WorldWideScience

Sample records for thorium-based transmuter fuels

  1. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.).

  3. Neutronics assessment of thorium-based fuel assembly in SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Cai, Jiejin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel thorium-based fuel assembly for SCWR has been introduced and investigated. • Neutronic properties of three thorium fuels have been studied, compared with UO 2 fuel. • The thorium-based fuel has advantages on fuel utilization and lower MAs generation. -- Abstract: Aiming to take advantage of neutron spectrum of SCWR, a novel thorium-based fuel assembly for SCWR is introduced in this paper. The neutronic characteristics of the introduced fuel assembly with three different thorium fuel types have been investigated using the “dragon” codes. The parameters in different working conditions, such as infinite multiplication factors, radial power peaking factor, temperature coefficient of reactivity and their relation with the operation period have been assessed by comparing with conventional uranium assembly. Moreover, the moderator-to-fuel ratio (MFR) was changed in order to investigate its influence on the neutronic characteristics of fuel assembly. Results show that the thorium-based fuel has advantages on both efficient fuel utilization and lower minor actinide generation, with some similar neutronic properties to the uranium fuel

  4. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Extended summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Konings, R.J.M.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-04-01

    Application of thorium based nuclear fuels has been evaluated with emphasis on possible reduction of the actinide waste. As a result three ECN-reports are published, discussing in detail: - The reactor physics aspects, by comparing the operation characteristics of the cores of Pressurized Water Reactors and Heavy Water Reactors with different fuel types, including equilibrium thorium/uranium free, once-through uranium fuel and equilibrium uranium/plutonium fuel, - the chemical aspects of thorium based fuel cycles with emphasis on fuel (re)fabrication and fuel reprocessing, - the possible reduction in actinide waste as analysed for Heavy Water Reactors with various types of thorium based fuels in once-through operation and with reprocessing. These results are summarized in this report together with a short discussion on non-proliferation and uranium resource utilization. It has been concluded that a substantial reduction of actinide radiotoxicity of the disposed waste may be achieved by using thorium based fuels, if very efficient partitioning and multiple recycling of uranium and thorium can be realized. This will, however, require large efforts to develop the technology to the necessary industrial scale of operation. (orig.)

  5. Thorium-based nuclear fuel: current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Until the present time considerable efforts have already been made in the area of fabrication, utilization and reprocessing of Th-based fuels for different types of reactors, namely: by FRG and USA - for HTRs; FRG and Brazil, Italy - for LWRs; India - for HWRs and FBRs. Basic research of thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycles are also being undertaken by Australia, Canada, China, France, FRG, Romania, USSR and other countries. Main emphasis has been given to the utilization of thorium fuels in once-through nuclear fuel cycles, but in some projects closed thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium fuel cycles are also considered. The purpose of the Technical Committee on the Utilization of Thorium-Based Nuclear Fuel: Current Status and Perspective was to review the world thorium resources, incentives for further exploration, obtained experience in the utilization of Th-based fuels in different types of reactors, basic research, fabrication and reprocessing of Th-based fuels. As a result of the panel discussion the recommendations on future Agency activities and list of major worldwide activities in the area of Th-based fuel were developed. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers in this proceedings series

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Of Thorium-Based Annular Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyu Hyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Thermal hydraulic characteristics of thorium-based fuel assemblies loaded with annular seed pins have been analyzed using AMAP combined with MATRA, and compared with those of the existing thorium-based assemblies. MATRA and AMAP showed good agreements for the pressure drops at the internal sub-channels. The pressure drop generally increased in the cases of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins due to the larger wetted perimeter, but an exception existed. In the inner sub-channels of the seed pins, mass fluxes were high due to the grid form losses in the outer sub-channels. About 43% of the heat generated from the seed pin flowed into the inner sub-channel and the rest into the outer sub-channel, which implies the inner to outer wall heat flux ratio was approximately 1.2. The maximum temperatures of the annular seed pins were slightly above 500 deg. C. The MDNBRs of the assemblies loaded with annular seed pins were higher than those of the existing assemblies. Due to the fact that inter-channel mixing cannot occur in the inner sub-channels, temperatures and enthalpies were higher in the inner sub-channels. (author)

  7. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Actinide waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichers, V.A.

    1995-06-01

    Use of thorium based fuel has recently been proposed as a possible way to reduce the amount of actinide waste from nuclear power. To examine this possibility, burnup calculations were done of five once-through Thorium Heavy Water Reactor (THWR) systems, and three THWR systems with uranium recycle. The natural uranium once-through system was adopted as reference. The studied THWR fuel systems differed in the choice of fissile makeup fuel and exit burnup. The HWR was chosen because of its good neutron economy. Actinide waste production (in mass per GW e a) and radiotoxicity (in ALI per GW e a) for storage times up to 10 6 a were calculated for each system. The study shows that the THWR system with uranium recycle and High Enriched Uranium (U-235) makeup fuel performed best, producing both the lowest amount of plutonium and actinide waste with the lowest radiotoxicity. Relative to the natural uranium in HWR once-through system, radiotoxicity is reduced by a factor varying between 2 and 50 for the full range of storage times up to 10 6 a. (orig.)

  8. A review on the status of development in thorium-based nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Woo; Na, S. H.; Lee, Y. W.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Joung, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    Thorium as an alternative nuclear energy source had been widely investigated in the 1950s-1960s because it is more abundant than uranium, but the studies of thorium nuclear fuel cycle were discontinued by political and economic reasons in the 1970s. Recently, however, renewed interest was vested in thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle because it may generate less long-lived minor actinides and has a lower radiotoxicity of high level wastes after reprocessing compared with the thorium fuel cycle. In this state-of the art report, thorium-based nuclear cycle. In this state-of the art report, thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle and fuel fabrication processes developed so far with different reactor types are reviewed and analyzed to establish basic technologies of thorium fuel fabrication which could meet our situation. (author)

  9. Method for investigating the applicability of thorium-based fuels in existing BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, Klara Insulander; Fhager, Valentin; Demaziere, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology for investigating the applicability of thorium based fuels in existing Boiling Water Reactors is described. The same tools and methods as those used in this study are also used for design of new fuel batches for existing reactors. As an illustration of the proposed methodology and for the purpose of comparing different fissile components for thorium-based fuel, three different thorium-based fuel designs were developed, and a low enriched uranium fuel design was created in parallel as a reference. The different fuel assemblies, which are based on the mechanical fuel design GE14, were analyzed with the Studsvik Scandpower CASMO-4E code. The linear reactivity model was used to decide a suitable initial fissile content for meeting the burnup goal of 55 MWd/kgHM and the designs were optimized for attaining an even power distribution and for keeping boiling transition factors low. Such optimizations facilitate core designs that would meet prevalent demands on Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR) and Critical Power Ratio (CPR). The hence created fuel designs were then analyzed with regards to thermal performance, reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fractions and control rod worths. An equilibrium core loading pattern was also developed with each one of the thus created fuel designs and analyzed with the three dimensional reactor analysis code SIMULATE-3, also developed by Studsvik Scandpower. The results of the two simulations were compared and found to be coherent, and no major obstacles were met using the given tools and methods. The analysis of the performances of the fuel assemblies and the corresponding loaded cores is reported in a companion paper (K. Insulander Bjoerk, V. Fhager, and C. Demaziere, 'Comparison of Thorium-Based Fuels with Different Fissile Components in Existing BWRs'). (author)

  10. Thorium-based fuel cycles: Reassessment of fuel economics and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serfontein, Dawid E., E-mail: Dawid.Serfontein@nwu.ac.za [Senior Lecturer at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (PUK-Campus), PRIVATE BAG X6001, Internal Post Box 360, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Mulder, Eben J. [Professor at the School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North West University (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    At current consumption and current prices, the proven reserves for natural uranium will last only about 100 years. However, the more abundant thorium, burned in breeder reactors, such as large High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, and followed by chemical reprocessing of the spent fuel, could stretch the 100 years for uranium supply to 15,000 years. Thorium-based fuel cycles are also viewed as more proliferation resistant compared to uranium. However, several barriers to entry caused all countries, except India and Russia, to abandon their short term plans for thorium reactor projects, in favour of uranium/plutonium fuel cycles. In this article, based on the theory of resonance integrals and original analysis of fast fission cross sections, the breeding potential of {sup 232}Th is compared to that of {sup 238}U. From a review of the literature, the fuel economy of thorium-based fuel cycles is compared to that of natural uranium-based cycles. This is combined with a technical assessment of the proliferation resistance of thorium-based fuel cycles, based on a review of the literature. Natural uranium is currently so cheap that it contributes only about 10% of the cost of nuclear electricity. Chemical reprocessing is also very expensive. Therefore conservation of natural uranium by means of the introduction of thorium into the fuel is not yet cost effective and will only break even once the price of natural uranium were to increase from the current level of about $70/pound yellow cake to above about $200/pound. However, since fuel costs constitutes only a small fraction of the total cost of nuclear electricity, employing reprocessing in a thorium cycle, for the sake of its strategic benefits, may still be a financially viable option. The most important source of the proliferation resistance of {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U fuel cycles is denaturisation of the {sup 233}U in the spent fuel by {sup 232}U, for which the highly radioactive decay chain potentially poses a large

  11. Future perspective of thorium based nuclear fuels and thorium potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Yildirim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Today's nuclear technology has principally been based on the use of fissile U-235 and Pu-239. he existence of thorium in the nature and its potential use in the nuclear technology were not unfortunately into account with a sufficient importance. The global distributions of thorium and uranium reserves indicate that in general some developed countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia, France have considerable uranium reserves, and contrarily only some developing countries such as Turkey, Brazil, India, Egypt have considerable thorium reserves. The studies carried out on the thorium during the last 50 years have clearly showed that the thorium based nuclear fuels have the potential easily use in most of reactor types actually operated with the classical uranium based nuclear fuels without any considerable modification. In the case of the use of thorium based nuclear fuels in future nuclear energy production systems, the serious problems such as the excess of Pu-239, the proliferation potential of nuclear weapons, and also the anxious of nuclear terrorism will probably be resolved, and sustainable nuclear energy production will be realized in the next new century. (authors)

  12. Future perspective of thorium based nuclear fuels and thorium potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Yildirim, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Today's nuclear technology has principally been based on the use of fissile U-235 and Pu-239. The existence of thorium in the nature and its potential use in the nuclear technology were not unfortunately into account with a sufficient importance. The global distributions of thorium and uranium reserves indicate that in general some developed countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia, France have considerable uranium reserves, and contrarily only some developing countries such as Turkey, Brazil, India, Egypt have considerable thorium reserves. The studies carried out on the thorium during the last 50 years have clearly showed that the thorium based nuclear fuels have the potential easily use in most of reactor types actually operated with the classical uranium based nuclear fuels without any considerable modification. In the case of the use of thorium based nuclear fuels in future nuclear energy production systems, the serious problems such as the excess of Pu-239, the proliferation potential of nuclear weapons, and also the anxious of nuclear terrorism will probably be resolved, and sustainable nuclear energy production will be realized in the next new century. (authors)

  13. Minimization of the fission product waste by using thorium based fuel instead of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galahom, A. Abdelghafar, E-mail: Agalahom@yahoo.com

    2017-04-01

    This research discusses the neutronic characteristics of VVER-1200 assembly fueled with five different fuel types based on thorium. These types of fuel based on mixing thorium as a fertile material with different fissile materials. The neutronic characteristics of these fuels are investigated by comparing their neutronic characteristics with the conventional uranium dioxide fuel using the MCNPX code. The objective of this study is to reduce the production of long-lived actinides, get rid of plutonium component and to improve the fuel cycle economy while maintaining acceptable values of the neutronic safety parameters such as moderator temperature coefficient, Doppler coefficient and effective delayed neutrons (β). The thorium based fuel has a more negative Doppler coefficient than uranium dioxide fuel. The moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) has been calculated for the different proposed fuels. Also, the fissile inventory ratio has been calculated at different burnup step. The use of Th-232 as a fertile material instead of U-238 in a nuclear fuel is the most promising fuel in VVER-1200 as it is the ideal solution to avoid the production of more plutonium components and long-lived minor actinides. The reactor grade plutonium accumulated in light water reactor with burnup can be recycled by mixing it with Th-232 to fuel the VVER-1200 assembly. The concentrations of Xe-135 and Sm-151 have been investigated, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  14. Feasibility study on AFR-100 fuel conversion from uranium-based fuel to thorium-based fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T.; Grandy, C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-07-30

    Although thorium has long been considered as an alternative to uranium-based fuels, most of the reactors built to-date have been fueled with uranium-based fuel with the exception of a few reactors. The decision to use uranium-based fuels was initially made based on the technology maturity compared to thorium-based fuels. As a result of this experience, lot of knowledge and data have been accumulated for uranium-based fuels that made it the predominant nuclear fuel type for extant nuclear power. However, following the recent concerns about the extent and availability of uranium resources, thorium-based fuels have regained significant interest worldwide. Thorium is more abundant than uranium and can be readily exploited in many countries and thus is now seen as a possible alternative. As thorium-based fuel technologies mature, fuel conversion from uranium to thorium is expected to become a major interest in both thermal and fast reactors. In this study the feasibility of fuel conversion in a fast reactor is assessed and several possible approaches are proposed. The analyses are performed using the Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR-100) design, a fast reactor core concept recently developed by ANL. The AFR-100 is a small 100 MW{sub e} reactor developed under the US-DOE program relying on innovative fast reactor technologies and advanced structural and cladding materials. It was designed to be inherently safe and offers sufficient margins with respect to the fuel melting temperature and the fuel-cladding eutectic temperature when using U-10Zr binary metal fuel. Thorium-based metal fuel was preferred to other thorium fuel forms because of its higher heavy metal density and it does not need to be alloyed with zirconium to reduce its radiation swelling. The various approaches explored cover the use of pure thorium fuel as well as the use of thorium mixed with transuranics (TRU). Sensitivity studies were performed for the different scenarios envisioned in order to determine the

  15. FCRD Transmutation Fuels Handbook 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. It is, therefore, important to understand the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys, both with and without minor actinide additions. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U and Pu are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phase-transformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, and that general acceptance of results sometimes indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, and alloys of two or three of these elements. It contains information about phase diagrams and related information (including phases and phase transformations); heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy; thermal expansion; and thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In addition to presenting information about materials properties, it attempts to provide information about how well the property is known and how much variation exists between measurements. Although the handbook includes some references to publications about modeling

  16. Thorium-Based Fuels Preliminary Lattice Cell Studies for Candu Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C.A.; Rizoiu, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of nuclear power as a major contributor to the future global energy needs must take into account acceptable risks of nuclear weapon proliferation, in addition to economic competitiveness, acceptable safety standards, and acceptable waste disposal options. Candu reactors offer a proven technology, safe and reliable reactor technology, with an interesting evolutionary potential for proliferation resistance, their versatility for various fuel cycles creating premises for a better utilization of global fuel resources. Candu reactors impressive degree of fuel cycle flexibility is a consequence of its channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle. These features facilitate the introduction and exploitation of various fuel cycles in Candu reactors in an evolutionary fashion. The main reasons for our interest in Thorium-based fuel cycles have been, globally, to extend the energy obtainable from natural Uranium and, locally, to provide a greater degree of energy self-reliance. Applying the once through Thorium (OTT) cycle in existing and advanced Candu reactors might be seen as an evaluative concept for the sustainable development both from the economic and waste management points of view. Two Candu fuel bundles project will be used for the proposed analysis, namely the Candu standard fuel bundle with 37 fuel elements and the CANFLEX fuel bundle with 43 fuel elements. Using the Canadian proposed scheme - loading mixed ThO 2 -SEU CANFLEX bundles in Candu 6 reactors - simulated at lattice cell level led to promising conclusions on operation at higher fuel burnups, reduction of the fissile content to the end of the cycle, minor actinide content reduction in the spent fuel, reduction of the spent fuel radiotoxicity, presence of radionuclides emitting strong gamma radiation for proliferation resistance benefit. The calculations were performed using the lattice codes WIMS and Dragon (together with the corresponding nuclear data

  17. Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerk, Klara Insulander; Fhager, Valentin; Demaziere, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Three different types of thorium based BWR fuel have been developed, in each of which thorium was combined with a different fissile component, the three components being reactor grade plutonium, uranium enriched to 20% in uranium 235 and pure uranium 233. A BWR nuclear bundle design, based on the geometrical fuel assembly design GE14, was developed for each of these fissile components. The properties and performance of the corresponding fuel assemblies were investigated via full core calculations carried out for an existing BWR and compared with the ones of an ordinary Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, which was developed for reference. The fuel assemblies and cores were designed to meet existing fuel design criteria, and were then analyzed with regards to reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fractions, control rod worths and shutdown margins. The results show that all three alternatives seem to be feasible, although some difficulties remain with complying with the thermal limits, and with the moderator temperature and coolant void coefficients of the U-233 containing fuel being positive under some circumstances. (author)

  18. INR Recent Contributions to Thorium-Based Fuel Using in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodea, I.; Mărgeanu, C. A.; Rizoiu, A.; Olteanu, G.

    2014-01-01

    The paper summarizes INR Pitesti contributions and latest developments to the Thorium-based fuel (TF) using in present CANDU nuclear reactors. Earlier studies performed in INR Pitesti revealed the CANDU design potential to use Recovered Uranium (RU) and Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) as alternative fuels in PHWRs. In this paper, we performed both lattice and CANDU core calculations using TF, revealing the main neutron physics parameters of interest: k-infinity, coolant void reactivity (CVR), channel and bundle power distributions over a CANDU 6 reactor core similar to that of Cernavoda, Unit 1. We modelled the so called Once Through Thorium (OTT) fuel cycle, using the 3D finite-differences DIREN code, developed in INR. The INR flexible SEU-43 bundle design was the candidate for TF carrying. Preliminary analysis regarding TF burning in CANDU reactors has been performed using the finite differences 3D code DIREN. TFs showed safety features improvement regarding lower CVRs in the case of fresh fuel use. Improvements added to the INR ELESIMTORIU- 1 computer code give the possibility to fairly simulate irradiation experiments in INR TRIGA research reactor. Efforts are still needed in order to get better accuracy and agreement of simulations to the experimental results. (author)

  19. Impact of Transmutation Scenarios on Fuel Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturnin, A.; Duret, B.; Allou, A.; Jasserand, F.; Fillastre, E.; Giffard, F.X.; Chabert, C.; Caron-Charles, M.; Garzenne, C.; Laugier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied in the frame of the French Sustainable Radioactive Waste Management Act of 28 June 2006. Transmutation scenarios supposed the introduction of a sodium-cooled fast reactor fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes for the minor actinides. Americium, neptunium and curium (MA) or americium alone (Am) can be transmuted together in a homogeneous way embedded in FR-MOX fuel or incorporated in MA or Am-Bearing radial Blankets (MABB or AmBB). MA transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while plutonium is being recycled in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed considering technical and economic criteria. Transportation needs for fresh and used transmutation fuels is one of these criteria. Transmutation fuels have specific characteristics in terms of thermal load and neutron emissions. Thermal, radiation and criticality constraints have been taken into account in this study to suggest cask concepts for routine conditions of transport, to estimate the number of assemblies to be transported in a cask and the number of annual transports. Comparison with the no transmutation option, i.e. management of uranium and plutonium in SFRs, is also presented. Regarding these matters, no high difficulties appear for assemblies with limited content of Am (homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes). When fuels contain curium, technical transport uncertainties increase because of the important heat release requiring dividing fresh fuels and technological innovations development (MABB and ADS). (authors)

  20. Non-Proliferative, Thorium-Based, Core and Fuel Cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todosow, M.; Raitses, G.; Galperin, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two of the major barriers to the expansion of worldwide adoption of nuclear power are related to proliferation potential of the nuclear fuel cycle and issues associated with the final disposal of spent fuel. The Radkowsky Thorium Fuel (RTF) concept proposed by Professor A. Radkowsky offers a partial solution to these problems. The main idea of the concept is the utilization of the seed-blanket unit (SBU) fuel assembly geometry which is a direct replacement for a 'conventional' assembly in either a Russian pressurized water reactor (VVER-1000) or a Western pressurized water reactor (PWR). The seed-blanket fuel assembly consists of a fissile (U) zone, known as seed, and a fertile (Th) zone known as blanket. The separation of fissile and fertile allows separate fuel management schemes for the thorium part of the fuel (a subcritical 'blanket') and the 'driving' part of the core (a supercritical 'seed'). The design objective for the blanket is an efficient generation and in-situ fissioning of the U233 isotope, while the design objective for the seed is to supply neutrons to the blanket in a most economic way, i.e. with minimal investment of natural uranium. The introduction of thorium as a fertile component in the nuclear fuel cycle significantly reduces the quantity of plutonium production and modifies its isotopic composition, reducing the overall proliferation potential of the fuel cycle. Thorium based spent fuel also contains fewer higher actinides, hence reducing the long-term radioactivity of the spent fuel. The analyses show that the RTF core can satisfy the requirements of fuel cycle length, and the safety margins of conventional pressurized water reactors. The coefficients of reactivity are comparable to currently operating VVER's/PWR's. The major feature of the RTF cycle is related to the total amount of spent fuel discharged for each cycle from the reactor core. The fuel management scheme adopted for RTF core designs allows a significant decrease in the

  1. Thorium-Based Fuel Cycles in the Modular High Temperature Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong; YANG Yongwei; JING Xingqing; XU Yunlin

    2006-01-01

    Large stockpiles of civil-grade as well as weapons-grade plutonium have been accumulated in the world from nuclear power or other programs of different countries. One alternative for the management of the plutonium is to incinerate it in the high temperature reactor (HTR). The thorium-based fuel cycle was studied in the modular HTR to reduce weapons-grade plutonium stockpiles, while producing no additional plutonium or other transuranic elements. Three thorium-uranium fuel cycles were also investigated. The thorium absorption cross sections of the resolved and unresolved resonances were generated using the ZUT-DGL code based on existing resonance data. The equilibrium core of the modular HTR was calculated and analyzed by means of the code VSOP'94. The results show that the modular HTR can incinerate most of the initially loaded plutonium amounting to about 95.3% net 239Pu for weapons-grade plutonium and can effectively utilize the uranium and thorium in the thorium-uranium fuel cycles.

  2. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  3. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  4. Oxide fuels and targets for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudreau, F.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Warin, D.; Gaillard-Groleas, G.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Direction 1 of the French Act dated 30 December 1991 on the management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste involves exploring solutions designed to separate long-lived radionuclides from the spent fuel and to transmute them under neutron flux into shorter half-lives or stable elements. In the French research programme conducted by CEA, these radionuclides are mainly minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium) and fission products (particularly caesium, iodine and technetium). Within this context, this paper aims at illustrating the vast programme that CEA has performed in order to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation. An important part of the research was carried out in collaboration with French research (CNRS) and industrial (EDF, AREVA) organisations, and also in the framework of international co-operation programmes with the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe (ITU), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (now JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (ROSATOM). Such research made it possible to evaluate the capacity of MOX fuels to be used as a support for minor actinide transmutation (homogeneous method). Simulations of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuels have revealed the limits of this transmutation method, which are mainly related to the pressurization of the fuel rods and the formation of high active californium. On the contrary, for sodium-cooled fast reactor fuels possibly designed with large expansion plenums a first experimental demonstration of the transmutation of americium and neptunium has been successful in the Phenix reactor. Various studies designed to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental feasibility of transmutation using an inert support (heterogeneous method) have been carried out in HFR (EFTTRA

  5. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series of technical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, high level schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: (1) An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. (2) A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities

  6. Potential of thorium-based fuel cycle for PWR core to reduce plutonium and long-term toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Kim, Taek Kyum; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The cross section libraries and calculation methods of the participants were inter-compared through the first stage benchmark calculation. The multiplication factor of unit cell benchmark are in good agreement, but there is significant discrepancies of 2.3 to 3.5 %k at BOC and at EOC between the calculated infinite multiplication factors of each participants for the assembly benchmark. Our results with HELIOS show a reasonable agreement with the others except the MTC value at EOC. To verify the potential of the thorium-based fuel to consume the plutonium and to reduce the radioactivity from the spent fuel, the conceptual core with ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} or MOX fuel were constructed. The composition and quantity of plutonium isotopes and the radioactivity level of spent fuel for conceptual cores were analyzed, and the neutronic characteristics of conceptual cores were also calculated. The nuclear characteristics for ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fueled core was similar to MOX fueled core, mainly due to the same seed fuel material, plutonium. For the capability of plutonium consumption, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel can consume plutonium 2.1-2.4 times MOX fuel. The fraction of fissile plutonium in the spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium fuel is more favorable in view of plutonium consumption and non-proliferation than MOX fuel. The radioactivity of spent ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium and MOX fuel batches were calculated. Since plutonium isotopes are dominant for the long-term radioactivity, ThO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2} thorium has almost the same level of radioactivity as in MOX fuel for a long-term perspective. (author). 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  8. Thorium based fuel options for the generation of electricity: Developments in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The IAEA has maintained an interest in the thorium fuel cycle and its worldwide utilization within its framework of activities. Periodic reviews have assessed the current status of this fuel cycle, worldwide applications, economic benefits, and perceived advantages with respect to other nuclear fuel cycles. Since 1994, the IAEA convened a number of technical meetings on the thorium fuel cycle and related issues. Between 1995 and 1997 individual contributions on the thorium fuel cycle were elicited from experts from France, Germany, India, Japan, the Russian Federation and the USA. These contributions included evaluations of the status of the thorium fuel cycle worldwide; the new incentives to use thorium due to large stockpiles of plutonium produced in nuclear reactors; new reactor concepts utilizing thorium; strategies for thorium use; and an evaluation of toxicity of the thorium fuel cycle waste compared to that from other fuel cycles. The results of this updated evaluation are summarized in this publication

  9. Verification study of thorium cross section in MVP calculation of thorium based fuel core using experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, V. T.; Fujii, T.; Wada, K.; Kitada, T.; Takaki, N.; Yamaguchi, A.; Watanabe, H.; Unesaki, H.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of thorium data and concerning about the accuracy of Th-232 cross section library, a series of experiments of thorium critical core carried out at KUCA facility of Kyoto Univ. Research Reactor Inst. have been analyzed. The core was composed of pure thorium plates and 93% enriched uranium plates, solid polyethylene moderator with hydro to U-235 ratio of 140 and Th-232 to U-235 ratio of 15.2. Calculations of the effective multiplication factor, control rod worth, reactivity worth of Th plates have been conducted by MVP code using JENDL-4.0 library [1]. At the experiment site, after achieving the critical state with 51 fuel rods inserted inside the reactor, the measurements of the reactivity worth of control rod and thorium sample are carried out. By comparing with the experimental data, the calculation overestimates the effective multiplication factor about 0.90%. Reactivity worth of the control rods evaluation using MVP is acceptable with the maximum discrepancy about the statistical error of the measured data. The calculated results agree to the measurement ones within the difference range of 3.1% for the reactivity worth of one Th plate. From this investigation, further experiments and research on Th-232 cross section library need to be conducted to provide more reliable data for thorium based fuel core design and safety calculation. (authors)

  10. Transmutation of minor actinide using thorium fueled BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2002-01-01

    One of the methods to conduct transmutation of minor actinide is the use of BWR with thorium fuel. Thorium fuel has a specific behaviour of producing a little secondary minor actinides. Transmutation of minor actinide is done by loading it in the BWR with thorium fuel through two methods, namely close recycle and accumulation recycle. The calculation of minor actinide composition produced, weigh of minor actinide transmuted, and percentage of reminder transmutation was carried SRAC. The calculations were done to equivalent cell modeling from one fuel rod of BWR. The results show that minor actinide transmutation is more effective using thorium fuel than uranium fuel, through both close recycle and accumulation recycle. Minor actinide transmutation weight show that the same value for those recycle for 5th recycle. And most of all minor actinide produced from 5 unit BWR uranium fuel can transmuted in the 6 t h of close recycle. And, the minimal value of excess reactivity of the core is 12,15 % Δk/k, that is possible value for core operation

  11. Multi-faceted evaluation for nuclear fuel cycles with transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Environment impact, economy and proliferation resistance were estimated for nuclear fuel cycles involving transmutation by fast reactor and accelerator-driven system in equilibrium state. As a result, the transmutation scenario using only fast reactor was superior to the scenarios combined with accelerator-driven system in all estimation, but the differences were insignificant. (author)

  12. FCRD Advanced Reactor (Transmutation) Fuels Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. U-Pu-Zr alloys are well suited for electrolytic refining, which leads to incorporation rare-earth fission products such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd. It is, therefore, important to understand not only the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys but also those of U-Pu-Zr alloys with concentrations of minor actinides (Np, Am) and rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) similar to those in reprocessed fuel. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U, Pu, and minor actinides (Np and Am) are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phasetransformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, rapid oxidation, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Although less toxic, rare-earth elements such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd are also difficult to study for similar reasons. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, particularly those that also contain minor actinides and rare-earth elements. General acceptance of results commonly indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, Np, Am, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd and

  13. Safety analysis of thorium-based fuels in the General Electric Standard BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, M.J.; Townsend, D.B.; Kunz, C.L.

    1980-06-01

    A denatured (U-233/Th)O 2 fuel assembly has been designed which is energy equivalent to and hardware interchangeable with a modern boiling water reactor (BWR) reference reload assembly. Relative to the reference UO 2 fuel, the thorium fuel design shows better performance during normal and transient reactor operation for the BWR/6 product line and will meet or exceed current safety and licensing criteria. Power distributions are flattened and thermal operating margins are increased by reduced steam void reactivity coefficients caused by U-233. However, a (U-233/Th)O 2 -fueled BWR will likely have reduced operating flexibility. A (U-235/Th)O 2 -fueled BWR should perform similar to a UO 2 -fueled BWR under all operating conditions. A (Pu/Th)O 2 -fueled BWR may have reduced thermal margins and similar accident response and be less stable than a UO 2 -fueled BWR. The assessment is based on comparisions of point model and infinite lattice predictions of various nuclear reactivity parameters, including void reactivity coefficients, Doppler reactivity coefficients, and control blade worths

  14. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R., E-mail: blair.bromley@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Sambavalingam, P. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  15. Power level effects on thorium-based fuels in pressure-tube heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, B.P.; Edwards, G.W.R.; Sambavalingam, P.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice and core physics modeling and calculations have been performed to quantify the impact of power/flux levels on the reactivity and achievable burnup for 35-element fuel bundles made with Pu/Th or U-233/Th. The fissile content in these bundles has been adjusted to produce on the order of 20 MWd/kg burnup in homogeneous cores in a 700 MWe-class pressure-tube heavy water reactor, operating on a once-through thorium cycle. Results demonstrate that the impact of the power/flux level is modest for Pu/Th fuels but significant for U-233/Th fuels. In particular, high power/flux reduces the breeding and burnup potential of U-233/Th fuels. Thus, there may be an incentive to operate reactors with U-233/Th fuels at a lower power density or to develop alternative refueling schemes that will lower the time-average specific power, thereby increasing burnup.(author)

  16. Environmental impact of radioactive releases from recycle of thorium-based fuel using current containment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennery, V.J.; Bomar, E.S.; Bond, W.D.; Morse, L.E.; Meyer, H.R.; Till, J.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of thorium mining and milling suggests that the resulting doses should be similar to those from uranium operations. An absolute comparison cannot be made at this time, however, due to differences in some assumptions utilized by the various investigators and the lack in some cases of site-specific meteorology and population data at thorium resource sites in the western United States. A distinct difference resulting from the short half-life of 220 Rn (T/sub 1/2/ = 55.6 s) in the thorium decay chain compared to that for 222 Rn (T/sub 1/2/ = 3.82 d) in uranium decay was noted for emissions following mill shutdown. This effect is to make potential releases following thorium mill shutdown of lesser consequence than in the uranium case. Thorium tailings activity would also decrease relatively rapidly due to the comparatively short half-life (T/sub 1/2 = 5.75 y) of 228 Ra. Doses due to airborne releases from thorium-uranium carbide fuel refabrication are significantly less than that due to fuel reprocessing. Tritium is the principal contributor to reprocessing plant doses while carbon-14, 131 Cs, and 232 U account for most of the remaining dose. A tenfold increase in reprocessing plant CF for tritium reduces both individual and population doses by about 60%. For refabrication operations, a near linear dependence upon dose with 232 U content of the fuel was calculated between concentrations of 10 ppM and 5000 ppM. Comparison of (Th, U)C and (U, Pu)C showed little difference in dose commitment, but the presence of 232 U in the (Th, U) fuel causes a notable increase in the refabrication plant dose over that previously calculated for (U, Pu) type fuels

  17. Thorium base fuels reprocessing at the L.P.R. (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) experimental plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro, J.C.; Dupetit, G.A.; Deandreis, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of the LPR (Radiochemical Processes Laboratory) plant offers the possibility to demonstrate and create the necessary technological basis for thorium fuels reprocessing. To this purpose, the solvents extraction technique is used, employing TBP (at 30%) as solvent. The process is named THOREX, a one-cycle acid, which permits an adequate separation of Th 232 and U 233 components and fission products. For thorium oxide elements dissolution, the 'chopp-leach' process (installed at LPR) is used, employing a NO 3 H 13N, 0.05M FH and 0.1M Al (NO 3 ) 3 , as solvent. To adapt the pilot plant to the flow-sheet requirements proposed, minor modifications must be carried out in the interconnection of the existing decanting mixers. The input of the plant has been calculated by Origin Code modified for irradiations in reactors of the HWR type. (Author)

  18. Advanced fuel cycles options for LWRs and IMF benchmark definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breza, J.; Darilek, P.; Necas, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, different advanced nuclear fuel cycles including thorium-based fuel and inert-matrix fuel are examined under light water reactor conditions, especially VVER-440, and compared. Two investigated thorium based fuels include one solely plutonium-thorium based fuel and the second one plutonium-thorium based fuel with initial uranium content. Both of them are used to carry and burn or transmute plutonium created in the classical UOX cycle. The inert-matrix fuel consist of plutonium and minor actinides separated from spent UOX fuel fixed in Yttria-stabilised zirconia matrix. The article shows analysed fuel cycles and their short description. The conclusion is concentrated on the rate of Pu transmutation and Pu with minor actinides cumulating in the spent advanced thorium fuel and its comparison to UOX open fuel cycle. Definition of IMF benchmark based on presented scenario is given. (authors)

  19. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  20. Transmutation of radioactive waste: Effect on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, N.C.; Pigford, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    A committee of the National Research Council reviewed three concepts for transmuting radionuclides recovered from the chemical reprocessing of commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel: LWR transmutation reactors fueled with recycled actinides, advanced liquid-metal reactors (ALMRs), and accelerator-driven subcritical reactors for transmutation of waste (ATW). The concepts were evaluated in terms of: (1) the extent to which waste disposal would benefit from transmutation, (2) time required to reduce the total inventory of radionuclides in the waste and fuel cycle, (3) the complexity of the overall transmutation system, (4) the extent of new development required, and (5) institutional and economic problems of operating such systems. Transmutation could affect geologic disposal of waste by reducing the inventory of transuranics (TRUs), fission products, and other radionuclides in the waste. Reducing the inventory of transuranics does not necessarily affect radiation doses to people who use contaminated ground water if the dissolution rate of transuranics in waste is controlled by elemental solubilities. However, reducing inventories of Am and Pu would decrease potential hazards from human intrusion. The likelihood for underground nuclear criticality would also be reduced. The long-lived fission products Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and others typically contribute most to the long-term radiation doses to future populations who use contaminated water from the repository. Their transmutation requires thermal or epithermal neutrons, readily available in LWR and ATW transmutors. ALMR and LWR transmutors would require several hundred years to reduce the total transuranic inventory by even a factor of 10 at constant electric power, and thousands of years for a hundred-fold reduction. For the same electrical power, the ATW could reduce total transuranic inventory about tenfold more rapidly, because of its very high thermal-neutron flux. However, extremely low process losses would be

  1. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign

  2. Transmutation of minor actinide using BWR fueled mixed oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear spent fuel recycle has a strategic importance in the aspect of nuclear fuel economy and prevention of its spread-out. One among other application of recycle is to produce mixed oxide fuel (Mo) namely mixed Plutonium and uranium oxide. As for decreasing the burden of nuclear high level waste (HLW) treatment, transmutation of minor actinide (MA) that has very long half life will be carried out by conversion technique in nuclear reactor. The purpose of this study was to know influence of transition fuel cell regarding the percent weight of transmutation MA in the BWR fueled MOX. Calculation of cell BWR was used SRAC computer code, with assume that the reactor in equilibrium. The percent weight of transmutation MA to be optimum by increasing the discharge burn-up of nuclear fuel, raising ratio of moderator to fuel volume (Vm/Vf), and loading MA with percent weight about 3%-6% and also reducing amount of percent weight Pu in MOX fuel. For mixed fuel standard reactor, reactivity value were obtained between about -50pcm ∼ -230pcm for void coefficient and -1.8pcm ∼ -2.6pcm for fuel temperature coefficient

  3. Fuels and materials for transmutation. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The safe and efficient management of spent fuel from the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. Worldwide, more than 250 000 tons of spent fuel from reactors currently operating will require disposal. These numbers account for only high-level radioactive waste generated by present-day power reactors. Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from the long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to only about 1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium (called transuranic elements) and the long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium. When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal, the toxic nature of the spent fuel drops below that of natural uranium ore (that which was originally mined for the nuclear fuel) within a period of several hundred to a thousand years. This significantly reduces the burden on geological repositories and the problem of addressing the remaining long-term residues can thus be done in controlled environments having timescales of centuries rather than millennia stretching beyond 10 000 years. Transmutation is one of the means being explored to address the disposal of transuranic elements. To achieve this, advanced reactor systems, appropriate fuels, separation techniques and associated fuel cycle strategies are required. This report describes the current status of fuel and material technologies for transmutation and suggests technical R and D issues that need to be resolved. It will be of particular interest to nuclear fuel and material scientists involved in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P and T), and in advanced fuel cycles in general. (author)

  4. Advances in Metallic Fuels for High Burnup and Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S. L.; Harp, J. M.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Fielding, R. S.; Mariani, R. D.; Carmack, W. J.

    2016-10-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels in the US are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. A number of metallic fuel design innovations are under investigation with a view toward significantly increasing the burnup potential of metallic fuels, since higher discharge burnups equate to lower potential actinide losses during recycle. Promising innovations under investigation include: 1) lowering the fuel smeared density in order to accommodate the additional swelling expected as burnups increase, 2) utilizing an annular fuel geometry for better geometrical stability at low smeared densities, as well as the potential to eliminate the need for a sodium bond, and 3) minor alloy additions to immobilize lanthanide fission products inside the metallic fuel matrix and prevent their transport to the cladding resulting in fuel-cladding chemical interaction. This paper presents results from these efforts to advance metallic fuel technology in support of high burnup and actinide transmutation objectives. Highlights include examples of fabrication of low smeared density annular metallic fuels, experiments to identify alloy additions effective in immobilizing lanthanide fission products, and early postirradiation examinations of annular metallic fuels having low smeared densities and palladium additions for fission product immobilization.

  5. Multiple Tier Fuel Cycle Studies for Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing (∼0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system. (authors)

  6. Multiple tier fuel cycle studies for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing (∼0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system

  7. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles

    2001-07-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  8. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S.

    2001-01-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  9. Transmutation of DUPIC spent fuel in the hyper system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Song, T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the transmutation of TRUs of the DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) spent fuel has been studied with the HYPER system, which is an LBE-cooled ADS. The DUPIC concept is a synergistic combination of PWRs and CANDUs, in which PWR spent fuels are directly re-utilized in CANDU reactors after a very simple re-fabrication process. In the DUPIC-HYPER fuel cycle, TRUs are recovered by using a pyro-technology and they are incinerated in a metallic fuel form of U-TRU-Zr. The objective of this study is to investigate the TRU transmutation potential of the HYPER core for the DUPIC-HYPER fuel cycle. All the previously-developed HYPER core design concepts were retained except that fuel is composed of TRU from the DUPIC spent fuel. In order to reduce the burnup reactivity swing, a B 4 C burnable absorber is used. The HYPER core characteristics have been analyzed with the REBUS-3/DIF3D code system. (authors)

  10. Fuels and targets for the transmutation of high activity long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.; Warin, D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present and comment the different strategies which can be adopted to transmute minor actinides (concerned reactors, in fast breeder reactors, in accelerator driven systems or ADS), and the chemical composition of transmutation fuels (actinide compounds, inert matrices, fuels and targets). They describe the behaviour of refractory ceramic fuels during their service life under irradiation with their different damage origins (neutrons, fission by-products, alpha particles), the fabrication of transmutation fuels and targets through different processes (metallurgical, co-precipitate, sol-gel, wax, infiltration of radioactive materials, VIPAC/SPHEREPAC) and the reprocessing or recycling of these transmutation fuels and targets

  11. Transmutation Fuel Fabrication-Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grover, Blair Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRACT Nearly all of the metallic fuel that has been irradiated and characterized by the Advanced Fuel Campaign, and its earlier predecessors, has been arc cast. Arc casting is a very flexible method of casting lab scale quantities of materials. Although the method offers flexibility, it is an operator dependent process. Small changes in parameter space or alloy composition may affect how the material is cast. This report provides a historical insight in how the casting process has been modified over the history of the advanced fuels campaign as well as the physical parameters of the fuels cast in fiscal year 2016.

  12. Progress on the Application of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J. Rory; Fielding, Randall; Janney, Dawn; Mariani, Robert; Teague, Melissa; Egeland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing actinide bearing alloy metallic fuels intended for effecting the transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fast reactor application as part of a partitioning and transmutation strategy. This presentation will report on progress in three areas of this effort: demonstration of the fabrication of fuels under remote (hot cell) conditions directly coupled to the product from the Pyro-processing of spent fuel as part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Studies (JFCS) collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI); the chemical sequestration of lanthanide fission products to mitigate fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) studies on the as-cast microstructure of the metallic fuel alloy. For the JFCS efforts, we report on the implementation of the Glove-box Advanced Casting System (GACS) as a prototype casting furnace for eventual installation into the INL Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) where the recycled fuel will be cast. Results from optimising process parameters with respect to fuel characteristics, americium volatility, materials interaction, and lanthanide fission product carry over distribution will be discussed. With respect to the lanthanide carry over from the Pyro-processing product, encouraging studies on concepts to chemically sequester the FCCI promoting lanthanides within the fuel matrix thus inhibiting migration and interaction with the cladding will be presented. Finally, in relation to advanced modelling and simulation efforts, detailed investigations and interpretation on the nano-scale as cast microstructure of possible recycle fuel composition containing U, Pu, Am, Np as well as carry-over lanthanide species will be discussed. These studies are important for establishing the initial conditions from which advanced physics based fuel performance codes will run. (authors)

  13. Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Thermal Model Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev

    2007-09-01

    FRAPCON fuel performance code is being modified to be able to model performance of the nuclear fuels of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The present report documents the effort for verification of the FRAPCON thermal model. It was found that, with minor modifications, FRAPCON thermal model temperature calculation agrees with that of the commercial software ABAQUS (Version 6.4-4). This report outlines the methodology of the verification, code input, and calculation results.

  14. On the use of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boshoven, J.G.; Hein, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Zhang, H.; Meeldijk, J.D.; Woensdregt, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides are investigated. The results of laboratory experiments, thermodynamic calculations and irradiations in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten are presented, and allow us to evaluate the potential of spinel as an inert matrix for fuels and targets for transmutation. (author)

  15. Heterogeneous fuels for minor actinides transmutation: Fuel performance codes predictions in the EFIT case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, R., E-mail: rolando.calabrese@enea.i [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Vettraino, F.; Artioli, C. [ENEA, Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle Closure Division, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Sobolev, V. [SCK.CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Thetford, R. [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, 150 Harwell Business Centre, Didcot OX11 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Plutonium recycling in new-generation fast reactors coupled with minor actinides (MA) transmutation in dedicated nuclear systems could achieve a decrease of nuclear waste long-term radiotoxicity by two orders of magnitude in comparison with current once-through strategy. In a double-strata scenario, purpose-built accelerator-driven systems (ADS) could transmute minor actinides. The innovative nuclear fuel conceived for such systems demands significant R and D efforts in order to meet the safety and technical performance of current fuel systems. The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EUROpean research programme for the TRANSmutation of high level nuclear waste in ADS), part of the EURATOM Framework Programme 6 (FP6), undertook some of this research. EUROTRANS developed from the FP5 research programmes on ADS (PDS-XADS) and on fuels dedicated to MA transmutation (FUTURE, CONFIRM). One of its main objectives is the conceptual design of a small sub-critical nuclear system loaded with uranium-free fuel to provide high MA transmutation efficiency. These principles guided the design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) in the domain DESIGN of IP EUROTRANS. The domain AFTRA (Advanced Fuels for TRAnsmutation system) identified two composite fuel systems: a ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) where fuel particles are dispersed in a magnesia matrix, and a ceramic-metallic (CERMET) with a molybdenum matrix in the place of MgO matrix to host a ceramic fissile phase. The EFIT fuel is composed of plutonium and MA oxides in solid solution with isotopic vectors typical of LWR spent fuel with 45 MWd/kg{sub HM} discharge burnup and 30 years interim storage before reprocessing. This paper is focused on the thermomechanical state of the hottest fuel pins of two EFIT cores of 400 MW{sub (th)} loaded with either CERCER or CERMET fuels. For calculations three fuel performance codes were used: FEMALE, TRAFIC and TRANSURANUS. The analysis was performed at the beginning of fuel life

  16. Development of CERMET fuels for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Naestren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Maschek, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    The sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is now being considered as a potential means to burn long-lived transuranium nuclides. The preferred fuel for such a fast neutron reactor is uranium-free, highly enriched with plutonium and minor actinides. Requirements for ADS transmutation fuels are linked with the core design and safety parameters, the fuel properties and the ease of reprocessing. This study concerns the properties of metals as matrices, with the particular case of Mo. To improve the neutronic characteristics, enriched molybdenum (Mo-92) is required. To overcome the high enrichment cost, it is proposed to recover the matrix by pellet dissolution, and to recycle it for further use. Irradiation programmes are also planned to examine the in-reactor properties of the material. Based on the current status of the research, the results are promising, but irradiation results are still missing. (authors)

  17. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the US spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is an advanced waste management concept by which certain undesirable nuclides in spent fuel are first isolated (partitioned) and later destroyed (transmuted) in a nuclear reactor or other transmutation device. There are wide variabilities in the nuclide composition of spent fuel. This implies that there will also be wide variabilities in the transmutation device feed. As a waste management system, P-T must be able to accept (all) spent fuel. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e., the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure transuranic (TRU) nuclides recovered from discharged lightwater reactor (LWR) spent fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume invariant nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Characteristics Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactors). The variability of the infinite multiplication factor (k ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems

  18. Technical meeting on 'Review of solid and mobile fuels for partitioning and transmutation systems'. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The topics covered during the Meeting were divided into two Sessions. Session 1 - Qualification of Solid and Mobile Fuels delt with: Neutronic, fuel and material properties of a molten salt transmuter; and Preliminary analysis of transmutation fuels for KALIMER. Session 2 - Reactor Physics and Safety Characteristics of Transmutation Systems based on Solid and Mobile Fuel Types included the following: Activity in NEA for P and T area; IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation; The R and D activity in Brazil: A conceptual fast energy amplifier ADS cooled by helium double stata Th/U fuel cycle; Closed fuel cycle and contemporary tendencies of the nuclear facilities development; Current Russian activities in P and T area; Pyrochemical reprocessing and nuclear spent fuel disposal project; Fuel selection criteria specific for double stratum minor actinide burners.

  19. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (P fus ∼ 10-100 MW, β N ∼ 2-3, Q p ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  20. Radioactive Wastes Generated From JAERI Partitioning-Transmutation Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Morita, Yasuji; Nishihara, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI's processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as 14 C and 59 Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (authors)

  1. Waste transmutation with minimal fuel cycle long-term risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M. [Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Cadarache (France)

    1995-10-01

    Hybrid systems (source-driven subcritical reactors), are investigated at CEA, mainly from a conceptual point of view, in order to assess their potential to transmute radioactive wastes (mainly long-lived fission products, LLFP) and their potential to insure a minimal long-term radiological risk related both to the fuel inventory inside the system and to the full fuel cycle (mass flows, reprocessing transport, waste disposal). The physics of these systems has been explored and work is in progress both in the field of basic data and INC code validation, in the frame of international collaborations and in the field of conceptual design studies. The most interesting feature of subcritical source-driven system is related to the possibility to obtain an {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} of neutrons per fission, which can be used to reduce the long-term radiological risk. A specific example will be discussed here.

  2. Analysis on specific nuclear data for reactors physics computations applied to CANDU reactors using thorium-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visan, Iuliana E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the evaluated nuclear data from ENDF libraries IAEA69 (69 energy groups library) and IAEA172 (172 energy groups library), respectively, in WIMS library format and to represent neutron fission yield, absorption and fission cross-section dependence for 233 Uranium, 232 Thorium isotopes and some actinides of interest on the incident energy. Our interest for these two isotopes is mainly based on the importance of 233 Uranium as 'fissile nucleus' in Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle. Nowadays, nuclear data evaluation for the actinides generated in Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle is seen as a world-wide priority. The fissile nucleus, 233 Uranium 'plays' the same function in Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle as the 235 Uranium in 'the classic' Uranium-Plutonium fuel cycle. As opposed to natural Uranium which contains 0.7 % of the fissile isotope 235 Uranium, natural Thorium doesn't contain fissile isotopes, being composed entirely by the fertile isotope 232 Thorium. Graphical evolutions of interest parameters versus the incident energy are presented. Our interest was also to observe the behavior of these nuclear data for fast, resonance and thermal energy groups, respectively. The ENDF nuclear data libraries are constantly up-dated, so that we can observe an improvement of the IAEA172 library, which disposes of evaluated nuclear data at higher energies (about 20 MeV), as opposed to IAEA69 library (which includes evaluated nuclear data below 10 MeV). Based on our graphical representation, a good agreement between the considered libraries has been observed, sustaining nuclear data validity. (authors)

  3. French fuel cycle strategy and partitioning and transmutation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel sources. How we deal with radioactive waste is crucial in this context. The production of nuclear energy in France has been associated, since its inception, with the optimisation of radioactive waste management, including the partitioning and the recycling of recoverable energetic materials. The public's concern regarding long-term waste management led the French government to prepare and pass the Law of December 1991, requesting in particular the study for fifteen years of solutions to minimising even further the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste, via partitioning and transmutation. At the end of these fifteen years of research, it is considered that partitioning techniques which have been validated on real solutions are at disposal. Indeed, aqueous process for separation of minor actinides from the PUREX raffinate has been brought to a point where there is reasonable assurance that industrial deployment can be successful. A key experiment has been the kilogram-scale successful trials in the CEA-Marcoule Atalante facility in 2005 and this result, together with the results obtained in the frame of the successive European projects, constitutes a considerable step forward. For transmutation, CEA has conducted programmes proving the feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for critical reactors and ADS developments. Scenario studies have also allowed assessing the feasibility, at the level of cycle and fuel facilities, and the efficiency of transmutation in terms of the quantitative reduction of the final waste inventory depending of

  4. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  5. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  6. Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Bays, Samuel E.; Hoffman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.(Piet2008) The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: (1) Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. (2) For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. (3) Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. (4) Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. (5) Eliminate the need for either ''fission product other'' or ''actinide other'' while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use ''fission product other'' or ''actinide other'' as their chemical behavior is undefined. (6) Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. (7) Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: (1) Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. (2) Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo

  7. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, J.; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V.

    2003-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl 2O 4 spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO 2 to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour.

  8. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirot, J. E-mail: jnoirot@cea.fr; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V

    2003-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO{sub 2} to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour.

  9. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noirot, J.; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V.

    2003-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl 2 O 4 spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO 2 to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour

  10. Fuel design for the U.S. accelerator driven transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hayes, S. L.; Crawford, D. C.; Pahl, R. G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed

  11. Fuel Design for the U.S. Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.K.; Hayes, S.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Pahl, R.G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed. (authors)

  12. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  13. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  14. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  15. Transmutation studies in France, R and D programme on fuels and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidron, M.; Chauvin, N.; Garnier, J.C.; PIllon, S.; Vambenepe, G.

    2001-01-01

    For the management of high level and long-lived radioactive waste, a large and continuous research and development effort is carried out in France, to provide a wide range of scientific and technical alternatives along three lines, partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations and long term interim surface or subsurface storage. For the line one, and in close link with the partitioning studies, research is carried out to evaluate the transmutation potential of long-lived waste in appropriate reactors configurations (scenarios) relying on current technologies as well as innovative reactors. Performed to evaluate the theoretical feasibility of the Pu consumption and waste transmutation from the point of view of the reactor cores physics to reach the equilibrium of the material fluxes (i.e. consumption = production) and of the isotopic compositions of the fuels, these studies insure the 'scientific' part of the transmutation feasibility. For the technological part of the feasibility of waste transmutation in reactors, a large programme on fuel development is underway. This includes solutions based on the advanced concepts for plutonium fuels in PWR and the development of specific fuels and targets for transmutation in fast reactors in the critical or sub-critical state. For the waste transmutation in fast reactors, an important programme has been launched to develop specific fuels and targets with experiments at various stages of preparation in different experimental reactors including Phenix. Composite fuels as well as particle fuels are considered. This programme is presented and recent results concerning the preparation of the experiments, the characterisation of the compounds properties, the thermal and mechanical modelling and the behaviour of U free fuels are given. (author)

  16. Target fuels for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, J.; King, J.; Shayer, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate transmutation fuels for plutonium and minor actinide destruction in LWRs. • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We evaluate spectral shift absorber coatings to improve transmutation performance. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, containing approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are a preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a nearer-term solution. This study considers a method for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in existing light water reactors and evaluates a variety of transmutation fuels to provide a common basis for comparison and to determine if any single target fuel provides superior transmutation properties. A model developed using the NEWT module in the SCALE 6.1 code package provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel rods in the present study. The target fuels (MOX, PuO_2, Pu_3Si_2, PuN, PuUZrH, PuZrH, PuZrHTh, and PuZrO_2) are evaluated over a 1400 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) interval to ensure each assembly remained critical over the entire burnup period. The MOX (5 wt% PuO_2), Pu_0_._3_1ZrH_1_._6Th_1_._0_8, and PuZrO_2MgO (8 wt% Pu) fuels result in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the lowest rate of curium-244 production. This study selected eleven different burnable absorbers (B_4C, CdO, Dy_2O_3, Er_2O_3, Eu_2O_3, Gd_2O_3, HfO_2, In_2O_3, Lu_2O_3, Sm_2O_3, and TaC) for evaluation as spectral shift absorber coatings on the outside of the fuel pellets to determine if an absorber coating can improve the transmutation properties of the target fuels. The PuZrO_2MgO (8 wt% Pu) target fuel with a coating of Lu_2O_3 resulted in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the greatest reduction in curium

  17. Target fuels for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Shayer, Z., E-mail: zshayer@mines.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate transmutation fuels for plutonium and minor actinide destruction in LWRs. • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We evaluate spectral shift absorber coatings to improve transmutation performance. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, containing approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are a preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a nearer-term solution. This study considers a method for plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in existing light water reactors and evaluates a variety of transmutation fuels to provide a common basis for comparison and to determine if any single target fuel provides superior transmutation properties. A model developed using the NEWT module in the SCALE 6.1 code package provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel rods in the present study. The target fuels (MOX, PuO{sub 2}, Pu{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, PuN, PuUZrH, PuZrH, PuZrHTh, and PuZrO{sub 2}) are evaluated over a 1400 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) interval to ensure each assembly remained critical over the entire burnup period. The MOX (5 wt% PuO{sub 2}), Pu{sub 0.31}ZrH{sub 1.6}Th{sub 1.08}, and PuZrO{sub 2}MgO (8 wt% Pu) fuels result in the highest rate of plutonium transmutation with the lowest rate of curium-244 production. This study selected eleven different burnable absorbers (B{sub 4}C, CdO, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, HfO{sub 2}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TaC) for evaluation as spectral shift absorber coatings on the outside of the fuel pellets to determine if an absorber coating can improve the transmutation properties of the target fuels. The PuZrO{sub 2}MgO (8 wt% Pu) target

  18. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-01-01

    Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economics. Scenarios include the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle (as a reference scenario), a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel and two fuel cycles with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet or in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand. Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 20% for Pu management scenario and around 35% for both transmutation scenarios respectively.

  19. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economics. Scenarios include the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle (as a reference scenario), a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel and two fuel cycles with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet or in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS).Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand. Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 20% for Pu management scenario and around 35% for both transmutation scenarios respectively.

  20. A review of reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and the implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The current status of the reprocessing, partitioning, and transmutation of used nuclear fuel are reviewed in the context of assessing the possible application of these technologies to used CANDU fuel. The status of commercial reprocessing is briefly surveyed and recent progress in world R and D programs on the transmutation of FP's and actinides using Accelerator Driven Systems is summarized. The implications of reprocessing for Canada are explored from the point of view of a long strategy for managing used CANDU fuel in terms of the costs of initiating reprocessing domestically at some time in the future including public and occupational radiation doses, and the wastes generated. (author)

  1. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides in the fuel cycle of Brest-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Filin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived nuclides produced as a result of nuclear generation, should be set up proceeding from the principle of reasonable sufficiency, expressed as radiation equivalence between the radwaste sent to disposal and source natural uranium. In this case, introduction of fast reactors of new generation (such as BREST or other reactors based on similar philosophy) will resolve transmutation problems even with the thermal-to-fast reactor capacity ratio of 2:1. The authors of the 'Strategy of nuclear power development in Russia' foresee, and substantiate their prediction, that fast reactors of the new generation will account for no less than 2/3 of nuclear capacity in future large-scale nuclear power sector. Fast reactors will be the basis of a transmutation fuel cycle, which will remove the need of creating additional transmutation facilities. (author)

  2. EFTTRA, a European collaboration for the development of fuels and targets for the transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelot, J.F.; Muehling, G.; Prunier, C.; Rome, M.

    1994-12-01

    In the frame of the research programmes on the transmutation of long lived nuclides, many experimental or theoretical investigations have to be carried out within European collaborations, owing mainly to the costs of such studies. Therefore, a group named 'Experimental Feasibility of Targets for Transmutation' (EFTTRA), has been formed, with participants from CEA (France). ECN (The Netherlands), EDF (France), KFK (Germany) and ITU (European Commission), to organise joint experiments for the study of materials for the transmutation. So far, it was decided to focus the work on the transmutation of 99 Tc (metal), of 129 I (compound), and of Am (in an inert matrix). Irradiations will take place in parallel in the Phenix fast reactor in France, and in the high flux thermal reactor HFR in the Netherlands. These experiments, together with the related post-irradiation examinations, constitute the first phase of the EFTTRA collaboration. In subsequent phases, EFTTRA will contribute to the development of fuels and targets. (orig.)

  3. Transmutation research and fuel cycle (report on discussion at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamana, Hajimu

    1999-01-01

    A symposium was held on a topic of 'Transmutation Research' on Dec. 21 and 22, 1999 at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. This meeting was held as a joint-meeting of KUR's specialist meeting and Tokyo University's activity supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research of Ministry of Education, Sport and Culture of Japan. This paper describes the overview of the discussions of this joint-meeting, and interprets their significance. Major themes discussed are, needed discussions on the transmutation research, policy and concepts of the organizations doing transmutation researches, a view from university side, transmutation researches in the oversea countries, opinions from various standpoints of the nuclear fuel cycle, conclusive discussions. 'the meanings of the transmutation research should be discussed together with the geological disposal and fast reactor system', 'transmutation may be a cooperative option for the disposal, thus, they should not be in a independent relation', and Balance evaluation will be needed' are the examples of the conclusive remarks of this meeting. (author)

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  6. Transmutation Strategy Using Thorium-Reprocessed Fuel ADS for Future Reactors in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is believed to be a key to the energy security for a developing country like Vietnam where the power demanding increases rapidly every year. Nevertheless, spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants is the source of radiotoxic and proliferation risk. A conceptual design of ADS utilizing thorium fuel as a based fuel and reprocessed fuel as a seed for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production is proposed as one of the clean, safe, and economical solutions for the problem. In the design, 96 seed assemblies and 84 blanket assemblies were inserted into the core to make a heterogeneous subcritical core configuration. Introducing thorium fuel into the core offers an effective way to transmute plutonium and minor actinide (MA and gain energy from this process. Transmutation rate as a function of burnup is estimated using MCNPX 2.7.0 code. Results show that by using the seed-blanket designed ADS, at 40 GWd/t burnup, 192 kg of plutonium and 156 kg of MA can be eliminated. Equivalently, 1  ADS can be able to transmute the transuranic (TRU waste from 2  LWRs. 14 units of ADS would be required to eliminate TRUs from the future reactors to be constructed in Vietnam.

  7. Recycling and transmutation of spent fuel as a sustainable option for the nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the option of recycling and transmutation of radioactive waste against Once-through Fuel Cycle (OTC) based on uranium feed under the perspective of sustainability. We use a qualitative analysis to compare OTC with closed fuel cycles based on studies already performed such as the Red Impact Project and the comparative study on accelerator driven systems and fast reactors for advanced fuel cycles performed by the Nuclear Energy Agency. The results show that recycling and transmutation fuel cycles are more attractive than the OTC from the point of view of sustainability. The main conclusion is that the decision about the construction of a deep geological repository for spent fuel disposal must be reevaluated. (author)

  8. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economic estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Iván Merino; Álvarez-Velarde, Francisco; Martín-Fuertes, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Four fuel cycle scenarios have been analyzed in resources and economic terms. • Scenarios involve Once-Through, Pu burning, and MA transmutation strategies. • No restrictions were found in terms of uranium and plutonium availability. • The best case cost and the impact of their uncertainties to the LCOE were analyzed. - Abstract: Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options (in coherence with PATEROS and CP-ESFR EU projects) have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economic estimates. Scenarios include: (i) the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle, (ii) full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U–Pu MOX fuel, (iii) closed fuel cycle with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet, and (iv) closed fuel cycle with MA transmutation in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for 200 years, looking for long term equilibrium mass flow achievement. The simulations were made using the TR E VOL code, capable to assess the management of the nuclear mass streams in the scenario as well as economics for the estimation of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and other costs. Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (natural and depleted U, and Pu). Additionally, we have found as expected that the FR scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario. The elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires a maximum of 55% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 44 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation) or an average of 28 units of ADS plants (i.e., a peak value of 51 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the main usefulness of the provided economic results is for relative comparison of

  9. Transmutation technologies to solve the problem of long-term spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Valenta, V.; Blahut, O.

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of the transmutation process for actinides and long-lived fission products which are present in spent nuclear fuel. Transmutation technologies can solve the problem of long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reduce the requirements for storage time and conditions. The basic data and requirements for the detailed design of the transmutor are summarized, and the views upon how to address the fuel purification and dry reprocessing issues are discussed. The results of activities of SKODA JS are highlighted; these include, for instance, the fluoride salt-resistant material MONICR, test loops, and electrowinners. The preliminary design of the transmutor is also outlined. Brief information regarding activities in the field of transmutation technologies in the Czech Republic and worldwide is also presented. The research and design activities to be developed for the whole design of the demonstration and basic units are summarized. It is emphasized that SKODA JS can join in international cooperation without constraints. The Attachment presents a simple assessment of how the radioactivity balance can be reduced, based on the actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation half-lives, is presented in the Attachment. (author)

  10. Sodium-cooled fast reactor core designs for transmutation of MHR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. G.; Kim, Y. H.; Venneri, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the core design analyses of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR) are performed for the effective transmutation of the DB (Deep Burn)-MHR (Modular Helium Reactor). In this concept, the spent fuels of DB-MHR are transmuted in SFRs with a closed fuel cycle after TRUs from LWR are first incinerated in a DB-MHR. We introduced two different type SFR core designs for this purpose, and evaluated their core performance parameters including the safety-related parameters. In particular, the cores are designed to have lower transmutation rate relatively to our previous work so as to make the fuel characteristics more feasible. The first type cores which consist of two enrichment regions are typical homogeneous annular cores and they rate 900 MWt power. On the other hand, the second type cores which consist of a central non-fuel region and a single enrichment fuel region rate relatively higher power of 1500 MWt. For these cores, the moderator rods (YH 1.8 ) are used to achieve less positive sodium void worth and the more negative Doppler coefficient because the loading of DB-MHR spent fuel leads to the degradation of these safety parameters. The analysis results show that these cores have low sodium void worth and negative reactivity coefficients except for the one related with the coolant expansion but the coolant expansion reactivity coefficient is within the typical range of the typical SFR cores. (authors)

  11. Fuels and targets for incineration and transmutation of actinides: the ITU programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Glatz, J.P.; Haas, D.; Konings, R.J.M.; Somers, J.; Toscano, E.; Walker, C.T.; Wegen, D.

    2000-01-01

    The ITU programme for the development of fuels and targets for transmutation of actinides is presented. The fabrication of various types of oxide fuels/targets by dust-free processes is described. Selected results of post-irradiation examinations of irradiation experiments (SUPERFACT, TRABANT-1, EFTTRA-T4) are presented to demonstrate the irradiation behaviour of these fuels/targets. Finally, the future developments at ITU in this field are described, including the new shielded facility (the MA lab) for fabrication of minor actinide fuels. (authors)

  12. Fuels and targets for incineration and transmutation of actinides: the ITU programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Glatz, J.P.; Haas, D.; Konings, R.J.M.; Somers, J.; Toscano, E.; Walker, C.T.; Wegen, D. [Eurpean Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Kurlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The ITU programme for the development of fuels and targets for transmutation of actinides is presented. The fabrication of various types of oxide fuels/targets by dust-free processes is described. Selected results of post-irradiation examinations of irradiation experiments (SUPERFACT, TRABANT-1, EFTTRA-T4) are presented to demonstrate the irradiation behaviour of these fuels/targets. Finally, the future developments at ITU in this field are described, including the new shielded facility (the MA lab) for fabrication of minor actinide fuels. (authors)

  13. Design and safety studies on the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with CERMET fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.N.; Rineiski, A.; Liu, P.; Matzerath Boccaccini, C.; Flad, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Morita, K.

    2008-01-01

    European R and D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6 th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme [1]. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System. The EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. A key issue of the R and D work is the choice of an adequate fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven Transmuter (ADT) like EFIT. Various fuel forms have been assessed. CERCER and CERMET fuels, specifically with the matrices MgO and Mo, have finally been selected and are now under closer investigation. Within EUROTRANS, a special domain named 'AFTRA', is responsible to more deeply assess the behavior of these dedicated fuels and to provide the fuel data base for the core design of the EFIT. The EFIT concept has to be optimized towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burnup, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high safety level. The final recommendation on fuels by AFTRA gave a ranking of these fuels based on the mentioned criteria. The composite CERMET fuel (Pu 0.5 ,Am 0.5 )O 2-x - Mo (with the isotope 92 Mo comprising 93% of the molybdenum) has been recommended as the primary candidate for the EFIT. This CERMET fuel fulfils adopted criteria for fabrication and reprocessing, and provides excellent safety margins. Disadvantages include the cost for enrichment of 92 Mo and a lower specific transmutation rate of minor actinides, because of the higher neutron absorption cross-section of the matrix. The composite CERCER fuel (Pu 0.4 ,Am 0.6 )O 2-x - MgO has therefore been recommended as a backup solution as it might offer a higher consumption rate of minor actinides, and can be manufactured for a lower unit cost. This paper is in fact a sequel to our last paper [2

  14. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  15. Calculation characterization of spent fuel hazard related to partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A. S.; Bergelson, B. R.; Tikhomirov, G.V.; Volovik, A.I. . E-mail of corresponding author: geras@itep.ru; Gerasimov, A.S.)

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity is one of important characteristics of radwaste hazard. Radiotoxicity of actinides and fission products from spent fuel of VVER-1000 reactor for processes of burnup, long-term storage, and transmutation is discussed. (author)

  16. Studies on the safety and transmutation behaviour of innovative fuels for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schitthelm, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plants contribute a substantial part to the energy demand in industry. Today the most common fuel cycle uses enriched uranium which produces plutonium due to its 238 U content. With respect to the long-term waste disposal Plutonium is an issue due to its heat production and radiotoxicity. This thesis consists of three main parts. In the first part the development and validation of a new code package MCBURN for spatial high resolution burnup simulations is presented. In the second part several innovative uranium-free and plutonium-burning fuels are evaluated on assembly level. Candidates for these fuels are a thorium/plutonium fuel and an inert matrix fuel consisting of plutonium dispersed in an enriched molybdenum matrix. The performance of these fuels is evaluated against existing MOX and enriched uranium fuels considering the safety and transmutation behaviour. The evaluation contains the boron efficiency, the void coefficient, the doppler coefficient and the net balances of every radionuclide. In the third part these innovative fuels are introduced into a German KONVOI reactor core. Considering todays approved usage of MOX fuels a partial loading of one third of innovative fuels and two third of classical uranium fuels was analysed. The efficiency of the plutonium depletion is determined by the ratio of the production of higher isotopes compared to the plutonium depletion. Todays MOX-fuels transmutate about 25% to 30% into higher actinides as Americium or Curium. In uranium-free fuels this ratio is about 10% due to the lack of additional plutonium production. The analyses of the reactor core have shown that one third of MOX fuel is not capable of a net reduction of plutonium. On the other hand a partial loading with thorium/plutonium fuel incinerates about half the amount of plutonium produced by an uranium only core. If IMF is used the ratio increases to about 75%. Considering the safety behavior all fuels have shown comparable results.

  17. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-01-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth

  18. Development of nitride fuel and pyrochemical process for transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Uno, Masayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of minor actinides has been investigated under the double-strata fuel cycle concept. Mononitride solid solutions containing minor actinides have been prepared and characterised. Thermo-physical properties, such as thermal expansion, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, have been measured by use of minor actinide nitride and burn-up simulated nitride samples. Irradiation behaviour of nitride fuel has been examined by irradiation tests. Pyrochemical process for treatment of spent nitride fuel has been investigated mainly by electrochemical measurements and nitride formation behaviour in pyrochemical process has been studied for recycled fuel fabrication. Recent results of experimental study on nitride fuel and pyrochemical process are summarised in the paper. (authors)

  19. Flexibility of ADS for minor actinides transmutation in different two-stage PWR-ADS fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •ADS reloading scheme is optimized to raise discharge burnup and lower reactivity loss. •ADS is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies. •ADS is flexible to transmute MAs from different spent PWR fuels. -- Abstract: A two-stage Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)-Accelerator Driven System (ADS) fuel cycle is proposed as an option to transmute minor actinides (MAs) recovered from the spent PWR fuels in the ADS system. At the second stage, the spent fuels discharged from ADS are reprocessed by the pyro-chemical process and the recovered actinides are mixed with the top-up MAs recovered from the spent PWR fuels to fabricate the new fuels used in ADS. In order to lower the amount of nuclear wastes sent to the geological repository, an optimized scattered reloading scheme for ADS is proposed to maximize the discharge burnup and lower the burnup reactivity loss. Then the flexibility of ADS for MA transmutation is evaluated in this research. Three aspects are discussed, including: different cooling time of spent ADS fuels before reprocessing, different reprocessing loss of spent ADS fuels, and different top-up MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels. The ADS system is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies with specific spent fuels cooling time and unique reprocessing loss. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of MAs by transmutation depend on the reprocessing loss. The ADS system is flexible to transmute MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels, regardless of UOX or MOX fuels. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of different MAs by transmutation stay on the same order.

  20. Burn-up calculation of different thorium-based fuel matrixes in a thermal research reactor using MCNPX 2.6 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamzadeh Zohreh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of the economically accessible uranium resources and the inherent proliferation resistance of thorium fuel motivate its application in nuclear power systems. Estimation of the nuclear reactor’s neutronic parameters during different operational situations is of key importance for the safe operation of nuclear reactors. In the present research, thorium oxide fuel burn-up calculations for a demonstrative model of a heavy water- -cooled reactor have been performed using MCNPX 2.6 code. Neutronic parameters for three different thorium fuel matrices loaded separately in the modelled thermal core have been investigated. 233U, 235U and 239Pu isotopes have been used as fissile element in the thorium oxide fuel, separately. Burn-up of three different fuels has been calculated at 1 MW constant power. 135X and 149Sm concentration variations have been studied in the modelled core during 165 days burn-up. Burn-up of thorium oxide enriched with 233U resulted in the least 149Sm and 135Xe productions and net fissile production of 233U after 165 days. The negative fuel, coolant and void reactivity of the used fuel assures safe operation of the modelled thermal core containing (233U-Th O2 matrix. Furthermore, utilisation of thorium breeder fuel demonstrates several advantages, such as good neutronic economy, 233U production and less production of long-lived α emitter high radiotoxic wastes in biological internal exposure point of view

  1. Fast molten salt reactor-transmuter for closing nuclear fuel cycle on minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, A. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Creation fast critical molten salt reactor for burning-out minor actinides and separate long-living fission products in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is the most perspective and actual direction. The reactor on melts salts - molten salt homogeneous reactor with the circulating fuel, working as burner and transmuter long-living radioactive nuclides in closed nuclear fuel cycle, can serve as an effective ecological cordon from contamination of the nature long-living radiotoxic nuclides. High-flux fast critical molten-salt nuclear reactors in structure of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of the future nuclear power can effectively burning-out / transmute dangerous long-living radioactive nuclides, make radioisotopes, partially utilize plutonium and produce thermal and electric energy. Such reactor allows solving the problems constraining development of large-scale nuclear power, including fueling, minimization of radioactive waste and non-proliferation. Burning minor actinides in molten salt reactor is capable to facilitate work solid fuel power reactors in system NP with the closed nuclear fuel cycle and to reduce transient losses at processing and fabrications fuel pins. At substantiation MSR-transmuter/burner as solvents fuel nuclides for molten-salt reactors various salts were examined, for example: LiF - BeF2; NaF - LiF - BeF2; NaF-LiF ; NaF-ZrF4 ; LiF-NaF -KF; NaCl. RRC 'Kurchatov institute' together with other employees have developed the basic design reactor installations with molten salt reactor - burner long-living nuclides for fluoride fuel composition with the limited solubility minor actinides (MAF3 10 mol %) allows to develop in some times more effective molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum - burner/ transmuter of the long-living radioactive waste. In high-flux fast reactors on melts salts within a year it is possible to burn ∼300 kg minor actinides per 1 GW thermal power of reactor. The technical and economic estimation given power

  2. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the U.S. spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation concept (P-T) has as a mission the reduction by many orders of magnitude of certain undesirable nuclides in the waste streams. Given that only a very small fiction of spent fuel can be rejected by a P-T enterprise, a P-T system must therefore be capable of accommodating a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e. the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure TRU nuclides recovered from discharged LWR fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume nonvariable nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the Department of Energy (DOES) Characteristic Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactor). In addition to quantifying the variability of nuclide composition in current and projected LWR fuel discharge, the variability of the infinite multiplication factor (K ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems. It is shown that actinide compositional variations are potentially significant and warrant further investigation. (authors)

  3. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett-Jones, C.; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented

  4. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggett-Jones, C. E-mail: craig@stams.strath.ac.uk; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S

    2002-03-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented.

  5. Design considerations and evaluations of an accelerator-driven fluid fuel transmuter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizana, P.; Lypsch, F.; Phlippen, P.W. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A fluid fuel transmuter is proposed on the basis of circulating lead forming the fluid carrier material for long-lived actinides. Thermalization of neutrons is achieved by the use of graphite in the blanket leading to low actinide concentrations, typically around 100 g/l. An eigenvalue of 0.95 is aimed at and the extraneous source neutrons are provided by the interaction of 1.6 GeV protons with a central lead target (spallation process). Fuel depletion and neutron transport calculations are discussed with a view to the technical feasibility and possible advantageous design modifications.

  6. Fuel and target programs for the transmutation at Phenix and other reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard-Groleas, G.

    2002-01-01

    The fuels and targets program for transmutation, performed in the framework of the axis 1 of the December 1991 law about the researches on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes, is in perfect consistency with the transmutation scenario studies carried out in the same framework. These studies put forward the advantage of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in the incineration of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The program includes exploratory and technological demonstration studies covering the different design options. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of the behaviour of materials under irradiation and at ensuring the mastery of processes. The goals of the different experiments foreseen at Phenix reactor are presented. The main goal is to supply a set of results allowing to precise the conditions of the technical feasibility of minor actinides and long-lived fission products incineration in FBRs. (J.S.)

  7. Concept of a subcritical transmutation system with fast neutron spectrum and liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittelbach, S.

    2002-11-01

    The annual amount of nearly 9500 t of spent fuel from worldwide industrial nuclear energy utilization has to be disposed as high level waste. The retention of nuclear waste from the biosphere has to be assured until the radiological risk decreases to tolerable levels. The long-term radiological risk of spent fuel is dominated by actinide elements, i.e. plutonium, americium and curium. It is intended to reduce this amount of high level waste by Partitioning and Transmutation, so that the radiotoxicity of the disposed waste falls short of the reference value of fresh fuel decaying naturally after about thousand years. For this time period the retention of high level waste can be assured by technical means. The scope of this work is the design of a subcritical fast transmutation system with liquid metal cooling and liquid metal fuel. The lead bismuth eutectic has been choosen as the liquid metal coolant and fuel carrier. To dissolve at least 3 at% of transuran elements, a minimum fuel temperature of 600 C is required. The calculations were carried out with a fuel composition, which results from two plutonium recycling steps in a thorium fuel cycle. Two homogeneous and two heterogeneous blankets have been designed and evaluated leading to one preferred heterogeneous blanket design, which has been investigated in more detail. This blanket design merges the positive properties of a solid fuel system (better control of fuel and reactivity because of smaller and closed fuel volumina) and a liquid fuel system (continous charge and discharge or extraction of fission products). The blanket design is based on the core design of fast breeder liquid metal reactors. It consists of hexagonal fuel elements housing up to six annular shaped fuel cylinders. The hexagonal shape of the fuel elements leads to three fuel zones positioned concentrically around the central spallation target. There is a strong heterogeneous distribution of power and heat flux in this blanket design. Besides

  8. Reprocessing of gas-cooled reactor particulate graphite fuel in a multi-strata transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel discharged for light water reactors (LWRs) contains significant quantities of plutonium and other transuranic elements. Recent practice in Europe and Japan has been to recover the plutonium from spent fuel and recycle it to LWRs in the form of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. Irradiation of the recycle fuel results in the generation of further plutonium and an increase in the isotopic concentration of the higher isotopes of plutonium, those having much lover fission cross sections than 239 Pu. This restricts plutonium recycle to one or two cycles, after which use of the plutonium becomes economically unfavorable. Recycle of the highly-transmuted plutonium in fast spectrum reactors can be an efficient method of fissioning this plutonium as well as other minor transuranics such as neptunium, americium and perhaps even curium. Those minor transuranics that are not conveniently burned in a fast reactor can be sent to an accelerator driven subcritical transmutation device for ultimate destruction. The preceding describes what has become known as a 'dual strata' or 'multi-strata' system. It is driven by the incentives to realize the maximum amount of energy from nuclear fuel and to eliminate the discharge of radio-toxic transuranic elements to the environment. Its implementation will be dependent in the long run upon the economic viability of the system and on the value placed by society on the elimination of radio-toxic materials that can conceivably be used in the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction. (author)

  9. Microgamma Scan System for analyzing radial isotopic profiles of irradiated transmutation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Bruce A.; McGrath, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership / Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (GNEP/AFCI) is developing metallic transmutation alloys as a fuel form to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. A micro-gamma scan system is being developed to analyze the radial distribution of fission products, such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-106, and Zr-95, in irradiated fuel cross-sections. The micro-gamma scan system consists of a precision linear stage with integrated sample holder and a tungsten alloy collimator, which interfaces with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Gamma Scan System high purity germanium detector, multichannel analyzer, and removable collimators. A simplified model of the micro-gamma scan system was developed in MCNP (Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) and used to investigate the system performance and to interpret data from the scoping studies. Preliminary measurements of the micro-gamma scan system are discussed. (authors)

  10. Technology readiness of partitioning and transmutation toward closed fuel cycle in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kurata, Masaki; Morita, Yasuji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Minato, Kazuo; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats technology readiness level (TRL) assessment of Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) toward closed fuel cycle in JAPAN. The purpose is providing clarified information related to the current maturity of the partitioning and transmutation technologies by applying the methodology of TRL, parallel to attempting to establish common indications among relating technology area. The methodology should be one of useful communication tools between specialists and management level, and also among countries interested in the P-T technologies. The generic TRL in this study is based on the GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership)'s definition: TRL 3 shows the status that critical function is proved and elemental technologies are identified, TRL 4 represents that relating technologies are validated at bench scale in laboratory environment, and TRL 5 achieves the completion of development related to the subsystem and elemental technologies. Detailed indications are established through discussion of the relating specialists. Reviewed technological area includes P-T and minor actinide (MA) cycle: Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) and Accelerator driven system (ADS) for MA transmutation, partitioning processes, and MA-bearing fuels. The assessments reveal that TRL spreads around TRL 3 to TRL 4 because each system requires more the development of elemental technologies. Transmutation core of FBR is assessed to be TRL 4 in that MA bearing integral test is required additionally, and ADS becomes TRL 3 because the elemental technologies were identified and the requirements were specified. Consequently, the common key issue is how the nuclear calculation methodology will be validated for MA-bearing-fuelled core, since several percentages of MA changes the void reactivity and the Doppler Effect significantly, which are inherently important in reactor safety. It should be that critical experiments with several kg of americium or more are difficult in the existing experimental

  11. Actinide nitride ceramic transmutation fuels for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, St.; McClellan, K.; Stanek, Ch.; Maloy, St.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The transmutation of plutonium and other minor actinides is an important component of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is currently considering mono-nitrides as potential transmutation fuel material on account of the mutual solubility of actinide mono-nitrides as well as their desirable thermal characteristics. The feedstock is most commonly produced by a carbothermic reduction/nitridisation process, as it is for this programme. Fuel pellet fabrication is accomplished via a cold press/sinter approach. In order to allow for easier investigation of the synthesis and fabrication processes, surrogate material studies are used to compliment the actinide activities. Fuel compositions of particular interest denoted as low fertile (i.e. containing uranium) and non-fertile (i.e. not containing uranium) are (PuAmNp) 0.5 U 0.5 N and (PuAm) 0.42 Zr 0.58 N, respectively. The AFCI programme is investigating the validity of these fuel forms via Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and Phenix irradiations. Here, we report on the recent progress of actinide-nitride transmutation fuel development and production for the Futurix-FTA irradiation experiment. Furthermore, we highlight specific cases where the complimentary approach of surrogate studies and actinide development aid in the understanding complex material issues. In order to allow for easier investigation of the fundamental materials properties, surrogate materials have been used. The amount of surrogate in each compound was determined by comparing both molar concentration and lattice parameter mismatch via Vegard Law. Cerium was chosen to simultaneously substitute for Pu, Am and Np, while depleted U was chosen to substitute for enriched U. Another goal of this work was the optimisation of added graphite during carbothermic reduction in order to minimise the duration of the carbon removal step (i.e. heat treatment under H 2 containing gas). One proposed

  12. Fuel and target programs for the transmutation at Phenix and other reactors; Programmes combustibles et cibles pour la transmutation dans Phenix et autres reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard-Groleas, G

    2002-07-01

    The fuels and targets program for transmutation, performed in the framework of the axis 1 of the December 1991 law about the researches on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes, is in perfect consistency with the transmutation scenario studies carried out in the same framework. These studies put forward the advantage of fast breeder reactors (FBR) in the incineration of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. The program includes exploratory and technological demonstration studies covering the different design options. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of the behaviour of materials under irradiation and at ensuring the mastery of processes. The goals of the different experiments foreseen at Phenix reactor are presented. The main goal is to supply a set of results allowing to precise the conditions of the technical feasibility of minor actinides and long-lived fission products incineration in FBRs. (J.S.)

  13. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  14. Concept and experimental studies on fuel and target for minor actinides and fission products transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, C; Guerin, Y [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d` Etudes des Combustibles; Salvatores, M [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Zaetta, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d` Etudes des Reacteurs

    1994-12-31

    High activity long-lived radionuclides in nuclear wastes, namely minor actinides (americium and neptunium) are in large amount generated by current nuclear reactive. The destruction of these radionuclides is a part of the French SPIN (Partitioning and Burning) program consistent with the determination to send a minimum amount of harmful products for final storage. Transmutation concepts are defined for neptunium and americium taking into account fuel cycle strategies. Neptunium destruction does not pose any major problems. It`s a by-product of uranium consumption, as plutonium and in despite of a slight gamma activity due to the protactinium 233 it`s quite easy to handle. Diluting neptunium in the mixed oxide fuels (MOX) should not be an obstacle for fabrication, in-pile behaviour and reprocessing either. Consequently we make the proposal of homogeneous mode of neptunium in MOX which should be soon explored in the experimental OSIRIS reactor and in the Phenix and Superphenix reactors. The analysis is more complex for the multi isotope americium. Its destruction is difficult because of gamma radioactivity which complicates fabrication. Experiments in Phenix and calculation showed that Phenix reactor offers a good potential for americium incineration, but similar data do not exist for PWR. It will remain a well known difficulty for fabrication and reprocessing. In this case we have to put a real new face to the fabrication flow-sheet of americium compounds and we propose to develop the heterogeneous mode. Targets choice are defined in term of: -safety, considering fuel reaction with cladding and water sodium, -transmutation rate, limited by target behaviour, in FR`s (Phenix), PWR`s (OSIRIS) and HFR (Petten), -reprocessing, checking the solubility of such targets by Purex process. So, at the beginning of our program the account has been on improving fuel and targets properties related to safety and fuel cycle. (authors). 4 figs.

  15. Monte Carlo method in ADS transmutation reactor coolant and the research of optimal placement of the fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yunlong; Wei Qianglin; Liu Yibao; Wang Aixing; Zhang Peng

    2014-01-01

    This paper calculated the effects of different coolants to neutron energy spectrum in different position of the transmutation reactor by Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). After having chosen the coolant and particular parameters, different nuclides in fuel rods of the transmutation reactor were calculated and compared. According to the actual situation, nuclides of 99 Tc and 241 Am were chosen and compared. Then the nonuniform-arrangement scheme of different spent fuels were proposed. By comparison of the diagram, it is found that it is more effective to promote the neutron utilization in the reactor by the non-uniform arrangement scheme, which is more reasonable than traditional uniform one. Thus, it would be helpful for transmutation technology by the application of the scheme. (authors)

  16. Optimization of plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in an AP1000 fuel assembly via a genetic search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com; King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We couple the NEWT module of SCALE to the MOGA module of DAKOTA. • Transmutation is optimized based on choice of coating and fuel. • Greatest transmutation achieved with PuZrO{sub 2}MgO fuel pins coated with Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, which contains approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are the preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a near-term solution. Previous simulation work demonstrated the potential to transmute transuranic elements in a modified light water reactor fuel pin. This study optimizes a quarter-assembly containing target fuels coated with spectral shift absorbers for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in light water reactors. The spectral shift absorber coating on the target fuel pin tunes the neutron energy spectrum experienced by the target fuel. A coupled model developed using the NEWT module from SCALE 6.1 and a genetic algorithm module from the DAKOTA optimization toolbox provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel pins in the present study. The optimization with the coupled NEWT/DAKOTA model proceeded in three stages. The first stage optimized a single-target fuel pin per quarter-assembly adjacent to the central instrumentation channel. The second stage evaluated a variety of quarter-assemblies with multiple target fuel pins from the first stage and the third stage re-optimized the pins in the optimal second stage quarter-assembly. An 8 wt% PuZrO{sub 2}MgO inert matrix fuel pin with a 1.44 mm radius and a 0.06 mm Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in a five target fuel pin per quarter-assembly configuration represents the optimal combination for the

  17. Emerging applications of advanced fuels for energy generation and transmutation. Overview of IAEA activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pong Eil Juhn; Arkhipov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is an established part of the world's electricity mix. However, the highly radioactive waste generated during power production is of great concern of public perception of nuclear energy. In order for nuclear power to realize its full potential as a major energy source for the entire world, there must be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Therefore, science must come to the rescue in the form of new, more effective technology aimed at reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste and eliminating nuclear weapons' grade material through transmutation of these isotopes in fission reactors or accelerators. In the framework of IAEA activities on the use of this new technologies the Agency has periodically review and assess the current status of the new fuel cycles, its applications worldwide, its economic benefits, and its perceived advantages vis-a-vis other nuclear fuel cycles. (author)

  18. Inert matrix fuels for incineration of plutonium and transmutation of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, Hj.

    2000-01-01

    In conventional U-based nuclear fuels, both Pu and higher actinides (mainly Am, but also Np and Cm) are formed by neutron capture reactions and α- or β-decay. If a strategy of reprocessing is adopted as in some European nations and in Japan, the separated Pu can be recycled as (U, Pu)O 2 (or mixed-oxide-MOX) fuel. The high-level liquid waste of reprocessing is presently vitrified. However, the alternative of separating the minor actinides from the fission products (partitioning) and subsequent transmutation in existing reactors or in new dedicated actinide burners is widely studied as a possible means to reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste

  19. Study on MAs transmutation of accelerator-driven system sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Song; Yang Yongwei

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of the effect of heavy metal actinides on the effective multiplication constant (k eff ) of the core in accelerator-driven system (ADS) sodium-cooled fast reactor loaded with metallic fuel, we gave the method for determining fuel components. the characteristics of minor actinides (MAs) transmutation was analyzed in detail. 3D burn-up code COUPLE, which couples MCNP4c3 and ORIGEN2, was applied to the neutron simulation and burn up calculation. The results of optimized scheme shows that adjusting the proportion of 239 Pu and maintaining the value during the burn-up cycle is an efficient method of designing k eff and keeping stable during the burn-up cycle. Spallation neutrons lead to the neutron spectrum harder at inner core than that at outer core. It is in favor of improving MA's fission cross sections and the capture-to-fission ratio. The total MAs transmutation support ratio 8.3 achieves excellent transmutation effect. For higher flux at inner core leads to obvious differences on transmutation efficiency,only disposing MAs at inner core is in favor of decreasing the loading mass and improving MAs transmutation effect. (authors)

  20. Results from the characterisation of the Futurix-FTA metal alloy transmutation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rory Kennedy, J.; O'Holleran, Th.; Keiser, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Idaho National Laboratory has been developing and irradiation testing a number of fuels and fuel types for actinide transmutation as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Fuel types under consideration include both fertile (fast reactor systems) and fertile-free (accelerator-driven systems) metallic alloys. Most recently, fuel fabrication was completed and the fuel pins shipped to the fast flux Phenix reactor in Marcoule, France for irradiation testing as part of the FUTURIX-FTA experiment: an international experiment involving the USA, France, the European Commission and Japan. The metal alloy fuels for this experiment are the low-fertile U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr and the non-fertile Pu-12Am-40Zr. The fresh fuels have been fully characterised for chemical composition, phase, microstructure, thermal behaviour and fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI). Preliminary FCCI results raised some safety concerns with respect to the formation of low melting phases and cladding degradation, which could preclude a fuel from consideration. Results from diffusion couple experiments between the non-fertile fuel Pu-12Am-40Zr and the ferritic HT9 and 422 stainless steels (SS) used in the AFC experiments in the ATR reactor (USA) compared to the austenitic AIM1 SS used in the FUTURIX-FTA experiments in the Phenix reactor (France) indicate significant inter-diffusion with the AIM1 SS. Up to about a 30-fold increase in the diffusion of iron (and accompanying Ni and Cr) into the fuel at 650 C was observed compared to the 422 SS studies. Comparable studies between the low-fertile U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr fuel alloy and the AIM1 SS show virtually no inter-diffusion. The Fe (along with small amounts of Ni and Cr) appears as small precipitates in the fuel alloy with only minor concentrations identified in the fuel alloy matrix. These results will be discussed in terms of mechanisms of the inter-diffusion and the difference in behaviour between the

  1. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on high-level waste disposal for the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and/or transmutation (PT) technology on high-level waste management was investigated for the equilibrium state of several potential fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycles. Three different fuel cycle scenarios involving PT technology were analyzed: 1) partitioning process only (separation of some fission products), 2) transmutation process only (separation and transmutation of minor actinides), and 3) both partitioning and transmutation processes. The conventional light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle without PT technology, on which the current repository design is based, was also included for comparison. We focused on the thermal constraints in a geological repository and determined the necessary predisposal storage quantities and time periods (by defining a storage capacity index) for several predefined emplacement configurations through transient thermal analysis. The relation between this storage capacity index and the required repository emplacement area was obtained. We found that the introduction of the FBR fuel cycle without PT can yield a 35% smaller repository per unit electricity generation than the LWR fuel cycle, although the predisposal storage period is prolonged from 50 years for the LWR fuel cycle to 65 years for the FBR fuel cycle without PT. The introduction of the partitioning-only process does not result in a significant reduction of the repository emplacement area from that for the FBR fuel cycle without PT, but the introduction of the transmutation-only process can reduce the emplacement area by a factor of 5 when the storage period is extended from 65 to 95 years. When a coupled partitioning and transmutation system is introduced, the repository emplacement area can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude by assuming a predisposal storage of 60 years for glass waste and 295 years for calcined waste containing the Sr and Cs fraction. The storage period of 295 years for the calcined waste does not require a large

  2. Nuclear transmutation of actinides other than fuel as a radioactive waste management scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Hage, W.; Hettinger, H.; Mannone, F.; Mousty, F.; Schmidt, E.; Sola, A.; Huber, B.; Koch, L.

    1977-01-01

    The bulk of fission products in the high-level waste (HLW) decays to innocuous hazard levels within about 600 years. Actinide waste and a few fission products however represent a potential risk up to some hundreds of thousand of years. An alternative to the disposal of the whole HLW in geological formations is its fractionation, a nuclear transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fission reactors and a geological disposal of the other components. This solution would decrease the potential long-term risks of the geological waste disposal and would also accomodate to the demand of public opinion. The results of studies related to this management scheme are outlined with special reference to areas, where additional effort is required for realistic cost/benefit evaluations. Reactor physics calculations demonstrated the feasibility of actinide incineration in thermal and fast reactors. Obtained transmutation rates are sufficiently high to garantee acceptably small actinide inventories in the reactor in the case of self-generated actinide recycling. It appears that fast breeders could be used as transmutation devices without major additional reactor devlopment work. The thermal power rating of actinide fuel elements and the contribution of actinides and of minor amounts of lanthanide impurities to the neutron economy of the reactor has been evaluated. Sensitivity studies indicated that the results are dependent on the reactor operation mode and on the accuracy of the nuclear data. These calculations permitted the identification of isotopes for which cross section masurements and improved theoretical methods are required. The chemical separation of actinides from the HLW with the envisaged decontamination factors is being studied by solvent extraction and precipitation techniques using waste simulates and samples of high activity waste from European reprocessing plants. Up to now, the obtained results do not yet allow a definitive judgement on the feasibility of actinides

  3. Application of the pyrochemical DOS, developed by the CEA, within reprocessing of CERCER transmutation fuel targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, E.; Ducasse, T.; Bertrand, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LDPS, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Processes Department, SMCS, LCPE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Pyrochemical technology using high-temperature molten salts and molten metal media presents a potential interest for an overall separation and transmutation strategy for long-lived radionuclides. Within the frame of the two French acts on radioactive waste management, a pyrochemical research/development program was launched at the CEA Marcoule in the late 90's. The second step is the actinides back-extraction, which consists in a liquid/liquid oxidative stripping of the An from aluminium matrix into molten chloride media. The DOS process has been successfully demonstrated for treatment of oxide type fuels within the last years: the core of the process has been already assessed and the studies have shown high selectivity and a quantitative recovery of actinides. Within the framework of the SACSESS European research program, the pyrochemical activities focused on applications of the DOS process to reprocess CERCER transmutation targets. These particular types of fuels consist of a mixture of minor actinides (MA) oxides diluted in an inert (oxide MgO) matrices. The behaviour of matrices material was first investigated regarding the solubility in the fluoride salt, starting from both oxide powders or sintered pellets. The saturation of Mg in the salt could be estimated at ∼ 3 wt%. Regarding the reductive extraction, as expected no Mg was reduced by the metallic phase. The present work also highlights that Mg has low impact on the extraction efficiency of U as long as the salt is not saturated. Once the saturation occurs, the efficiency starts to decrease. So we recommend recycling the salt when Mg saturation is reached.

  4. Electrochemical reduction of CerMet fuels for transmutation using surrogate CeO2-Mo pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claux, B.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rodrigues, A.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2017-08-01

    One of the concepts chosen for the transmutation of minor actinides in Accelerator Driven Systems or fast reactors proposes the use of fuels and targets containing minor actinides oxides embedded in an inert matrix either composed of molybdenum metal (CerMet fuel) or of ceramic magnesium oxide (CerCer fuel). Since the sufficient transmutation cannot be achieved in a single step, it requires multi-recycling of the fuel including recovery of the not transmuted minor actinides. In the present work, a pyrochemical process for treatment of Mo metal inert matrix based CerMet fuels is studied, particularly the electroreduction in molten chloride salt as a head-end step required prior the main separation process. At the initial stage, different inactive pellets simulating the fuel containing CeO2 as minor actinide surrogates were examined. The main studied parameters of the process efficiency were the porosity and composition of the pellets and the process parameters as current density and passed charge. The results indicated the feasibility of the process, gave insight into its limiting parameters and defined the parameters for the future experiment on minor actinide containing material.

  5. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate 'Partitioning and Transmutation' (P and T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P and T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ∼100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P and T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P and T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9%) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9% also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be 'transmuted' (or 'burned') in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be

  6. Neutronic and Logistic Proposal for Transmutation of Plutonium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Mixed-Oxide Fuel in Existing Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trellue, Holly R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of light water reactors (LWRs) for the destruction of plutonium and other actinides [especially those in spent nuclear fuel (SNF)] is being examined worldwide. One possibility for transmutation of this material is the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, which is a combination of uranium and plutonium oxides. MOX fuel is used in nuclear reactors worldwide, so a large experience base for its use already exists. However, to limit implementation of SNF transmutation to only a fraction of the LWRs in the United States with a reasonable number of license extensions, full cores of MOX fuel probably are required. This paper addresses the logistics associated with using LWRs for this mission and the design issues required for full cores of MOX fuel. Given limited design modifications, this paper shows that neutronic safety conditions can be met for full cores of MOX fuel with up to 8.3 wt% of plutonium

  7. Transmutation Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.; Kim, Y. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The spent fuel coming from the PWR is one of the most difficult problems to be solved for the continuous use of nuclear power. It takes a few million years to be safe under the ground. Therefore, it is not easy to take care of the spent fuel for such a long time. Transmutation technology is the key technology which can solve the spent fuel problem basically. Transmutation is to transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides in the spent fuel into short-lived or stable nuclide through nuclear reactions. The long-lived radioactive nuclides can be TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Although the transmutation technology does not make the underground disposal totally unnecessary, the period to take care of the spent fuel can be reduced to the order of a few hundred years. In addition to the environmental benefit, transmutation can be considered to recycle the energy in the spent fuel since the transmutation is performed through nuclear fission reaction of the TRU in the spent fuel. Therefore, transmutation technology is worth being developed in economical aspect. The results of this work can be a basis for the next stage research. The objective of the third stage research was to complete the core conceptual design and verification of the key technologies. The final results will contribute to the establishment of Korean back end fuel cycle policy by providing technical guidelines.

  8. The advanced fuel cycle initiative: the future path for advanced spent fuel treatment and transmutation research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested over USD 100 million in transmutation research and development over the past three years. The programme has evolved from an accelerator based transmutation programme to a multi-tier reactor and accelerator based programme. These changes have resulted in a significant re-focus of the research and development programme as well as a name change to reflect the new direction. The Advanced Accelerator Application (AAA) programme is now renamed the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Research completed by the AAA programme in Fiscal Year 2002 points to a multi-phased AFCI Programme consisting of two elements that would be conducted in parallel as part of an integrated research effort: an intermediate-term technology element (AFCI Series One), which emphasises advanced technical enhancements to the current commercial nuclear power infrastructure; and a long term technology element (AFCI Series Two), which will require the introduction of next-generation nuclear energy systems to reduce the toxicity of nuclear waste. (author)

  9. Prognosis and comparison of performances of composite CERCER and CERMET fuels dedicated to transmutation of TRU in an EFIT ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V.; Uyttenhove, W.; Thetford, R.; Maschek, W.

    2011-07-01

    The neutronic and thermomechanical performances of two composite fuel systems: CERCER with (Pu,Np,Am,Cm)O 2-x fuel particles in ceramic MgO matrix and CERMET with metallic Mo matrix, selected for transmutation of minor actinides in the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT), were analysed aiming at their optimisation. The ALEPH burnup code system, based on MNCPX and ORIGEN codes and JEFF3.1 nuclear data library, and the modern version of the fuel rod performance code TRAFIC were used for this analysis. Because experimental data on the properties of the mixed minor-actinide oxides are scarce, and the in-reactor behaviour of the T91 steel chosen as cladding, as well as of the corrosion protective layer, is still not well-known, a set of "best estimates" provided the properties used in the code. The obtained results indicate that both fuel candidates, CERCER and CERMET, can satisfy the fuel design and safety criteria of EFIT. The residence time for both types of fuel elements can reach about 5 years with the reactivity swing within ±1000 pcm, and about 22% of the loaded MA is transmuted during this period. However, the fuel centreline temperature in the hottest CERCER fuel rod is close to the temperature above which MgO matrix becomes chemically instable. Moreover, a weak PCMI can appear in about 3 years of operation. The CERMET fuel can provide larger safety margins: the fuel temperature is more than 1000 K below the permitted level of 2380 K and the pellet-cladding gap remains open until the end of operation.

  10. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.; Kaufman, L.; Fluss, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER

  11. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  12. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  13. Calculations of the actinide transmutation with HELIOS for fuels of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois L, J.L.; Guzman A, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work a comparison of the obtained results with the HELIOS code is made and those obtained by other similar codes, used in the international community, respect to the transmutation of smaller actinides. For this the one it is analyzed the international benchmark: 'Calculations of Different Transmutation Concepts', of the Nuclear Energy Agency. In this benchmark two cell types are analyzed: one small corresponding to a PWR standard, and another big one corresponding to a PWR highly moderated. Its are considered two types of burnt of discharge: 33 GWd/tHM and 50 GWd/tHM. The following types of results are approached: the k eff like a function of the burnt one, the atomic densities of the main isotopes of the actinides, the radioactivities in the moment in that the reactor it is off and in the times of cooling from 7 up to 50000 years, the reactivity by holes and the Doppler reactivity. The results are compared with those obtained by the following institutions: FZK (Germany), JAERI (Japan), ITEP (Russia) and IPPE (Russian Federation). In the case of the eigenvalue, the obtained results with HELIOS showed a discrepancy around 3% Δk/k, which was also among other participants. For the isotopic concentrations: 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 242m Am the results of all the institutions present a discrepancy bigger every time, as the burnt one increases. Regarding the activities, the discrepancy of results is acceptable, except in the case of the 241 Pu. In the case of the Doppler coefficients the discrepancy of results is acceptable, except for the cells with high moderation; in the case of the holes coefficients, the discrepancy of results increases in agreement with the holes fraction increases, being quite high to 95% of holes. In general, the results are consistent and in good agreement with those obtained by all the participants in the benchmark. The results are inside of the established limits by the work group on Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles of the Nuclear

  14. Thorium-based Fuel Cycles: Reassessment of Fuel Economics and Proliferation Risk. Assessment of Proliferation Risk of Reactor-grade Plutonium regarding Construction of ‘Fizzle Bombs’ by Terrorists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Interventions which add resonance absorbers to the fuel deteriorate the neutron economy. This reduces the burn-up and increases the HM in spent fuel, especially 241 Pu and largely defeats the purpose of the exercise

  15. Actinide transmutation using inert matrix fuels versus recycle in a low conversion fast burner reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, M.R.; Schneider, E.A.; Recktenwald, G.; Cady, K.B. [The Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C2200, Austin, 78712 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Reducing the disposal burden of the long lived radioisotopes that are contained within spent uranium oxide fuel is essential for ensuring the sustainability of nuclear power. Because of their non-fertile matrices, inert matrix fuels (IMFs) could allow light-water reactors to achieve a significant burn down of plutonium and minor actinides that are that are currently produced as a byproduct of operating light-water reactors. However, the extent to which this is possible is not yet fully understood. We consider a ZrO{sub 2} based IMF with a high transuranic loading and show that the neutron fluence (and the subsequent fuel residence time required to achieve it) present a practical limit for the achievable actinide burnup. The accumulation of transuranics in spent uranium oxide fuel is a major obstacle for the sustainability of nuclear power. While commercial light-water reactors (LWR's) produce these isotopes, they can be used to transmute them. At present, the only viable option for doing this is to partly fuel reactors with mixed oxide fuel (MOX) made using recycled plutonium. However, because of parasitic neutron capture in the uranium matrix of MOX, considerable plutonium and minor actinides are also bred as the fuel is burned. A better option is to entrain the recycled isotopes in a non-fertile matrix such as ZrO{sub 2}. Inert matrices such as these were originally envisioned for burning plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons [1]. However, because they achieve a conversion ratio of zero, they have also been considered as a better alternative to MOX [2-6]. Plutonium and minor actinides dominate the long term heat and radiological outputs from spent nuclear fuel. Recent work has shown that that IMFs can be used to reduce these outputs by at least a factor of four, on a per unit of energy generated basis [6]. The degree of reduction is strongly dependent on IMF burnup. In principle, complete transmutation of the transuranics could be achieved though this

  16. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. III. Transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-07-01

    Transmutation of the long-lived nuclides contained in fuel cycle wastes has been suggested as a means of reducing the long-term toxicity of the wastes. A comprehensive program to evaluate the feasibility and incentives for recovering the actinides from wastes (partitioning) and transmuting them to short-lived or stable nuclides has been in progress for 3 years under the direction of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report constitutes the final assessment of transmutation in support of this program. Included are (1) a summary of recent transmutation literature, (2) a generic evaluation of actinide transmutation in thermal, fast, and other transmutation devices, (3) a preliminary evaluation of 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation, and (4) a characterization of a pressurized-water-reactor fuel cycle with and without provisions for actinide recovery and transmutation for use in other parts of the ORNL program. The principal conclusion of the report is that actinide transmutation is feasible in both thermal and fast reactors, subject to demonstrating satisfactory fuel performance, with relatively little impact on the reactor. It would also appear that additional transmutation studies are unwarranted until a firm decision to proceed with actinide transmutation has been made by the responsible authorities

  17. The sphinx project: experimental verification of design inputs for a transmuter with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Uhlir, J.; Vanicek, J.

    2002-01-01

    The current proposals for high-active long-lived (more then 10 4 years) waste from spent nuclear fuel disposal calls forth an increasing societal mistrust towards nuclear power. These problems are highly topical in the Czech Republic, a country which is operating nuclear power and accumulating spent fuel from PWRs and is further located on an inland and heavily populous Central European region. The proposed project, known under the acronym SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incineration by Neutron flux) deals with a solution to some of the principle problems through a very promising means of radioactive waste treatment. In particular, high-level wastes from spent nuclear fuel could be treated using this method, which is based on the transmutation of radionuclides through the use of a nuclear reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides (Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor - MSTR) which might be a subcritical system driven by a suitable neutron source. Its superiority also lies in the fact that it makes possible to utilize actinides contained, by others, in spent nuclear fuel and so to reach a positive energy effect. After the first three-year stage of Research and Development which has been focused mostly on computer analyses of neutronics and corresponding physical characteristics, the next three-year stage of this programme will be devoted to experimental verification of inputs for the design of a demonstration transmuter using molten fluoride fuel. The Research and Development part of the SPHINX project in the area of fuel cycle of the MSTR is focused in the first place on the development of suitable technology for the preparation of an introductory liquid fluoride fuel for MSTR and subsequently on the development of suitable fluoride pyrometallurgical technology for the separation of the transmuted elements from the non-transmuted ones. The idea of the introductory fuel preparation is based on the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel using the Fluoride Volatility Method

  18. The cross sections of reactions resulting in transmutation of long-lived radionuclides of exhausted nuclear fuel exposed to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konodeev, A.Yu.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Erview, K.

    1993-01-01

    Research is at present concerned with the possible transmutation of long-lived radionuclides of spent nuclear fuel in the flux of fast neutrons from neutron generators which are distinguished by their energy spectrum and density of the flux generated. For this purpose one must know the cross sections of the nuclear reactions resulting in the transmutation and formation of new long-lived radionuclides due to the irradiation. The transmutation rate of radioisotope irradiated with neutrons have a known energy spectrum is determined by calculating the transmutation cross section which is equal to the sum of the cross sections of neutron reactions causing conversion of a particular isotope into another after the decay of short-lived residual nuclei. The presently available neutron cross section data of long-lived radionuclides, i.e., the products of the fission of nuclear fuel, are insufficient for research on these effects as transmutations occur in a flux of high-energy neutrons. This paper presents the cross sections of reactions accounting for the transmutation of the most important long-lived radionuclides of exhausted nuclear fuel during its irradiation with neutron having energies of up to 100 MeV. The neutron cross sections were calculated for 79 Se, 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs and 137 Cs with a half-life ≥30 years

  19. Transmutation of radioactive wastes: how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2004-01-01

    After having evoked the natural or spontaneous transmutation of natural or artificial radioactive atoms, the author describes how this transmutation is technically obtained, indicates the two main families of atoms present in a used nuclear fuel and for which transmutation is to be investigated (long-lived fission residues or products, and transuranium elements) and of which the behaviour in neutron fluxes must be explored. He discusses the industrial means required for artificial transmutation. He discusses the interest of performing such a transmutation

  20. Advanced orient cycle, for strategic separation, transmutation and utilization of nuclides in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, M.; Fujita, R.; Koyama, S.; Suzuki, T.; Fujii, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic extraction (EE) method has been studied as a vital separation tool for new reprocessing process to realize transmutation and utilization of the specific fission products including LLFP * (e.g., Tc * , Ru, Rh, Pd * , Se * and Te * , etc) in the spent nuclear fuel. In an employed EE process, Pd 2 + cation itself would not only be easily (>99%) deposited from various nitric acid solutions, but enhance also the deposition of co-existing RuNO 3 + and ReO 4 - by acting as a catalyst (as Pd a datom). Such a catalytic electrolytic extraction (i.e., CEE) method was also applicable in the case of 9 9TcO 4 - deposition as well. Addition of Pd 2 + caused either to change the dendritic metal deposition form or to improve electrochemical property of deposits. The RMFP deposit, especially quaternary-, Pd-Ru-Rh-Re, deposits on the Pt electrode obtained by the CEE method were rather spherical in shape, seemed to be electrochemically agglomerated by nano particles. The deposits were stable and showed electrochemically nobler initial hydrogen evolution potential (φ H int.). Also in the given potential of -1.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the quaternary-, Pd-Ru-Rh-Re, deposit Pt electrode suggested the highest cathodic current corresponding to the hydrogen generation reaction. Namely, those catalytic activities were ca. twice superior to that of the Pt electrode in alkaline solution. The sea water is a possible resource for hydrogen production in future. In the course of sea water electrolysis, disturbance due to Ca(OH) 2 and Mg(OH) 2 precipitation was inevitable, but the cathodic current of the quaternary deposit of RMFP was the highest, the same as to that of Pt electrode in the alkaline water. Therefore, RMFP has a potential to alternate with Pt catalyst. The electrochemical property of Re and 9 9Tc, as for alternative element to Re, are under investigation with a special interest of this direction of utilization. The renovative reprocessing flow sheet by tertiary pyridine resin

  1. Effects of an LMR-based partitioning-transmutation system on US nuclear fuel cycle health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.; Reich, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Health risks for the current US nuclear fuel cycle and for an illustrative partitioning and transmutation (P-T) fuel cycle based on Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) technology are calculated and compared. Health risks are calculated for all non-reactor fuel cycle steps, including reprocessing, transportation, and high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Uranium mining and milling health risks have been updated to include recent occupational injury and death statistics, and the radiological health risk to the general public posed by the uranium mining overburden. In addition, the radiological health risks for transportation have been updated to include latent cancer fatalities associated with both normal transport and accidents. Given the assumptions of the study, it is shown that the deployment of an LMR-based P-T system is expected to reduce overall nuclear fuel cycle health risk

  2. Safety assesment on radioactive waste from the partitioning and transmutation fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Kim, Sung Gi; Park, Won Suk

    2000-12-01

    A preliminary study on the quantitative effect of the partition and transmutation on the permanent disposal of HLW, which means the spent fuel in view of current Korean situation, was carried out. Two approaches in quantitative way are considered to be available for evaluating the deterministic influence of P and T strategy on the long-term disposal of this HLW are assessments of waste toxicity indices (TIs) and the repository performance assessments (PAs). TI is measures of the intrinsic radiotoxicity of the wastes and does not incorporate any detailed consideration of the feature, event and processes (FEPs) which might be lead to the release of the nuclides from the waste disposed of in the repository and the transport to and through the biosphere. Whereas, PA, which treated as main topic of present study, does include consideration of such FEPs even though it could not fully comprehensive at the current stage of R andD on geological disposal. Through the study, after reviewing the PA approaches which considered by some countries, relative advantages in case P and T will be performed before disposal over direct permanent disposal. Even though P and T could be an ideal solution to reduce the inventory which eventually decreases the release time as well as the peaks in the annual dose and even minimize the repository area through the proper handling of nuclides whose decay heat is significant and further produce the electricity, it should overcome the such major disadvantages as problems technically exposed during developing and improving the P and T system, economic point of view, and public acceptance in view of environment-friendly issues. In this regard some relevant issues are also discussed to show the direction for further studies

  3. Comparison of Core Performance with Various Oxide fuels on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The system is called Prototype GenIV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). Ultimate goal of PGSFR is test for capability of TRU transmutation. Purpose of this study is test for evaluation of in-core performance and TRU transmutation performance by applying various oxide fuel loaded TRU. Fuel type of reference core is changed to uranium-based oxide fuel. Oxide fuel has a lot of experience through fuel fabrication and reactor operation. This study performed by compared and analyzed a core performance of various oxide fuels. (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and (U,TRU)O{sub 2} which various oxide fuel types are selected as extreme case for comparison with core performance and transmutation capability of TRU isotopes. Thorium-based fuel is known that it has good performance for burner reactor due to low proliferation characteristic. To check the performance of TRU incineration for comparison with uranium-based fuel on prototype SFR, Thorium-based fuel, (Th,U)O{sub 2}, (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} and (Th,TRU)O{sub 2}, is selected. Calculations of core performance for various oxide fuel are performed using the fast calculation tool, TRANSX / DANTSTS / REBUS-3. In this study, comparison of core performance and transmutation performance is conducted with various fuel types in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Mixed oxide fuel with TRU can produce the energy with small amount of fissile material. However, the TRU fuel is confirmed to bring a potential decline of the safety parameters. In case of (Th,U)O2 fuel, the flux level in thermal neutron region becomes lower because of higher capture cross-section of Th-232 than U-238. However, Th-232 has difficulty in converting to TRU isotopes. Therefore, the TRU consumption mass is relatively high in mixed oxide fuel with thorium and TRU.

  4. Comparison of Core Performance with Various Oxide fuels on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The system is called Prototype GenIV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR). Ultimate goal of PGSFR is test for capability of TRU transmutation. Purpose of this study is test for evaluation of in-core performance and TRU transmutation performance by applying various oxide fuel loaded TRU. Fuel type of reference core is changed to uranium-based oxide fuel. Oxide fuel has a lot of experience through fuel fabrication and reactor operation. This study performed by compared and analyzed a core performance of various oxide fuels. (U,Pu)O_2 and (U,TRU)O_2 which various oxide fuel types are selected as extreme case for comparison with core performance and transmutation capability of TRU isotopes. Thorium-based fuel is known that it has good performance for burner reactor due to low proliferation characteristic. To check the performance of TRU incineration for comparison with uranium-based fuel on prototype SFR, Thorium-based fuel, (Th,U)O_2, (Th,Pu)O_2 and (Th,TRU)O_2, is selected. Calculations of core performance for various oxide fuel are performed using the fast calculation tool, TRANSX / DANTSTS / REBUS-3. In this study, comparison of core performance and transmutation performance is conducted with various fuel types in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Mixed oxide fuel with TRU can produce the energy with small amount of fissile material. However, the TRU fuel is confirmed to bring a potential decline of the safety parameters. In case of (Th,U)O2 fuel, the flux level in thermal neutron region becomes lower because of higher capture cross-section of Th-232 than U-238. However, Th-232 has difficulty in converting to TRU isotopes. Therefore, the TRU consumption mass is relatively high in mixed oxide fuel with thorium and TRU.

  5. Effect of spectral characterization of gaseous fuel reactors on transmutation and burning of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, C.; Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Gaseous Core Reactors (GCR) are fueled with stable uranium compounds in a reflected cavity. The spectral characteristics of neutrons in GCR systems could shift from one end of the spectrum to the other end by changing design parameters such as reflector material and thickness, uranium enrichment, and the average operational temperature and pressure. The rate of actinide generation, transmutation, and burnup is highly influenced by the average neutron energy in reactor core. In particular, the production rate and isotopic mix of plutonium are highly dependent on the neutron spectrum in the reactor. Other actinides of primary interest to this work are neptunium-237 and americium-241 due to their pivotal impact on high-level nuclear waste disposal. In all cavity reactors including GCR's, the reflector material and thickness are the most important design parameters in determining the core spectrum. The increase in the gaseous fuel pressure and enrichment results in relative shift of neutron population toward energies greater than 2 eV. Reflector materials considered in this study are beryllium oxide, lithium hydride, lithium deuteride, zirconium carbide, graphite, lead, and tungsten. Results of the study suggest that the beryllium oxide and tungsten reflected GCR systems set the lower (softest) and upper (hardest) limits of neutron spectra, respectively. The inventory of actinides with half-lives greater than 1000 years can be minimized by increasing neutron flux level in the reactor core. The higher the neutron flux, the lower the inventory of these actinides. The majority of the GCR designs maintained a flux level on the order of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1} while the PWR flux is one order of magnitude lower. The inventory of the feeder isotopes to Np{sup 237} including U{sup 237}, Pu{sup 241}, and Am{sup 241} decreases with relative shift of neutron spectrum toward higher energies. This is due to increased resonance absorption in these isotopes due to higher

  6. The Impact of Partitioning and Transmutation on the Risk Assesment of a Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrani, Naima

    2006-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of radioactive and long lived component from the highly radioactive waste stream in order to reduce or probably eliminate their radiotoxic inventory was the important option for the nuclear waste management. The principal radionuclides contribution to the long term radiotoxic inventory is mostly due to Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products. The conditioning operation can present artificial barriers which are potentially capable of confining the radionuclides within their package for thousands of years. After this time nothing can be predicted. The solubility of the actinides (except Np) is generally low whereas the long lived fission product. particularly 137 Cs, 129 I and in some case 99 Tc, display high mobility In the geosphere. Conditioning of separated long-lived nuclides in appropriate matrices which could serve as irradiation matrix in a delayed transmutation option is a possible outcome for the next decades. The general strategy of introducing Partitioning and Transmutation as an additional waste management option is based on the radiological benefit which is expected from such an option. The short term impact of partitioning would be to reduce long-term radiotoxic inventory of the resulting HLW at the expense of an increase of the operational requirements for the nuclear facilities concerned. Fast neutron spectrum devices (FR or ADS facilities) are more efficient than current LWRs for recycling and transmuting long-lived radionuclides

  7. A Fast Numerical Method for the Calculation of the Equilibrium Isotopic Composition of a Transmutation System in an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Álvarez-Velarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast numerical method for the calculation in a zero-dimensional approach of the equilibrium isotopic composition of an iteratively used transmutation system in an advanced fuel cycle, based on the Banach fixed point theorem, is described in this paper. The method divides the fuel cycle in successive stages: fuel fabrication, storage, irradiation inside the transmutation system, cooling, reprocessing, and incorporation of the external material into the new fresh fuel. The change of the fuel isotopic composition, represented by an isotope vector, is described in a matrix formulation. The resulting matrix equations are solved using direct methods with arbitrary precision arithmetic. The method has been successfully applied to a double-strata fuel cycle with light water reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems. After comparison to the results of the EVOLCODE 2.0 burn-up code, the observed differences are about a few percents in the mass estimations of the main actinides.

  8. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  9. Nuclear waste transmutation and related innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main topics of the summer school meeting were 1. Motivation and programs for waste transmutation: The scientific perspective roadmaps; 2. The physics and scenarios of transmutation: The physics of transmutation and adapted reactor types. Impact on the fuel cycle and possible scenarios; 3. Accelerator driven systems and components: High intensity accelerators. Spallation targets and experiments. The sub critical core safety and simulation physics experiments; 4. Technologies and materials: Specific issues related to transmutation: Dedicated fuels for transmutation. Fuel processing - the role of pyrochemistry. Materials of irradiation. Lead/lead alloys. 5. Nuclear data: The N-TOF facility. Intermediate energy data and experiments. (orig./GL)

  10. Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

  11. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  12. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  13. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  14. Two-step B/T (burning and/or transmutation) method for self-completed nuclear fuel cycle with thermal and fast B/T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, A.; Mulyanto, M.R.; Marsodi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The total cost minimization for P and T (partitioning and transmutation) treatment with appropriate recycle period through out-core optimization was examined in order to find the possibility of P and T treatment of minor actinides (MA) and/or long lived fission products (LLFP) and the technology to be improved and/or developed in self-completed nuclear fuel cycle. The P and T should be done for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment based on three criteria, and the grouping was closely related to the effectiveness of Two-Step B/T Method in B/T treatment. (authors)

  15. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  16. Synthesis of the studies on fuels and transmutation targets (fabrication, design, irradiation damage and dissolution) realized in the framework of the Bataille law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.

    2004-12-01

    This document presents the different studied fuels and targets for the transmutation of the minor actinides and of the long life fission products for PWR/EPR and Fast neutron Reactor/EFR of today technology; the results of studies on the behavior under ions irradiation and in experimental nuclear reactor; the knowledge in terms of design, simulation and sizing; the development in terms of fabrication; the knowledge on the dissolution aptitude of these fuels and targets. (A.L.B.)

  17. Transmutation Capability of a Once-Through Molten-Salt and Other Transmuting Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Lowenthal, M.; Barnes, D.; Kawasaki, D.; Kimball, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Sagara, H.; Vietez, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is done of the transmutation characteristics of three reactor technologies: a multi-batch liquid metal (LM) cooled transmuter, a once-through molten-salt (MS) transmuter and a pebble bed (PB) transmuter. It was found that for the same fractional transmutation and same k eff drop with burnup (Δk effBU ), lead-bismuth offers smaller peak-to-average core power density, and it requires a smaller pumping power but a larger and heavier core than a sodium cooled transmuter. 99 Tc cannot effectively serve as a burnable absorber to reduce Δk effBU of LM transmuters. However, addition of thorium can greatly flatten k eff and almost double the fractional transmutation of the LWR spent fuel from ∼20% to ∼40%. If the 'once-through' MS transmuter is operated with continuous complete removal of fission products, it can achieve ∼85% fractional transmutation provided that the equilibrium concentration of actinides in the MS can reach 4 mole %. If the fission products are not actively removed, the fractional transmutation is reduced to ∼75%. The fractional transmutation of a PB transmuter can exceed 40%. More thorough analysis is required to better quantify the transmutation capability of the different transmuter technologies. (authors)

  18. Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted...

  19. LIFE Materials: Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, P A; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M

    2008-12-19

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical, and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report (Volume 8 - Molten-salt Fuels) is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermo-chemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenges are not insurmountable, and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  20. An experimental investigation of accumulation and transmutation behavior of americium in the MOX fuel irradiated in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Masahiko; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Maeda, Shigetaka; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Americium isotopes generated in the MOX fuel irradiated in the experimental fast reactor JOYO were analyzed by applying a sophisticated radiochemical technique. Americium was isolated from the irradiated MOX fuel by a combined method of anion-exchange chromatography and oxidation of Am. The isotopic ratios of americium and its content were determined by thermal ionization mass spectroscopy and α-spectrometry, respectively. The americium isotopic ratio was similar for all the specimens, but was significantly different from that of PWR-MOX. On the basis of present analytical results, the accumulation and transmutation behavior of americium nuclides in a fast reactor is discussed from the viewpoints of neutron spectrum dependence and the isomeric ratio of the 241 Am capture reaction. The estimated isomeric ratio is about 87%, which is close to the latest evaluated value. A rapid estimation method of Am content by using the 240 Pu to 239 Pu ratio was adopted and proved to be valid for the spent fuel irradiated in the fast reactor

  1. Comparative study of accelerator driven system (ADS) of different transmutation scenarios for actinides in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid-Segura, M.; Gonzalez Romero, M.E.; Perez Parra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The full text follows. In recent years transmutation has raised as a complementary option to solve the problem of the long-lived radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. The main advantages expected from transmutation are the reduction in volume of the high level waste and a significant decrease in the long-term radiotoxicity inventory, with a probable impact in the final costs and potential risks of the geological repository. This paper will describe the evaluation of different systems proposed for actinide transmutation, their integration in the waste management process, their viability, performances and limitations. Particular attention is taking of comparing transmutation scenarios where the actinides are transmuted inside fertile (U, Th) or inert matrix. This study has been supported by ENRESA inside the CIEMAT-ENRESA collaboration for the study of long-lived isotope transmutation. (authors)

  2. Neutronics design study on a minor actinide burner for transmuting spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    1998-08-01

    A liquid metal reactor was designed for the primary purpose of burning the minor actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. The design was constrained to maintain acceptable safety performance as measured by the burnup reactivity swing, the doppler coefficient, and the sodium void worth. Sensitivity studies were performed for homogeneous and decoupled core designs, and a minor actinide burner design was determined to maximize actinide consumption and satisfy safety constraints. One of the principal innovations was the use of two core regions, with a fissile plutonium outer core and an inner core consisting only of minor actinides. The physics studies performed here indicate that a 1200 MWth core is able to transmute the annual minor actinide inventory of about 16 LWRs and still exhibit reasonable safety characteristics. (author). 34 refs., 22 tabs., 14 figs

  3. Studies on the safety and transmutation behaviour of innovative fuels for light water reactors; Untersuchungen zum Sicherheits- und Transmutationsverhalten innovativer Brennstoffe fuer Leichtwasserreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schitthelm, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear power plants contribute a substantial part to the energy demand in industry. Today the most common fuel cycle uses enriched uranium which produces plutonium due to its {sup 238}U content. With respect to the long-term waste disposal Plutonium is an issue due to its heat production and radiotoxicity. This thesis consists of three main parts. In the first part the development and validation of a new code package MCBURN for spatial high resolution burnup simulations is presented. In the second part several innovative uranium-free and plutonium-burning fuels are evaluated on assembly level. Candidates for these fuels are a thorium/plutonium fuel and an inert matrix fuel consisting of plutonium dispersed in an enriched molybdenum matrix. The performance of these fuels is evaluated against existing MOX and enriched uranium fuels considering the safety and transmutation behaviour. The evaluation contains the boron efficiency, the void coefficient, the doppler coefficient and the net balances of every radionuclide. In the third part these innovative fuels are introduced into a German KONVOI reactor core. Considering todays approved usage of MOX fuels a partial loading of one third of innovative fuels and two third of classical uranium fuels was analysed. The efficiency of the plutonium depletion is determined by the ratio of the production of higher isotopes compared to the plutonium depletion. Todays MOX-fuels transmutate about 25% to 30% into higher actinides as Americium or Curium. In uranium-free fuels this ratio is about 10% due to the lack of additional plutonium production. The analyses of the reactor core have shown that one third of MOX fuel is not capable of a net reduction of plutonium. On the other hand a partial loading with thorium/plutonium fuel incinerates about half the amount of plutonium produced by an uranium only core. If IMF is used the ratio increases to about 75%. Considering the safety behavior all fuels have shown comparable results.

  4. Fuel cycle of fast reactor Brest with non-proliferation, transmutation of long-lived nuclides and equivalent disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The declared objectives in the fuel cycle of fast reactor BREST achieved by the following measures. Proliferation resistance of the fuel cycle being developed for BREST reactors is provided along two lines: reactors physics and design features; spent fuel reprocessing technology excluding plutonium separation at all process stages. Surplus neutrons produced in a chain reaction in a fast reactor without uranium blanket and the high flux of fast neutrons, allow efficient transmutation of not only all actinides in the core but also long-lived fission products (I, Te) in lead blanket by leakage neutrons without detriment to the inherent safety of this reactor. (author)

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening Findings on Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.; Taiwo, T.A.; Gehin, J.C.; Jubin, R.; Todosow, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Screening (E and S) study has recently been completed in the United States. The study considered the entire fuel cycle, included considerations for both once-through and recycle fuel cycle options, evaluated a set of 40 fuel cycles that allowed a comprehensive assessment of fuel cycle performance, identified a relatively small number of promising fuel cycle options that have the potential for achieving substantial improvements compared to the current nuclear fuel cycle in the United States, and allowed the identification of research and development (R and D) activities needed to support the development of the promising fuel cycle options. Nine high-level criteria (Nuclear Waste Management, Proliferation Risk, Nuclear Material Security Risk, Safety, Environmental Impact, Resource Utilisation, Development and Deployment Risk, Institutional Issues, and Financial Risk and Economics) and associated metrics were used in the study to compare the performance of nuclear fuel cycle options to that of the current fuel cycle practiced in the United States. The study also evaluated a number of fuel cycle characteristics that may have the potential to impact future R and D directions. These included for example: 1) The fuel resources used, i. e., uranium and/or thorium. 2) Impact of extremely high burnup fuels. 3) Minor actinide recycle. 4) The impact of losses during separations (partitioning). 5) Critical versus subcritical (externally-driven) systems for material irradiation. 6) Impact of spectrum of irradiation system, i.e., fast, thermal or intermediate. 7) Waste generation reduction, all of which were quantified in the study. The E and S study has implemented a framework that can be used now and in the future to objectively inform on the potential of alternative nuclear fuel cycles, providing decision-makers and others with perspective on fuel cycle capabilities. (authors)

  6. Concept and optimization of burning and transmutation reactor in nuclear fuel recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Mulyanto; Kitamoto, Asashi.

    1994-01-01

    Basic concept of B/T reactor, not only produces thermal energy but also performs burning and/or transmutation of MA and long-lived FPs, was introduced here based on numerical computation model. The advantage of nuclear reaction by thermal or fast neutron was combined conceptually with each other in order to maximize the overall B/T rate obtained by a composite system of fast and thermal reactor. According to the mass balance analysis of B/T reactors with P-T treatment, fast reactor hardened neutron energy may be effective for MA burning. Furthermore, a high flux reactor operated by fast or thermal neutron could be different from a reactor with high B/T rate or high capacity for loading of MA and/or long-lived FPs. The purpose of this study is to make clear the concept and the performance of fast and thermal B/T reactor designed under high neutron utilization for HLW disposal. (author)

  7. Transmutation in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Buiron, Laurent; Mignot, Gérard; Palhier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future prospects for incorporating Am in ASTRID: → Potential to demonstrate the minor actinide transmutation on an industrial scale in the CFV V1 core of ASTRID: • Homogeneous concept: 2% of Am in a standard fuel; • Heterogeneous concept: 10% on UO 2 in the radial blanket. • The objective of ensuring a balance in the Am (and total minor actinides) flow in the ASTRID fuel cycle may be obtained without any impact on the design of the core and handling systems for the management of the new and spent fuel subassemblies. • Several experimental phases in ASTRID to implement different transmutation scenarios using homogeneous and heterogeneous concepts. ⇒ the availability of facilities involved in the ASTRID material cycles

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Research in Neutron Spectra and Nuclear Waste Transmutation on Fast Subcritical Assembly with MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, D. A.; Buttsev, V. S.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Polanski, A.; Rakhno, I. L.; Sissakian, A.; Zulkarneev, R. Ya.; Zulkarneeva, Yu. R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper deals with theoretical and experimental investigation of transmutation rates for a number of long-lived fission products and minor actinides, as well as with neutron spectra formed in a subcritical assembly driven with the following monodirectional beams: 660-MeV protons and 14-MeV neutrons. In this work, the main objective is the comparison of neutron spectra in the MOX assembly for different external driving sources: a 660-MeV proton accelerator and a 14-MeV neutron generator. The SAD project (JINR, Russia) has being discussed. In the context of this project, a subcritical assembly consisting of a cylindrical lead target surrounded by a cylindrical MOX fuel layer will be constructed. Present conceptual design of the subcritical assembly is based on the core with a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to a multiplication coefficient, keff= 0.945, and an accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW. The results of theoretical investigations on the possibility of incinerating long-lived fission products and minor actinides in fast neutron spectrum and formation of neutron spectra with different hardness in subcritical systems based on the MOX subcritical assembly are discussed. Calculated neutron spectra emitted from a lead target irradiated by a 660-MeV protons are also presented.

  9. The concept of fuel cycle integrated molten salt reactor for transmuting Pu+MA from spent LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Japan should need a new fuel cycle, not to save spent fuels indefinitely as the reusable resources but to consume plutonium and miner actinides orderly without conventional reprocessing. The key component is a molten salt reactor fueled with the Pu+MA (PMA) separated from LWR spent fuels using fluoride volatility method. A double-tiered once-through reactor system can burn PMA down to 5% remnant ratio, and can make PMA virtually free from the HAW to be disposed geometrically. A key issue to be demonstrated is the first of all solubility behavior of trifluoride species in the molten fuel salt of 7 LiF-BeF 2 mixture. (author)

  10. Maximization of burning and/or transmutation (B/T) capacity in coupled spectrum reactor (CSR) by fuel and core adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Kitamoto, Asashi.

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual design of burning and/or transmutation (B/T) reactor, based on a modified conventional 1150 MWe-PWR system, consisted of two core regions for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, was proposed herein for the treatments of minor actinides (MA). In the outer region 237 Np, 241 Am, and 243 Am burned by thermal neutrons, while in the inner region 244 Cm was burned mainly by fast neutrons. The geometry of B/T fuel in the outer region was left the same with that of PWR, while in the inner region the B/T fuel was arranged in a tight-lattice geometry that allowed a higher fuel to coolant volume ratio. The maximization of B/T capacity in CSR were done by, first, increasing the radius of the inner region. Second, reducing the coolant to fuel volume ratio, and third, choosing a suitable B/T fuel type. The result of the calculations showed that the equilibrium of main isotopes in CSR can be achieved after about 5 recycle stages. This study also showed that the CSR can burn and transmute up to 808 kg of MA in a single reactor core effectively and safely. (author)

  11. TRU transmutation using ThO2-UO2 and fully ceramic micro-encapsulated fuels in LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Gonghoon; Hong, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to design new LWR fuel assemblies which are able to efficiently destroy TRU (transuranics) nuclide without degradation of safety aspects by using ThO 2 -UO 2 fuel pins and FCM (Fully Ceramic Micro-encapsulated) fuel pins containing TRU fuel particles. Thorium was mixed to UO 2 in order to reduce the generation of plutonium nuclides and to save the uranium resources in the UO 2 pins. Additionally, the use of thorium contributes to the extension of the fuel cycle length. All calculations were performed by using DeCART (Deterministic Core Analysis based on Ray Tracing) code. The results show that the new concept of fuel assembly has the TRU destruction rates of ∼40% and ∼25% per 1200 EFPD (Effective Full Power Day) over the TRU FCM pins and the overall fuel assembly, respectively, without degradation of FTC and MTC

  12. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Girard, C.; Delpech, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Waste management strategies foresee the use of a deep geological repository either for final disposal of irradiated fuel or, after reprocessing and reuse of U and Pu for final disposal of long-lived radio-active materials. In the second case, partitioning and transmutation of these materials can be considered to reduce the impact of radiation on man due to the storage. On the basis of the SPIN programme developed by CEA in this field, the main features of transmutation is presented. The goal to achieve and the criteria to use are quite difficult to establish. The rights para-meters to characterize the risk are the potential radiotoxicity in the the repository and the residual radiotoxicity at the outlet. Transmutation studies in CEA used the potential radiotoxicity which is based on well-known parameters and less precise hazardous factors. The second point to appreciate the trans- mutation interest is to dispose of a criteria for the radio-radiotoxicity reduction. As there is no general agreement, we try to have a toxicity as low as possible within reasonable technical limits. To reduce the long term radio- toxicity, Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products have to be transmuted. To assess the feasibility of such trans-mutation in reactors or advanced systems, one has to consider constraints on neutronic balance, safety, fuel cycle, technology , economy. Taking in account the main conclusions of this analysis, parametric studies of homogeneous and heterogenous transmutation permit a choice of promising solutions. Goals are to use every long-lived element with a minimized production of other long- lived elements in order to obtain an appreciable radiotoxicity reduction. It implies multi recycling of Pu which favours fast neutron reactors and different strategies of multi recycling for Np, Am, Cm. Multi recycling makes the results strongly dependant of losses. Researches to obtain the high partitioning efficiency needed are in progress. Calculations

  13. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  14. Transmutation Dynamics: Impacts of Multi-Recycling on Fuel Cycle Performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; M. Pope; G. Youinou; A. Dumontier; D. Hawn

    2009-09-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain continuous multi-recycle in either thermal or fast reactors. In Fiscal Year 2009, transmutaton work at INL provided important new insight, caveats, and tools on multi-recycle. Multi-recycle of MOX, even with all the transuranics, is possible provided continuous enrichment of the uranium phase to ~6.5% and also limitting the transuranic enrichment to slightly less than 8%. Multi-recycle of heterogeneous-IMF assemblies is possible with continuous enrichment of the UOX pins to ~4.95% and having =60 of the 264 fuel pins being inter-matrix. A new tool enables quick assessment of the impact of different cooling times on isotopic evolution. The effect of cooling time was found to be almost as controlling on higher mass actinide concentrations in fuel as the selection of thermal versus fast neutron spectra. A new dataset was built which provides on-the-fly estimates of gamma and neutron dose in MOX fuels as a function of the isotopic evolution. All studies this year focused on the impact of dynamic feedback due to choices made in option space. Both the equilibrium fuel cycle concentrations and the transient time to reach equilibrium for each isotope were evaluated over a range of reactor, reprocessing and cooling time combinations. New bounding cases and analysis methods for evaluating both reactor safety and radiation worker safety were established. This holistic collection of physics analyses and methods gives improved resolution of fuel cycle options, and impacts thereof, over that of previous ad-hoc and single-point analyses.

  15. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Franceschini, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  16. Transmutation, Burn-Up and Fuel Fabrication Trade-Offs in Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor Thorium Fuel Cycles - 13502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Multiple recycle of long-lived actinides has the potential to greatly reduce the required storage time for spent nuclear fuel or high level nuclear waste. This is generally thought to require fast reactors as most transuranic (TRU) isotopes have low fission probabilities in thermal reactors. Reduced-moderation LWRs are a potential alternative to fast reactors with reduced time to deployment as they are based on commercially mature LWR technology. Thorium (Th) fuel is neutronically advantageous for TRU multiple recycle in LWRs due to a large improvement in the void coefficient. If Th fuel is used in reduced-moderation LWRs, it appears neutronically feasible to achieve full actinide recycle while burning an external supply of TRU, with related potential improvements in waste management and fuel utilization. In this paper, the fuel cycle of TRU-bearing Th fuel is analysed for reduced-moderation PWRs and BWRs (RMPWRs and RBWRs). RMPWRs have the advantage of relatively rapid implementation and intrinsically low conversion ratios. However, it is challenging to simultaneously satisfy operational and fuel cycle constraints. An RBWR may potentially take longer to implement than an RMPWR due to more extensive changes from current BWR technology. However, the harder neutron spectrum can lead to favourable fuel cycle performance. A two-stage fuel cycle, where the first pass is Th-Pu MOX, is a technically reasonable implementation of either concept. The first stage of the fuel cycle can therefore be implemented at relatively low cost as a Pu disposal option, with a further policy option of full recycle in the medium term. (authors)

  17. Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhimin; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Making great efforts in development of nuclear energy is one of the long-term-plan in China's energy strategies. The advantages of Thorium-based nuclear energy are: rich resource in nature, less nuclear waste, low toxicity, nuclear non-proliferation and so on. Furthermore, China is a country with abundant thorium, thus it is necessary to develop the Thorium-based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) in China. Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SINAP) had designed and constructed the first China's light-water reactor and developed a zero-power thorium-based molten salt reactor successfully in the early 1970s. The applied research project 'thorium molten salt reactor nuclear power system' by SINAP together with several other institutes had been accepted and granted by China government in 2011. The whole project has been divided into three stages: Firstly, built a 2 MW-zero-power high temperature solid molten salt reactor in 2015 and a 2 MW-zero-power high temperature liquid molten salt reactor in 2017. Secondly, in 2020 built a 10 MW high temperature liquid molten salt reactor. Thirdly, on the base of previous work, a 100 MW high temperature molten salt reactor should be achieving in 2030. After more than one years of efforts, a high quality scientific research team has been formed, which is able to design the molten salt reactor, the molten salt loop and related key equipment, the systems of molten salt preparation, purification and the radioactive gas removal. In the past one year, the initial physical design of high temperature molten salt reactor has been completed; the nuclear chemistry and radiation chemical laboratory has been built, a high temperature salt (HTS) loop and radioactive gas removal experiment device system have been successfully developed and constructed. Further, the preliminary study on reactor used carbon-carbon composite material has been investigated. (author)

  18. Fissile fuel breeding and minor actinide transmutation in the life engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Suemer; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Ahmed, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    Progress on The National Ignition Facility (NIF) brings fusion a viable energy source in foreseeable future. Energy multiplication in a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor could lead earlier market penetration of fusion energy for commercial utilization. Originally, scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have worked out a hybrid reactor design concept; the so-called Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) engine, which has consisted of a spherical fusion chamber of ∼5 m diameter, surrounded by a multi-layered blanket with a beryllium multiplier zone after the first wall. However, earlier work had indicated extreme power peaks at immediate vicinity of the first wall of a hybrid assembly, if a beryllium multiplier is used. Hence, in the current work, the beryllium multiplier zone has been removed in order to mitigate fission power peaks at the vicinity of the first wall as a result of neutron moderation on beryllium. Furthermore, minor actinides (MA) will cause significant neutron multiplication under fusion neutron irradiation so that an extra beryllium multiplier will not be needed. Present work has made following modifications on the LLNL design of the original (LIFE) engine: ·Omission of beryllium multiplier. ·TRISO fuel has been suspended as micro-size particles in Flibe coolant in lieu of being dissolved in uranium salt or imbedded carbon matrix in macro-size pebbles. ·Carbide fuel is used. ·Fissionable fuel charge is kept lower than in the LLNL (LIFE) engine. The modified (LIFE) engine is kept similar to the LLNL design to a great degree in order to allow mutual feedback between two geographically separated teams towards a more advanced and improved design under consideration of totally independent views. The first wall is made of ODS (2 cm) and followed by a Li 17 Pb 83 zone (2 cm), acting as neutron multiplier, tritium breeding and front coolant zone. It is separated by an ODS layer (2 cm) from the Flibe molten salt

  19. Use of pyroprocessing in the preparation of spent fuel for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, J.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Pyrochemical processing, or {open_quotes}pyroprocessing,{close_quotes} of spent fuel offers a number of unique advantages, particularly in comparison with coventional aqueous solvent extraction techniques. Pyroprocessing, in its present version, has been under development for nearly ten years. Emphasis has been placed on the development of a simple, efficient process that features compact, inexpensive process equipment. Particular attention has been paid to the minimization of waste volumes and to the development of a process that is both economic and environmentally sound as well as proliferation-resistant.

  20. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of High-Flux RSG-GAS to Transmute Am-241 of PWR’s Spent Fuel in Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Setiawan, M.; Kuntjoro, S.

    2018-02-01

    A preliminary study of minor actinides (MA) transmutation in the high flux profile RSG-GAS research reactor was performed, aiming at an optimal transmutation loading for present nuclear energy development. The MA selected in the analysis includes Am-241 discharged from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in Asian region. Until recently, studies have been undertaken in various methods to reduce radiotoxicity from actinides in high-level waste. From the cell calculation using computer code SRAC2006, it is obtained that the target Am-241 which has a cross section of the thermal energy absorption in the region (group 8) is relatively large; it will be easily burned in the RSG-GAS reactor. Minor actinides of Am-241 which can be inserted in the fuel (B/T fuel) is 2.5 kg which is equivalent to Am-241 resulted from the partition of spent fuel from 2 units power reactors PWR with power 1000MW(th) operated for one year.

  2. Enhancement of actinide incineration and transmutation rates in Ads EAP-80 reactor core with MOX PuO2 and UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltcheva-Kouzminava, S.; Kuzminov, V.; Vecchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Neutronics calculations of the accelerator driven reactor core EAP-80 with UO 2 and PuO 2 MOX fuel elements and Pb-Bi coolant are presented in this paper. Monte Carlo optimisation computations of several schemes of the EAP-80 core with different types of fuel assemblies containing burnable absorber B4 C or H 2 Zr zirconium hydride moderator were performed with the purpose to enhance the plutonium and actinide incineration rate. In the first scheme the reactor core contains burnable absorber B4 C arranged in the cladding of fuel elements with high enrichment of plutonium (up to 45%). In the second scheme H2 Zr zirconium hydride moderated zones were located in fuel elements with low enrichment (∼20%). In both schemes the incineration rate of plutonium is about two times higher than in the reference EAP-80 core and at the same time the power density distribution remains significantly unchanged compared to the reference core. A hybrid core containing two fuel zones one of which is the inner fuel region with UO 2 and PuO 2 high enrichment plutonium fuel and the second one is the outer region with fuel elements containing zirconium hydride layer was also considered. Evolution of neutronics parameters and actinide transmutation rates during the fuel burn-up is presented. Calculations were performed using the MCNP-4B code and the SCALE 4.3 computational system. (author)

  3. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  4. Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D. W.; Blomeke, J. O. [comps.

    1977-10-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was continued. Summaries of work are given on Purex Process modifications, actinide recovery, Am-Cm recovery, radiation effects on ion exchangers, LMFBR transmutation studies, thermal reactor transmutation studies, fuel cycle studies, and partitioning-transmutation evaluation. (JRD)

  5. Study on the thorium-based breeder with molten fluoride salt blanket in the Nuclear Hot Spring - 5420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, X.; Yingzhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Hot Spring (NHS) is an innovative reactor type featured by pool-type molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactor core with the capability of natural circulation under full power operation. Except for the potential applications in power generation and high temperature process heat, thorium-based breeding is also a promising feature of the NHS. In order to take advantage of both the highly inherent safety and the on-line processing capability of fluid thorium-based fuels, a breeder design of NHS equipped with a blanket of molten salt with thorium fluoride outside the pebble-bed core is proposed in this work. For the purpose of keeping cleanness of the primary loop and blanket loop, both loops are isolated physically from each other, and the rapid on-line extraction of converted 233 Pa and 233 U is employed for the processing of blanket salt. The conversion ratio, defined as the ratio of converted 233 Pa and 233 U to the consumed fissile uranium in seed fuels, is investigated by varying the relevant parameters such as the circulation flux of blanket salt and the discharge burn-up of seed fuels. It is found that breeding can be achieved for the pure 233 U seed scheme with relatively low discharge burn-up and low blanket salt flux. However, the reprocessing for the HTGR fuels with TRISO particles has to be taken into account to ensure the breeding. (authors)

  6. Vortex Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials

  7. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  8. Summary of twelfth session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and third meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the twenty first century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2010-01-01

    Information about the development in the problems spent fuel transmutation and future nuclear reactors development during the last years 2009-2010. Some critical views on the coming works tendencies are given by the coordinator of works within AER cooperation. (Author)

  9. Partitioning and Transmutation - Physics, Technology and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reactions can be effectively used to destroy radio toxic isotopes through transmutation processes transforming those isotopes into less radio toxic or stable ones Spent nuclear fuel, a mixture of many isotopes with some of them being highly radio toxic for many hundred thousands of years, may be effectively transmuted through nuclear reactions with neutrons. In a dedicated, well designed transmutation system one can, in principle, reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel to a level, which will require isolation from the biosphere for the period of time for which engineered barriers can be constructed and licensed (not more than 1-2 thousands of years). En effective transmutation process can not be achieved without a suitable partitioning. Only partitioning of the spent nuclear fuel into predetermined groups of elements makes possible an effective use of neutrons to transmute long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable one. However, most of the chemical separation/partitioning processes are element- not isotope-specific, therefore the transmutation of the elements with an existing isotope composition is a typical alternative for transmutation processes. Isotope-specific separation is possible but still very expensive and technologically not matured

  10. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Rosales, J.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Perez-Navarro, A.; Escriva, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Ingenieria Energetica; Abanades, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  11. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Rosales, J.; Garcia, L.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Escriva, A.; Abanades, A.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  12. Comparative study for minor actinide transmutation in various fast reactor core concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, S.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of minor actinide (MA) transmutation property was performed for various fast reactor core concepts. The differences of MA transmutation property were classified by the variations of fuel type (oxide, nitride, metal), coolant type (sodium, lead, carbon dioxide) and design philosophy. Both nitride and metal fuels bring about 10% larger MA transmutation amount compared with oxide fuel. The MA transmutation amount is almost unchanged by the difference between sodium and lead coolants, while carbon dioxide causes a reduction by about 10% compared with those. The changes of MA transmutation property by fuel and coolant types are comparatively small. The effects caused by the difference of core design are rather significant. (author)

  13. Separation of actinides and their transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Bathelier, M.; Cousin, M.

    1978-08-01

    Neutron irradiation of long-half-life actinides for transmutation into elements with shorter half-life is investigated as a means to reduce the long-term hazards of these actinides. The effectiveness of the method is analysed by applying it to fission product solutions from the first extraction cycle of fuel reprocessing plants. Basic principles, separation techniques and transmutation efficiencies are studied and discussed in detail

  14. Cementation feasibility of a uranium-thorium based solution by physical and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentiero, R.; Luce, A.; Troiani, F.

    2002-01-01

    By reprocessing Elk River nuclear fuel, at the ENEA ITREC Plant (South of Italy), about 3 m 3 of Uranium-Thorium based solution were produced. Previously considered an intermediate product to be further treated to recover U and Th, it is now being considered a waste, due to considerable content of fission products and to phasing out of the Italian nuclear industry. Together with other treatment options, a conditioning process in cement matrix is being evaluated, supported by some chemical, physical and mechanical tests on samples prepared with simulated waste. The main components selected to simulate the real solution were thorium nitrate (at two different concentrations), ferrous nitrate and nitric acid. This solution has been neutralized with sodium carbonate (at two different concentration) and cemented by means of a properly defined formulation. Pozzolanic blend cement, at different water to cement ratio, with and without a silica type additive, has been investigated. Cubic samples were subjected to compression tests and repeated freeze-thaw cycles followed by compression tests. Cylindrical samples were subjected to a leach test (according. to the tn ANSI/ANS-16.1 standard). The obtained results are above the minimum acceptance values established by the Italian authority. The evaluated properties are the first important elements to estimate the long term-instability of conditioned radioactive waste. Meanwhile a preliminary theoretical study has been done to evaluate the gas evolution from the matrix due to radiolysis effect. The reached conclusions encourage the development of further analysis to implement a cementation facility. (Author)

  15. ORIGEN-S: scale system module to calculate fuel depletion, actinide transmutation, fission product buildup and decay, and associated radiation source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    ORIGEN-S computes time-dependent concentrations and source terms of a large number of isotopes, which are simultaneously generated or depleted through neutronic transmutation, fission, radioactive decay, input feet rates and physical or chemical removal rates. The calculations may pertain to fuel irradiation within nuclear reactors, or the storage, management, transportation or subsequent chemical processing of removed fuel elements. The matrix exponential expansion model of the ORIGIN code is unaltered in ORIGEN-S. Essentially all features of ORIGEN were retained, expanded or supplemented within new computations. The primary objective of ORIGEN-S, as requested by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is that the calculations may utilize the multi-energy group cross sections from any currently processed standardized ENDF/B data base. This purpose has been implemented through the prior execution of codes within either the SCALE System or the AMPX System, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These codes compute flux-weighted cross sections, simulating conditions within any given reactor fuel assembly, and convert the data into a library that can be input to ORIGEN-S. Time-dependent libraries may be produced, reflecting fuel composition variations during irradiation. Presented in the document are: detailed and condensed input instructions, model theory, features available, range of applicability, brief subroutine descriptions, sample input, and I/O requirements. Presently the code is operable on IBM 360/370 computers and may be converted for CDC computers. ORIGEN-S is a functional module in the SCALE System and will be one of the modules invoked in the SAS2 Control Module, presently being developed, or may be applied as a stand alone program. It can be used in nuclear reactor and processing plant design studies, radiation safety analyses, and environmental assessments

  16. Transmutation of Tc-99 in fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Li, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Transmutation of Tc-99 in three different types of fission reactors is considered: A heavy water reactor, a fast reactor and a light water reactor. For the first type a CANDU reactor was chosen, for the second one the Superphenix reactor, and for the third one a PWR. The three most promising Tc-99 transmuters are the fast reactor with a moderated subassembly in the inner core, a fast reactor with a non-moderated subassembly in the inner core, and a heavy water reactor with Tc-99 target pins in the moderator between the fuel bundles. Transmutation half lives of 15 to 25 years can be achieved, with yearly transmuted Tc-99 masses of about 100 kg at a thermal reactor power of about 3000 MW. (orig.)

  17. Study on neutron spectrum for effective transmutation of minor actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Yokoyama, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides (MAs) has been investigated in thermal reactor cells using mixed oxide fuel with MAs. The effect of neutron spectra on transmutation is studied by changing the neutron spectra. Five transmutation rates are compared: direct fission incineration rate, capture transmutation rate, consumption rate, overall fission incineration rate and inventory difference transmutation rate. The relations between these transmutation rates and their dependence on the neutron spectrum were investigated. To effectively incinerate MAs it is necessary to maximize the overall fission incineration rate and the inventory difference transmutation rate. These transmutation rates become maximum when the fraction of neutrons below 1 eV is about 8% for the case where the MA addition is 1-3%. When the MA addition is over 5%, the transmutation rates become maximum for very hard neutron spectrum. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of alternative partitioning/transmutation scenarios using transmutation in light-water reactors (LWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Renier, J.P.; Del Cul, B.; Spencer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) studies were made to assess the effects of the existing accumulation of LWR spent fuel in the United States on the capability to partition/transmute actinides using existing and advanced LWR. The concept of treating the oldest fuel first indicated that significant advantages could be gained in both partitioning, transmutation, and in overall cost reduction. The processing scenarios previously evaluated assumed that (1) 2000 MT/year of spent fuel, irradiated to 45 GWd/MT and decayed for 30 years is processed; (2) recovered plutonium and 90% of the neptunium are transmuted in LWR MOX fuel; and (3) minor actinides, consisting of americium, curium, and 10% of the neptunium are transmuted in burnable poison type targets. Results of the previous study showed that significant benefits could be obtained, including (1) lower costs for partitioning and transmutation and for storage of spent fuel, (2) maintenance of proliferation resistance for the fissile plutonium in spent fuels, and (3) extended lifetime for the repository. The lower costs would be achieved primarily because no capital investment for a special transmuter reactor (fast reactor, accelerator-driven system, etc.) would be required. Instead, only existing and new LWRs would be utilized. Moreover, no new storage capacity could be needed for spent fuels and irradiated targets because the number of spent fuel assemblies would remain the same after the scenario is begun. Even though the total inventory of plutonium would rise during the early cycles, ∼98% of the plutonium would be contained in stored spent fuel and would be protected by high radiation (the Spent Fuel Standard). This is because the spent fuel would be reprocessed and re-irradiated at intervals within which the fission products, 137 Cs and 90 Sr, both with half-lives of ∼ 30 years, exist in significantly high concentrations.The lifetime of the repository would be extended significantly because all of

  19. Genetic effects of decay of fuel fission products in cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisial. Role of transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanshiashvili, T.A.; Gracheva, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Lethal and mutagenic effects and the nature of mutations induced by 91 Y decay in cells of Saccharomyces cerevisial yeasts were studied. An inactivation probability was (9.6+-4.0)x10 -5 decaysup(-I) and mutation probability in ade 1, ade 2 genes was (0.65+-0.53)x10 -8 decaysup(-I). It is shown that 95% of the effect is caused by local transmutation aftereffects of the decay of the isotope in the cell, and only 5% - by β-radiation. It is also shown that 91 Y is one of the most effective physical matagens. Its mutagenic efficiency (M/1 nS) is the same as of 32 P, and 3.5 times higher than the mutagenic efficiency of γ-rays, and 8 times - than of neutrons with E=1.3 MeV. According to the results of the analysis of the nature of mutations, 91 Y is a nonspecific mutagen which induces mutations of different types. Among 4B analyzed ade 2 mutations there have been detected 146(35%) transitions AT→GC, 139(34%) transitions GC→AT, 64(16%) mutations of reading frame shift, 63 (15%) transversions and 1 deletion. The reasons for such significant genetic effect of 91 Y on the cell are discussed [ru

  20. Scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in the framework of the French Act on Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Meyer, M.; Tiphine, M.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Favet, D.; Arslan, M.; Caron-Charles, M.; Carlier, B.; Lefevre, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French Act on Waste Management, options of minor actinides (MA) transmutation are studied, based on several scenarios of sodium fast reactor deployment. Basically, one of these scenarios considers the deployment of a 60 GWe SFR fleet in two steps (20 GWe from 2040 to 2050 and 40 GWe, as well as, from 2080 to 2100). For this scenario, the advantages and drawbacks of different transmutation options are evaluated: - transmutation of all minor actinides or only of americium; - transmutation in homogeneous mode (MA bearing fuel in all the core or just in the outer core) or in heterogeneous mode (MA bearing radial blankets). Scenarios have been optimised to limit the impacts of MA transmutation on the cycle: - reduction of the initial MA content in the core in the case of transmutation in homogeneous mode to reduce the impact on reactivity coefficients; - reduction of the number of rows of blankets and fuel decay heat in the case of transmutation in heterogeneous mode. The sensitivity of transmutation options to cycle parameters such as the fuel cooling time before transportation is also assessed. Thus, the transmutation of only americium in one row of radial blankets containing initially 10 pc % Am and irradiated during the same duration as the standard fuel assemblies appears to be a suitable solution to limit the transmutation impacts on fuel cycle and facilities. A comparison of results obtained with MA transmutation in dedicated systems is also presented with a symbiotic scenario considering ADS (accelerator-driven system) deployment to transmute MA together with a SFR fleet to produce energy. The MA inventory within the cycle is higher in the case of transmutation in ADS than in the case of transmutation in SFR. Considering the industrial feasibility of MA transmutation, it appears important to study 'independently' SFR deployment and MA transmutation. Consequently, scenarios of progressive introduction of MA options are assessed

  1. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have now been established worldwide and, as a result, many countries are pursuing R and D programmes to advance the technologies associated with P and T. In this context, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has organised a series of biennial information exchange meetings to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinides and Fission Products Partitioning and Transmutation is a forum for experts to present and discuss the state-of-the-art development in the field of P and T. Thirteen meetings have been organised so far and held in Japan, the United States, France, Belgium, Spain, the Republic of Korea and the Czech Republic. This 13. meeting was hosted by Seoul National University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) and was organised in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Community (EC). The meeting covered strategic and scientific developments in the field of P and T such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios, the role of P and T in the potential evolution of nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix; radioactive waste management strategies; transmutation fuels and targets; advances in pyro and aqueous separation processes; P and T specific technology requirements (materials, spallation targets, coolants, etc.); transmutation systems: design, performance and safety; impact of P and T on the fuel cycle; fabrication, handling and transportation of transmutation fuels. A total of 103 presentations (39 oral and 64 posters) were discussed among the 110 participants from 19 countries and 2 international organisations. The meeting consisted of one plenary session where national and international programmes were presented followed by 5 technical sessions: - Fuel Cycle Strategies and Transition

  2. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  3. Natural Transmutation of Actinides via the Fission Reaction in the Closed Thorium-Uranium-Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalkin, V. Ye.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is shown for a closed thorium-uranium-plutonium fuel cycle that, upon processing of one metric ton of irradiated fuel after each four-year campaign, the radioactive wastes contain 54 kg of fission products, 0.8 kg of thorium, 0.10 kg of uranium isotopes, 0.005 kg of plutonium isotopes, 0.002 kg of neptunium, and "trace" amounts of americium and curium isotopes. This qualitatively simplifies the handling of high-level wastes in nuclear power engineering.

  4. TRANSMUTED EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    MEROVCI, FATON

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize the exponentiated exponential distribution using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw etal. [6] to develop a transmuted exponentiated exponential distribution. Theproperties of this distribution are derived and the estimation of the model parameters is discussed. An application to real data set are finally presented forillustration

  5. Fuel cycle performance indices in a high-converting LWR core design with once-through thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Young-il

    2004-01-01

    A design concept of pressure-tube type light water cooled reactor (HCPLWR) core was proposed as a thermal high-conversion reactor using a thorium based once-through cycle strategy. In a previous work, fuel cycle economics and nuclear safety were confirmed. In this work, HCPLWR was evaluated in the aspects of proliferation resistance and transmutation capability. Evaluation was done as a direct comparison of indices with PWR, CANDU and Radkowsky Thorium Fuel (RTF). Conversion ratio was measured by fissile inventory ratio and fissile gain. Proliferation resistance of plutonium composition from spent seed and blanket fuels was measured by bare critical mass, spontaneous neutron source rate, and thermal heat generation rate. For the evaluation of long-lived minor actinide transmutation was measured by a new parameter, effective fission half-life. Two-dimensional calculation for the assembly-wise unit module showed each parameter values. Even though conversion capability of HCPLWR was higher than one of RTF, it was concluded that current HCPLWR design was not favorable than RTF. Design optimization is required for the future work. (author)

  6. Keynote address at the international conference on nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1980-07-01

    Most of the US research effort on radioactive waste management is concentrated on its solidification and storage in geologic formations. Transmutation is an alternative. It can be applied to weapons plutonium as well to spent fuel

  7. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  8. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor as Highly Efficient Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Rohde, U.; Scholl, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion and future steps: • MSFR offers very attractive features for efficient transmutation; • significant advantages due to liquid fuel and online refuelling and reprocessing; • significant developments are required on the way to application; • system is very promising for transmutation; • development of a safety approach for liquid fuel reactors (RSWG); • investigation of possibilities to solve the “last transmuter” problem (ICAPP2013) – as future for countries envisaging nuclear phase out or no transition to fast reactor fleet for energy production; • establishing of a strong group “MSFR for transmutation”; • development of a transmutation optimized design

  9. Partitioning and Transmutation: IAEA Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.; Monti, S.; )

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The importance of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) processes for sustaining nuclear energy growth in the world has been realised in several countries across the world. P and T processes aim at separation and recycling of actinides including minor actinides (MAs) from the spent fuel or high-level liquid waste. The objective of these processes include reuse of separated fissile materials from spent nuclear fuels to obtain energy, enhance resource utilisation, reduce the disposal of toxic radio-nuclides and improve long-term performance of geological repositories. R and D programmes have been launched in many of the Member States to develop advanced partitioning process based on either aqueous or pyro to recover MAs along with other actinides as well as automated and remote techniques for manufacturing fuels containing MAs for the purpose of transmuting them either in fast reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. A number of Member States have been also developing such transmutation systems with the aim to construct and operate demo plants and prototypes in the next decade. The International Atomic Energy Agency has a high priority for the activities on partitioning and transmutation and regularly organises conferences, workshops, seminars and technical meetings in the areas of P and T as a part of information exchange and knowledge sharing at the international level. In the recent past, the Agency organised two technical meetings on advanced partitioning processes and actinide recycle technologies with the objective of providing a common platform for the scientists and engineers working in the areas of separation of actinides along with MAs from spent nuclear fuels and manufacturing of advanced fuels containing MAs in order to bridge the technological gap between them. In 2010, the Agency concluded a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) related to Assessment of Partitioning Processes. The Agency also conducted a first CRP on

  10. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  11. Capacity of burning and transmutation reactor and grouping in partitioning of HLW in self-consistent fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, A.; Mulyanto

    1993-01-01

    The concept of capacity of B/T reactor and grouping for partitioning of HLW has been developed in order to perform self-consistent fuel recycle. The concept of grouping of radionuclides is proposed herein, such as Group MA1 (MA below Cm), Group MA2 (Cm and higher MA), Group A ( 99 Te, 129 I, and 135 Cs), Group B ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) and Group R (the partitioned remain of HLW). In this study P-T treatment were optimized for the in-core and out-core system, respectively. (author). 7 refs., 10 figs

  12. Development of TRU transmuters for optimization of the global fuel cycle. Final Report for the NERI Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research activities during the entire performance period of the NERI grant, including the extra 9 months granted under a no-cost time extension. Building up on the 14 quarterly reports submitted through October 2008, we present here an overview of the research accomplishments under the five tasks originally proposed in July 2004, together with citations for publications resulting from the project. The AFCI-NERI project provided excellent support for two undergraduate and 10 graduates students at the University of Michigan during a period of three years and nine months. Significant developments were achieved in three areas: (1) Efficient deterministic fuel cycle optimization algorithms both for PWR and SFR configurations, (2) Efficient search algorithm for PWR equilibrium cycles, and (3) Simplified Excel-based script for dynamic fuel cycle analysis of diverse cycles. The project resulted in a total of 8 conference papers and three journal papers, including two that will be submitted shortly. Three pending publications are attached to the report

  13. Transmutation of nuclear waste in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pilate, S.; Wehmann, U.K.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this joint study of ECN, Belgonucleaire, and Siemens is to investigate possibilities for transmutation of nuclear waste in regular nuclear reactors or in special transmutation devices. Studies of possibilities included the limits and technological development steps which would be needed. Burning plutonium in fast reactors, gas-cooled high-temperature reactors and light water reactors (LWR) have been considered. For minor actinides the transmutation rate mainly depends on the content of the minor actinides in the reactor and to a much less degree on the fact whether one uses a homogeneous system (with the actinides mixed into the fuel) or a heterogeneous system. If one wishes to stabilise the amount of actinides from the present LWRs, about 20% of all nuclear power would have to be generated in special burner reactors. It turned out that reactor transmutation of fission products would require considerable recycling efforts and that the time needed for a substantial transmutation would be rather long for the presently available levels of the neutron flux. If one would like to design burner systems which can serve more light water reactors, a large effort would be needed and other burners (possibly driven by accelerators) should be considered. (orig.)

  14. J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, T.; Takei, H.; Saito, S.; Obayashi, H.; Nishihara, K.; Sugawara, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, nuclear transmutation is considered as an option for waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) as a spallation target and a coolant of subcritical core. To obtain the data required for ADS design, we plan the building of a transmutation experimental facility (TEF) is planned within the J-PARC project. TEF consists of an ADS target test facility (TEF-T), which will be installed 400 MeV-250 kW LBE spallation target for material irradiations, and a transmutation physics experimental facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical/subcritical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel to study ADS neutronics. At TEF-T, various research plans to use emitted neutrons from LBE target are discussed. The paper summarises a road-map to establish the ADS transmuter and latest design activities for TEF construction. (authors)

  15. Code development and analyses within the area of transmutation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    A strong code development is going on to meet various demands resulting from the development of dedicated reactors for transmutation and incineration. Code development is concerned with safety codes and general codes needed for assessing scenarios and transmutation strategies. Analyses concentrate on various ADS systems with solid and liquid molten salt fuels. Analyses deal with ADS Demo Plant (5th FP EU) and transmuters with advanced fuels

  16. Actinide partitioning and transmutation program progress report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Tedder, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was initiated at the various sites. This work included the development of conceptual material balance flowsheets which define integrated waste systems supporting an LWR fuel reprocessing plant and a mixed (U-Pu) oxide fuel refabrication plant. In addition, waste subsystems were defined for experimental evaluation. Computer analysis of partitioning-transmutation, utilizing an LMFBR for transmutation, was completed for both constant and variable waste actinide generation rates

  17. Waste transmutation: perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1997-01-01

    After the introduction on the source and nature of nuclear waste, this lecture analyzes the different methods proposed to transmute long-lived isotopes into stable or short-lived isotopes. It is shown that direct methods (photonuclear reactions, spallation, muon catalyzed fusion) do not lead to a sufficient transmutation rate within a reasonable cost. Only the use of hybrid systems, fusion-fission or spallation-fission, can be foreseen. (author)

  18. High flux transmutation of fission products and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Kiselev, G.; Myrtsymova, L.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived fission products and minor actinides accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of power reactors comprise the major part of high level radwaste. Their incineration is important from the point of view of radwaste management. Transmutation of these nuclides by means of neutron irradiation can be performed either in conventional nuclear reactors, or in specialized transmutation reactors, or in ADS facilities with subcritical reactor and neutron source with application of proton accelerator. Different types of transmutation nuclear facilities can be used in order to insure optimal incineration conditions for radwaste. The choice of facility type for optimal transmutation should be based on the fundamental data in the physics of nuclide transformations. Transmutation of minor actinides leads to the increase of radiotoxicity during irradiation. It takes significant time compared to the lifetime of reactor facility to achieve equilibrium without effective transmutation. High flux nuclear facilities allow to minimize these draw-backs of conventional facilities with both thermal and fast neutron spectrum. They provide fast approach to equilibrium and low level of equilibrium mass and radiotoxicity of transmuted actinides. High flux facilities are advantageous also for transmutation of long-lived fission products as they provide short incineration time

  19. Transmutation of Minor Actinide in well thermalized neutron field and application of advanced neutron source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1995-01-01

    Transmutation of Minor Actinide (MA) in a well thermalized neutron field was studied. Since MA nuclides have large effective cross sections in the well thermalized neutron field, the transmutation in the well thermalized neutron field has an advantage of high transmutation rate. However, the transmutation rate largely decreases by accumulation of 246 Cm when MA is transmuted only in the well thermalized neutron field for a long period. An acceleration method of burn-up of 246 Cm was studied. High transmutation rate can be obtained by providing a neutron field with high flux in the energy region between 1 and 100 eV. Two stage transmutation using the well thermalized neutron field and this field can transmute MA rapidly. The applicability of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) to the transmutation of MA was examined for a typical MA with the composition in the high-level waste generated in the conventional PWR. If the ANS is applied without changing the fuel inventory, the amount of MA which corresponds to that produced by a conventional 1,175 MWe PWR in one year can be transmuted by the ANS in one year. Furthermore, the amount of the residual can be reduced to about 1g (10 -5 of the initial MA weight) by continuing the transmutation for 5 years owing to the two stage transmutation. (author)

  20. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  1. Transmutation potential of reactor WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Sebian, V.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical evaluation of WWER-440 transmutation potential by HELIOS - code is presented. Transmutation method proposal comprising special transmutation pins, combined FA and simple reprocessing is described. Transmutation efficiency of the method is characterized (Authors)

  2. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  3. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP)

  4. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J H

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  5. Researches on the management of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. Axis 1 - separation-transmutation; Recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Axe 1 - separation-transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    This document gathers the transparencies of seven presentations given at a technical workshop of the French nuclear energy society (SFEN) about the researches on separation-transmutation of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. The presentations deal with: inventory and radiotoxicity of the rad-wastes in concern; industrial experience; experience on chemical separation: molecules and processes; reactors physics and transmutation - reactors for transmutation; fuels and targets; scenarios that include transmutation; environmental impacts of these different scenarios. (J.S.)

  6. Researches on the management of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. Axis 1 - separation-transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of seven presentations given at a technical workshop of the French nuclear energy society (SFEN) about the researches on separation-transmutation of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. The presentations deal with: inventory and radiotoxicity of the rad-wastes in concern; industrial experience; experience on chemical separation: molecules and processes; reactors physics and transmutation - reactors for transmutation; fuels and targets; scenarios that include transmutation; environmental impacts of these different scenarios. (J.S.)

  7. Introduction to the study of the treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floh, B.; Araujo, J.A. de; Matsuda, H.T.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is made to the study of the treatment of spent nuclear fuels. Main topics discussed are: basic information, volatilization processes, treatment of thorium based fuels (Thorex process), analytical chemistry of spent nuclear fuel and design of industrial facilities

  8. Safety characteristics of potential waste transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    For nuclear waste transmutation to alter significantly the need for geologic disposal of spent fuel from US Light-water reactors (LWRs), about 1.4% of the spent fuel (by mass) must be separated and transmuted. This includes the plutonium, the minor actinides, and four fission products: iodine. technetium, cesium and strontium. Regarding the actinides, fissioning of the plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium generates a great deal of heat, so much so that most of the plutonium should be used to produce power. However, these actinides have some undesirable neutronic characteristics, and their utilization in reactors or subcritical (proton-accelerator) targets requires either a fast neutronic spectrum or a very high thermal-neutron flux. Transmutation of the fission products is generally by neutron capture, although this is difficult in the case of cesium and strontium. In this paper, various proposed means of transmuting the actinides and fission products are discussed, with the main focus being on the safety characteristics of each approach

  9. Role of accelerators in the Czech national transmuter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bem, P.; Kugler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of spent nuclear fuel from the so far operated PWRs has become a crucial issue in the Czech Republic. The first attempts to solve this problem by a final deposit of spent fuel into a suitable geological formation have been shown not to be fully acceptable. Therefore, the revival of nuclear transmutation technology application for nuclear incineration of nuclear waste and spent fuel in particular was welcomed. A realistic national project started to be developed in 1996. The four major nuclear research institutions of the country formed a consortium focused on an adoption of the world-wide experience and a development of a national project of a transmutation technology (experimental transmuter LA-0) or an efficient participation in the international effort in that field. Because the LA-0 transmuter concept of subcritical reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides driven by an external neutron source has been adopted, the R and D effort has been focused on three regions. The first is devoted to the problem of a suitable neutron source, the second to a pre-conceptual design of a blanket for burning of actinides contained in spent fuel from PWRs. The third region is devoted to the utilisation of the experience from a specific field of dry (fluorine) reprocessing of spent fuel and a preparation of liquid fuel in the form of molten fluorides for the transmuter LA-0. (R.P.)

  10. Proposed partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Rawlins, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 14 refs., 10 figs

  11. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  12. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  13. Enhancing TRU burning and Am transmutation in Advanced Recycling Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kochendarfer, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This ARR is an oxide fueled sodium cooled reactor based on innovative technologies to destruct TRU. → TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11). → Am transmutation core can transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, adding uranium free AmN blanket to TRU burning core. → The TRU burning core improves TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core. → The Am transmutation core can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable. - Abstract: This paper presents about conceptual designs of Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) focusing on enhancement in transuranics (TRU) burning and americium (Am) transmutation. The design has been conducted in the context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeking to close nuclear fuel cycle in ways that reduce proliferation risks, reduce the nuclear waste in the US and further improve global energy security. This study strives to enhance the TRU burning and the Am transmutation, assuming the development of related technologies in this study, while the ARR based on mature technologies was designed in the previous study. It has followed that the provided TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, by adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11) and the Am transmutation core will be able to transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, by locating Am blanket of AmN around the TRU burning core. It indicates that these concepts improve TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core and can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable.

  14. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  15. Transmutations for Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boumenir

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.  

  16. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  17. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  18. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  19. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  1. Minor actinides transmutation performance in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for calculating MA transmutation for individual nuclides has been proposed by introducing two formulas of the MA transmutation. One corresponds to the difference of MA amounts, and the other corresponds to the sum of the fission amounts and the plutonium production amounts. • Using the method the MA transmutation was calculated for Np-237 and Am-241 in a fast reactor. The burnup period was changed from 1 year to 12 year. • For the 1 year burnup a large amount of Am-242m, Cm-242 are produced from Am-241. The total MA transmutation amount increases with burnup time, but its gradient with respect to burnup time decreases after 9 years, and the transmutation amount by overall fission increases almost linearly with burnup time. • However, after the 6 year burnup the fission contribution became large because of the large production of Pu isotopes from the original Am-241. • In addition to the homogeneous loading of the MA nuclides into the cores, a heterogeneous loading of Am-241 to the blanket region was considered. - Abstract: Results obtained in the project named “Study on Minor Actinides Transmutation using Monju Data”, which has been sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT) are described. In order to physically understand transmutation of individual MA nuclides in fast reactors, a new method was developed in which the MAs transmutation is interpreted by two formulas. One corresponds to the difference of individual MA nuclides amounts before and after a burnup period, and the other is the sum of amount of fission of a relevant MA nuclide and the net plutonium production from the MA nuclide during a burnup period. The method has been applied to two fast reactors with MA fuels loaded in cores homogeneously and in a blanket region heterogeneously. Numerical results of MA transmutation for the two reactors are shown.

  2. Development of transmutation technologies of radioactive waste by actinoid hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, Kenji; Matsui, Hideki; Yamawaki, Michio

    2001-01-01

    Two waste treatment methods, geological disposal and transmutation, have been studied. The transmutation method changes long-lived radioactive nuclides to short-lived one or stabilizes them by nuclear transformation. The transmutation by actinoid hydride is exactly alike that transformation method from actinoid disposal waste to Pu fuel. For this object, OMEGA project is processing now. The transmutation is difficult by two causes such as large amount of long-lived radioactive nuclides and not enough development of control technologies of nuclear reaction except atomic reactor. The transmutation using actinoid hydride has merits that the amount of actinoid charged in the target increases and the effect of thermal neutrons on fuel decreases depending on homogeneous transmutation velocity in the target. Development of stable actinoid hydride under the conditions of reactor temperature and irradiation environment is important. The experimental results of U-ZrH 1.6 are shown in this paper. The irradiation experiment using Th hydride has been proceeding. (S.Y.)

  3. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  4. R and D activities for partitioning and transmutation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung, Yoo; Won-Seok, Park

    2003-01-01

    According to the long-term plan of nuclear technology development, KAERI is conducting a research and development project of transmutation with the objective of key technology development in the areas of partitioning and transmutation system. The research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides are introduced in this work. The studies of partitioning are focused on the electrorefining and electrowinning, which are aimed at investigating the thermodynamic properties of electrodeposition behaviours as well as the separation efficiency. As for the transmutation system, the HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) combined by a proton accelerator and a sub-critical reactor is being studied in KAERI as a prominent candidate facility in the future. Some conceptual studies are being conducted to develop key elemental systems of the sub-critical reactor such as the core, TRU fuel, proton target, and the cooling system. The conceptual design of the HYPER system will be completed by 2006. (author)

  5. Accelerator transmutation of waste economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric systems model of the accelerator transmutation of (nuclear) waste (ATW) is used to examine key system trade-offs and design drivers on the basis of unit costs. This model is applied primarily to a fluid-fuel blanket concept for an ATW that generates net electric power from the fissioning of spent commercial reactor fuel. An important goal of this study is the development of essential parametric trade-offs to aid in any future conceptual engineering design of an ATW that would burn spent commercial fuel and generate net electric power. As such, costing procedures and methodologies used to estimate and compare advanced nuclear power generation systems are applied. The cost of electricity required by an electrical power-generating ATW fueled with spent commercial fuels is generally found to be above that projected for other advanced fission power plants. The accelerator and the chemical plant equipment cost accounts are quantitatively identified as main cost drivers, with the capital cost of radio-frequency power dominating the former. Significant reductions of this cost differential are possible by increased blanket neutron multiplication, increased plant capacity, or increased thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. The benefits of reduced long-lived fission products and spent commercial fuel actinides provided by the ATW approach translate into a less tangible source of revenue to be provided by a charge that must be levied on the client fission power plants being serviced. The main goal of this study, however, is not a direct cost comparison but is instead a quantitative determination of cost-based sensitivity of key cost drivers and operational modes for an ATW concept that would address the growing spent commercial fuel problem; parametric results presented focus on this goal, and a specific ATW ''straw man'' is given to achieve this main objective

  6. Current Status of the Transmutation Reactor Technology and Preliminary Evaluation of Transmutation Performance of the KALIMER Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Young Gyum; Lee, Byung Woon; Song, Hoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Uk

    2005-08-15

    Recently the most countries using the nuclear power plants for electricity generation have been faced with the problem of the preparation of the repository for the disposition of the nuclear waste generated from LWR. It was well-known that the issues related with long term risk of the radioactive wastes for the future generations are due only to 1% of the total waste. This small fraction of 1% consists of transuranic (TRU) nuclides such as Pu, Np, Am, Cm and the long lived fission products such as Tc and I. For the transuranic (TRU) nuclides, their half lives range from several years to several hundred thousands years and hence their radioactive toxicity can be lasted over very long time period. This has made the change of the rule of the fast spectrum reactor from the economical use of uranium resource through breeding to the reduction of the nuclear waste through the transmutation. The purpose of this study is to obtain the basic knowledge on the nuclear transmutation technology and to suggest the technical solution ways for the future technology development and enhancement through a survey of the state-of-art of the international research on the nuclear transmutation. The increase of the transmutation rate requires the reduction of the breeding ratio. In fact, the transmutation rate is determined by the breeding ratio. The reduction of the breeding ratio can be achieved by reducing the U-238 content in fuel or increasing the neutron leakage through core boundary or absorbing the neutrons by using some absorbers. However, the reduction of the U-238 content results in the degradation of the fuel Doppler coefficient that is one of the most important safety-related parameters and the reduction of the effective delayed neutron fraction that is related with the controllability of the reactor core. Also, the increase of the transmutation rate can lead to the increase of the coolant void reactivity worth unless some ways to reduce the coolant void reactivity are not

  7. The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's ((1) generic results; (2) multirecycle of plutonium; (3) an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems ((1) generic results; (2) homogeneous recycle of transuranics; (3) practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies

  8. Neutronics analysis of minor actinides transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Zu, Tiejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A fusion fission hybrid system for MA transmutation is proposed. • The analysis of neutronics effects on the transmutation is performed. • The transmutation rate of MA reaches 86.5% by 25 times of recycling. -- Abstract: The minor actinides (MAs) transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system is analyzed in this paper. The subcritical reactor is driven by a tokamak D-T fusion device with relatively easily achieved plasma parameters and tokamak technologies. The MAs discharged from the light water reactor (LWR) are loaded in transmutation zone. Sodium is used as the coolant. The mass percentage of the reprocessed plutonium (Pu) in the fuel is raised from 0 to 48% and stepped by 12% to determine its effect on the MAs transmutation. The lesser the Pu is loaded, the larger the MAs transmutation rate is, but the smaller the energy multiplication factor is. The neutronics analysis of two loading patterns is performed and compared. The loading pattern where the mass percentage of Pu in two regions is 15% and 32.9% respectively is conducive to the improvement of the transmutation fraction within the limits of burn-up. The final transmutation fraction of MAs can reach 17.8% after five years of irradiation. The multiple recycling is investigated. The transmutation fraction of MAs can reach about 61.8% after six times of recycling, and goes up to about 86.5% after 25

  9. Subcritical molten salt reactor with fast/intermediate spectrum for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, Alexey M.; Feinberg, Olga S.; Kolyaskin, Oleg E.; Myasnikov, Andrey A.; Karmanov, Fedor I.; Kuznetsov, Andrey Yu.; Ponomarev, Leonid I.; Seregin, Mikhail B.; Sidorkin, Stanislav F.

    2011-01-01

    The subcritical molten-salt reactor for transmutation of Am and Cm with the fast-intermediate neutron spectrum is suggested. It is shown that ∼10 such reactor-burners is enough to support the future nuclear power based on the fast reactors as well as for the transmutation of Am and Cm accumulated in the spent fuel storages. (author)

  10. Helium and fission gas behaviour in magnesium aluminate spinel and zirconia for actinide transmutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, P.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reduce the long-term radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel, many studies are performed on partitioning and transmutation of actinides. In such a scenario, the long-lived radio-isotopes (mostly actinides) are partitioned from the nuclear waste, and subsequently transmuted or fissioned in a

  11. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on the high level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romero, Enrique-Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The contribution is structured as follows: (i) Background on partitioning and transmutation; (ii) FP6 projects: RED-IMPACT; (iii) Advanced fuel cycle scenarios; (iv) Partitioning and transmutation expected performance; (v) Impact on the HLW thermal load; (vi) Impact on the deep geological disposal; and (vii) Impact on the performance assessment of deep geological disposal. (P.A.)

  12. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  13. The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is evaluating potential costs and benefits of partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, Abraham E.

    2003-01-01

    Abe van Luik (DOE, USA) stated that the U.S. Department of Energy is interested in P and T to the extent that transmutation is technically feasible and will reduce the toxicity of the waste to a point that makes it technically and economically justified. Therefore, research on P and T strategies incorporates the evaluation of its potential costs and benefits. A progress report to Congress (in preparation) will likely state that system studies in the USA and in Europe indicate a preference for reactor based transmutation rather than accelerator-driven systems. DOE proposes isolation of Cs and Sr, the recycling of Pu and Np in LWRs, and later the recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. The report identifies the high-level waste volume reduction, the easier management of short-term heat load, the reduction of long-term heat load and radiotoxicity, and therefore long-term dose reduction as potential benefits. The goal of ongoing work is to quantify these benefits in order to allow an assessment of which alternatives can be economically useful in increasing the repository capacity, reducing the potential hazard from the repository and reducing uncertainties associated with the performance of the repository. This may, depending on the national nuclear power scenario, delay or avoid the need for a second repository for high-level waste in the USA. Furthermore DOE has received and is evaluating a proposal for simulation-based engineering to integrate all aspects of nuclear energy including reactor technology and waste disposal

  14. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  15. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  16. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  17. Transmutation and accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Today, countries who are presently involved in nuclear energy are facing many challenges to maintain this option open for the next few decades. Among them, management of nuclear wastes produced in nuclear reactors and in fuel cycle operations has become a very strong environmental issue among the public. In most countries with sizeable commercial nuclear programs, deep geological disposal of ultimate highly active and long-lived nuclear wastes is considered as the reference long-term management scheme. But, many questions arise on the possibility to demonstrate that such wastes can be dealt in such a way as to protect the future generations and the environment. The characteristics of nuclear wastes, the various back end policies concerning spent fuels and the nuclear wastes long-term management options will be first described. Then recent proposals, based on transmutation, especially those using accelerator driven systems (ADS) and/or thorium will be presented. Finally, the possibility for the nuclear physics community to play a part in alleviating the nuclear wastes burden will be pointed out. (author)

  18. Calculations of different transmutation concepts. An international benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In April 1996, the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Expert Group on Physics Aspects of Different Transmutation Concepts launched a benchmark exercise to compare different transmutation concepts based on pressurised water reactors (PWRs), fast reactors, and an accelerator-driven system. The aim was to investigate the physics of complex fuel cycles involving reprocessing of spent PWR reactor fuel and its subsequent reuse in different reactor types. The objective was also to compare the calculated activities for individual isotopes as a function of time for different plutonium and minor actinide transmutation scenarios in different reactor systems. This report gives the analysis of results of the 15 solutions provided by the participants: six for the PWRs, six for the fast reactor and three for the accelerator case. Various computer codes and nuclear data libraries were applied. (author)

  19. Transmutation studies of minor actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Marie, F.; Roettger, S.; Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Integral measurements of nuclear data and of the transmutation potential in specific neutron fluxes, constitute the fastest and essential way to overcome to the large uncertainties present in the nuclear data libraries. In the frame of the activities of the Directorate for Science of Matter (DSM) of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA), a new project is proposed so as to carry out integral measurements relevant for nuclear waste transmutation systems. A new beam tube will be installed to irradiate actinides and fission fragment samples at different distances from the fuel element of the ILL reactor. Variable neutron energy spectra could then be obtained by choosing the distance between the sample and the fuel element, opening the way to the determination of the ideal physical conditions to incinerate nuclear waste in hybrid transmutation systems. (author)

  20. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden; Separation och transmutation. Belysning av tillaempning i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil; Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report contains a review of the transmutation technology and an elucidation of the consequences of the use of transmutation in Sweden. Transmutation has often been mentioned in the public debate as a way of rendering harmless the high-level waste from nuclear power such that the final disposal of the waste can be substantially simplified or even completely avoided. However, it can be noted that even with an exploitation of transmutation, significant amounts of radioactive waste requiring qualified final disposal will be generated. The transmutation technology will make it possible to reduce the longevity of the high-level waste by converting primarily the transuranic elements to fission products with shorter half lives. The long-term radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel is dominated by the transuranics. Hence, transmutation will lead to a substantial decrease of the long-term radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. The research on transmutation has been focussed on sub-critical so called ADS-reactors (Accelerator Driven System). In such a system protons are accelerated to very high energy levels (in the order of GeV) in an electromagnetic field. The accelerated protons are impacted on a spallation source consisting of heavy atoms, e.g. lead or a mixture of lead and bismuth. At the impact the heavy nuclei are spalled releasing a number of neutrons that can be used for fissioning the nuclei of the substances to be transmuted, primarily the transuranics. ADS-reactors are still at the research stage. It is a common view that it will take several decades before the technology has reached a maturity that allows the construction of a demonstration facility. Calculations performed at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm show that using the ADS-technology would allow a reduction of the inventory of transuranics in the spent fuel from Swedish reactors by 50-85% within a 50-100 years period. The goal to transmute 99% of the transuranics inventory has been achieved in

  1. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1995-01-01

    Accelerators can play a role in the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste: an alternative to the storage in deep underground repositories might transmuting long-lived elements into stable or short-lived ones in subcritical systems driven by spallation neutrons. These neutrons would be produced by a high intensity, intermediate energy proton accelerator irradiating a heavy target. Similar systems have also been proposed to produce energy with a minimized waste inventory. Since a good knowledge of the spallation process is essential for designing and optimizing the target-blanket assembly, new programmes aimed at studying spallation reactions are in progress. (author). 6 figs

  2. Transmutation of Tc-99 and I-129 in fission reactors. A calculational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Li, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The HWR is a better candidate for large-scale transmutation of long-lived fission products. When target pins containing either Tc-99 or I-129 are positioned in the centre of each fuel bundle of a 935 MW e CANDU reactor, the transmutation half lives are 44 and 20 years, respectively, and the gross transmutation rates 60 and 48 kg/a. The positive coolant void coefficient is reduced in both cases with about 30%. When Tc-99 target pins are positioned in the moderator between the fuel bundles, the transmutation half life becomes 25 years and the gross transmutation rate 106 kg/a. This means that one HWR can serve four PWRs with equal power. The fast reactor seems most promising. When Tc-99 target pins are irradiated in moderated subassemblies in the inner core of Superphenix (∼1240 MW e ), a transmutation half life of 15 years is obtained with a gross transmutation rate of 122 kg/a. These values become 18 years and 101 kg/a when non-moderated subassemblies are used for the irradiation. This implies that one fast reactor can serve four to five PWRs with equal power. The PWR seems not very effective for transmutation of Tc-99. Large inventories are needed to obtain a Tc-99 transmutation rate equal to the production rate (18 kg/a for a 900 MW e PWR). When all guide tubes of an UO 2 fuelled PWR are filled with Tc-99 with density of 5 g cm -3 , the transmutation half life is 39 years and the gross transmutation rate 64 kg/a. (orig./GL)

  3. Accelerator driven nuclear energy and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has been a mature industry for many years. However, despite the overall safety record and the great attractions of nuclear power, especially in times of concern about green house gases emissions, there continues to be some lack of public acceptance of this technology. This sensitivity to nuclear power has several elements in addition to the concern of a potential nuclear accident. These include the possible diversion of plutonium into nuclear weapon production and the concern about the long term storage of plutonium and other transuranic elements. A concept which seeks to allay these fears but still takes advantage of the nuclear fuel cycle and utilises decades of research and development in this technology, is the idea of using modern accelerators to transmute the long lived radio nuclides and simultaneously generate power. A review of the novel concepts for energy production and transmutation of isotopes will be presented. Of the various proposals, the most developed is the Energy Amplifier Concept promoted by Rubbia. The possibility of using high-energy, high-current accelerators to produce large fluxes of neutrons has been known since the earliest days of accelerator technology. E.O. Lawrence, for example, promoted the concept of producing nuclear material with such an accelerator. The Canadians in the early 50s considered using accelerators to produce fuel for their heavy water reactors and there were well advanced designs for a device called the Intense Neutron Generator. The speculative idea of using accelerator produced neutrons for the transmutation of transuranic elements (i.e. elements such as neptunium plutonium and other elements with higher Z atomic number) has also been studied extensively, notably at a number of laboratories in the US, Europe and Japan. However at this time, all facilities that have actually been constructed have been designed primarily for condensed matter studies i.e. studies of the structural properties

  4. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an important issue of the overall nuclear fuel cycle assessment, both for existing and future reactor systems. Reliable nuclear data are required for analysis of associated neutronics. The present paper gives a review of the status of nuclear data analysis ...

  5. New data libraries for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-06-01

    The fuel depletion code ORIGEN-S is often used for transmutation studies. It uses three different working libraries for actinides, fission products, and light elements, which contain decay data, cross-section data and fission product yields. These data have been renewed with data based on the JEF2.2 and the EAF3 evaluated files. Furthermore, data for 201 fission products have been added to the libraries. The new data libraries are particular suitable for parameter studies and other introductory calculations. For more accurate calculations, it is advised to regularly update the cross sections of the most important actinides and fission products during the burnup sequence. (orig.).

  6. New data libraries for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The fuel depletion code ORIGEN-S is often used for transmutations studies. It uses three different working libraries for actinides, fission products, and light elements, which contain decay data, cross-section data and fission product yields. These data have renewed with data based on the JEF2.2 and the EAF3 evaluated files. Furthermore, data for 201 fission products have been added to the libraries. The new data libraries are particular suitable for parameter studies and other introductory calculations. For more accurate calculations, it is advised to regularly update the cross sections of the most important actinides and fission products during the burnup sequence. (author) 9 refs.

  7. Deep burn transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Baxter, A.; McEachern, D.; Venneri, F.; Williams, D.

    2002-01-01

    Helium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors with ceramic-coated fuel particles offer unique advantages for the destruction of transuranic materials discharged in Light Water Reactor spent fuel. This is accomplished by fission, and capture-followed-by-fission processes. Three major features make it practical: (1) ceramic-coated particles accommodate high levels of burnup in one pass, thus reducing the need for repeated reprocessing; (2) graphite moderation produces valuable opportunities for thermal and epithermal neutrons to interact with fissionable and non-fissionable materials respectively; and (3) ceramic-coated particle kernel sizes can be adjusted to control the rate of such interactions. In the transmutation scheme proposed here, virtually complete destruction of weapons-usable materials, and 95% destruction of all transuranic waste is achieved. Higher levels of destruction are possible by repeated reprocessing and recycling, but there is little incentive to do so since each reprocessing step generates new secondary waste. After transmutation, the impervious ceramic-coated fuel particles provide an ideal residual waste form. (author)

  8. The French partitioning-transmutation programme, assets and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation studies are covered by the 1991 French law concerning radioactive waste management. The programme is progressing with a dual approach: - What can be done in partitioning-transmutation? At what cost? In what timescale? - How can long-term gains and short-term disadvantages be qualified and quantified? The first approach concerns technical know-how. The studies based on today's technologies are continuing (reactors, fuels and targets, separation of radionuclides by solvents). The second approach involves an assessment activity, based firstly on studies of scenarios. Pertinent assessment criteria must be brought out. (authors)

  9. Transmutation of LWR waste actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle of actinides to a reactor for transmutation to fission products is being considered as a possible means of waste disposal. Actinide transmutation calculations were made for two irradiation options in a thermal (LWR) reactor. The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies, and transuranic actinides recycled in separate mixed oxide (MOX) assemblies. When all actinides were recycled in a uranium lattice, a reduction of 62% in the transuranic inventory was achieved after 10 recycles, compared to the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from 2 regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after 5 recycles

  10. Waste transmutation and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of transmuting radioactive wastes with reactors or accelerators is appealing. It has the potential of simplifying or eliminating problems of disposing of nuclear waste. The transmutation concept has been renewed vigorously at a time when national projects to dispose of high-level and transuranic waste are seriously delayed. In this period of tightening federal funds and program curtailments, skilled technical staffs are available at US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and contractors to work on waste transmutation. If the claims of transmutation can be shown to be realistic, economically feasible, and capable of being implemented within the US institutional infrastructure, public acceptance of nuclear waste disposal may be enhanced. If the claims for transmutation are not substantiated, however, there will result a serious loss of credibility and an unjust exacerbation of public concerns about nuclear waste. The paper discusses the following topics: how public acceptance is achieved; the technical community and waste disposal; transmutation and technical communication; transmutation issues; technical fixes and public perception

  11. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio [Universidad Simón Bolívar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Davila, Jesus [Física Médica C. A. and Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-07-23

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e’n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 237}Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  12. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  13. A study for optimal transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.S.; Song, T.Y.; Shin, H.S.; Park, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    Couple of transmutation systems are being under investigation to design the optimal transmutation device. Several basic studies were performed for that objectives: (1) select the radioactive nuclides to be transmuted: (2) investigate the physical characteristics of each nuclide; (3) study the most favorable neutron energy environment for the transmutation. The existing LWR and LMFBR cores were found to be not a satisfiable ones in terms of transmutation rate itself. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Physics and safety of transmutation systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The safe and efficient management of spent fuel from the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. Worldwide, more than 250 000 tons of spent fuel from currently operating reactors will require disposal. These numbers account for only high-level radioactive waste generated by present-day power reactors. Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from the long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to only about 1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium (called transuranic elements) and the long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium.When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal, the toxic nature of the spent fuel drops below that of natural uranium ore (that which was originally mined for the nuclear fuel) within a period of several hundred to a thousand years. This significantly reduces the burden on geological repositories and the problem of addressing the remaining long-term residues can thus de done in controlled environments having timescales of centuries rather than millennia stretching beyond 10 000 years. Transmutation is one of the means being explored to address the disposal of transuranic elements. To achieve this, advanced reactors systems, appropriate fuels, separation techniques and associated fuel cycle strategies are required. This status report begins by providing a clear definition of partitioning and transmutation (P and T), and then describes the state of the art concerning the challenges facing the implementation of P and T, scenario studies and specific issues related to accelerator-driven systems (ADS) dynamics and safety, long-lived fission product transmutation and the impact of nuclear data uncertainty on transmutation system design. The report will be of particular interest to nuclear scientists working on P and T issues as well as advanced fuel cycles in general. (author)

  15. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  16. 1. round table - Spent fuels composition. Back-end of the fuel cycle and reprocessing, plutonium and other nuclear materials management. 2. round table - Separation-transmutation. 3. round table - Scenarios for a long term inventory of nuclear materials and wastes; 1. table ronde - La composition des combustibles uses. L'aval du combustible et le retraitement, la gestion du plutonium et des autres matieres nucleaires. 2. table ronde - Separation-transmutation. 3. table ronde - Scenarii pour un inventaire des matieres et des dechets nucleaires a LT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Paris on the reprocessing of spent fuels. Three aspects are discussed: the risks linked with the recovery of valorizable materials, the economical viability of the separation/transmutation option, and the future of the nuclear option in the French energy policy. Six presentations (transparencies) are attached with these proceedings which treat of: the reprocessing/recycling to the test, perspectives of future wastes, present day wastes/valorizable materials and future scenarios, critical analysis scenarios, why reprocessing spent fuels?, processing of spent fuels and recycling, separation and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes, thorium-uranium cycle. (J.S.)

  17. Transmutation of actinide 237Np with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Huang, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fusion reactors to transmute fission reactor wastes to stable species is an attractive concept. In this paper, the feasibility of transmutation of the long-lived actinide radioactive waste Np-237 with a fusion reactor and a hybrid reactor has been investigated. A new waste management concept of burning HLW (High Level Waste), utilizing released energy and converting Np-237 into fissile fuel Pu-239 through transmutation has been adopted. The detailed neutronics and depletion calculation of waste inventories was carried out with a modified version of one-dimensional neutron transport and burnup calculation code system BISON1.5 in this study. The transmutation rate of Np with relationship to neutron wall loading, Pu and Np with relationship to neutron wall load, Pu and Np concentration in the transmutation zone have been explored as well as relevant results are also given

  18. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Lindley, B. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Phillips, C. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  20. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Isabelle; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Neumayer, Denis; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93} Zr, {sup 94} To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW, respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Work is progressing in relation to a proposal for the 7th framework programme. This proposal will be aiming at a pilot plant for separation for transmutation purposes.

  1. Transuranic Waste Burning Potential of Thorium Fuel in a Fast Reactor - 12423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenner, Michael; Franceschini, Fausto; Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC,Cranberry Township, PA, 16066 (United States); Sartori, Alberto; Ricotti, Marco [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company (referred to as 'Westinghouse' in the rest of this paper) is proposing a 'back-to-front' approach to overcome the stalemate on nuclear waste management in the US. In this approach, requirements to further the societal acceptance of nuclear waste are such that the ultimate health hazard resulting from the waste package is 'as low as reasonably achievable'. Societal acceptability of nuclear waste can be enhanced by reducing the long-term radiotoxicity of the waste, which is currently driven primarily by the protracted radiotoxicity of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Therefore, a transition to a more benign radioactive waste can be accomplished by a fuel cycle capable of consuming the stockpile of TRU 'legacy' waste contained in the LWR Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) while generating waste which is significantly less radio-toxic than that produced by the current open U-based fuel cycle (once through and variations thereof). Investigation of a fast reactor (FR) operating on a thorium-based fuel cycle, as opposed to the traditional uranium-based is performed. Due to a combination between its neutronic properties and its low position in the actinide chain, thorium not only burns the legacy TRU waste, but it does so with a minimal production of 'new' TRUs. The effectiveness of a thorium-based fast reactor to burn legacy TRU and its flexibility to incorporate various fuels and recycle schemes according to the evolving needs of the transmutation scenario have been investigated. Specifically, the potential for a high TRU burning rate, high U-233 generation rate if so desired and low concurrent production of TRU have been used as metrics for the examined cycles. Core physics simulations of a fast reactor core running on thorium-based fuels and burning an external TRU feed supply have been carried out over multiple cycles of irradiation, separation and reprocessing. The TRU burning capability as well as

  2. An optimization methodology for heterogeneous minor actinides transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, Timothée; Buiron, Laurent; Rimpault, Gérald

    2018-04-01

    In the case of a closed fuel cycle, minor actinides transmutation can lead to a strong reduction in spent fuel radiotoxicity and decay heat. In the heterogeneous approach, minor actinides are loaded in dedicated targets located at the core periphery so that long-lived minor actinides undergo fission and are turned in shorter-lived fission products. However, such targets require a specific design process due to high helium production in the fuel, high flux gradient at the core periphery and low power production. Additionally, the targets are generally manufactured with a high content in minor actinides in order to compensate for the low flux level at the core periphery. This leads to negative impacts on the fuel cycle in terms of neutron source and decay heat of the irradiated targets, which penalize their handling and reprocessing. In this paper, a simplified methodology for the design of targets is coupled with a method for the optimization of transmutation which takes into account both transmutation performances and fuel cycle impacts. The uncertainties and performances of this methodology are evaluated and shown to be sufficient to carry out scoping studies. An illustration is then made by considering the use of moderating material in the targets, which has a positive impact on the minor actinides consumption but a negative impact both on fuel cycle constraints (higher decay heat and neutron) and on assembly design (higher helium production and lower fuel volume fraction). It is shown that the use of moderating material is an optimal solution of the transmutation problem with regards to consumption and fuel cycle impacts, even when taking geometrical design considerations into account.

  3. Nuclear transmutation by flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new idea for the transmutation of minor actinides, long (and even short) lived fission products is presented. It is based an the property of neutron flux compression in nuclear (fast and/or thermal) reactors possessing spatially non-stationary critical masses. An advantage factor for the burn-up fluence of the elements to be transmuted in the order of magnitude of 100 and more is obtainable compared with the classical way of transmutation. Three typical examples of such transmuters (a subcritical ringreactor with a rotating reflector, a sub-critical ring reactor with a rotating spallation source, the socalled ''pulsed energy amplifier'', and a fast burn-wave reactor) are presented and analysed with regard to this purpose. (orig.) [de

  4. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  5. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E.; Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L.; Seliverstov, V.; Seregin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time τ - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n rep - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  6. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249020 (Russian Federation); Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L. [Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Seliverstov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics ul.B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation); Seregin, M. [Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology Kashirskoe Shosse 33, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time {tau} - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n{sub rep} - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  7. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Drouet, Francois; Ekberg, Christian; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 93}Zr and {sup 126}Sn and activation products ({sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. This separation is necessary to obtain the desired efficiency in the transmutation process in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union sixth framework program project EUROPART. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development.

  8. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work

  9. The analysis of the initiating events in thorium-based molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jiaxu; Song Wei; Jing Jianping; Zhang Chunming

    2014-01-01

    The initiation events analysis and evaluation were the beginning of nuclear safety analysis and probabilistic safety analysis, and it was the key points of the nuclear safety analysis. Currently, the initiation events analysis method and experiences both focused on water reactor, but no methods and theories for thorium-based molten salt reactor (TMSR). With TMSR's research and development in China, the initiation events analysis and evaluation was increasingly important. The research could be developed from the PWR analysis theories and methods. Based on the TMSR's design, the theories and methods of its initiation events analysis could be researched and developed. The initiation events lists and analysis methods of the two or three generation PWR, high-temperature gascooled reactor and sodium-cooled fast reactor were summarized. Based on the TMSR's design, its initiation events would be discussed and developed by the logical analysis. The analysis of TMSR's initiation events was preliminary studied and described. The research was important to clarify the events analysis rules, and useful to TMSR's designs and nuclear safety analysis. (authors)

  10. Comparative analysis of sub-critical transmutation reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-lived nuclear wastes have been substantially generated from the light water reactor for a few decades. The toxicity of these spent fuels will be higher than that of the uranium ore, even if those will be stored in the repository more than ten thousands. Hence the means of transmuting the key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides, using a hybrid proton accelerator and subcritical transmutation reactor, are proposed. Until now, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor are the Energy Amplifier, the OMEGA project, the ATW and the MSBR. The detailed concepts and the specifications are illustrated in Table 1. The design requirements for the subcritical transmutation reactor are the high transmutation rate of long-lived nuclear wastes, safety and economics. And to propose the subcritical transmutation reactor concepts, the coolant, the target material and fuel type are carefully considered. In these aspects, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor in Table 1 have been surveyed. The requirements for a target and a coolant are the reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable coolant must have the low melting point, high heat capacity and excellent physical properties. And the target material must have high neutron yield for a given proton condition and easy heat removal capability. Therefore in respect with the above requirements, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for the subcritical reactor. Because the neutron yield for a given proton energy increases linearly with mass number up to bismuth but in heavier elements spallation events sharply increase both the neutron and heat outputs, Pb-Bi meets not only such the requirements as the above for the coolant but also those for the coolant and target, the simplification of system can be achieved

  11. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Landgren, A.; Spjuth, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Gudowski, W.

    1995-12-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  12. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm 3 are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system

  13. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  14. Feasibility analysis of constant TRU feeding in waste transmutation system using accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Jai; Cho, Nam Zin; Jo, Chang Keun; Park, Chang Je; Kim, Do Sam; Park, Jeong Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    It is probable that the issue of nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste can have negative impact on the future expansion of nuclear power programs. Accelerator-driven nuclear waste transmutation with constant composition TRU feeding which satisfies non-proliferation condition will help establish the long-range nuclear waste disposal strategy. In this study, current status of accelerator-driven transmutation of waste technology, and feasibility analysis of constant composition TRU feeding system were investigated. We ascertained that solid system using constant composition TRU is feasible with the the capability of transmutation. (author). 13 refs., 53 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  16. Progress in transmutation targets from Efttra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Warin, D.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Garzenne, C.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Maschek, W.; Schram, R.; Klaassen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Since 15 years, the EFTTRA partners have organised programmes to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of americium in uranium-free targets. In the related transmutation scenario, the targets are introduced in a thermal neutron zone of a fast reactor, to maximize the efficiency of transmutation. Amongst these programmes, those carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten have led to important conclusions and are still at the core of the research in that field. The analysis of the EFTTRA T4 and T4bis irradiation experiments, carried out with targets of MgAl 2 O 4 +11 wt% 241 Am, showed that the release/trapping of helium is the key issue for target design, and also demonstrated a lack of technical benefits of this material, due to a unsatisfactory in-pile behaviour in terms of irradiation damage and chemical stability. A new irradiation experiment called HELIOS is currently under fabrication and will be carried out in HFR. The in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels and targets such as (Am,Zr)O 2 , (Pu,Am,Zr)O 2 , CERCER (MgO) or CERMET (Mo) will be examined. The irradiation temperature will be high enough in some of the pins to be able to tune the release of a significant fraction of helium produced so that the material swelling can be minimized as much as reasonably possible. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is planned to be carried out in the HFR core and shall last 300 full power days starting in 2007. (authors)

  17. Neutron transmutation doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin

    2001-09-01

    HE OVERALL STATE OF THE ART RELATED WITH NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING(NCT) IS SURVEYED. ITEMS RELATED FOR THE REALIZATION OF NTD IN HANARO IS FOCUSED. IN ADDITION TO THE UNIFORM IRRADIATION AND ACHIEVING THE TARGET RESISTIVITY WHICH ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NTD, OTHER ITEMS SUCH AS THE FUNCTION AND ROLE OF NTD, MARKET TREND, QUALITY CONTROL ARE INCLUDED. MEANWHILE THE ONLY ADVANTAGE OF NTD IS ACHIEVING VERY HIGH UNIFORMITY OF DOPING, IT HAS SEVERAL DISADVANTAGES DUE TO THE USE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR. THEREFORE THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY HAS CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TO REPLACE NTD, AND THE DEMAND OF NTD HAD BEEN DECREASED A LOT DURING 1990S. AS THE DEMAND FOR LARGE CRYSTAL INCREASES, HOWEVER, THE NTD DEMAND BEGAN TO INCREASE AGAIN FROM 2000. SINCE THE DEMAND FOR THE LARGER CRYSTAL WILL BE CONTINUED IN THE FUTURE, THE ROLE OF NTD WOULD BE NEEDED FOR THE LONGER TIME. IN ORDER TO MITIGATE THIS TREND OF DEMAND, THE REACTOR SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF ACCEPTING LARGE CRYSTAL AND THE EFFORT TO IMPROVE DOPING UNIFORMITY AND TO REDUCE THE COST SHOULD CONTINUED.

  18. Transmutation and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresee, James

    2007-01-01

    In the January 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush announced a new Advanced Energy Initiative, a significant part of which is the Global Nuclear Energy Initiative. Its details were described on February 6, 2006 by the U.S. Secretary of Energy. In summary, it has three parts: (1) a program to expand nuclear energy use domestically and in foreign countries to support economic growth while reducing the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (2) an expansion of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure that will lead to the recycling of spent fuel and a closed fuel cycle and, through transmutation, a reduction in the quantity and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and its proliferation concerns, and (3) a partnership with other fuel cycle nations to support nuclear power in additional nations by providing small nuclear power plants and leased fuel with the provision that the resulting spent fuel would be returned by the lessee to the lessor. The final part would have the effect of stabilizing the number of fuel cycle countries with attendant non-proliferation value. Details will be given later in the paper. Commercial spent fuel recycling, pioneered in the U.S., has not been carried out since the nineteen seventies following a decision by President Carter to forego fuel reprocessing and to recommend similar practices by other countries. However, many nations have continued spent fuel reprocessing, generally using the U.S.-developed PUREX process. The latest to do so are Japan, which began operations of an 800 metric tons (tonnes) per year PUREX reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-mura in northern Honshu in 2006 and China, which recently began operations of a separations pilot plant, also using PUREX. Countries using the PUREX process, recycle the separated plutonium to light water reactors (LWRs) in a mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel called MOX. Plutonium recycling in LWRs, which are used for electricity production in all nuclear power nations, reduces

  19. Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced

  20. Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, 99 Tc and 129 I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining

  1. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  2. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  3. Transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. A contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem; Transmutation radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Kernkraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Verringerung der Endlagerproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, Manfred [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management

    2015-07-01

    The brochure on transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants - a contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem covers the following issues: What is transmutation? Nuclear power in Germany; energy density of fuels; time span of energy resources; CO{sub 2} emissions from different energy sources; types of nuclear power plants in Germany; cost of German electricity generation plants; nuclear power plants worldwide; wastes from nuclear electricity production; radiation from fission products; radiation effects on humans, the nuclear fuel cycle, direct final disposal of radioactive wastes; risk assessment of the direct final disposal; partitioning of actinides; transmutation of actinides.

  4. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  5. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlen, D.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper estimates the economical costs and benefits associated with a nuclear waste transmutation strategy. An 800 MWth, fast neutron spectrum, subcritical core design has been used in the study (the so called Sing-Sing Core). Three different fuel cycle scenarios have been compared. The main purpose of the paper has been to identify the cost drivers of a partitioning and transmutation strategy, and to estimate the cost of electricity generated in a nuclear park with operating accelerator driven systems. It has been found that directing all transuranic discharges from spent light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide (UOX) fuel to accelerator driven systems leads to a cost increase for nuclear power of 50±15%, while introduction of a mixed oxide (MOX) burning step in the LWRs diminishes the cost penalty to 35±10%. (authors)

  6. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. 'Buzz' Savage

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is investigating spent nuclear fuel treatment technologies that have the potential to improve the performance of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Separating actinides and selected fission products from spent fuel, storing some of them as low level waste and transmuting them in thermal and/or fast reactors has the potential to reduce the volume, short and long-term heat load and radiotoxicity of the high level waste destined for the repository, effectively increasing its capacity by a factor of 50 or more above the current legislative limit. (author)

  7. Calculated investigation of actinide transmutation in the BOR-60 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemkov, I.Yu.; Ishunina, O.V.; Yakovleva, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of reactor operation the formation of fission products and accumulation of minor-actinides and plutonium take place in the nuclear fuel. These materials define the radiation hazard to a great extent. Of one possible ways lowering the activity of irradiated nuclear fuel is transmutation of long-lived radioactive isotopes in the stable or short-lived ones, that allows to facilitate the problem of the high-level waste and to improve the efficiency of nuclear fuel use at the expense of its recycling and burnup increasing. (authors)

  8. Sensitivity analysis of minor actinides transmutation to physical and technological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooyman, T.; Buiron, L.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinides transmutation is one of the 3 main axis defined by the 2006 French law for management of nuclear waste, along with long-term storage and use of a deep geological repository. Transmutation options for critical systems can be divided in two different approaches: (a) homogeneous transmutation, in which minor actinides are mixed with the fuel. This exhibits the drawback of 'polluting' the entire fuel cycle with minor actinides and also has an important impact on core reactivity coefficients such as Doppler Effect or sodium void worth for fast reactors when the minor actinides fraction increases above 3 to 5% depending on the core; (b) heterogeneous transmutation, in which minor actinides are inserted into transmutation targets which can be located in the center or in the periphery of the core. This presents the advantage of decoupling the management of the minor actinides from the conventional fuel and not impacting the core reactivity coefficients. In both cases, the design and analyses of potential transmutation systems have been carried out in the frame of Gen IV fast reactor using a 'perturbation' approach in which nominal power reactor parameters are modified to accommodate the loading of minor actinides. However, when designing such a transmutation strategy, parameters from all steps of the fuel cycle must be taken into account, such as spent fuel heat load, gamma or neutron sources or fabrication feasibility. Considering a multi-recycling strategy of minor actinides, an analysis of relevant estimators necessary to fully analyze a transmutation strategy has been performed in this work and a sensitivity analysis of these estimators to a broad choice of reactors and fuel cycle parameters has been carried out. No threshold or percolation effects were observed. Saturation of transmutation rate with regards to several parameters has been observed, namely the minor actinides volume fraction and the irradiation time. Estimators of interest that have been

  9. Transmutation: a decade of revival issues, relevant experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade, transmutation studies have been again a topic of wide interest and have triggered numerous international activities, like bilateral/multilateral collaborations, information exchanges, state-of-the-art reports, conferences, but also some co-ordinated programmes and experiments. It is legitimate to ask at this point, whether transmutation studies are still 'fashionable' and why; what is known, what has been done and what should be done. Since the motivations of national programmes are often different, due to a different context, we will take for granted that transmutation is generally seen as an option for the back-end of the fuel cycle in order to reduce the burden of potential geological storages of radioactive wastes (whatever their nature). Finally, we also acknowledge the fact that some highly respected scientists have at several occasions during this decade expressed their doubts about the value of the transmutation option. A typical example is the position expressed by Pigford and Rasmussen, reporting the results of a study for the US National Research Council. (author)

  10. The possible transmutation of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear reactor power program produces high level and long lived radioactive wastes. The high level activity is associated with fission products, but beyond 400 years the principal waste hazard is from transuranic elements produced in the reactor. Several schemes have been proposed for the transmutation of the problem isotopes into more easily handled isotopes. The neutron flux in a thermal reactor is not high enough to significantly reduce the longer lived fission product isotopes 90 Sr and 132 Gs, but the transuranic elements can be reduced by recycling through power reactors. The limitation on recycling of the transuranic elements is the separation process to remove trace quantities from the waste stream. In fast reactors the transuranic elements are the principal fuel and fast reactor waste contains only half as much 90 Sr as thermal reactors. However, the overall waste hazard is similar to thermal reactors. A sufficiently intense neutron flux for fission product transmutation could perhaps be produced by a spallation reactor driven by a proton linear accelerator or a controlled thermonuclear reactor. However, both concepts are still some years in the future. Transmutation by accelerator sources of protons, electrons of gammas tend to require more energy than neutron transmutation. (author)

  11. The concept of electro-nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergelson, B.R.; Balyuk, S.A. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The possibility is shown to design in principle the double-purpose liquid fuel electro nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation in U-Pu fuel cycle conditions. D{sub 2}O and a melt of fluorine salts are considered as a working media for liquid fuel. Such facility replenished with depicted or natural uranium only makes it possible to generate power of 900 MW (c) for external consumers and serve 20 WWER-1000 reactors for transmutation of MA. The facility could be thought as an alternative to fast reactors since appr. 30% of the total power confined in uranium is utilized in it.

  12. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  13. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of 99 Tc and 129 I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted

  14. Nudatra: nuclear data for transmutation in IP-Eurotrans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.M.; Koning, A.; Leray, S.; Plompen, A.; Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of NUDATRA, Domain 5 of the EU Integrated Project EUROTRANS (FI6W-CT-2004- 516520), is to improve and validate the nuclear data and simulation tools required for the development and optimisation of nuclear waste transmutation, ADS dedicated transmutation systems and the associated fuel cycle. Activities are essentially aimed at supplementing the evaluated nuclear data libraries and improving the reaction models for materials in transmutation fuels, coolants, spallation targets, internal structures, and reactor and accelerator shielding, relevant for the design and optimisation of the ETD and XT-ADS. These activities are distributed over four Work Packages: Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of Nuclear Data and Simulation Tools; Low- and Intermediate-energy Nuclear Data Measurements; Nuclear Data Libraries Evaluation and Low-intermediate Energy Models; and High-energy Experiments and Modelling.The main accomplishments expected from NUDATRA are: 1) new measurements and evaluations of Pb-Bi cross-sections, i.e. inelastic, (n,xn) and isomer branching ratios (Po production); 2) new measurements and evaluations for minor actinides particularly the capture in 243 Am and fission on 244 Cm; 3) improvement of TALYS as an evaluation tool and as an a priori model for the estimation of low- and intermediate-energy reaction cross-section; 4) high-energy model improvement based on measurements, particularly for the prediction of the spallation products, and gas (H, He) production cross-sections; 5) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of ETD fuel cycle and related covariance issues. (authors)

  15. Transmutation Studies of Radioactive Nuclides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2007), s. 125-150 ISSN 1310-0157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : transmutation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  16. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  17. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark St. J.; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Wald, Karin (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT now in the 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since a further investigation on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour is required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Due to new recruitments we will now also work on ligand design and development. This will decrease the response time between new ligands and their evaluation.

  18. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work.

  19. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements

  20. Study of minor actinides transmutation in heavy water cooled tight-pitch lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoqin; Shiroya, S.

    2002-01-01

    Minor actinides inhere long half-life and high toxicity. It is an alternative technical pathway and helpful for reducing environmental impact to incinerate minor actinides in spent fuel of nuclear power plants. Because of its high neutron, γ and β emitting rates and heat generation rate, it is necessary to imply more severe control and shielding techniques in the chemical treatment and fabrication. From economic view-point, it is suitable to transmute minor actinides in concentrated way. A technique for MA transmutation by heavy water cooled tight-pitch lattice system is proposed, and calculated with SRAC95 code system. It is shown that tight-pitch heavy water lattice can transmute MA effectively. The accelerator-driven subcritical system is practical for MA transmutation because of its low fraction of effective delay neutrons

  1. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste by a charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides and fission products using proton accelerators has many advantages over a transmutor operated in a critical condition. The energy required for this transmutation can be reduced by multiplying the spallation neutrons in a subcritical assembly surrounding the spallation target. The authors have studied the relation between the energy requirements and the multiplication factor, k, of the subcritical assembly, while varying the range of several parameters in the spallation target. A slightly subcritical reactor is superior to a reactor with large subcriticality in the context of the energy requirement of a small proton accelerator, the extent of radiation damage, and other safety problems. To transmute the fission products, the transmutor reactor must have a good neutron economy, which can be provided by a transmutor operated by a proton accelerator. The paper discusses the use of minor actinides to improve neutronics characteristics, such as a long fuel burn-up rather than simply transmuting this valuable material

  2. Chemico-technological support of transmutation objectives: Solid, molten salt and liquid blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, V.I.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Vakhrushin, A.Y. [VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Chemical and technological provision for the transmutation process, independantly on the scheme of its conduction, includes: fuel composition separation for fractions of components, subjected to annihilation; their transition into chemical form, in which they are present in the reactor; discharge and return into the form, convenient for chemical reprocessing, providing for the transmutation products separation from the components being transmutated and transferring of short-lived isotopes into the form of their temporary storage. The authors discuss different chemical processes which can be used in these steps to either improve efficiency or minimize additional waste generation and expense associated with decontamination. They consider processes involving molten salts for circulation of wastes thru transmutation steps, and possible advantages in extraction processes.

  3. Conceptual Design of Low Fusion Power Hybrid System for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    DRUP (Direct Reuse of Used PWR) fuel has same process with DUPIC (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel Into CANDU reactor). There are 2 big benefits by using DRUP fuel in Hybrid system. One is fissile production during operating period. Required power is decreased by fissile production from DRUP fuel. When the fusion power is reduced, integrity of structure materials is not significantly weakened due to reduction of 14.1MeV high energy neutrons. In addition, required amount of tritium for self-sufficiency TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio ≥ 1.1) is decreased. Therefore, it is possible to further loading the SNF as much as the amount of lithium decreased. It is effective in transmutation. The other one is that DRUP fuel is also SNF. Therefore, using DRUP fuel is reusing of SNF, as a result it makes reduction of SNF from PWR. However, thermal neutron system is suitable for using DRUP fuel compared to fast neutron system. Therefore, transmutation zone designed (U-TRU)Zr fuel and fissile production zone designed DRUP fuel are separated in this study. In this paper, using DRUP fuel for low fusion power in hybrid system is suggested. Fusion power is decreased by using DRUP fuel. As a result, TBR is satisfied design condition despite of using natural lithium. In addition, not only (U-TRU)Zr fuel but also DRUP fuel are transmuted.

  4. Analysis of minor actinides transmutation for a Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chenggang; Li, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Xiangzhou; Zou, Chunyan; Ma, Yuwen; Han, Jianlong; Chen, Jingen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The transmutation of MA in a 500 MWth MSFR is analyzed. • A larger MA loading can enhance the MA transmutation and deepen the burnup. • The MA transmutation efficiency can reach 95%. • The FTC can satisfy the safe operating requirement during the entire operating. - Abstract: As one of the six candidate reactors chosen by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) has many outstanding advantages and features for advanced nuclear fuel utilization. Effective transmutation of minor actinides (MA) could be attained in this kind of fast reactor, which is of importance in the future closed nuclear fuel cycle scenario. In this work, we attempt to study the MA transmutation capability in a MSFR with power of 500 MWth by analyzing the neutronics characteristics for different MA loadings. The calculated results show that MA loading plays an important role in the reactivity evolution of the MSFR. A larger MA loading is favorable to improving the MA transmutation performance and simultaneously to reducing the fissile consumption. When MA = 18.17 mol%, the transmutation fraction can achieve to about 95% on iso-breeding. We also find that although the fuel temperature coefficient (FTC) decreases with the increasing MA loading, it is still negative enough to keep the safety of the MSFR during the whole operation time. The MA contribution to the effective delayed neutron fraction (EDNF) and the intensity of spontaneous fission neutron (ISFN) are also analyzed. Also MA loading can affect the EDNF during the operation and the ISFN of the MSFR is dominated by 244 Cm. Finally, we analyze the effect of the core power on MA transmutation capability. The result shows that for all the operating powers the depletion ratio of MA to HN increases with time and reaches a maximum value. And additional MA should be fed into the fuel salt before the MA depletion ratio reaches the peak value to improve its transmutation capability. The net

  5. Transmutation of transuranium elements in a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biss, Klaus Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The peaceful usage of nuclear energy by light and boiling water reactors is connected with a buildup of long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Compared to the direct disposal, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered as an effective way to reduce this waste in its quantity by converting it into short-lived radio nuclides. By that the long term radiotoxicity is reduced compared to direct disposal. Subcritical systems, which are powered by spallation processes for free neutron production to maintain the nuclear chain reaction, allow a target-oriented transmutation. As a subcritical system a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) for transmutation of transuranic elements has been modeled in this thesis to evaluate the reduction of the radio toxicity by P and T. The simulation of neutron-physical processes is based on the Monte Carlo computer program MCNPX. The development of an equilibrium core made it possible to study the transmutation and operating behavior for several fuel variations in a magnesium oxide matrix and develop a simplified burnup method. Americium as part of the fuel has a stabilizing effect on the neutron multiplication due to its conversion into plutonium during the operation. Thorium was investigated as an alternative matrix for the fuel in order to replicate the stabilizing effect of americium by the conversion of thorium in 233 U. By that a consistent operating cycle in the later P and T-process is ensured. Calculation of the nuclide composition at the end of a P and T-process leads to an expansion of the mathematical description of the mass reduction (transmutation efficiency) by the material located in the reactor. The achieved transmutation efficiency with the investigated ADS is 98.8 %. The transmutation time was examined with different operating strategies regarding the number, size and thermal power of use of transmutation facilities to determine the effort for the P and T-process depending on efficiency. It turns out

  6. Evaluation of the possibility of plutonium and minor actinides transmutation in HWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, P.; Ghizdeanu, N. B.

    2008-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Until now, for this purpose were studied ADS and/or FBR, but not HWR. There are several developed computer codes that analyze the inventory of the radio-nuclides in spent fuel before and after transmutation. WIMSD code is a deterministic lattice spectrum code, which can analyze the reactor neutronic behaviour It also has the capacity to generate burn up and can calculate the inventory of the radio-nuclides of the spent fuel. The advantage of WIMSD code is the variety of the created geometries, together with the big amount of calculated information (K-infinite, macroscopic cross-sections, burnable material radioactive inventory etc). Starting from WIMSD code, the paper presents a model, which simulates the possibility of fuel transmutation in PHWRs. First step was to propose a model, which simulates a CANDU reactor lattice and calculate the radionuclides inventory in an irradiated CANDU fuel bundle. The results were compared with the existing experimental data from CANDU reactors and the calculated parameters were found to be in good agreement with them. After the validation, several simulations were made for PHWRs in order to establish the optimal parameters, related to the efficiency of the transmutation process. Therefore, the code was used for a new type of fuel, containing Plutonium and minor actinides that could be transmuted. The new radioactive inventories were calculated. The simulations showed that Pu content decreases up to 8% in a CANDU reactor and 25% in an ACR. Thus, ACR can reduce the Plutonium inventory from MOX fuel and could be a transmutation solution. (authors)

  7. Solid TRU fuels and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Suzuki, Yasufumi

    1997-01-01

    Alloys and nitrides are candidate solid fuels for transmutation. However, the nitride fuels are preferred to the alloys because they have more favorable thermal properties which allows to apply a cold-fuel concept. The nitride fuel cycle technology is briefly presented

  8. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  9. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  10. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Zaetta, A.; Delpech, M.; Girard, C.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    A deep repository for safe long-term storage of long-lived radioactive materials (waste) arising from nuclear fuel irradiation in reactors is a need generally accepted, whatever the strategy envisaged for further use of the irradiated fuel (e.g.: reprocessing and re-use of uranium and plutonium; no reprocessing and final disposal). To assess the impact on the environment of a waste repository, one is lead naturally to consider the impact of radiation on man and to define the radiotoxicity of the different isotopes. The toxicity of the materials stored in a repository is function of time and at a given time is the sum of the activities of each radionuclide multiplied by appropriate danger coefficients. This time dependent sum R, is a source of 'potential' radiotoxicity. It has been pointed out (in reference 1), that R does not measure 'risk', which has to take into account 'actual pathways and probability of radioactive release to the biosphere'. It is well understood that (e.g. in the case of spent PWR fuel) the main contributor to R are actinides, Pu being the main component (see table I). In the case of risk, the situation is by far more complex and dependent on the modeling of different geological environments. In the analysis made in reference 1 the predominant role of Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 has been pointed out. The same analysis also stresses that actinides will be by far less relevant with respect to the highly soluble and mobile fission products. (authors). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  11. First results and future trends for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Salvatores, M.; Guerin, Y.; Zaetta, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of the CEA SPIN program, a project has been set-up at the Direction of Nuclear Reactors of CEA, to study the transmutation of long-lived radioactive products (both minor actinides and fission products) resulting from the operation of current nuclear power plants. The program is focused on: transmutation in minor actinides (Np, Am) in fission reactors of known technology (both of the PWR or the fast reactor type), using the so-called ''homogeneous'' (mixed with Uranium or Uranium-Plutonium), and ''heterogeneous'' (mixed with inert matrices) recycling modes for both type of reactors. Transmutation studies in dedicated devices (both fission reactors with actinide/plutonium fuel or with high thermal flux, and particle accelerator-based systems). Fuel studies related to both homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling modes in fission reactors. For the homogeneous recycling mode, some experimental irradiations results are available from past PHENIX programs. For the heterogeneous mode, very limited experimental results are available, and new theoretical and experimental work is underway on the use of appropriate inert matrices. Basic data studies to assess the quality of existing nuclear data for fission reactor transmutation studies, future data needs of relevance, and model/data developments needed for accelerator-based systems. Strategy studies, to evaluate the consequences of the different transmutation options on the fuel cycle, according to different scenarios of nuclear power development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Transmutation of fission products through accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Tani, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamura, O.

    1995-01-01

    The transmutation of fission products through particle accelerators has been studied under the OMEGA program. The photonuclear reaction has also been investigated to be applied to transmuting long-lived fission products, such as Cesium and Strontium, which have difficulties on reaction with neutrons due to its so small cross section. It is applicable for the transmutation if the energy balance can be improved with a monochromatic gamma rays in the range of the Giant Dipole Resonance generated through an excellent high current electron linear accelerator. The feasibility studies are being conducted on the transmutation system using it through an electron accelerator. (authors)

  13. Evaluation on transmutation performance of minor actinides with high-flux BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, M.B.; Kitamoto, A.; Taniguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of high-flux BWR (HFBWR) for burning and/or transmutation (B/T) treatment of minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP) was discussed herein for estimating an advanced waste disposal with partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The concept of high-flux B/T reactor was based on a current 33 GWt-BWR, to transmute the mass of long-lived transuranium (TRU) to short-lived fission products (SLFP). The nuclide selected for B/T treatment was MA (Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243) included in the discharged fuel of LWR. The performance of B/T treatment of MA was evaluated by a new function, i.e. [F/T ratio], defined by the ratio of the fission rate to the transmutation rate in the core, at an arbitrary burn-up, due to all MA nuclides. According to the results, HFBWR could burn and/or transmute MA nuclides with higher fission rate than BWR, but the fission rate did not increase proportionally to the flux increment, due to the higher rate of neutron adsorption. The higher B/T fraction of MA would result in the higher B/T capacity, and will reduce the units of HFBWR needed for the treatment of a constant mass of MA. In addition, HFBWR had a merit of higher mass transmutation compared to the reference BWR, under the same mass loading of MA

  14. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2004-02-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products and activation products. To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to obtain are the one between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and the one between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to obtain separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union project PARTNEW. This project was a part of the fifth framework programme and was concluded in September 2003, but the work is continued in the sixth framework programme under the acronym EUROPART (start January 2004). We mainly cooperate with the Univ. of Reading, which send us new nitrogen containing ligands for evaluation of their extraction properties. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry of these systems but also to study some process behaviour for future full-scale plants.

  15. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.

    2004-02-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products and activation products. To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to obtain are the one between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and the one between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to obtain separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union project PARTNEW. This project was a part of the fifth framework programme and was concluded in September 2003, but the work is continued in the sixth framework programme under the acronym EUROPART (start January 2004). We mainly cooperate with the Univ. of Reading, which send us new nitrogen containing ligands for evaluation of their extraction properties. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry of these systems but also to study some process behaviour for future full-scale plants

  16. Aspects of severe accidents in transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.U.; Karlson, J.; Jones, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The different types of transmutation systems under investigation include accelerator driven (ADS) and critical systems. To switch off an accelerator in case of an accident initiation is quite important for all accidents. For a fast ADS the grace times available for doing so depend strongly on the total heat capacity and the natural circulation capability of the primary coolant. Cooling with heavy metal Pb-Bi has considerable advantages in this regard compared to gas cooling. Moreover it allows passive ex-vessel cooling with natural air or water circulation. In the remote likelihood of fuel melting, oxide fuel appears to mix with the Pb-Bi coolant. Fast critical systems that are cooled by Pb-Bi will automatically shut off if the flow or heat sink is lost. Reactivity accidents can be limited by a low total control rod worth. High temperature reactors can achieve only incomplete burning of actinides. If an accelerator is added to increase burn-up, a fast spectrum region is needed, which has a low heat capacity. (author)

  17. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Bush, R.P.; Crookshanks, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    A review of partition and transmutation is made with the objective of assessing the prospects for real financial of safety gains being made from the future use of partition and transmutation within the UK. The assessment covers all the civil high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent fuel, civil spent fuels where there are currently no plans or contracts for reprocessing, and intermediate-level waste (ILW). Both existing stocks and future arisings are included. The impact is also analysed of considering all the non-military uranium and plutonium extant in the UK as candidates for transmutation. The assessment takes full account of advances in technology since the earlier UK studies and changes in the UK situation. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Emory D.; Renier, John-Paul

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) studies were made to evaluate the feasibility of multicycle transmutation of plutonium and the minor actinides (MAs) in light-water reactors (LWRs). Results showed that significant repository benefits, cost reductions, proliferation resistance, and effective use of facilities can be obtained. Key advantages are shown to be made possible by processing 30-year-decayed spent fuel rather than the more traditional 5-year-decayed fuel. (authors)

  19. The nuclear design optimization of a Pb-Bi alloy cooled transmuter, PEACER-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    A core design of lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor, PEACER-300 has been investigated to maximize its transmutation capability within safety criteria. Transmutation of minor actinide under a closed recycling was analyzed with assumption on decontamination factors in pyro-reprocessing plant data at reasonably high values. To acquire high transmutation performance, feed fuel composition, P/D ratio, active core height and fuel cycle strategy were changed. For preventing the fuel meting and guaranteeing long plant life-time, the number of fuel assembly array and normal operation temperature were decided. The optimized design parameter were chosen as of a flat core shape with 50 cm of active core height and 5 m core diameter, loaded with 17 x 17 arrayed fuel assemblies. A pitch to diameter ratio is 2.2, operating coolant temperature range is 300 deg. C to 400 deg. C, and core consists of 3 different enrichment zones with one year cycle length. Performance of designed core showed a high transmutation capability with support ratio of 2.085, large negative temperature feedback coefficients, and sufficient shutdown margin with 28 B 4 C control assemblies. (authors)

  20. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T

  1. The status of nuclear data for transmutation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Young, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this point, the accurate description of transmutation products in a radiation environment is more a nuclear data problem than a code development effort. We have used versions of the CINDER code for over three decades to describe the transmutation of nuclear reactor fuels in radiation environments. The need for the accurate description of reactor neutron-absorption, decay-power, and decay-spectra properties have driven many AEC, ERDA, and DOE supported nuclear data development efforts in this period. The level of cross-section, decay, and fission-yield data has evolved from rudimentary to a comprehensive ENDF/B-VI library permitting great precision in reactor calculations. The precision of the data supporting reactor simulations provides a sturdy foundation for the data base required for the wide range of transmutation problems currently studied. However, such reactor problems are typically limited to neutron energies below 10 MeV or so; reaction and decay data are required for actinides of, say, 90 ≤ Z ≤ 96 neutron-rich fission products of 22 ≤ Z ≤ 72. The expansion into reactor structural materials and fusion systems extends these ranges in energy and Z somewhat. The library of nuclear data, constantly growing in breadth and quality with international cooperation, is now described in the following table

  2. Actinides transmutation - a comparison of results for PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.

    2009-01-01

    The physical aspects involved in the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides (MA) and fission products (FP) generated by reactors PWR are of great interest in the nuclear industry. Besides these the reduction in the storage of radioactive wastes are related with the acceptability of the nuclear electric power. From the several concepts for partitioning and transmutation suggested in literature, one of them involves PWR reactors to burn the fuel containing plutonium and minor actinides reprocessed of UO 2 used in previous stages. In this work are presented the results of the calculations of a benchmark in P and T carried with WIMSD5B program using its new cross sections library generated from the ENDF-B-VII and the comparison with the results published in literature by other calculations. For comparison, was used the benchmark transmutation concept based in a typical PWR cell and the analyzed results were the k∞ and the atomic density of the isotopes Np-239, Pu-241, Pu-242 and Am-242m, as function of burnup considering discharge of 50 GWd/tHM. (author)

  3. Comparative Study of the Reactor Burner Efficiency for Transmutation of Minor Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko sq. 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249020 (Russian Federation); Degtyarev, A.; Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Konev, V.; Seliverstov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, ul. B. Cheremushinskaya 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in the closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is a one of the most important problem for future nuclear energetic. There are several approaches for MA transmutation but there are no common criteria for the comparison of their efficiency. In paper [1] we turned out the attention to the importance of taking into account the duration of the closed NFC in addition to a usual criterion of the neutron economy. In accordance with these criteria the transmutation efficiency are compared of two fast reactors (sodium and lead cooled) and three types of ADS-burners: LBE-cooled reactors (fast neutron spectrum), molten-salt reactor (intermediate spectrum) and heavy water reactor (thermal spectrum). It is shown that the time of transmutation of loaded MA in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is more than 50 years. References: A. Gulevich, A. Kalugin, L. Ponomarev, V. Seliverstov, M. Seregin, 'Comparative Study of ADS for Minor Actinides Transmutation', Progress in Nuclear Energy, 50, March-August, p. 358, 2008. (authors)

  4. Neutron transmutation doping of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireshghi, A.

    1989-01-01

    After a brief review of the theoretical bases for Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) process, the equations necessary for calculation of doped crystal resistivity (p) in terms of parameters of irradiation, such as time and neutron flux, are derived. The procedure for production of NTD-Si is described, important considerations are outlined and the advantages and applications are introduced. Also, an assessment is made of the practicality of using AEOI Research Reactor thermal neutron irradiation facilities for production of NTD-Si, which is concluded to be possible at reactor nominal operation conditions

  5. Thorium Fuel Options for Sustained Transuranic Burning in Pressurized Water Reactors - 12381

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Fariz Abdul; Lee, John C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Franceschini, Fausto; Wenner, Michael [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As described in companion papers, Westinghouse is proposing the adoption of a thorium-based fuel cycle to burn the transuranics (TRU) contained in the current Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) and transition towards a less radio-toxic high level waste. A combination of both light water reactors (LWR) and fast reactors (FR) is envisaged for the task, with the emphasis initially posed on their TRU burning capability and eventually to their self-sufficiency. Given the many technical challenges and development times related to the deployment of TRU burners fast reactors, an interim solution making best use of the current resources to initiate burning the legacy TRU inventory while developing and testing some technologies of later use is desirable. In this perspective, a portion of the LWR fleet can be used to start burning the legacy TRUs using Th-based fuels compatible with the current plants and operational features. This analysis focuses on a typical 4-loop PWR, with 17x17 fuel assembly design and TRUs (or Pu) admixed with Th (similar to U-MOX fuel, but with Th instead of U). Global calculations of the core were represented with unit assembly simulations using the Linear Reactivity Model (LRM). Several assembly configurations have been developed to offer two options that can be attractive during the TRU transmutation campaign: maximization of the TRU transmutation rate and capability for TRU multi-recycling, to extend the option of TRU recycling in LWR until the FR is available. Homogeneous as well as heterogeneous assembly configurations have been developed with various recycling schemes (Pu recycle, TRU recycle, TRU and in-bred U recycle etc.). Oxide as well as nitride fuels have been examined. This enabled an assessment of the potential for burning and multi-recycling TRU in a Th-based fuel PWR to compare against other more typical alternatives (U-MOX and variations thereof). Results will be shown indicating that Th-based PWR fuel is a promising option to multi-recycle and

  6. Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System for the Radioactive Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic, I.; Pesic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear power plants is the main problem during design of radioactive waste disposal. Most of the hazard stems from only a few chemical elements. The radiotoxicity of these elements can be efficiently reduced using partitioning and transmutation in fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems. (author)

  7. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-01-01

    Lack of a safe disposal method for radioactive nuclear waste (RNW) is a problem of staggering proportion and impact. A typical LWR fission reactor will produce the following RNW in one year: minor actinides (i.e. 237 Np, 242-243 Am, 243-245 Cm) ∼40 kg, long-lived fission products (i.e, 99 Tc, 93 Zr, 129 I, 135 Cs) ∼80 kg, short lived fission products (e.g. 137 Cs, 90 Sr) ∼50kg and plutonium ∼280 kg. The total RNW produced by France and Canada amounts to hundreds of metric tonnes per year. Obtaining a uniform policy dealing with RNW has been blocked by the desire on one hand to harvest the energy stored in plutonium to benefit society and on the other hand the need to assure that the stockpile of plutonium will not be channeled into future nuclear weapons. In the meantime, the quantity and handling of these materials represents a potential health hazard to the world's population and particularly to people in the vicinity of temporary storage facilities. In the U.S., societal awareness of the hazards associated with RNW has effectively delayed development of U.S. nuclear fission reactors during the past decade. As a result the U.S. does not benefit from the large investment of resources in this industry. Reluctance to employ nuclear energy has compelled our society to rely increasingly on non-reusable alternative energy sources; coal, oil, and natural gas. That decision has compounded other unresolved global problems such as air pollution, acid rain, and global warming. Relying on these energy sources to meet our increasing energy demands has led the U.S. to increase its reliance on foreign oil; a policy that is disadvantageous to our economy and our national security. RNW can be simplistically thought of as being composed of two principal components: (1) actinides with half lives up to 10 6 years and (2) the broad class of fission fragments with typical half lives of a few hundred years. One approach to the RNW storage problem has been to transmute the

  8. Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-04-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for three irradiation options of a light water reactor (LWR). The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies; transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with 235 U enrichment of uranium; and transuranic actinides recycled in separate MOX assemblies with plutonium enrichment of natural uranium. When all actinides were recycled in a uniform lattice, the transuranic inventory after ten recycles was 38% of the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from two regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after five recycles

  9. Waste management in future. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Current research and development (R and D) in radioactive waste management is mainly associated with the quantities and toxicity of high level waste and spent fuel. One of the solutions that already exists, but has not yet reached scientific and technological maturity, is the process of partitioning and transmutation (P and T). Partitioning is the selective separation of radiotoxic isotopes from reprocessing streams. After the successive partitioning has been done, the long-lived radionuclides are converted into shorter-lived or stable nuclides by process called transmutation. P and T can reduce the radiotoxic inventory of spent fuel by a factor of 100 to 1000 and can achieve the reduction of time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the uranium ore from 100,000 to 5000 years. To achieve this, the separation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products has to be implemented as early as possible in the fuel cycle strategy. Currently, P and T is still at the research and development stage and it needs to be scaled up, before it can be introduced on an industrial scale, therefore the paper will present the current status of the development of P and T and plans for the future. (author)

  10. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine reprocessing is discussed of spent fuel and of fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. Additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation processes in the reactor. Demonstration critical molten salt reactor of small power capacity will permit to decide the most part of problems inherent to large critical reactors and subcritical drivers. It could be expected that fluoride molten salt transmuter can work without accelerator as a critical reactor. (author)

  11. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation. Status and assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Implementation and partitioning technology is intended to reduce the inventory of actinides and long-lived fission products in nuclear waste. Such technology can decrease hazards of pre-disposal waste management and of physical disturbance of a waste repository. An authoritative analysis is given of the technical, radiological and economic consequences of the proposed partitioning and transmutation operations on the present and future fuel cycle options. The report is subdivided to a general part for non-specialist readers, and to a technical systems analysis discussing issues on partitioning, transmutation and long-term waste management. (R.P.)

  12. Dynamic criteria for partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses dynamic criteria intended to optimize partitioning and transmutation (P-T) concept development supporting improved nuclear waste management. Six criteria are proposed initially and the rationale for each is briefly explained. Each criterion is used as a measure (or dimension) on which the developed concepts can be evaluated. The criteria allow the P-T concepts to be evaluated in an integral system including long-term energy needs, fuel cycle, and waste management. New criteria will be identified along with the P-T concept development, and each criterion will be realistically weighted so that it is comparable in an overall criteria evaluation. The weights are subject to change as a result of technical advancements and public perception on various issues. Incomplete criteria will result in a poor choice because important factors may not be considered when the decision is made. A successful decision on the optimal P-T system depends on the completeness of criteria (dimensions) as well as realistic weights assigned to each criterion

  13. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Rogues, N.; Skarnemark, G.; Oestberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    How to deal with the spent fuel from nuclear power plants is an issue that much research is attracted to in many countries around the world. Several different strategies exist for treating the waste ranging from direct disposal to reprocessing and recycling of plutonium and other long-lived nuclides. In either case the remains have to be stored for a long time to render it radio-toxically safe. One method to deal with this long-lived waste is to separate (separation) out the most long lived components and then transform them into shorter-lived ones (transmutation). Several methods exist for performing the separation for example via molten salts and through solvent extraction. The work presented here has been focused on solvent extraction. This technique is well known since many years and process scale plants have been operating for decades. The new demand is to separate chemically very similar elements from each other. Within this project this is done by new extracting agents developed for this purpose alone within the EU fifth framework programme, the PARTNEW project, particularly from the University of Reading. In this work we investigate different extraction systems for the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides using extraction agents following the so-called CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) principle. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry involved but also some processing behaviour for use in future full scale plants

  14. Investigation of neutronic and safety parameters variation in 5 MW research reactor due to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}Al fuel conversion to ThO{sub 2} + U{sub 3}O{sub 8}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Alipoor, Zahra; Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Reactor Research School; Feghhi, Seyed Amir Hossein [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Application; Vahedi, M.; Bagheri, H. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Dept.; Tenreiro, Claudio [Talca Univ. (Chile). Energy Dept.

    2017-05-15

    Thorium-based fuels could comprise several advantages and are being investigated as a potentially competitive option with uranium-based fuels for research or power reactors. The present study investigates computationally the application of two different thorium-based fuels in a research reactor. Void and temperature reactivity coefficients, safety factor, power peaking factor, neutron generation time, effective delayed neutron fraction and {sup 135}Xe worth parameter were investigated for the fuel conversions. The results showed both the investigated fuels would not significantly disturb neutronic and safety parameters of the modeled core in comparison with its routine fuel loading. However, 235-enriched thorium based fuel concluded in noticeably reduction of High Level Waste (HLW) but 233-enriched type could be taken in attention because of its longer fuel cycle (∝15 %) and integrated neutron flux (∝23 %).

  15. Study of an optimal configuration of a transmutation reactor based on a low-aspect-ratio tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen, E-mail: bghong@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Quantum System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoseok [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Optimum configuration of a transmutation reactor based on a low aspect ratio tokamak was found. • Inboard and outboard radial build are determined by plasma physics, engineering and neutronics constraints. • Radial build and equilibrium fuel cycle play a major role in determining the transmutation characteristics. - Abstract: We determine the optimal configuration of a transmutation reactor based on a low-aspect-ratio tokamak. For self-consistent determination of the radial build of the reactor components, we couple a tokamak systems analysis with a radiation transport calculation. The inboard radial build of the reactor components is obtained from plasma physics and engineering constraints, while outboard radial builds are mainly determined by constraints on neutron multiplication, the tritium-breeding ratio, and the power density. We show that the breeding blanket model has an effect on the radial build of a transmutation blanket. A burn cycle has to be determined to keep the fast neutron fluence plasma-facing material below its radiation damage limit. We show that the radial build of the transmutation reactor components and the equilibrium fuel cycle play a major role in determining the transmutation characteristics.

  16. HYPERFUSE: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.) that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  17. Hyper fuse: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1979-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with a target in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs or 90 Sr. The 14 MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions [e.g., (n, 2n), (n, α), etc.] that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product

  18. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aa; Landgren, A; Liljenzin, J O; Skaalberg, M; Spjuth, L [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. Refs, figs, tabs.

  19. Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

  20. Transmutation of long-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1994-01-01

    The time-accumulated dose related to technetium dominates the leakage doses in most scenarios for imperturbed geological disposal. If human intrusion into geologically stable repositories or other disturbances is taken into account, the actinides determine the maximum value of the expected individual dose rates of shorter storage times. Therefore actinides dominate the discussion on transmutation of nuclear waste. In principle current LWRs could be used for a massive transmutation of Tc and perhaps I. Fast reactors and HWRs have attractive potential with respect to transmutation in moderated assemblies. HWRs like CANDU have easy refuelling possibilities. (orig.)

  1. Feasibility study of a small, thorium-based fission power system for space and terrestrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Michael Jason

    One of the current challenges facing space exploration is the creation of a power source capable of providing useful energy for the entire duration of a mission. Historically, radioisotope batteries have been used to provide load power, but this conventional system may not be capable of sustaining continuous power for longer duration missions. To remedy this, many forays into nuclear powered spacecraft have been investigated, but no robust system for long-term power generation has been found. In this study, a novel spin on the traditional fission power system that represents a potential optimum solution is presented. By utilizing mature High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technology in conjunction with the capabilities of the thorium fuel cycle, we have created a light-weight, long-term power source capable of a continuous electric power output of up to 70kW for over 15 years. This system relies upon a combination of fissile, highly-enriched uranium dioxide and fertile thorium carbide Tri-Structural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in a hexagonal beryllium oxide matrix. As the primary fissile material is consumed, the fertile material breeds new fissile material leading to more steady fuel loading over the lifetime of the core. Reactor control is achieved through an innovative approach to the conventional boron carbide neutron absorber by utilizing sections of borated aluminum placed in rotating control drums within the reflector. Borated aluminum allows for much smaller boron concentrations, thus eliminating the potential for 10B(n,alpha)6Li heating issues that are common in boron carbide systems. A wide range of other reactivity control systems are also investigated, such as a radially-split rotating reflector. Lastly, an extension of the design to a terrestrial based system is investigated. In this system, uranium enrichment is dropped to 20 percent in order to meet current regulations, a solid uranium-zirconium hydride fissile driver replaces the

  2. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Takahashi, H.; Geiger, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 19 refs., 20 figs

  3. The EU research activities on partitioning and transmutation. From the 4. to the 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.

    1999-01-01

    The European Commission is partly supporting research work on partitioning and transmutation of radioactive waste under the Fourth Framework Programme (1994-1998). This work includes nine research projects. Five strategy studies are evaluating the capabilities of various burners and fuel cycles to limit the production and even destroy the stock of actinides (plutonium and minor actinides). Two experimental projects are aiming at developing techniques for the chemical separation of actinides and two others are dealing with the investigation of transmutation of americium and long-lived fission products. The objectives of these studies are described together with the main results already obtained. The European Union should adopt the 5. Framework Programme (1998-2002) at the end of 1998. The broad lines of the research activities foreseen in partitioning and transmutation and future system under the 5. Framework Programme are briefly presented. (author)

  4. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  5. Research on transmutation and accelerator-driven systems at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Heusener, G.

    2000-01-01

    Transmutation is considered a promising technology worldwide for significantly reducing the amount and, thereby, the long-term radiotoxicity of high active waste (HAW) produced by the operation of nuclear power plants such as light water reactors (LWR). The maximum reduction of radiotoxicity could be by a factor of about 100. Transmutation is thus an alternative to the direct deposition of large volumes of highly radioactive waste. Transmutation presents the possibility of closing the fuel cycle including the minor actinides. Plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products can be transmuted in a so called Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS), which consists of an accelerator, a target module and a subcritical blanket. This paper describes the work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe which is critically evaluating an ADS mainly with respect to its potential for transmuting minor actinides, to its feasibility and to safety aspects. The work is being done in the area of core design, neutronics, safety, system analyses, materials and corrosion. (orig.) [de

  6. Conceptual design study of Hyb-WT as fusion–fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design study of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation. • MCNPX and MONTEBURNS are compared for transmutation performance of WT-Hyb. • Detailed neutronic performance of final optimized Hyb-WT design is analyzed. • A new tube-in-duct core design is implemented and compared with pin type design. • Study shows many aspects of hybrid reactor even though scope was limited to neutronic analysis. - Abstract: This study proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). The design of Hyb-WT is based on a low-power tokamak (less than 150 MWt) and an annular ring-shaped reactor core with metal fuel (TRU 60 w/o, Zr 40 w/o) and a fission product (FP) zone. The computational code systems MONTEBURNS and MCNPX2.6 are investigated for their suitability in evaluating the performance of Hyb-WT. The overall design performance of the proposed reactor is determined by considering pin-type and tube-in-duct core designs. The objective of such consideration is to explore the possibilities for enhanced transmutation with reduced wall loading from fusion neutrons and reduced transuranic (TRU) inventory. TRU and FP depletion is analyzed by calculating waste transmutation ratio, mass burned per full power year (in units of kg/fpy), and support ratio. The radio toxicity analysis of TRUs and FPs is performed by calculating the percentage of toxicity reduction in TRU and FP over a burn cycle

  7. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  8. JAERI R & D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called {open_quotes}OMEGA,{close_quotes} is presented. Under this national program, major R&D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

  9. Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

  10. Scientific research on the back-end of the fuel cycle for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the Atalante-2000 conference is to present the major research axis concerning the nuclear fuel cycle back-end. The different topics are: - Present options concerning fuel cycle back-end; - Reprocessing of spent fuel; - Advanced separation for transmutation; - Processing and packaging of radioactive wastes; - Design and fabrication of targets for transmutation; and - Conversion of military plutonium into MOX fuels

  11. Transmutation: The Roots of the Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Vladimir

    1995-01-01

    Examines the history of alchemical attempts at transmutation and classifies them by differing approaches and techniques. Traces the development of alchemy in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and compares alchemy with craftsmanship. (18 references) (DDR)

  12. Study of nuclear energy systems and double strata scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    The French law of 28 June 2006 regarding advanced nuclear waste management requires a scientific assessment to define future industrial strategies. The present PhD thesis was carried in this framework and concerns specifically the research axis of minor actinides transmutation. A high power Accelerator Driven System (ADS) concept is developed at SUBATECH for this purpose. A 1 GeV proton beam feeds three liquid lead-bismuth spallation targets. The Multiple Spallation Target (MUST) ADS reaches the thermal powers up to 1 GW with a high specific power. A nuclear reactor dimensioning method has been developed and applied to different double strata scenarios. In these scenarios, SFR (Sodium Fast Reactors) or PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) power reactors produce minor actinides that will be transmuted into ADS. In each core (SFR and ADS), the plutonium multi-reprocessing strategy is performed while ADS subcritical core also multi-reprocesses minor actinides. To limit the core reactivity and improve the fuel thermal conductivity, the minor actinides fuel is mixed with MgO inert matrix. Nuclear branches with lead and sodium coolants for the ADS, have been studied for different irradiation times and two transmutation strategies have been assessed: whether whole minor actinides, whether americium only is transmuted. The thesis presents precisely the MUST ADS design methodology and the calculations to get a fuel composition at equilibrium. Then a one cycle evolution is performed and analysed for the fuel and the multiplication factor. Radiotoxicity and thermal power of the waste produced are then compared. Finally, the study of double strata scenarios is performed to analyse the plutonium and minor actinides inventories in cycle and also the waste produced according to the transmutation strategies applied and the first stratum evolution. (author)

  13. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Spendlikova, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I and 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects range from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. We have proposed a

  14. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Spendlikova, Irena (Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I and 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects range from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. We have proposed a novel process

  15. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Naestren, Catharina; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high cross sections for neutron capture of some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional making of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. Due to new recruitments we will now also work

  16. Neutronic design and analysis on dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the fusion driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican; Gao Chunjing; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Zhu Xiaoxiang

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design and analysis of dual-cooled multi-functional waste transmutation blanket (DWTB) for the fusion driven sub-critical system (FDS) are performed to ensure the system be able to meet the requirements of fuel-sufficiency and more waste transmutation ratio with low initial loading fuel inventory, which is based on 1-D burn-up calculations with home-developed code Visual BUS and the multi-group (175 neutron groups-42 Gamma groups coupled) data library HENDL1.0/MG (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). (authors)

  17. Radiotoxicity Characterization of Multi-Recycled Thorium Fuel - 12394

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milano, Milan (Italy); Paul Sherrer Institute (Switzerland); Huang, M.; Petrovic, B. [Georgia Technology University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Krepel, J. [Paul Sherrer Institute (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    substantial advantages compared to the U cycle, such as the smaller actinide radiotoxicity and decay heat for up to 25,000 years after irradiation. In order for these benefits to materialize, the capability to reprocess and remotely manufacture industrial amounts of recycled fuel appears to be the key. Westinghouse is proposing the implementation of a thorium based fuel cycle to burn the TRU contained in the current UNF. The general approach and the potential of thorium as TRU burner is described in other papers presented at this conference. The focus of this paper is to analyze the long-term potential of thorium, once the legacy TRU has been exhausted and the thorium reactor system will become self-sufficient. Therefore, a comparison of Th closed cycle, in fast and thermal neutron energy ranges, vs. U closed cycle, in the fast energy range, has been undertaken. The results presented focus on selected backend and front-end metrics: isotopic actinide composition and potential implications on ingested radiotoxicity, decay heat and gamma heat. The evaluation confirms potential substantial improvements in the backend of the fuel cycle by transitioning to a thorium closed cycle. These benefits are the result of a much lower TRU content, in particular Pu-241, Am-241 and Pu-240, characterizing the Th vs. U actinide inventories, and the ensuing process waste to be disposed. On the other hand, the larger gamma activity of Th recycled fuel, consisting predominantly of hard gammas from U-232's decay products, is a significant challenge for fuel handling, transportation and manufacturing but can be claimed as beneficial for the proliferation resistance of the fuel. It is worth remembering that in our perspective the Th closed cycle and the U closed cycle will follow a transmutation phase which will likely take place over several decades and dictate the technologies required. These will likely include remote fuel manufacturing, regardless of the specific system adopted for the

  18. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  19. Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient destruction of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.M.; Mahajan, S.M.; Schneider, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic nuclear waste is developed by combining a subcritical fusion-fission hybrid assembly uniquely equipped to burn the worst thermal nonfissile transuranic isotopes with a new fuel cycle that uses cheaper light water reactors for most of the transmutation. The center piece of this fuel cycle, the high power density compact fusion neutron source (100 MW, outer radius <3 m), is made possible by a new divertor with a heat-handling capacity five times that of the standard alternative. The number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of waste is an order of magnitude below the corresponding number of critical fast-spectrum reactors (FRs) as the latter cannot fully exploit the new fuel cycle. Also, the time needed for 99% transuranic waste destruction reduces from centuries (with FR) to decades

  20. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  1. Status of the French research programme for actinides and fission products partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focus on separation and transmutation research and development programme and main results over these ten last years. The massive research programme on enhanced separation, conducted by CEA and supported by broad international cooperation, has recently achieved some vital progress. Based on real solutions derived from the La Hague process, the CEA demonstrated the lab-scale feasibility of extracting minor actinides and some fission products (I, Cs and Tc) using an hydrometallurgical process that can be extrapolated on the industrial scale. The CEA also conducted programmes proving the technical feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products by transmutation: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for ADS developments in order to support the MEGAPIE, TRADE and MYRRHA experiments and the future 100 MW international ADS demonstrator. Scenarios studies aimed at stabilizing the inventory with long-lived radionuclides, plutonium, minor actinides and certain long-lived fission products in different nuclear power plant parks and to verify the feasibility at the level of the cycle facilities and fuels involved in those scenarios. Three French Research Groups CEA-CNRS carry out partitioning (PRACTIS) and transmutation (NOMADE and GEDEON) more basic studies. (author)

  2. Analysis of the transmutational characteristics of a novel molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.; Feher, S.; Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the arguments most frequently brought up by the opponents of the utilization of nuclear energy is the requirement that the radioactive waste and the long-lived radioisotopes accumulated in the spent fuel should be isolated for a very long time from the biosphere. The solution is the elimination of long-lived actinides (plutonium isotopes and minor actinides) and long-lived fission products by transforming (transmuting) them into short-lived or stable nuclei. The high neutron flux required for transmutation can be realized in nuclear installations. these may be conventional therma; and fast reactors, furthermore dedicated devices, namely thermal and fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems (ADSs), which are specifically designed for this purpose. Some of the most promising systems are the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems, in which the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. In the present paper this transmutational device, as well as recommendations for the improvement are discussed in detail (Authors)

  3. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K.

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project 'Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety' - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups

  4. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project `Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety` - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups 31 refs, 23 figs

  5. Effect of Fast Neutron to MA/PU Burning/Transmutation Characteristic Using a Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Lasman, As Natio; Kimamoto, A.; Marsongkohadi; Zaki, S.

    2003-01-01

    MA/Pu burning/transmutation has been studied and evaluated using fast neutrons. Generally, neutron density at this fast burner reactor and transmutation has spectrum energy level around 0.2 MeV with wide enough variation, i.e. from low neutron spectrum to its peak is 0.2 MeV. This neutron spectrum energy level depends on the kind of cooler material or fuel used. Neutron spectrum higher than fast power reactor neutron spectrum is found by means of changing oxide fuel by metallic fuel and changing natrium cooler material by metallic or gas cooler material. This evaluation is conducted by various variations in accordance with the kind of fuel or cooler, MA/Pu fractions and fuel comparison fraction with respect to its cooler in order to get better neutron usage and MA/Pu burning speed. Reactor calculation evaluation in this paper was conducted with 26-group nuclear data cross section energy spectrum. The main purpose of the discussion is to know the effect of fast neutrons to burning/transmutation MA/Pu using fast neutrons

  6. Overall assessment of actinide partitioning and transmutation for waste management purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Croff, A.G.; Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A program to establish the technical feasibility and incentives for partitioning (i.e., recovering) actinides from fuel cycle wastes and then transmuting them in power reactors to shorter-lived or stable nuclides has recently been concluded at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The feasibility was established by experimentally investigating the reduction that can be practicably achieved in the actinide content of the wastes sent to a geologic repository, and the incentives for implementing this concept were defined by determining the incremental costs, risks, and benefits. Eight US Department of Energy laboratories and three private companies participated in the program over its 3-year duration. A reference fuel cycle was chosen based on a self-generated plutonium recycle PWR, and chemical flowsheets based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange techniques were generated that have the potential to reduce actinides in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plant wastes to less than 0.25% of those in the spent fuel. Waste treatment facilities utilizing these flowsheets were designed conceptually, and their costs were estimated. Finally, the short-term (contemporary) risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term (future) risks from deep geologic disposal of the wastes were estimated for cases with and without partitioning and transmutation. It was concluded that, while both actinide partitioning from wastes and transmutation in power reactors appear to be feasible using currently identified and studied technology, implementation of this concept cannot be justified because of the small long-term benefits and substantially increased costs of the concept

  7. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Priman, V.; Vanicek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  8. Thorium Fuel Performance in a Tight-Pitch Light Water Reactor Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taek Kyum; Downar, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Research on the utilization of thorium-based fuels in the intermediate neutron spectrum of a tight-pitch light water reactor (LWR) lattice is reported. The analysis was performed using the Studsvik/Scandpower lattice physics code HELIOS. The results show that thorium-based fuels in the intermediate spectrum of tight-pitch LWRs have considerable advantages in terms of conversion ratio, reactivity control, nonproliferation characteristics, and a reduced production of long-lived radiotoxic wastes. Because of the high conversion ratio of thorium-based fuels in intermediate spectrum reactors, the total fissile inventory required to achieve a given fuel burnup is only 11 to 17% higher than that of 238 U fertile fuels. However, unlike 238 U fertile fuels, the void reactivity coefficient with thorium-based fuels is negative in an intermediate spectrum reactor. This provides motivation for replacing 238 U with 232 Th in advanced high-conversion intermediate spectrum LWRs, such as the reduced-moderator reactor or the supercritical reactor

  9. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Bultman, J.H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, K.T.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Konings, R.J.M.; Smit, J.

    1994-11-01

    The term ''nuclear transmutation'' means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ''recycling'' means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. The possibilities offered by the HFR are particularly of great value. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application

  10. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K; Bultman, J H; Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Janssen, A J; Franken, W M.P.; Klippel, K T; Kloosterman, J L; Konings, R J.M.; Smit, J

    1994-11-01

    The term ``nuclear transmutation`` means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ``recycling`` means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application of MOX, etc.). (orig./HP).

  11. Transmutation Theory in the Greek Alchemical Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufault, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies transmutation theory as found in the texts attributed to Zosimus of Panopolis, "the philosopher Synesius," and "the philosopher Olympiodorus of Alexandria." It shows that transmutation theory (i.e. a theory explaining the complete transformation of substances) is mostly absent from the work attributed to these three authors. The text attributed to Synesius describes a gilding process, which is similar to those described by Pliny and Vitruvius. The commentary attributed to Olympiodorus is the only text studied here that describes something similar to a transmutation theory. It is unclear, however, if this was a theory of transmutation or if the writer meant something more like the literal meaning of the word "ekstrophē," a term used to describe the transformation of metals, as the "turning inside-out" of what is hidden in a substance. A similar conception of ekstrophē can be found in the works of Zosimus, who discussed transmutation to make an analogy with self-purification processes, which, from the perspective of his own anthropogony, consisted in the "turning inside-out" of the "inner human" (esō anthrōpos).

  12. Transmutation blanket design for a Tokamak system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Barros, Graiciany de P.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A. Fortini; Costa, Antonella L.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-critical advanced reactor with a D-T fusion neutron source based on Tokamak technology is an innovative type of nuclear system. Due to the high quantity of neutrons produced by fusion reactions, it could be well spent in the transmutation process of the transuranic elements. Nevertheless, to achieve a successful transmutation, it is necessary to know the neutron fluence along the radial axis and its characteristics. In this work, it evaluated the neutron flux and interaction frequency along the radial axis changing the material of the first wall. W-alloy, beryllium and the combination of both were studied and regions more suitable to transmutation were determined. The results demonstrated that the better zone to place a transmutation blanket is limited by the heat sink and the shield block. Material arrangements W-alloy/W-alloy and W-alloy/Beryllium would be able to hold the requirements of high fluence and hardening spectrum needed to transuranic transmutation. The system was simulated using the MCNP5 code, the ITER Final Design Report, 2001, and the FENDL/MC-2.1 nuclear data library. (author)

  13. A Novel Molten Salt Reactor Concept to Implement the Multi-Step Time-Scheduled Transmutation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gyula; Feher, Sandor; Szieberthj, Mate

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the molten salt reactor (MSR) concept seems to revive as one of the most promising systems for the realization of transmutation. In the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. The main advantage of this reactor type is the possibility of the continuous feed and reprocessing of the fuel. In the present paper a novel molten salt reactor concept is introduced and its transmutation capabilities are studied. The goal is the development of a transmutation technique along with a device implementing it, which yield higher transmutation efficiencies than that of the known procedures and thus results in radioactive waste whose load on the environment is reduced both in magnitude and time length. The procedure is the multi-step time-scheduled transmutation, in which transformation is done in several consecutive steps of different neutron flux and spectrum. In the new MSR concept, named 'multi-region' MSR (MRMSR), the primary circuit is made up of a few separate loops, in which salt-fuel mixtures of different compositions are circulated. The loop sections constituting the core region are only neutronically and thermally coupled. This new concept makes possible the utilization of the spatial dependence of spectrum as well as the advantageous features of liquid fuel such as the possibility of continuous chemical processing etc. In order to compare a 'conventional' MSR and a proposed MRMSR in terms of efficiency, preliminary calculational results are shown. Further calculations in order to find the optimal implementation of this new concept and to emphasize its other advantageous features are going on. (authors)

  14. Status of the French Research on Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    The global energy context pleads in favor of a sustainable development of nuclear energy since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel sources. How we deal with radioactive waste is crucial in this context. The production of nuclear energy in France has been associated, since its inception, with the optimization of radioactive waste management, including the partitioning and the recycling of recoverable energetic materials. The public's concern regarding the long-term waste management made the French Government prepare and pass the December 1991 Law, requesting in particular, the study for fifteen years of solutions for still minimizing the quantity and the hazardousness of final waste, via partitioning and transmutation. At the end of these fifteen years of research, it is considered that partitioning techniques, which have been validated on real solutions, are at disposal. Indeed, aqueous process for separation of minor actinides from the PUREX raffinate has been brought to a point where there is reasonable assurance that industrial deployment can be successful. A key experiment has been the successful kilogram scale trials in the CEA-Marcoule Atalante facility in 2005 and this result, together with the results obtained in the frame of the successive European projects, constitutes a considerable step forward. For transmutation, CEA has conducted programs proving the feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for critical reactors and ADS developments. Scenario studies have also allowed assessing the feasibility, at the level of cycle and fuel facilities, and the efficiency of transmutation in terms of the quantitative reduction of the final waste inventory depending of the

  15. Partitioning and transmutation - Technical feasibility, proliferation resistance and safeguardability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Glatz, J.-P.; Magill, J.; Mayer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The advantages of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides and selected fission products are largely discussed and described in literature. The advantages of separation of the long-lived alpha-emitters for the long-term storage of highly radioactive waste have been highlighted. After separation, these nuclides shall be transmuted by means of a dedicated reactor or accelerator driven system into shorter-lived fission products that are less hazardous. This, however, requires the development and implementation of a P and T fuel cycle, involving chemical separation of the minor actinides and the fabrication of MA containing fuels or targets. Concepts for P and T fuel cycles have been developed and technical issues are being addressed in various research programs. With the recognition of the proliferation potential associated with the minor actinides by the IAEA, also the proliferation and safeguards aspects need to be addressed. It is important to raise these points at an early stage of process development, in order to identify potential problems and to develop appropriate solutions. The oxide fuels used worldwide in thermal reactor systems for energy production are reprocessed by aqueous techniques. Therefore these systems, primarily the PUREX process, are fully developed and implemented commercially. Furthermore, the safeguards approach is fully implemented in existing facilities, covering uranium and plutonium. Pyroprocess systems have largely been associated with fast reactors and metallic fuels and their development has therefore only reached the pilot-scale stage and the feasibility of minor actinide (MA) separation still needs to be demonstrated. Hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical reprocessing should however not be considered as competing but rather as complementary technologies. For instance in a so-called double strata concept (foreseen for instance in the Japanese OMEGA project), the PUREX process (first stratum) would be

  16. Proceedings of the Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is one of the key technologies for reducing the radiotoxicity and volume of radioactive waste arisings. Recent developments indicate the need for embedding P and T strategies in advanced fuel cycles considering both waste management and economic issues. In order to provide experts a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the P and T field, the OECD/NEA has been organising biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The previous meetings were held in Mito (Japan) in 1990, at Argonne (United States) in 1992, in Cadarache (France) in 1994, in Mito (Japan) in 1996, in Mol (Belgium) in 1998, in Madrid (Spain) in 2000, in Jeju (Korea) in 2002, in Las Vegas (United States) in 2004, in Nimes (France) in 2006 and in Mito (Japan) in 2008. They have often been co-sponsored by the European Commission (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The 11. Information Exchange Meeting was held in San Francisco, California, United States on 1-4 November 2010, comprising a plenary session on national P and T programmes and six technical sessions covering various fields of P and T. The meeting was hosted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), United States. The information exchange meetings on P and T form an integral part of NEA activities on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The meeting covered scientific as well as strategic/policy developments in the field of P and T, such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios; radioactive waste forms; the impact of P and T on geological disposal; radioactive waste management strategies (including secondary wastes); transmutation fuels and targets; pyro and aqueous separation processes; materials, spallation targets and coolants; transmutation physics, experiments and nuclear data; transmutation systems (design, performance and safety); handling and transportation of transmutation fuels; and

  17. Processing flowsheet for the accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, H.; Walker, R.; Yarbro, S.

    1992-01-01

    At Los Alamos, an innovative approach to transmuting long-lived radioactive waste is under investigation. The concept is to use a linear proton accelerator coupled to a solid target to produce an intense neutron flux. The intense stream of neutrons can then be used to fission or transmute long-lived radionuclides to either stable or shorter-lived isotopes. For the program to be successful, robust chemical separations with high efficiencies (>10 5 ) are required. The actual mission, either defense or commercial, will determine what suite of unit operations will be needed. If the mission is to process commercial spent fuel, there are several options available for feed preparation and blanket processing. The baseline option would be an improved PUREX system with the main alternative being the current ATW actinide blanket processing flowsheet. 99 Tc and 129 I are more likely to reach the biosphere than the actinides. Many models have been developed for predicting how the radionuclides will behave in a repository over long time periods. The general conclusion is that the actinides will be sorbed by the soil. Therefore, over a long time period, e.g., a million years their hazard will be lessened because of radioactive decay and dispersion. However, some of the long-lived fission products are not sorbed and could potentially reach the environment over a few thousand year period. Hence, they could present a significant safety hazard. Because of limited resources, most of the priority has been focused on the actinide and technetium blanket assemblies

  18. LMFBR fuel analysis. Task A: oxide fuel dynamics. Final report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Frank, M.; Kastenberg, W.E.; McKone, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    Three aspects of LMFBR safety are discussed. The first concerns the potential reactivity effects of whole core fuel motion prior to pin failure in low ramp rate transient overpower accidents. The second concerns the effects of flow blockages following pin failure on the coolability of a core following an unprotected overpower transient. The third aspect concerns the safety related implications of using thorium based fuels in LMFBR's

  19. Analysis on Radioactive Waste Transmutation in Light Water cooled Hyb-WT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seonghee; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility of realization is much higher in FFHR compared with pure fusion. A combination of plasma fusion source for neutrons with a subcritical reactor at the blanket side has much higher capability in transmutation of waste as well as reactor safety compared with fission reactor options. Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor (FFHR) uses various coolants depending on the purpose. It is important that coolant being used should be suitable to reactor purpose, because reactor performance and the design constraints may change depending on the coolant. There are basically two major groups of coolants for FFHR. One group of coolant does not contain Li. They are Na, Pb-Bi, H 2 O and D 2 O. The other group contains Li for tritium breeding. They are Li, LiPb, LiSN, FLIBE and FLiNaBe. Currently, the issue in FFHR is its implication for radioactive waste transmutation (FFHR for WT). Because radioactive wastes of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are transmuted using fusion neutron source. Therefore a suitable coolant should be used for effective waste transmutation. . In FFHR for WT, LiPb coolant is being used mainly because of tritium production in Li and high neutron economic through reaction in Pb. However different coolants use such as Na, Pb-Bi are used in fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS) having same purpose. In this study, radioactive waste transmutation performance of various coolants mentioned above will be compared and analyzed. Through this study, the coolants are judged primarily for their support to waste transmutation disregarding their limitation to reactor design and tritium breeding capability. First, performance of the light water coolant regarding radioactive waste transmutation was analyzed among various coolants mentioned above. In this paper, performance of radioactive waste transmutation can be known depending on different volume fractions (54.53, 60.27, 97.94vol.%) of the light water. Light water dose required fusion power lower than LiPb due to

  20. The Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faton Merovci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution the so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull distribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking the generalized inverseWeibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, and moment generating function of the new distribution are derived. We propose the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the flexibility of the transmuted version versus the generalized inverse Weibull distribution.

  1. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  2. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  3. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed.

  4. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L.

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed

  5. Neutronic Analysis on Coolant Options in a Hybrid Reactor System for High Level Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) which is a combination of plasma fusion tokamak as a fast neutron source and a fission reactor as of fusion blanket is another potential candidate. In FFHR, fusion plasma machine can supply high neutron-rich and energetic 14.1MeV (D, T) neutrons compared to other options. Therefore it has better capability in HLW incineration. While, it has lower requirements compared to pure fusion. Much smaller-sized tokamak can be achievable in a near term because it needs relatively low plasma condition. FFHR has also higher safety potential than fast reactors just as ADSR because it is subcritical reactor system. FFHR proposed up to this time has many design concepts depending on the design purpose. FFHR may also satisfy many design requirement such as energy multiplication, tritium production, radiation shielding for magnets, fissile breeding for self-sustain ability also waste transmutation. Many types of fuel compositions and coolant options have been studied. Effect of choices for fuel and coolant was studied for the transmutation purpose FFHR by our team. In this study LiPb coolant was better than pure Li coolant both for neutron multiplication and tritium breeding. However, performance of waste transmutation was reduced with increased neutron absorption at coolant caused by tritium breeding. Also, LiPb as metal coolant has a problem of massive MHD pressure drop in coolant channels. Therefore, in a previous study, waste transmutation performance was evaluated with light water coolant option which may be a realistic choice. In this study, a neutronic analysis was done for the various coolant options with a detailed computation. One of solutions suggested is to use the pressure tubes inside of first wall and second wall In this work, performance of radioactive waste transmutation was compared with various coolant options. On the whole, keff increases with all coolants except for FLiBe, therefore required fusion power is decreased. In

  6. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  7. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.

    2008-10-01

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  8. Transmuted New Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shuaib Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the transmuted new generalized inverse Weibull distribution by using the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM scheme studied by Shaw et al. (2007. The proposed model contains the twenty three lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some mathematical properties of the new distribution are formulated, such as quantile function, Rényi entropy, mean deviations, moments, moment generating function and order statistics. The method of maximum likelihood is used for estimating the model parameters. We illustrate the flexibility and potential usefulness of the new distribution by using reliability data.

  9. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Botts, T.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  10. Exhibit of ADS transmutation system to-Handle MA contained in Highly Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Lasman, A.N.; Nishihara, K.; Marsongkohadi; Su'ud, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This ADS transmutation system consists of a high intensity proton beam accelerator, spallation target, and sub-critical reactor core. The general approach was conducted using N-15 fuel to choose a strategy for destroying or minimizing the dangerously radioactive waste using a fast neutron spectrum. The fuel of this system was put surrounding the target with the some composition, i.e. the composition of MOX from PWR reactor spent-fuel with 5 year cooling time. Basic characteristics of this system have been conducted based on analysis of neutronics calculation results using ATRAS codes system

  11. Neutron-induced transmutation reactions in Np-237, Pu-238, and Pu-239 at the massive natural uranium spallation target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závorka, L.; Adam, Jindřich; Baldin, A. A.; Čaloun, Pavel; Chilap, V. V.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M. G.; Khushvaktov, J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Sotnikov, V.; Stegailov, V. I.; Suchopár, Martin; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.; Voronko, V.; Vrzalová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 349, APR (2015), s. 31-38 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ADS * spent nuclear fuel * transmutation reaction * spallation neutrons Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  12. Design Concept of the Thermal Flux Island in MYRRHA for LLFP Transmutation. Present Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoust, Th.; De Raedt, Ch.; Malambu, E.; Ait Abderrahim, H.

    2002-01-01

    MYRRHA is an ADS aimed at providing protons and neutrons for various R and D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator coupled to a sub-critical fast core. While the fast neutron spectrum, obtaining in the MYRRHA core, allows the transmutation of minor actinides (MAs), the transmutation of long lived fission products (LLFPs) in MYRRHA requires the utilisation of a thermal spectrum in order to take profit of the fact that the capture cross-sections of the LLFPs are much larger in the thermal-energy domain than in the high-energy domain. A high thermal flux island inside MYRRHA is therefore being developed, consisting of an irradiation device for LLFPs (or other irradiation target material needing a thermal neutron spectrum), surrounded by assemblies filled with a lattice of ZrH 2 moderator pins, cooled by the same coolant (Pb-Bi) as the MYRRHA fuel assemblies. Thermal neutron absorbers at the periphery of the neutron island are used to minimise the influence of the thermal flux on the fast core. The study of the performances of MYRRHA, including the transmutation of the LLFPs in such a thermal island, is carried out with the aid of the code MCNPX. The transmutation performances of LLFPs are assessed by coupling the code MCNPX to an evolution calculation. The LLFPs studied are Tc-99 and I-129. (authors)

  13. Waste partitioning and transmutation as a means towards long-term risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    It has been an idea for some time to reduce the long-term potential hazard of the waste by chemical removal of the actinides as well as some long-lived fission products and their subsequent transmutation in an intense neutron flux. Transmutation would thus shorten the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. It is estimated, that development of such technology would take at least 40 years because facilities would be required to perform a clean actinide and fission product isolation and to fabricate the fuel elements that contained the separated nuclides. This latter requirements would involve a major expansion of new chemical process steps which are not available as yet. Development of new equipment to maintain occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable and to minimize releases of radioactivity to the environment would also be necessary. Partitioning and transmutation should be introduced, if at all, as a long-term decision about new nuclear power technology as a future energy source. With regard to this, R and D work dealing with basic questions seems to be worthwhile, However, the introduction of partitioning and transmutation will not eliminate the need for radioactive waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Transmutation of 129I Using an Accelerator-Driven System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Takano, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual blanket design for 129 I transmutation is proposed for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) that is designed to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In this ADS, 250 kg/yr of MA and 56 kg/yr of iodine are simultaneously transmuted, and they correspond to the quantities generated from ∼10 units of existing light water reactors. Furthermore, an introduction scenario and the benefit of iodine transmutation are studied for future introduction of fast breeder reactors. It is shown that the transmutation of iodine benefits the concept of underground disposal

  15. Concept of the demonstration molten salt unit for the transuranium elements transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotin, S.; Zakirov, R.; Lelek, V.; Peka, I.

    1999-01-01

    In this report it is considered fluorine reprocessing of spent fuel and fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. It is without any doubt that additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation process in the reactor. On the other side there is a lot of problems to realize it technically and to ensure stable work of the whole complex. (Authors)

  16. ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE TECHNOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.; Tuyle, G. van

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy, in conjunction with its nuclear laboratories, a national steering committee, and a panel of world experts, developed a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The ATW concept that was examined in this roadmap study was based on that developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the 1990s. The reference deployment scenario in the Roadmap was developed to treat 86,300 tn (metric tonnes initial heavy metal) of spent nuclear fuel that will accumulate through 2035 from existing U.S. nuclear power plants (without license extensions). The disposition of this spent nuclear reactor fuel is an issue of national importance, as is disposition of spent fuel in other nations. The U.S. program for the disposition of this once-through fuel is focused to characterize a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a geological repository for spent fuel and high-level waste. The ATW concept is being examined in the U.S. because removal of plutonium minor actinides, and two very long-lived isotopes from the spent fuel can achieve some important objectives. These objectives include near-elimination of plutonium, reduction of the inventory and mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the repository, and use of the remaining energy content of the spent fuel to produce power. The long-lived radionuclides iodine and technetium have roughly one million year half-lives, and they are candidates for transport into the environment via movement of ground water. The scientists and engineers who contributed to the Roadmap Study determined that the ATW is affordable, doable, and its deployment would support all the objectives. We report the status of the U.S. ATW program describe baseline and alternate technologies, and discuss deployment scenarios to support the existing U.S. nuclear capability and/or future growth with a variety of new fuel cycles

  17. International development within the spent nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggeryd, I.; Broden, K.; Gelin, R.

    1990-06-01

    The report gives a survey of the newest international development of the fuel processing and the spent nuclear fuel cycle. The transmutation technology of long lived nuclides is discussed in more details. (K.A.E)

  18. Development of long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology -Development of nuclear transmutation technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chan; Jung, Woo Tae; Koh, Duk Joon; Kim, Jung Doh; Kil, Choong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Based on the performance assessment of current reactor nuclear design codes, CASMO-3, LEOPARD, CITATION could be used for the simulation of transmutation, but further improvements are required on the reliability of cross sections of MA or FP and the accuracy of burnup model. Our simulation results based on the calculation by using CASMO-3 and NEM-3D (developed at Seoul National University) showed that transmutation efficiency for Am was high but Np and Cm elements were found to be hard to transmute. In our calculation, micro depletion calculations with burnup variation were done separately. Possibility of MA and FP transmutation with hard and fast neutrons was reported to be greater but detail calculation will be done in next year. 44 figs, 31 tabs, 17 refs. (Author).

  19. Scientific research on the back-end of the fuel cycle for the 21. century; Les recherches scientifiques sur l'aval du cycle pour le 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the Atalante-2000 conference is to present the major research axis concerning the nuclear fuel cycle back-end. The different topics are: - Present options concerning fuel cycle back-end; - Reprocessing of spent fuel; - Advanced separation for transmutation; - Processing and packaging of radioactive wastes; - Design and fabrication of targets for transmutation; and - Conversion of military plutonium into MOX fuels.

  20. Reactor physics experiments related to transmutation in the KUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroya, Seiji [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1997-11-01

    At the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA), {sup 237}Np/{sup 235}U fission rate ratios are being measured using the back-to-back type double fission chamber to examine the nuclear data and the computational method for the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in light water reactors (LWRs). The neutron spectra of cores are systematically being varied by changing the moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (V{sub m}/V{sub f}). The measured data are being compared with the calculated results by SRAC with three different nuclear data files. It has been indicated that the calculated results with JENDL-3.2 agreed better with the measured ones than those with JENDL-3.1 and ENDF/B-VI, although the calculated results underestimated the measured ones by around 10%. (author)

  1. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  2. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power

  3. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safe, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

  4. Detailed study of transmutation scenarios involving present day reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document makes a detailed technical evaluation of three families of separation-transmutation scenarios for the management of radioactive wastes. These scenarios are based on 2 parks of reactors which recycle plutonium and minor actinides in an homogeneous way. A first scenario considers the multi-recycling of Pu and Np and the mono-recycling of Am and Cm using both PWRs and FBRs. A second scenario is based on PWRs only, while a third one considers FBRs only. The mixed PWR+FBR scenario requires innovative options and gathers more technical difficulties due to the americium and curium management in a minimum flux of materials. A particular attention has been given to the different steps of the fuel cycle (fuels and targets fabrication, burnup, spent fuel processing, targets management). The feasibility of scenarios of homogeneous actinides recycling in PWRs-only and in FBRs-only has been evaluated according to the results of the first scenario: fluxes of materials, spent fuel reprocessing by advanced separation, impact of the presence of actinides on PWRs and FBRs operation. The efficiency of the different scenarios on the abatement of wastes radio-toxicity is presented in conclusion. (J.S.)

  5. Economic assessment of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauferts, U.; Van Heek, A.; Hart, J.

    2007-01-01

    This nuclear system study focuses on a realistic evolution of Partitioning and Transmutation technologies, which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation and Accelerated Driven Systems (ADS). A set of five different fuel cycles has been selected, representing the options proposed in different European countries. Two industrial scenarios as continuation of the open nuclear fuel cycles and mono-recycling of plutonium in PWRs have been chosen as a reference. In addition, 3 more innovative cycles are considered using Fast Generation IV reactors and double strata scenarios with advanced PWR, ADS and fast reactors. This study shows, first, that closing the nuclear fuel cycle would be a useful strategy to mitigate concerns about a rapid depletion of natural uranium resources in this century. Secondly, all the 3 advanced fuel cycle strategies proposed reduce effectively the total amount of nuclear waste out of pile and consequently the need for large capacities of deep geological repositories. Thirdly, the most efficient strategy towards the mitigation of waste production is the utilization of fast reactors technology to burn plutonium and ADS to burn minor actinides

  6. Composite gauge bosons of transmuted gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1987-10-01

    It is shown that effective gauge theories of composite gauge bosons describing the dynamics of composite quarks and leptons can be transmuted from the subcolor gauge theory describing that of subquarks due to the condensation of subquarks and that the equality of effective gauge coupling constants can result as in a grand unified gauge theory. (author)

  7. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Tucek, Kamil [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics] [and others

    2004-12-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  8. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Tucek, Kamil

    2004-12-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  9. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) FUel performance at high burn-up and in ageing plant by management and optimisation of WAter Chemistry Technologies (FUWAC ); 2) Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy; 3) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel failure cause for PWR (1994-2006) and failure mechanisms for BWR fuel (1994-2006) are shown. The just published Fuel Failure Handbook as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications are presented. The current projects in Sub-programme B2 - Power Reactor Fuel Engineering are also listed

  10. Assessment of the transmutation capability an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Peluso, V.; Calabrese; Chen, X.; Maschek, W.

    2007-01-01

    1. PURPOSE The reduction of long-lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) is a key point for the public acceptability and economy of nuclear energy. In principle, any nuclear fast reactor is able to burn and transmute MA, but the amount of MA content has to be limited a few percent, having unfavourable consequences on the coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and delayed neutron fraction, and therefore on the dynamic behaviour and control. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are instead able to safely burn and/or transmute a large quantity of actinides and LLFP, as they do not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have very little importance during accidents. Such systems are very innovative being based on the coupling of an accelerator with a subcritical system by means of a target system, where the neutronic source needed to maintain the neutron reaction chain is produced by spallation reactions. To this end the PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an experimental Accelerator Driven System) project was funded by the European Community in the 5th Framework Program in order both to demonstrate the feasibility of the coupling between an accelerator and a sub-critical core loaded with standard MOX fuel and to investigate the transmutation capability in order to achieve values suitable for an Industrial Scale Transmuter. This paper summarizes and compares the results of neutronic calculations aimed at evaluating the transmutation capability of cores cooled by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic alloy and loaded with assemblies based on (Pu, Am, Cm) oxide dispersed in a molybdenum metal (CERMET) or magnesia (CERCER) matrices. It also describes the constraints considered in the design of such cores and describes the thermo-mechanical behaviour of these innovative fuels along the cycle. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK: The U-free composite fuels (CERMET and CERCER) were selected for this study, being considered at European level

  11. State-of-art technology of fuels for burning minor actinides. An OECD/NEA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Konings, R.J.M.; Pillon, S.; Schram, R.P.C.; Verwerft, M.; Wallenius, J.

    2005-01-01

    At OECD/NEA, Working Party on Scientific Issues in Partitioning and Transmutation was formed for 2000-2004, which studied the status and trends of scientific issues in Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T). The study included the scientific and technical issues of fuels and materials, which are related to dedicated systems for transmutation. This paper summarizes the state-of-art technology of the fuels for burning minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium). (author)

  12. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Caron-Carles, Marylise

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  13. Status of SFR Metal Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • Metal fuel recycling in SFR: - Enhanced utilization of uranium resource; - Efficient transmutation of minor actinides; - Inherent passive reactor safety; - Proliferation resistance with pyro-electrochemical fuel recycling. • Demonstration of technical feasibility of recycling TRU metal fuel by 2020: - Remote fuel fabrication; - Irradiation performance up to high burnup

  14. Critical review of analytical techniques for safeguarding the thorium-uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1978-10-01

    Conventional analytical methods applicable to the determination of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in feed, product, and waste streams from reprocessing thorium-based nuclear reactor fuels are reviewed. Separations methods of interest for these analyses are discussed. Recommendations concerning the applicability of various techniques to reprocessing samples are included. 15 tables, 218 references

  15. Stabilization of high-level waste from a chloride volatility nuclear fuel reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Thornton, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for stabilizing high-level waste from a chloride volatility thorium-based fuel coprocessing system have been studied. The waste, which is present as chloride salts, is combined with SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 and pyrohydrolyzed to remove the chloride ions. The resulting solid is then combined with a flux and glassified. 3 figures, 4 tables

  16. Accelerator-driven transmutation projects in Sweden in a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Ericsson, M.; Carlsson, J.; Cetnar, J.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator driven transmutation projects in Sweden are dealt with within the country's energy policy and energy plans as well as in relation to European perspectives. ADS activities at Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and Sweden are concerned with: Conceptual design nitride fueled ADS) of Sing-Sing core (heavily 'poisoned'; Development of nitride fuel (in a EU-frame); transients of ADS; Managing nuclear data and stimulating development dedicated data libraries; Development of Monte-Carlo burnup; Design of RVACS for ADS. Besides the mentioned, this paper describes projects in fourth Framework Programme of European Union, fifth Framework Programme of EU and Experiments related to ADS

  17. Minor actinide transmutation in a board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meiyin; Tian, Wenxi; Zhang, Dalin; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1250 MWt board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is further designed. • MCNP–ORIGEN coupled code MCORE is applied to perform neutronics and depletion calculation. • Transmutation efficiency and neutronic safety parameters are compared under different MA weight fraction. - Abstract: In this paper, a board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is further designed and applied to perform minor actinide (MA) transmutation. MA is homogeneously loaded in all the fuel sub-assemblies with a weight fraction of 2.0 wt.%, 4.0 wt.%, 6.0 wt.%, 8.0 wt.%, 10.0 wt.% and 12.0 wt.%, respectively. The transmutation efficiency, transmutation amount, power density distribution, neutron fluence distribution and neutronic safety parameters, such as reactivity, Doppler feedback, void worth and delayed neutron fraction, are compared under different MA weight fraction. Neutronics and depletion calculations are performed based on the self-developed MCNP–ORIGEN coupled code with the ENDF/B-VII data library. In the breed and burn reactor core, a number of breeding sub-assemblies are arranged in the inner core in a board type way (scatter load) to breed, and a number of absorbing sub-assemblies are arranged in the inner side of the outer core to absorb neutrons and reduce power density in this area. All the fuel sub-assemblies (ignition and breeding sub-assemblies) are shuffled from outside in. The core reached asymptotically steady state after about 22 years, and the average and maximum discharged burn-up were about 17.0% and 35.3%, respectively. The transmutation amount increased linearly with the MA weight fraction, while the transmutation rate parabolically varied with the MA weight fraction. Power density in ignition sub-assembly positions increased with the MA weight fraction, while decreased in breeding sub-assembly positions. Neutron fluence decreased with the increase of MA weight fraction. Generally speaking, the core reactivity and void

  18. Scientific research on the back-end of the fuel cycle for the 21. century; Les recherches scientifiques sur l'aval du cycle pour le 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the Atalante-2000 conference is to present the major research axis concerning the nuclear fuel cycle back-end. The different topics are: - Present options concerning fuel cycle back-end; - Reprocessing of spent fuel; - Advanced separation for transmutation; - Processing and packaging of radioactive wastes; - Design and fabrication of targets for transmutation; and - Conversion of military plutonium into MOX fuels.

  19. Separation of technetium from ruthenium after the accelerator transmutation of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abney, K.D.; Schroeder, N.C.; Kinkead, S.A.; Attrep, M. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Both civilian and defense related waste must be processed with a strategy for dealing with Tc. One solution is to remove the Tc from the waste steam and transmute the Tc to stable Ru in either a reactor or an accelerator. Before any processing of waste streams can be performed (even if transmutation is not performed) the separations chemistry from the spent fuels or the stored wastes containing Tc must be developed. This report details some of the separation schemes possible for the separation of Tc and Ru, which include the baseline ion exchange process of Roberts, Smith and Wheelwright, ozonolysis, filtration, magnetic separation, solvent extraction, electrodeposition, fluorination, and pyrolysis. 5 figs, 4 refs

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Westlen, D.

    2002-03-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  1. The use of thermocouples which transmute during service in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    Some current nuclear fuel experiments at CRNL require the use of thermocouples to measure temperatures of up to 2200 0 C under reactor operating conditions. A literature search has shown that transient electrical effects and transmutation of the thermocouple alloys can cause temperature measurement errors of up to +-1% and +-30%, respectively. However, the error due to transient electrical effects can be corrected by making temperature measurements immediately following reactor shutdown. Furthermore it has been shown that transmutation effects can be corrected for by calibrating the high temperature tungsten-rhenium thermocouples against a chromel-alumel thermocouple in a cooler part of the experiment. The use of these techniques is expected to reduce temperature measurement errors to +-2% in the best case. (auth)

  2. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W; Wallenius, J; Tucek, K; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P; Cetnar, J; Chakarova, R; Westlen, D [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2002-03-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  3. Neutron transmutation doping of polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, J.W.; Westbrook, R.D.; Wood, R.F.; Young, R.T.

    1976-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of doped silane has been used by others to deposit a polycrytalline silicon film (polysil) on metal or graphite substrates, but dopant migration to grain boundaries during deposition apparently prohibits attaining a uniform or desired dopant concentration. In contrast, we have used neutron transmutation doping to introduce a uniform phosphorus dopant concentration in commercially available undoped CVD polysil at doping concentrations greater than or equal to 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . Radiation damage annealing to 800 0 C did not indicate dopant migration. Carrier mobility increased with doping concentration and the minority carrier lifetime (MCL) appears to be comparable to that of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) single crystal Si. Application of this technique to photovoltaic solar cell fabrication is discussed

  4. Statistical transmutation in doped quantum dimer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, C A; Ralko, A; Cabra, D C; Poilblanc, D; Pujol, P

    2012-07-06

    We prove a "statistical transmutation" symmetry of doped quantum dimer models on the square, triangular, and kagome lattices: the energy spectrum is invariant under a simultaneous change of statistics (i.e., bosonic into fermionic or vice versa) of the holes and of the signs of all the dimer resonance loops. This exact transformation enables us to define the duality equivalence between doped quantum dimer Hamiltonians and provides the analytic framework to analyze dynamical statistical transmutations. We investigate numerically the doping of the triangular quantum dimer model with special focus on the topological Z(2) dimer liquid. Doping leads to four (instead of two for the square lattice) inequivalent families of Hamiltonians. Competition between phase separation, superfluidity, supersolidity, and fermionic phases is investigated in the four families.

  5. Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation THESIS Matthew C. Recker, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENP-14-M-30 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...COPPER DOPING OF ZINC OXIDE BY NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION Matthew C. Recker, BS Captain, USAF Approved: //signed// 27 February 2014 John W. McClory, PhD

  6. Development of nuclear transmutation technology for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1996-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive nuclides is conceived as the technology to improve the high-level radioactive waste management. This report discusses the incentives of P-T, generation of long-lived nuclides in fission reactors, nuclear transmutation technologies, R and D activities of the partitioning and transmutation technology development programs at JAERI and in the world. (author)

  7. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  8. Neutron transmutation doping of gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) was studied as a means of compensating p-type Cd-doped GaAs. By introducing specific donor concentrations, the net acceptor level was measured and showed a progressive reduction. The NTD constant K = 0.32 donor atoms.cm 3 per cm 2 was also measured. Radiation damage caused by neutron bombardment was annealed and no additional traps were generated

  9. Transmutation of waste actinides in thermal reactors: survey calculations of candidate irradiation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1978-11-01

    Actinide recycle and transmutation calculations were made for twelve specific thermal reactor environments. The calculations included H 2 O-moderated reactor lattices with enriched U, recycled Pu, and 233 ' 235 U-Th. In addition two D 2 O reactor cases were calculated. When all actinides were recycled into 235 U-enriched fuel, about 10 percent of the transuranic actinides were fissioned per 3-year fuel cycle. About 9 percent of the actinides were fissioned per 3-year fuel cycle when waste actinides (no U or Pu) were irradiated in separate target rods in a U-fuel assembly. When actinides were recycled in separate target assemblies, the fission rate was strongly dependent on the specific loading of the target. Fission rates of 5 to 10 percent per 3-year fuel cycle were observed

  10. Advances in thermal-hydraulic studies of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Laura Garcia; Castells, Facundo Alberto Escriva; Lira, Carlos Brayner de Olivera

    2013-01-01

    The Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste trans- mutation and for obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In previous work, the TADSEA's nuclear core was considered as a porous medium performed with a CFD code and thermal-hydraulic studies of the nuclear core were presented. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant was analyzed for three core states during normal operation. The heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements was also studied. Three critical fuel elements groups were defined regarding their position inside the core. Results were compared with a realistic CFD model of the critical fuel elements groups. During the steady state, no critical elements reached the limit temperature of this type of fuel. (author)

  11. Front-end and back-end electrochemistry of molten salt in accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.A.; Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop preparation and clean-up processes for the fuel and carrier salt in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology molten salt nuclear system. The front-end or fuel preparation process focuses on the removal of fission products, uranium, and zirconium from spent nuclear fuel by utilizing electrochemical methods (i.e., electrowinning). The same method provides the separation of the so-called noble metal fission products at the back-end of the fuel cycle. Both implementations would have important diversion safeguards. The proposed separation processes and a thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical separation method are presented

  12. Spent fuel disposal: is the underground the sole solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachmilner, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following 4 major approaches to spent fuel disposal are discussed: permanent storage in an underground repository, reprocessing, partitioning and transmutation, and accelerator driven transmutation. It is concluded that underground disposal will remain the basic option for the near future, although pursuing the other methods is certainly worth while. (P.A.)

  13. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Tedder, D.W.; Drago, J.P.; Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures

  14. Development of fluoride reprocessing technology for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Hosnedl, P.; Matal, O.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception with respect to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into a deep geological repository. The Czech research and development programme in the area of partitioning is directed primarily on the development of the fuel cycle technology for the accelerator - driven subcritical reactor with a liquid fuel based on fluoride melts. The final objective of the research programme is the development of pyrochemical technologies suitable for a continuous or semi-continuous separation process which would allow practically perfect utilization of the transmutation potentialities of the reactor system. The present research is directed particularly on the development of suitable fluoride separation methods the target of which is the removal of the uranium component from spent nuclear fuel and on the research of the electro-separation procedures and further on the development of appropriate construction materials and equipment for the technology of fluoride salt melts. (authors)

  15. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  16. Study of a neutronic potential of a modular fast spectrum ADS for radiotoxic waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Arkhipov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA has maintained an active interest in advanced nuclear technology related to Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The activities carried out by the IAEA within its Programme on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems for Energy Generation and Transmutation include preparation of status reports on advanced technologies development, conduct of technical information exchange meetings and co-operative Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Consultancy on Accelerator Driven Systems and Related Fuel Cycles held from 1-2 February 1996 in Cadarache, France reviewed the recent progress in studies on feasibility of Accelerator Driven Systems and participants recommended the IAEA to organize a CRP to investigate the accelerator driven systems potential. In 1996 the CRP: 'Use of Th-based Fuel Cycle in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) to Incinerate Pu and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicities' was established and the first Research Coordination Meeting was convened in March 1997 at the ENEA Research Center in Bologna, Italy. Results of the first stage 'Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)-Neutronic Benchmark' were reported to the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation in Madrid, Spain, in September 1997. Results obtained during the second stage of the CRP were presented and analysed at the RCM in December 1998 in Petten, Netherlands. The meeting was attended by 21 representatives and observers from IAEA, Belarus, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden and USA. This paper was prepared on recommendation of the participants of the meeting in Petten, Netherlands. Accelerator Driven System (ADS) neutronic potential, i.e. capability to burnout transuranic elements (TRU) or minor actinides (MA) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) with minimum ADS park as well as the rate of LLFP transmutation (mass/energy production) for nuclear waste

  17. Wastes Management Through Transmutation in an ADS Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Verboomen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity, or of the time in which that possible hazard really exists. Probably, the transmutation of minor actinides with fast fission processes is the most effective answer. This work, performed in SCK⋅CEN (Belgium and DIMNP Pisa University, is focused on preliminary evaluation of industrial scale ADS (400 MWth, 2.5 mA burning capability. An inert matrix fuel of minor actinides, 50% vol. MgO and 50% vol. (Pu,Np,Am,CmO1.88, core content, with 150 GWd/ton discharge burn up, is used. The calculations were performed using ALEPH-1.1.2, MCNPX-2.5.0, and ORIGEN2.2. codes.

  18. Incineration of PWR actinide waste to launch a low waste thorium-based energy production with ADSs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.; David, S.; Naulin, F.; Schapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate a scenario for a smooth transition from an energy production based on PWR to one relying on the Thorium cycle. The reactors used during the transition are solid-fuel fast-neutron Accelerator Driven Systems whose initial fuel incorporates the Transuranium waste produced by the PWRs. Our work relies on a realistic computation of the neutronics of these systems. The benefits of implementing this scenario (compared to exploiting PWRs) in terms of the reduction of the total radiotoxicity (interim storage, final waste, and in core material) is evaluated along and after the transition period as well as the impact on a future repository. (author)

  19. Development and application of new parameters for TRU transmutation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young

    2005-02-01

    Four new parameters (incineration branching ratio, incineration rate, incineration time, and incineration buckling) have been developed to evaluate quantitatively the TRU transmutation effectiveness and applied to transmutation of uranium and TRU. From the incineration branching ratio, it is possible to analyze the main contributors to fission reaction for transmutation of a target nuclide. From the incineration rate, it is available to evaluate the transmutation effectiveness in the viewpoint of a relative incineration rate to incineration potential of a target nuclide and its family. This parameter is also used to calculate the incineration time and incineration buckling together with the incineration branching ratio. The incineration time makes it possible to discuss more practically the transmutation speed instead of the existing other parameters. The incineration buckling can be used to evaluate the time behavior of the incineration rate and also employed to support the results from the incineration time. Taking into account the transmutation effectiveness and potential of uranium and TRU derived by using the parameters and an existing neutron economy parameter, it was noted that the thermal neutron energy is very preferable from the transmutation effectiveness point of view, on the other hand the fast neutron energy is effective from the transmutation potential. Applying them to the typical critical and subcritical TRU burners, it is indicated that the critical reactor containing fertile uranium undergoes effectively the selective TRU transmutation on the present fast spectrum. It was also noted that the uranium-free subcritical reactor could be operated effectively on a little softer spectrum due to the larger neutron excess in the present spectrum. It is expected that the new parameters developed in this study and the results are directly applicable to practical transmutation reactor design, in particular accelerator-driven transmutation reactor

  20. Impact of partitioning and transmutation in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy provides a significant contribution to the overall energy supply in Europe. With 148 reactors in 13 of the 25 Member States producing a total power of 125 G We, the resulting energy generation of 850 TWh per year provides 35% of the total electrical energy requirements in the European Union. Worldwide, 441 commercial reactors operate in 31 countries and provide 17% of the electrical requirements. Currently 32 nuclear reactors are being built worldwide mostly in India, China and in neighbouring countries. The used fuel discharged from nuclear power plants constitutes the main contribution to nuclear waste in countries which do not undertake reprocessing. As such, its disposal requires isolation from the biosphere in stable deep geological formations for long periods of time (some hundred thousand years) until its radioactivity decreases through the process of radioactive decay. Ways for significantly reducing the volumes and radio toxicities of the waste and to shorten the very long times for which the waste must be stored safely are being investigated. This is the motivation behind the partitioning and transmutation (P and T) activities worldwide. Most of the hazard from the spent fuel stems from only a few chemical elements, namely plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium, and some long-lived fission products such as iodine, caesium and technetium. At present approximately 2500 t of spent fuel are produced annually in the EU, containing about 25 t of plutonium, and 3.5 t of the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium, and about 3 t of long-lived fission products. These radioactive by-products, although present in relatively low concentrations in the used fuel, are a hazard to life forms when released into the environment. This paper addresses the potential impact of P and T on the long-term disposal of nuclear waste. In particular, it evaluates how realistic P and T scenarios can lead to a reduction in the time required for the waste to be

  1. Summary of the 11-th session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel transmutations' and 2nd meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the 21st century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2009-01-01

    There was concluded on the session during discussion, that we must be very cautious in giving forecast of particular form of energy demand and that any longer development in energy is no more possible without taking into account boundary conditions in oil and gas external supply. It was recommended in the discussion to prepare publication based on works, which were published, and try to give into it formulation of new tasks as in nuclear technologies so from nonnuclear branches, including possible society feedbacks. There were several works on the meeting concerning fluoride technology application for future more effective and cleaner reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It must be noted that participants expect that it will be part of new technology development, which of course must be done in greater capacities and in more direct connections with new preindustrial project. Such development is expected. It was also discussed how to proceed with INPRO publication 'Task 3 - Global vision of nuclear energy in the 21st century' - up to now the text is prepared in different ways - our position that expected troubles and at least qualitative recommendations for future steps should be there reflected. The technical program covered also the following topics: System energy research in RRC Kurchatov Institute; Results of program SPHINX; Energy forecasts: Methods and computer codes; Preliminary results of analysis of energy situation in the Central Europe; Perspectives of Molten Salt Reactor development in Czech Republic; Calculations of operation states of packed distillation column for uranium hexafluoride; Neutronic Analysis of Two-Fluid Thorium Molten Salt Reactor; Cross-section Measurements of (n,xn) Reactions in the Energy Range 20-100 MeV; The Czech Geological Repository Reference Design 2011: impacts on the strategy of the fuel cycle back end ect.

  2. Nuclear Waste Separation and Transmutation Research with Special Focus on Russian Transmutation Projects Sponsored by ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Henri; Blomgren, Jan; Olsson, Nils

    2003-03-01

    High-level nuclear reactor waste is made up of relatively few long-lived radioactive species, among them plutonium, that contribute to difficulties with its storage and disposal. Separation of these species from larger waste volumes mainly constituting of uranium (about 95 %) coupled with nuclear incineration to fission products of plutonium and the so called minor actinides (Neptunium, Americium, and Curium) and transmutation of some of the long lived fission products to short lived or stable isotopes represents a viable nuclear waste management strategy to drastically reduce the time and space requirements for a bed-rock repository of the remaining waste. A remarkable increase in the international research and development on partitioning and transmutation has occurred during the recent years. The road-map report published in April 2001 by The European Technical Working Group on ADS for the development of a European demonstration facility for nuclear waste transmutation has high-lighted the ongoing European research and pointed out the need for further research. The road-map has given the different research activities a position in the ultimate goal of producing an ADS demonstrator and is guiding research planning on the national as well as on the EU level. The Advanced Accelerator Application (3A) program in the US, with the long term goals to enhance long term public safety, provide benefits for the repository, reduce proliferation risks and improve prospects for nuclear power has focused the research on nuclear waste transmutation. The reports on the 3A program indicates a change of the US former abandonment position towards reprocessing and fast reactors due to a strong incentive to eliminate the reactor plutonium and to lower the amount of high level reactor waste for the Yucca Mountain repository. The SKB's proposed research and development program for the next 3 years (FUD01) was presented by SKB in September 2001. It is proposed that the research program

  3. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos; Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  4. Recent research and development activities on partitioning and transmutation of radioactive nuclides in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have been promoted under the OMEGA programme for more than 15 years. These activities were reviewed by the Atomic Energy Commission in Japan in 2000. In accordance with the results of the review, three institutes, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), are continuing the research and development on the P and T technology. This report summarises the recent activities in Japan by these institutes. JAERI is engaging in the research and development on the Double-strata Fuel Cycle concept consisting of the partitioning process of the high-level waste and the dedicated transmutation cycle using the accelerator driven system (ADS) fuelled with the minor actinide (MA) nitride fuel. JNC and CRIEPI are engaging in the research and development on the P and T technology using commercialized fast reactors (FR), where JNC is mainly in charge of the MOX fuel and the aqueous reprocessing, while CRIEPI is mainly in charge of the metallic fuel and the dry reprocessing. The research and development activities on FR are organised under the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems. (authors)

  5. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne (LLNL, Livermore, CA); Alajo, A.B. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Johnson, T. R. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); El-Guebaly, L. A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Youssef, M. E. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-11-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

  6. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the In-Zinerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Venneri, Francesco; Meier, Wayne; Alajo, A.B.; Johnson, T. R.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Youssef, M. E.; Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E.; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N.; Willit, J. L.; Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact

  7. New stage in the design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Leorlen Y.; Rosales, Jesus; Castro, Landy Y.; Gamez, Abel; Gonzalez, Daniel; Garcia, Carlos, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com, E-mail: jrosales@instec.cu, E-mail: lcastro@instec.cu, E-mail: agamezgmf@gmail.com, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Oliveira, Carlos Brayner de, E-mail: abol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Dominguez, Dany S.; Silva, Alexandro S., E-mail: dsdominguez@gmail.com, E-mail: alexandrossilva@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) is a pebble-bed Accelerator Driven System (ADS) with a graphite-gas configuration, designed for nuclear waste transmutation and obtaining heat at very high temperatures to produce hydrogen. In this new stage in the design of TADSEA, it was proposed and modelled a new burn-up strategy, simulating a multi-pass scheme of the pebbles through the core. In order to obtain the axial density power distribution more uniform, for more realistic thermal-hydraulic calculations. In the neutronic calculations it was considered the double heterogeneity of the fuel, by means of a detailed geometry modelling. In previous thermal-hydraulic studies of the TADSEA using CFD code, the pebble-bed nuclear core was considered as a porous medium. In this paper, the heat transfer from the fuel elements to the coolant was analysed using a realistic approach in ANSYS CFX 14. The maximum heat transfer inside the spherical fuel elements with a body centered cubic (BCC) cell and the entire height of core was studied. During the steady state, critical elements don't reached the limit temperature value for this type of fuel. (author)

  8. Neutronics investigation of CANDU deuterium uranium 6 reactor fueled (transuranic-TH) O-2 using a computational method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    241Am, 243Am, and 237Np isotopes are among the most radiotoxic components of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, researchers have planned different incineration scenarios for the highly radiotoxic elements of nuclear waste in critical reactors. Computational methods are widely used to predict burnup rates of such nuclear wastes that are used under fuel matrixes in critical reactors. In this work, the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was used to calculate the neutronic behavior of a transuranic (TRU)-bearing CANada Deuterium Uranium 6 reactor. The computational data showed that the 1.0% TRU-containing thorium-based fuel matrix presents higher proliferation resistance and TRU depletion rate than the other investigated fuel Matrixes. The fuel matrix includes higher negative temperature reactivity coefficients as well. The investigated thorium-based fuel matrix can be successfully used to decrease the production of highly radiotoxic isotopes.

  9. General solution of Bateman equations for nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetnar, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns the linear chain method of solving Bateman equations for nuclear transmutation in derivation of the general solution for linear chain with repeated transitions and thus elimination of existing numerical problems. In addition, applications of derived equations for transmutation trajectory analysis method is presented

  10. Minor actinides transmutation potential: state of art for GEN IV sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the R and D program relative to the 1991 French act on nuclear waste management, fast neutron systems have shown relevant characteristics that meet both requirements on sustainable resources management and waste minimization. They also offer flexibility by mean of burner or breeder configurations allowing mastering plutonium inventory without significant impact on core safety. From the technological point of view, sodium cooled fast reactor are considered in order to achieve mean term industrial deployment. The present document summaries the main results of R and D program on minor actinides transmutation in sodium fast reactor since 2006 following recommendation of the first part of the 1991 French act. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous management achievable performances are presented for 'evolutionary' SFR V2B core as well as low void worth CFV core for industrial scale configurations (1500 MWe). Minor actinides transmutation could be demonstrated in the ASTRID reactor with the following configurations: - a 2%vol Americium content for the homogeneous mode, - a 10%vol Americium content for the heterogeneous mode, without any substantial modification of the main core safety parameters and only limited impacts on the associated fuel cycle (manufacturing issues are not considered here). In order to achieve such goal, a wide range of experimental irradiations driven by transmutation scenarios have to be performed for both homogeneous and heterogeneous minor actinides management. (author) [fr

  11. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, J.D.; Rust, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions

  12. System study on partitioning and transmutation of long-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szieberth, M.

    2001-01-01

    The management of long-lived isotopes - transuranium elements and fission products - produced in nuclear reactors is a problem that substantially affects the public acceptance of nuclear energy, and may influence the long-term hazard caused by energy production. Partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel materials offer a suitable solution to this problem. After the nuclear community had realised this fact, the number of publications on this topic significantly increased but there is still a lack of studies that include the analysis of not only one instrument but also the whole nuclear energy system. However, from the viewpoint of Partitioning and transmutation's implementation a substantial question is the cooperation of plants optimised for energy generation and others for partitioning or transmutation. In order to analyse this problem, the schemes of different systems are framed and their mathematical models are worked out. The systems are evaluated through the long-term risks caused by the waste deposited in final disposal, and the risks are described by a newly defined quantity, the residual hazard index. (author)

  13. A Study on the Kinetic Characteristics of Transmutation Process Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid mental as the coolant used in accelerator-driven transmutation process reactor which is related the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclide. At current stage, the accelerator-driven transmutation process is investigated as the most appropriate method among many transmutation process methods. In this study, previous research works are investigated especially about the thermal hydraulics and kinetic behavior of coolant material including heat transfer of coolant in transmutation process reactor. A study on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal is performed based on the thermal hydraulic kinetic characteristics of liquid metal reactor which uses liquid metal coolant. Based on this study, the most appropriate material for the coolant of transmutation reactor will be recommended. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  14. Transmutation of fission products with the use of an accelarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, T.; Harada, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1995-01-01

    The three transmutation methods with the use of an accelerator, the proton method, the spallation neutron method and the μCF method, are employed for the transmutation of long-lived nuclides in high level radioactive wastes. The transmutation energies and the effective half-lives of 99 Tc and 137 Cs for these transmutation methods are calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation codes for particle transport. The transmutation energies of the proton method are larger than those of the spallation neutron method and the μCF method under the condition of the same effective half life. The proton method is difficult to meet energy balance criterion. On the other hand, the spallation neutron method and the μCF method have possibility to meet the energy balance criterion. (author)

  15. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E.E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-02-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm - 2 . After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures ( 0 exp(δ/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

  16. Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex

    2015-11-06

    We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.

  17. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

  18. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz

    2008-11-15

    We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another, weaker type of singularity where the permittivity and permeability tensors are discontinuous at one point. The method is likely to find applications in designing and improving optical devices by making them easier to implement or to operate in a broad band of the spectrum.

  19. Strong coupling transmutation of Yukawa theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.C.; Chiu, C.B.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1981-01-01

    In the strong coupling limit, it is shown that the Yukawa-type theory can be made to undergo a transmutation into an attractive separable potential theory, provided a single state is removed from the spectrum in the lowest nontrivial sector and the states at infinity which include a continuum in the next sector. If these states are not removed, the two theories are distinct. It is suggested that the full equivalence and the renormalization of four-fermion theories need further examination. (orig.)

  20. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2006-02-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-α-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

  1. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch