since its discovery. Amino acid sequences of insulins from various species of animals were determined by the pioneering studies of Sanger and his associates. Human insulin, which differs from porcine insulin by only one amino acid, was produced by Novo researchers in 1982 using a semi-synthetic method. Then the Lilly group soon succeeded in obtaining human insulin by recombinant DNA technology in the same year. Both products were introduced to Japan in 1985, and the

  13. Profissão nutricionista: 70 anos de história no Brasil Profession of dietician: 70 years of history in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar análise histórica dos 70 anos da profissão de nutricionista no Brasil, procurando analisar a expansão do número de cursos de graduação em nutrição e de nutricionistas no país e a identidade do nutricionista brasileiro no contexto atual. MÉTODOS: A base empírica foi constituída pelas estatísticas do número de profissionais e de cursos disponibilizadas pelo Conselho Federal de Nutricionistas e pelos dados da pesquisa "Inserção Profissional dos Nutricionistas no Brasil", realizada em 2005, pelo Conselho Federal de Nutricionistas. RESULTADOS: Em agosto de 2009, existiam 391 Cursos de Nutrição no Brasil (324 privados e 67 públicos, com 49 185 vagas anuais. Em junho de 2009, existiam 60 554 nutricionistas registrados no País, perfazendo uma relação de um nutricionista para cada 3 162 habitantes. De acordo com pesquisa do Conselho Federal de Nutricionistas, em 2005, o nutricionista brasileiro apresentava o seguinte perfil: 96,5% do sexo feminino; 79,4% entre 20 e 40 anos; 53,6% solteiros; 79,1% de cor branca; 41,7% atuando em nutrição clínica; 32,2% em alimentação coletiva; 9,4% em ensino (docência; 8,8% em saúde coletiva; 4,1% em nutrição esportiva e 3,7% em indústria de alimentos. CONCLUSÃO: A análise aponta intensa elevação do número de cursos e de profissionais e diversificação das áreas de atuação do nutricionista. Além das sete grandes áreas de atuação reconhecidas pelo Conselho Federal de Nutricionistas, observa-se dentro delas um amplo processo de divisão dos seus objetos de trabalho. É provável que, nos próximos anos, em função do lançamento de maior número de profissionais, ocorra uma redistribuição geográfica dos nutricionistas, modificações no mercado de trabalho e áreas de atuação profissional.OBJECTIVE: This study made a historical analysis of the 70 years of the profession of dietician in Brazil, attempted to analyze the increase in the number of

  14. Inferences of Recent and Ancient Human Population History Using Genetic and Non-Genetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    I have adopted complementary approaches to inferring human demographic history utilizing human and non-human genetic data as well as cultural data. These complementary approaches form an interdisciplinary perspective that allows one to make inferences of human history at varying timescales, from the events that occurred tens of thousands of years…

  15. Disability is an Independent Predictor of Falls and Recurrent Falls in People with Parkinson's Disease Without a History of Falls: A One-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lorena R S; Sherrington, Catherine; Allen, Natalie E; Paul, Serene S; Valenca, Guilherme T; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Canning, Colleen G

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of falls in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) who have not previously fallen are yet to be identified. We aimed to identify predictors of all falls and recurrent falls in people with PD who had not fallen in the previous year and to explore the timing of falls in a 12-month follow-up period. Participants with PD (n = 130) were assessed by disease-specific, self-report and balance measures. Falls were recorded prospectively for 12 months. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to investigate time to falling. Forty participants (31%) had ≥1 fall during follow-up and 21 (16%) had ≥2 falls. Disability, reduced balance confidence and greater concern about falling were associated with ≥1 fall in univariate analyses. Additionally, PD duration and severity, freezing of gait and impaired balance were associated with ≥2 falls (p Disability (Schwab and England scale, Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.56 per 10 points increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.80; p = 0.002) was associated with ≥1 fall in the final multivariate model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.65; 95% CI 0.55-0.76; p = 0.005). Disability (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living, OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.07-1.34; p = 0.001) and levodopa equivalent dose (OR = 1.11 per 100 mg increase; 95% CI 0.95-1.30; p = 0.19) were associated with ≥2 falls in the final multivariate model (AUC = 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.84; p = 0.001). Recurrent fallers experienced their first fall earlier than single fallers (p disability was the strongest single predictor of all falls and recurrent falls.

  16. A ~20,000 year history of glacial variability in the tropical Andes recorded in lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, N.; Rodbell, D. T.; Moy, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    Pro-glacial lake sediments from the Cordillera Blanca, Peru contain continuous records of climate variability spanning the Last Glacial Maximum to present day. Here we present results from two alpine lake basins in the Queshgue Valley (9.8°S, 77.3°W) that contain high-resolution records of clastic sediment deposition for the last ~20,000 years. Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores were scanned at 0.5 to 1.0 cm resolution using a profiling x-ray fluorescence scanner for major and minor element distributions. In addition, we measured down-core variations in magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon, biogenic silica and calcium carbonate. Samples of bedrock and sediments from glacial moraines in the Queshgue watershed were analyzed using an ICP-MS in order to fingerprint and trace the source of glacial sediments deposited in the lakes. The bedrock is dominated by a combination of granodiorite with high Sr concentrations and meta-sedimentary rocks with high Zr values. Because the glacial sediments proximal to the modern glacier terminus are composed mostly of the granodiorite end-member, we interpret changes in Sr and clastic sediment concentrations in the lake sediment profiles as proxies for past glacial variability. Preliminary results indicate that glaciers retreated soon after ~14,500 cal yr BP and remained less extensive during the remaining late Glacial Stage and early Holocene. Gradually increasing clastic sediments through the middle and late Holocene indicate that glaciers became progressively larger, or more erosive towards present day. However, this overall Holocene trend of increasing glacier extent was interrupted by multiple periods of centennial- to millennial-scale ice margin retreat. For example, relative peaks in clastic sediments occurred from ~14,500 to 6000, 5600 to 5000, 4600 to 4200, 3600 to 3200, 2800 to 2700, 2400 to 2200, 1750 to 1550, 1100 to 900 cal yr BP, and during the Little Ice Age (~700 to 50 cal yr BP), while periods of low clastic

  17. A History of Ashes: An 80 Year Comparative Portrait of Smoking Initiation in American Indians and Non-Hispanic Whites—the Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Goldberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI

  18. Falls and fractures in participants and excluded non-participants of a fall prevention exercise program for elderly women with a history of falls: 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunkyung; Yoshida, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a strength and balance enhancing exercise intervention as a means of preventing falls in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with a history of falls, while comparing functional fitness, fall and fracture rate in excluded subjects. A 1-year follow-up trial was carried out on 105 participants over the age of 70 years, who were randomly assigned to the exercise or education group, and also on 91 women excluded based on the exclusion criteria. The exercise group attended a 60-min exercise class twice a week for 3 months. Falls, injuries, fractures, and functional fitness assessments were measured at baseline, post-intervention and 1-year follow up. During the follow up, fall rates were 19.6% in the exercise group, 40.4% in the education group and 40.8% in excluded subjects (χ(2)  = 7.069, P = 0.029). Compared with the exercise group, the odds ratio (OR) for falls was greater in the education group (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-6.96) and excluded participants (OR 2.83, 95%CI 1.25-6.80). The OR for fractures was over fourfold greater in excluded participants (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.02-9.70) than the exercise group. The exercise intervention for participants with fall history effectively decreased incidences of falls and fractures. However, fall and fracture rates in excluded people were high. Further research focusing on feasible countermeasures for falls in excluded people who are at high risk of fractures is required. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykyy Ihor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  20. Cygnus History

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)