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Sample records for thorax berufsbedingte thoraxtumoren

  1. The thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is becoming increasingly important for evaluation of thoracic diseases. The clinical role of MRI requires direct comparison of its advantages with those of CT. For imaging of the thorax, MRI has some intrinsic advantages in regard to other modalities. It also has some disadvantages at present, but these may be temporary, because MRI is still an immature and rapidly developing technology. The major advantage is maximum contrast between lesions and blood vessels at all tomographic levels. On the other hand, achieving such contrast with CT requires precise coordination between delivery of the bolus of contrast materials and exposure of the CT scan; this can generally be attained only at one or a few anatomic levels. Metallic surgical clips cause a signal void on MRI but do not cause the severe streak artifacts seen on CT scans. Another advantage of MRI results from the high MRI intensity of fat. This provides high contrast between lesions and hilar or mediastinal fat. The ability to obtain MR images in multiple planes can be critical for evaluating abnormalities in some locations, such as the aorticopulmonary window and the cervicothoracic junction. Coronal and sagittal reconstructions from transverse CT scans generally have not been useful because of markedly reduced spatial resolution in the reconstructed plane

  2. The thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    In the first section, Techniques of Examination, two articles are housed; others relate indirectly to technique and can be found in the Pulmonary-General section. The Mediastinum and Chest Wall section contains an initial article on the Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome, tracheobronchiomegaly. Two other articles describe the CT appearance of extensions of the pericardium that may mimic lymphadenopathy. Another article describes the plain film criteria for excluding aortic rupture in blunt chest trauma. The Pleura section includes an article on oleothorax, a relic from the past with which younger radiologists may not be familiar. An article from our vicinity describes the CT detection of occult pneumorthorax in patients with head trauma, extending the CT examination of the head to the thorax in this group of patients with a significant yield of unsuspected pneumothoraces. Finally, the CT look-alikes of pleural mesothelioma and asbestosis in two separate articles are included for your review. The final and largest section is subdivided into Pulmonary-General and Pulmonary-Neoplastic

  3. Lymphomas of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frija, J.; Katz, M.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Chest radiography is of prime importance in all stages of Hodgkin's disease (HD). It can detect HD in asymptomatic individuals; it is essential for initial disease staging; it allows evaluation of response to treatment; and it is indispensible for patient follow-up, since the thorax can be the site of disease recurrence detectable only by radiography. HD commonly affects the mediastinal lymph nodes and the thymus, and more rarely, the trachea, bronchi, heart, and esophagus. The lungs, pleura, and chest wall can also be involved. The frequency of involvement of individual intrathoracic sites varies for initial HD and relapses. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax will undoubtedly gradually replace all the existing indications for conventional thoracic tomography. During initial work-ups, CT confirmed the presence of adenopathies suspected on standard radiographs and mediastinal tomograms in one of five instances. On five occasions, CT proved useful for adapting the fields for mantle irradiation

  4. X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases covers the following issues: diagnostic procedures, inflammatory thorax diseases, malign thorax diseases, heart and large blood vessels, hear insufficiency, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, interstitial pulmonary diseases, intensive care and traumatology.

  5. Thorax deformity, joint hypermobility and anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulsun, M.; Dumlu, K.; Erbas, M.; Yilmaz, Mehmet B.; Pinar, M.; Tonbul, M.; Celik, C.; Ozdemir, B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the association between thorax deformities, panic disorder and joint hypermobility. The study includes 52 males diagnosed with thorax deformity, and 40 healthy male controls without thorax deformity, in Tatvan Bitlis and Isparta, Turkey. The study was carried out from 2004 to 2006. The teleradiographic and thoracic lateral images of the subjects were evaluated to obtain the Beighton scores; subjects psychiatric conditions were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1), and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied in order to determine the anxiety levels. Both the subjects and controls were compared in sociodemographic, anxiety levels and joint mobility levels. In addition, males with joint hypermobility and thorax deformity were compared to the group with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. A significant difference in HAM-A scores was found between the groups with thorax deformity and without. In addition, 21 subjects with thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group with thorax deformity and 7 subjects without thorax deformity met the joint hypermobility criteria in the group without thorax deformity, according to Beighton scoring. The Beighton score of subjects with thorax deformity were significantly different from those of the group without deformity. Additionally, anxiety scores of the males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility were found higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. Anxiety disorders, particularly panic disorder, have a significantly higher distribution in males subjects with thorax deformity compared to the healthy control group. In addition, the anxiety level of males with thorax deformity and joint hypermobility is higher than males with thorax deformity without joint hypermobility. (author)

  6. Digital radiography of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frija, J.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Feger, C.; Attal, P.; Laval-jeantet, M.

    1997-01-01

    Digital radiography of the thorax can, now be substituted to conventional chest radiography. Computed radiography with phosphor plates and the new selenium detector are emphasized. The major image processing are explained. Successively the main other methods of digital radiography are described: scanning equalization radiography, laser-digitized radiography and multiwire proportional chambers. Then the advantages and the drawbacks of chest computed radiography are extensively reviewed. (author)

  7. Pre-operative evaluation for thorax surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Luis, Saenz; Morales, Oscar Alberto

    2002-01-01

    A pre-operative analysis of the function of the breathing system is made in the patient that will be taken to thorax surgery. The paper includes risk factors, pre-operative clinical evaluation and of breathing and cardiovascular system

  8. 49 CFR 572.196 - Thorax without arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax without arm. 572.196 Section 572.196... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.196 Thorax without arm. (a) The thorax is part of the upper torso... (drawing 180-0000) with the arm (180-6000) on the impacted side removed. The dummy's thorax is equipped...

  9. 49 CFR 572.195 - Thorax with arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Thorax with arm. 572.195 Section 572.195... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.195 Thorax with arm. (a) The thorax is part of the upper torso assembly shown in drawing 180-3000. For the thorax with arm impact test, the dummy is tested as a complete...

  10. New concepts in thorax-radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biebesheimer, V.; Buchmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    New requirements in thorax-radiography like economy and low patient-dose, are of increasing importance. Using new concepts, these requirements together with high image-quality were fulfilled in a new thorax-system, the pulmo DIAGNOST 100. This was possible by the utilization of the slit-radiography principle together with a linear image intensifier. It resulted in superior quality for the fully automated system. (orig.) [de

  11. Primary classical hemangiopericytomas of thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakcioglu, Pinar; Aydin, Ertan; Celik, Ali; Demirag, Funda; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin

    2012-07-01

    Hemangiopericytoma, an uncommon hypervascular tumor, occurs anywhere in the body with capillary vessels originating from the pericyte. These tumors most frequently occur in the musculature of the lower extremities and retroperitoneum, but are rarely seen in the thoracic cavity. The objective of this study is to present primary classical hemangiopericytomas of the thorax together with a literature review. The postoperative pathologic records of 17,165 operations that were performed between January 1990 and December 2010 in the clinic were retrospectively searched, and the files of 6 cases with the diagnosis of primary classical hemangiopericytoma were analyzed for clinical characteristics of patients, surgical procedures, histopathologic features, treatments after surgery, and morbidity and mortality results. There were 4 female and 2 male patients with an average age of 30.3 years (range, 15 to 60 years). Three patients had thoracic wall lesions, 2 patients had intrathoracic extrapulmonary lesions, and 1 patient had mediastinal lesion. Four left and two right posterolateral thoracotomies were performed. Chest wall resection was performed in 3 patients, intrathoracic extrapulmonary mass excision in 2 patients, and mediastinal mass excision and left lower lobectomy in 1 patient. Postoperative histopathologic diagnoses were primary classical hemangiopericytomas in 4 patients and primary classical malignant hemangiopericytomas in 2 patients. Four patients underwent reoperation for recurrence. In the follow-up period, 2 patients are still alive at 30 months and 14 years postoperatively; 3 patients died at 7, 8, and 16 years postoperatively. One patient was lost to follow-up. All 3 mortalities were related to the recurrence or distant metastasis of the tumor. Although hemangiopericytomas are benign or malignant tumors, they generally display malignant behaviors. The risk of recurrence and distant metastasis occurs even many years after resection, suggesting that the

  12. Computerized Axial Tomography in thorax trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuluaga, Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    The great presentation frequency and the high morbid mortality, make of the thorax trauma a topic of great importance and of constant investigation, where the images have been useful in the evaluation of lesions, to define pathologies, like guide for the drainage of pleural collections and other evaluations; the paper includes a protocol, mediastine, and lesions among other topics

  13. Central venous obstruction in the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, G.; Jones, R.G.; Willis, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Central venous stenosis and occlusion can occur secondary to a spectrum of conditions ranging from aggressive malignancy to benign extrinsic anatomical compression in otherwise healthy individuals. Irrespective of aetiology, significant morbidity in the acute setting and long term can occur unless prompt accurate diagnosis and appropriate management is initiated, the radiologist being central to both. The present review will provide radiologists with a thorough illustration and explanation of the range of central venous conditions in the thorax (including deep vein thrombosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, haemodialysis, and malignancy related causes), the salient imaging findings and interventional management using case examples from the authors' practice. - Highlights: • We show a range of causes of central venous disease in the thorax. • We provide information about different imaging and management strategies. • We show several cases with successes and complications of endovascular management

  14. Systematic Interpretation of Adult Thorax Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torel Ogur

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Thorax x-ray film is a routine radiological test which is commonly ordered, relatively inexpensive and available for most of the health services. It also offers numerous useful information in medical decision making in a lot of clinical situations. So it is very important to learn to interpret effectively chest x ray film in clinical practice, for medical students and physicians. This review is intended to give a basic opinion for systematic review of chest x-ray film. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 427-436

  15. Systematic Interpretation of Adult Thorax Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Torel Ogur; Ergun Ucar

    2009-01-01

    Thorax x-ray film is a routine radiological test which is commonly ordered, relatively inexpensive and available for most of the health services. It also offers numerous useful information in medical decision making in a lot of clinical situations. So it is very important to learn to interpret effectively chest x ray film in clinical practice, for medical students and physicians. This review is intended to give a basic opinion for systematic review of chest x-ray film. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009...

  16. Dosimetry in thorax X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo S, A.; Hernandez O, M.; Duran M, H. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Guerra M, J. A.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2009-10-01

    The dose to the entrance of thorax during a radiological study has been measured in a phantom of paraffin and with thermoluminescent dosemeters. This work was realized in the living room 1 of the X-rays service of the General Hospital No. 1 IMSS in Zacatecas. For the study thermoluminescent dosemeters of CaSO 4 :Dy were used. The irradiation of the thoracic region is the more studied through the conventional radiology, method that continues occupying the first place as diagnostic in diverse pathologies due to generates images of the heart, lungs, spine, etc. As well as can to observe the location of subclavian catheters, nasogastric sound, endotracheal tubes and umbilical catheters. The magnitude of the dose that is received during the realization of this study type is not usually measured, since the main concern is to have a good image to make a good diagnostic. The measurements were carried out using parameters of the equipment that were defined with base to the experience of the technical radiologist. It was found that the irradiation field is not uniform and that in any point where the dose was measured it is not exceeded the 7 mGy settled by the Mexican Official Standard-157-SSA-1996 for a thorax study. (author)

  17. Elastic models application for thorax image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Prado, Lorena S; Diaz, E Andres Valdez; Romo, Raul

    2007-01-01

    This work consist of the implementation and evaluation of elastic alignment algorithms of biomedical images, which were taken at thorax level and simulated with the 4D NCAT digital phantom. Radial Basis Functions spatial transformations (RBF), a kind of spline, which allows carrying out not only global rigid deformations but also local elastic ones were applied, using a point-matching method. The applied functions were: Thin Plate Spline (TPS), Multiquadric (MQ) Gaussian and B-Spline, which were evaluated and compared by means of calculating the Target Registration Error and similarity measures between the registered images (the squared sum of intensity differences (SSD) and correlation coefficient (CC)). In order to value the user incurred error in the point-matching and segmentation tasks, two algorithms were also designed that calculate the Fiduciary Localization Error. TPS and MQ were demonstrated to have better performance than the others. It was proved RBF represent an adequate model for approximating the thorax deformable behaviour. Validation algorithms showed the user error was not significant

  18. Mechanics of the thorax in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Tanvi; Gundiah, Namrata; Sane, Sanjay P

    2017-04-15

    Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion. One such adaptation is the evolution of specialized myogenic or asynchronous muscles that power the high-frequency wing motion, in combination with neurogenic or synchronous steering muscles that control higher-order wing kinematic patterns. Additionally, passive cuticular linkages within the thorax coordinate fast and yet precise bilateral wing movement, in combination with an actively controlled clutch and gear system that enables flexible flight patterns. Thus, the study of thoracic biomechanics, along with the underlying sensory-motor processing, is central in understanding how the insect body form is adapted for flight. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases; Roentgendiagnostik von Thoraxerkrankungen. Von der Deskription zur Diagnose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulke, H.M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum

    2013-11-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics of thorax diseases covers the following issues: diagnostic procedures, inflammatory thorax diseases, malign thorax diseases, heart and large blood vessels, hear insufficiency, pulmonary congestion, pulmonary edema, interstitial pulmonary diseases, intensive care and traumatology.

  20. SIMULASI RONTGEN THORAX BERBASIS ANDROID SEBAGAI MEDIA EDUKASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanar Intan Surya Saputra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Android merupakan sistem operasi mobile yang open platform, dimana memungkinkan pihak ketiga untuk melakukan pengembangan dalam aplikasinya.Hal ini mengakibatkan banyak para developer atau pengembang yang untuk membuat aplikasi guna memenuhi kebutuhan masyarakat pengguna Android. Pemeriksaan Thorax merupakan salah satu pemeriksaan yang paling sering dilakukan terhadap setiap orang jika mengalami masalah pada kesehatannya, hal ini sangat berfungsi untuk menilai kesehatan paru-paru, pemeriksaan thorax juga sebagai salah satu item dalam melakukan check-up seseorang. Indikasi pemeriksaan thorax diantaranya : Bronchopneumonia, TB paru, Bronkhitis, Atelektasis, Trauma, dan Tumor serta beberapa indikasi yang lainya. Melihat peluang untuk mengembangkan aplikasi berbasis Android serta adanya kebutuhan masyarakat akan informasi yang berkaitan dengan pemeriksaan Thorax, maka sangat memungkinkan untuk membuat dan mengembangkan sebuah aplikasi simulasi foto Rontgen Thorax berbasis Android sebagai media edukasi bagi masyarakat khususnya para pengguna smartphone Android.

  1. Doses Received by Patients during Thorax X-Ray Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikan U. Esen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiation exposures from diagnostic medical examinations are generally low and are almost always justified by the benefits of accurate diagnosis of possible disease conditions. Therefore, entrance skin dose (ESD, body organ dose (BOD, and effective dose (ED from adult patients undergoing routine thorax posterior-anterior (PA and thorax right lateral (RLAT were estimated in University Hospital, Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods Totally, 102 patients were considered in this work. Using software packages to carry out ESD, BOD, and ED is a recent resource in dosimetry and is being widely used in hospitals. The software used in this work was  CALDose_X 5.0. The software makes use of the technical exposure parameters and the tube output of the X-ray machine. Results The estimated ESD median values were 0.96 and 1.85 mGy for thorax posterior anterior (PA and right lateral (RLAT, respectively. The highest BOD was in the adrenals (270 µGy for thorax PA and Liver (263 µGy for thorax RLAT. Similarly, ED for thorax PA and RLAT examination were 0.068 and 0.107 mGy, respectively. Conclusion It could be observed that examinations that imparted the highest ESD were thorax PA when compared with the established dose level. Therefore, these results call for quality assurance program (QAP in diagnostic X-ray units in Nigeria hospitals.

  2. Radation distribution in head & thorax computerized tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of the exposure levels in the computerized tomography (CT practices is necessary to define the respected national reference levels, quality control of CT centers and the risk assessment for radiation induced cancers. Material and Methods: On the basis of this necessity, the radiation exposure distribution due to common CT practices has been investigated at Razi Hospital CT center in Rasht using tissue-equivalent phantoms and the thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD. The Head and Thorax phantoms were used with the standard dimensions incorporating holes at the center and edges for TLD placement. Dosimetry was carried out using LiF Mg, Cu, P small chips due to their relatively tissue equivalence, high sensitivity convenient annealing procedure and the non-complex glow curve. Results: Results showed that CTDI for Head is 52.85 mGy and for Body is 68.15mGy. CTDLW for Head is 13.67 mGy and for Body is 16.94mGy . Conclusion: In comparison with other radiographical procedures, patient absorbed doses in CT imaging are usually very high. Content of dose is increased by increase of mAs.

  3. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hieckel, H.G.; Hering, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [de

  4. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A.

    1993-01-01

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  5. Biomechanical simulation of thorax deformation using finite element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangzhi; Chen, Xian; Ohgi, Junji; Miura, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Akira; Matsumura, Chikanori; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2016-02-06

    The biomechanical simulation of the human respiratory system is expected to be a useful tool for the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases. Because the deformation of the thorax significantly influences airflow in the lungs, we focused on simulating the thorax deformation by introducing contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, which are the main muscles responsible for the thorax deformation during breathing. We constructed a finite element model of the thorax, including the rib cage, intercostal muscles, and diaphragm. To reproduce the muscle contractions, we introduced the Hill-type transversely isotropic hyperelastic continuum skeletal muscle model, which allows the intercostal muscles and diaphragm to contract along the direction of the fibres with clinically measurable muscle activation and active force-length relationship. The anatomical fibre orientations of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm were introduced. Thorax deformation consists of movements of the ribs and diaphragm. By activating muscles, we were able to reproduce the pump-handle and bucket-handle motions for the ribs and the clinically observed motion for the diaphragm. In order to confirm the effectiveness of this approach, we simulated the thorax deformation during normal quiet breathing and compared the results with four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) images for verification. Thorax deformation can be simulated by modelling the respiratory muscles according to continuum mechanics and by introducing muscle contractions. The reproduction of representative motions of the ribs and diaphragm and the comparison of the thorax deformations during normal quiet breathing with 4D-CT images demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach. This work may provide a platform for establishing a computational mechanics model of the human respiratory system.

  6. Morphology and functional anatomy of the growing thorax; Morphologie und funktionelle Anatomie des wachsenden Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weninger, W.J.; Meng, S.; Geyer, S.H.; Weninger, S.U.G. [Integrative Morphology Group, Unversitaet Wien (Austria); Institut fuer Anatomie, Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2003-12-01

    Morphogenesis of most thoracic organs and structures is not finished with birth but perpetuates in postnatal life. The postnatal growth is partly associated with enormous changes in structure, morphology, and function. Our study presents an overview of morphological, topological and functional peculiarities of thoracic anatomy during infancy, childhood and adolescence. It focuses on the development of the mammary gland, osseous structures of the chest wall, thymus, heart, and lungs. Most of the presented data are based on post-mortem studies. Measurements and numerical data are mainly included for illustration of growth-associated changes. (orig.) [German] Die Morphogenese mancher thorakaler Strukturen und Organe ist zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt noch nicht vollstaendig abgeschlossen. Ihr postpartales Wachstum geht mit teils enormen strukturellen, morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen einher. Die hier praesentierte Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber morphologische, topologische und funktionelle Besonderheiten der Anatomie des Thorax und seiner Organe im Neonatus, Saeugling, Kind und Jugendlichen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beschreibung der Entwicklung der Brustdruese, des knoechernen Thorax, des Thymus, des Herzen und der Lunge. Die vorgestellten Daten stammen grossteils aus Post-mortem-Studien und dienen vorwiegend dazu, das Ausmass wachstumsassoziierter Veraenderungen und Relationen zu illustrieren. (orig.)

  7. Asbestos-related diseases of the thorax; Asbestverursachte Veraenderungen am Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieckel, H.G. [Evangelische Lungenklinik Berlin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Knappschaftskrankenhaus Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Asbestos fibers can lead to pulmonary fibrosis, thickening of the pleura and malignancies. These pathologic changes are possible rather than determinate and depend on the type of asbestos fiber, length of exposure to fibers and individual factors. In Germany asbestos fibers were widely used until 1993. Worldwide, there is currently no general ban on the use of asbestos. The leading cause of asbestos-related diseases is occupational exposure. Due to a long latency period the appearance of such diseases may be delayed for more than 40 years so that the final number of cases has not yet been reached. Occupationally-derived asbestos-related diseases of the thorax are asbestosis, asbestos-related benign pleurisy and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Bronchial carcinoma can also be caused by asbestos exposure. For proof of occupational exposure, radiologists are required to report the presence of characteristic findings. The detection, in particular by chest X-ray and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), requires high quality images and standardized evaluation. The standardized ILO classification and the semi-quantitative HRCT coding are medical findings on which statutory registration criteria are based. (orig.) [German] Asbestfasern koennen zu einer Lungenfibrose, zu Verdickungen der Pleura und zu Malignomen fuehren. Diese pathologischen Veraenderungen sind fakultativ und abhaengig von der Asbestart, der Dauer der Exposition und von individuellen Faktoren. Asbest fand bis 1993 in Deutschland breiten Einsatz. Weltweit besteht noch kein Verbot. Mehrheitlich sind asbestbedingte Erkrankungen Folgen beruflicher Expositionen. Bis zu ihrem Auftreten liegen lange Latenzzeiten bis ueber 40 Jahre, sodass das Maximum noch nicht erreicht ist. Asbestverursachte Berufserkrankungen am Thorax sind die Asbestose und asbestverursachte benigne Pleuraerkrankungen sowie das maligne Pleuramesotheliom. Bronchialkarzinome koennen asbestverursacht sein. Zur Beweisfuehrung wird von der

  8. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker-Birck Mareike

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. Case presentation The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. Conclusions To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours.

  9. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  10. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human thorax with a protective body armor system so that the model can adequately determine the thorax's biodynamical response...

  11. Training for thorax diagnostics. Systematic cardiopulmonary image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The training book on thorax diagnostics using image analysis is supposed to be a supplement to the usual textbooks based on comprehensive experiences of radiologists. The covered issues are the following: heart insufficiency, acute/ chronic bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema; pneumonia and tuberculosis; bronchial carcinoma; lung fibrosis, sarcoidosis and pneumoconiosis, pleural effusion and pneumothorax.

  12. Impact Analysis of a Biomechanical Model of the Human Thorax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolly, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of the study was to create a viable finite element model of the human thorax. This objective was accomplished through the construction of a three-dimensional finite element model in DYNA3D, a finite element analysis program...

  13. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms; Radiologische Diagnostik Abdomen und Thorax. Bildinterpretation unter Beruecksichtigung anatomischer Landmarken und klinischer Symptome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A. [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Mahnken, Andreas H. (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2015-07-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  14. Radiography of the equine thorax and its differential diagnosis relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, H.J.; Offeney, F.

    1990-01-01

    Commonly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the cause of dyspnoe or loss of performance in the horse. Tracheobronchoscopy, cytology of tracheobronchial aspirates, interpleural pressure measurement, and arterial blood gas analysis improved diagnosis of equine respiratory disorders. Yet some intrathoraeie diseases, especially chronic pneumonia, are differential diagnosis problems. Radiography of the thorax improves the diagnosis of pneumonia and some other intrathoraeie diseases. The technique of the radiography of the thorax is described and radiographic findings in 166 horses suffering from respiratory diseases are evaluated. Theses horses showed pathologic radiographic findings caused by COPD (n =61), pneumonia (67), pleuritis (12), exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (8), aspiration pneumonia (7), hydrothorax (6), pneumothorax (2), lung abseess (1); mediastinal tumor (1), and diaphragmatie hernia (1) [de

  15. Thorax computed tomography findings in patients victims of chest trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Rodrigues de Moura Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe thorax computed tomography findings in patients assisted in the emergency unit of Institute Dr Jose Frota (IJF. Materials and Methods: Descriptive study analyzing 160 consecutive contrast-enhanced thorax computed tomography of patients victims of thoracic trauma admitted to the emergency unit of IJF, between November 1st, 2014 and January 31st, 2015. Results: Abnormal findings were observed in 91,2 % of the patients. Among them, the following findings were most frequently observed: fractures (48%, hemothorax (43%, atelectasis (37%, pneumothorax (26% and lung contusions (17% Rupture of the esophagus was seen in three patients. Conclusion: We recognize that the findings encountered in our study are of similar prevalence to the ones reported in the literature and that CT scan is essencial to quickly diagnose these findings.

  16. MR Venography of the Central Veins of the Thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Brendan; Hurwitz, Lynne M; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-08-01

    While imaging of the central venous system has traditionally been performed with conventional venography, MR venography (MRV) has emerged as an important modality as techniques and validation studies have evolved over time. While magnetic resonance angiography has a very robust representation in the literature, the proportion representing MRV is relatively sparse. The purpose of this article is to review the indications, techniques, and dedicated studies validating MRV of the central veins of the thorax.

  17. Influence of thorax irradiation on lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, C.; Munnich, A.; Pasquier, C.

    The right hemi-thorax of rats was irradiated with 1200 and 3000 rads ( 60 Co) and blood samples were taken sequentially. The five lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes which have proved to be useful as biochemical indicators of acute pulmonary injury in other experimental animals (dogs), were assayed, after irradiation, as a function of time and as a functon of dose. There was no significant change in LDH isoenzyme activities after lung irradiation in rats [fr

  18. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krombach, Gabriele A.; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2015-01-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  19. Diagnosis of anemia on CT scans of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, H.L.; Cook, D.E.; Proto, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Visualization of the interventricular septum on nonenhanced CT scans of the thorax of patients with anemia has been illustrated in the literature and explained in terms of a density differential between the cardiac musculature and the blood of anemic patients (blood with a low hemoglobin level). There are no data on the frequency of visualization of the walls of the cardiac chambers, the aorta and its branches, the superior and inferior venae cavae, the brachiocephalic veins, the azygos arch, and so forth. Experience with 50 patients is reported in terms of the foregoing. Findings are correlated with the severity of the anemia, thereby indicating how commonly one may encounter such an appearance

  20. Computed tomography of the thorax in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente Filho, Livio William Sales; Marchiori, Edson; Daltro, Pedro; Santos, Eloa Nunes

    1998-01-01

    We studied retrospectively the value of computed tomography of the thorax in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Twenty-six patients were studied, which showed as the most frequency pulmonary findings bronchial wall thickening in 22 patients (84.6), followed by bronchiectasis in 16 patients (61.5%). Less frequent finding were ill-defined patch consolidation, mucoid impaction, bullaes and atelectasis. We found a predominant distribution of bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis in the upper lobes of the lungs. Computed tomography is the more sensitive technique for early visualization and location of the manifestations of cystic fibrosis bronchopathy. (author)

  1. Radiographic Examination of the Lungs and Thorax Cavity in Equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu LĂCĂTUȘ

    2017-11-01

    The mobile arms of the device give the possibility of adjusting the distance between the X-Ray tube and the detector, because of these one or two exposures were enough to examine the entire thoracic cavity. The interstitial patter is more evident in horses that in small mammals given the gross anatomy of the lungs. The radiological parameters were adjusted according to thoracic cavity depth. Radiographic examination is a necessary tool that completes the clinical examination. The up-to-date detectors used in veterinary radiology give the clinician the possibility of a detailed examination of the lung parenchyma and the thorax structures.

  2. Common pitfalls in radiographic interpretation of the Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godshalk, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Errors in radiographic interpretation of the thorax are common. Many mistakes result from interpreting normal anatomic variants as abnormalstructures, such as misdiagnosing dorsal and rightward deviation of the cranial thoracic trachea on lateral radiographs of normal dogs. Some of the more common errors specifically relate to misinterpretation of radiographs made on obese patients. The age of the patient also plays a role in misdiagnosis. Aging cats seem to have a horizontally positioned heart on lateral radiographs, and older dogs, primarily collies,often have pulmonary osteomas that are misdiagnosed as metastatic neoplastic disease or healed pulmonary fungal infections

  3. Evaluation of anemia on unenhanced CT of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuzhong; Zhang Xuelin; Zhong Qun; Zhang Fan; Zhang Wensheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between CT density of blood in Cardiac Chambers and hemoglobin concentration in blood, and to evaluate the veracity of diagnosis of aneamia on unenhanced computed tomography of the thorax. Methods: Thorax (heart) helical CT was performed in 92 patients. In each case, the CT values of the blood pool in left ventricle and ventricular septum were tested, and the ratio of blood pool/ventricular septum were calculated. The hemoglobin concentration in blood was tested. The correlation among these indexes were analysed. Results: In these factors, CT density of blood was strongly and positively correlated with hemoglobin concentration in blood (r=0.571, P=0.000), and the CT density ratio was also strongly and positively correlated with hemoglobin concentration in blood (r=0.650, P=0.000). It dramatically implies that the patient may be suffering from aneamia when the ratio is Ness than 90% (male) or 87% (female). Conclusion: Blood pool/ventricular septum CT density ratio may be as a reliable indicator for judging and grading aneamia with CT. (authors)

  4. 3D geometric morphometrics of thorax variation and allometry in Hominoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; García-Martínez, Daniel; Williams, Scott A; Recheis, Wolfgang; Torres-Sánchez, Isabel; García Río, Francisco; Oishi, Motoharu; Ogihara, Naomichi

    2017-12-01

    Ever since the seminal papers of Keith and Schultz, hominoid primate ribcages have been described as either "funnel-" or "barrel-shaped." Following this dichotomic typology, it is currently held that Homo sapiens and hylobatids (gibbons and siamangs) share a barrel-shaped ribcage and that they are more similar to each other than to the funnel-shaped thoraces of great apes (Gorilla, Pan, and Pongo). Other researchers hypothesized that thoracic width and the invagination of the thoracic spine into the thorax are related to allometry. However, analyses that take into account the complex three-dimensional (3D) shape of the ribcage are lacking. Here, we address hypotheses about thorax shape and evolution using 3D morphometrics of thoraces in anatomical connection obtained by computed tomography scans of 23 hominoid cadavers and 10 humans and examining thorax compartments composed of seven ribs (1-7 thorax) and of 11 ribs (1-11 thorax). In the 1-7 thorax analyses, the human thorax is uniquely flat because of torsion of the upper and central ribs, differing from all non-human hominoids including hylobatids. In the 1-11 thorax analyses, humans are markedly different from African great apes, with hylobatids and orangutans intermediate. In full shape space analyses, affinities between orangutans and humans on the one hand and between hylobatids and African great apes on the other are evident. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that humans and hylobatids bear any special affinities in overall 3D thorax shape to each other. We find that larger thoraces are wider and flatter, with a more invaginated spine, supporting the allometric hypothesis. Hominoid thorax variation shows complex interactions between allometry, rib curves, torsion, and declination, and the morphology of the costo-vertebral joint and the thoracic vertebral column. When considering functional specializations alongside phylogenetic relationships, an overly simplistic dichotomy between funnel-shaped and barrel

  5. Oblique and lateral impact response of the PMHS thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua M; Herriott, Rodney G; McFadden, Joseph D; Donnelly, Bruce R; Bolte, John H

    2006-11-01

    This study characterizes the PMHS thoracic response to blunt impact in oblique and lateral directions. A significant amount of data has been collected from lateral impacts conducted on human cadavers. Substantially less data has been collected from impacts that are anterior of lateral in an oblique direction. In the past, data collected from the handful of oblique impact studies were considered to be similar enough to the data from purely lateral impacts such that the oblique data were combined with data from lateral impacts. Defining the biomechanical response of the PMHS thorax to oblique impact is of great importance in side impact vehicle crashes where the loading is often anterior-oblique in direction. Data in this study was obtained from a chestband placed on the thorax at the level of impact to measure thoracic deflection. Two low energy impacts were conducted on each of seven subjects at 2.5 m/s, with one lateral impact and one oblique impact to opposite sides of each PMHS. Data was normalized using the Mertz-Viano method for a two mass system to allow for inter-subject comparisons. Force versus deflection response corridors were generated for the two impact types using an objective mathematical approach and compared to one another. Results were also compared to existing data for oblique and lateral thoracic impacts. The oblique thoracic response in low speed pendulum impacts was found to be different than the lateral thoracic response, in terms of force and deflection. Specifically, the lateral force was greater than the oblique force, and oblique deflection greater than lateral deflection for equal energy impacts.

  6. Radiological profile of anemia on unenhanced MDCT of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, Ehab M.; Rizzo, Elena; Duran, Rafael; Goncalves-Matoso, Vasco; Schnyder, Pierre; Duchosal, Michel A.; Qanadli, Salah D.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic value of unenhanced MDCT in anemic patients. Fifty consecutive patients with proven anemia and 50 nonanemic matched group for age, sex and body mass index were evaluated. In either group, hemoglobin levels were assessed no more than 24 h from an unenhanced CT of the thorax. For each patient, the presence of a hyperattenuating aortic wall (aortic ring sign) and/or dense interventricular septum (subjective parameters) were identified by two radiologists who were blinded to the laboratory findings. Furthermore, the aortic CT attenuation values (objective parameter) were also obtained and correlated with the hemoglobin levels. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting anemia were calculated for each variable, and ROC analysis was generated for subjective and objective parameters. Subjective image analysis revealed that the aortic ring sign was more sensitive than the interventricular septum sign for anemia detection (84% vs. 72%), whereas this latter sign was more specific (100% vs. 92%). A good correlation (r=0.60) was observed between the aortic CT attenuation values and the hemoglobin levels in the whole study population. Using a threshold of ≤35 HU for anemia diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of aortic CT attenuation value were 84% and 94%, respectively, with the largest area under the curve (0.89) among all diagnostic criteria. However, the best trade-off between sensitivity (80%) and specificity (100%) was obtained from combining both subjective and objective analysis. Interpreting anemia upon unnenhanced MDCT of the thorax is quite feasible. A diagnostic approach that considers both subjective and objective analysis offers the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity. (orig.)

  7. Experimental IMRT breast dosimetry in a thorax phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Elsa B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Lima, Andre C.S., E-mail: elsabpimenta@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: lucibn19@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential therapeutic method. RT is often used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. The dose-volume restrictions of the organs at risk limit the prescribed dose to the target volume and biological and clinical effects may influence the final treatment outcome. The breast RT provides large risks to the adjacent organs and consequently the recommended dosimetry to the prescribed dose volume (PTV) is 50 Gy, lower than the most prescribed dose in other treatments (70-85 Gy). Such values implies in less tumor control compared to other sites. The present research proposal aimed to measure absorbed dose in a thorax phantom with synthetic breasts provided by an Intensity-Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) protocol in a RT center. On the methodology, IMRT protocol was selected following recommendations from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiochromic films and a thorax simulator were prepared by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI). Dosimeters were calibrated on a selected linear accelerator (LINAC). The comparison of the dosimetry from treatment planning system (TPS), Xio (Elekta) and from experimental data was performed. The spatial distribution of the breast internal dose and in the adjacent organs was depicted by the experimental data. In the film's calibration, the quadratic polynomial fit presented a satisfactory coefficient. Two-dimensional dose profiles were obtained in the breast suggesting that films can supply details and information that TPS does not provide. At the phantom's dosimetry, the internal mean doses taken at the synthetic breast presented usual values above the prescribed dose, besides overall values were within the dosimetric MSKCC criterion. The non full reproduction of the build-up region in the films had occurred due to the asymmetrical positioning of the films in the inner breast, in addition to their non constant distance from the skin. The hot regions were present may

  8. Experimental IMRT breast dosimetry in a thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, Elsa B.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Nogueira, Luciana B.; Lima, Andre C.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an essential therapeutic method. RT is often used as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of breast cancer. The dose-volume restrictions of the organs at risk limit the prescribed dose to the target volume and biological and clinical effects may influence the final treatment outcome. The breast RT provides large risks to the adjacent organs and consequently the recommended dosimetry to the prescribed dose volume (PTV) is 50 Gy, lower than the most prescribed dose in other treatments (70-85 Gy). Such values implies in less tumor control compared to other sites. The present research proposal aimed to measure absorbed dose in a thorax phantom with synthetic breasts provided by an Intensity-Modulate Radiation Therapy (IMRT) protocol in a RT center. On the methodology, IMRT protocol was selected following recommendations from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiochromic films and a thorax simulator were prepared by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI). Dosimeters were calibrated on a selected linear accelerator (LINAC). The comparison of the dosimetry from treatment planning system (TPS), Xio (Elekta) and from experimental data was performed. The spatial distribution of the breast internal dose and in the adjacent organs was depicted by the experimental data. In the film's calibration, the quadratic polynomial fit presented a satisfactory coefficient. Two-dimensional dose profiles were obtained in the breast suggesting that films can supply details and information that TPS does not provide. At the phantom's dosimetry, the internal mean doses taken at the synthetic breast presented usual values above the prescribed dose, besides overall values were within the dosimetric MSKCC criterion. The non full reproduction of the build-up region in the films had occurred due to the asymmetrical positioning of the films in the inner breast, in addition to their non constant distance from the skin. The hot regions were present may

  9. A numerical model for blast injury of human thorax based on digitized visible human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Nie, Si-Bing; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Yi-He

    2017-12-04

    Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements. Simulation results showed that the apex of lungs was subjected to the largest stress in a blast. In order to verify this result, an animal experiment was performed on a dog. The animal experimental results was shown to have a same variation tendency with the calculation results based on our numerical model of human thorax, which made this model reliable for the blast injury research.

  10. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax; Przypadek pourazowego przemieszczenia sledziony do klatki piersiowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs.

  11. Application of Lead Field Theory and Computerized Thorax Modeling for the ECG Inverse Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puurtinen, H

    2001-01-01

    .... In this study, one anatomically detailed 3D FDM model of the human thorax as a volume conductor was employed for forward and inverse estimation of ECG potentials and cardiac sources, respectively...

  12. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  13. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax With Body Armor From a Bullet Impact

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lobuono, John

    2001-01-01

    .... The finite element model of the human thorax is validated by comparing the model's results to experimental data obtained from cadavers wearing a protective body armor system undergoing a projectile impact...

  14. Clinical applications of the computed tomography of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Soon Yong

    1980-01-01

    The computed tomography of the thorax has had considerably less impact in patient management than that of head and abdomen, because the convention chest radiography is a much more sensitive and accurate examination than the plain film studies of the head and abdomen. It has progressively been identified that the computed tomography of chest is superior to the conventional radiography in detection of small pulmonary nodules including occult metastatic lesions, in evaluation of character of hilar enlargement, and in staging of known bronchogenic caner. And especially in mediastinum, the computed tomography is supported to the any other conventional radiography in outlining lesions and determining character and extent of lesions. At the department of radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital , 87 cases of computed tomography of chest were performed with EMI-CT 5005 whole-body scanner from October 1977 to August 1979. The results were as following; 1. The fifty eight cases of considered to be pathologic findings were 23 pleural thickening and/or effusion, 14 bronchogenic carcinoma, 8 inflammatory lesions of lung parenchyme, 6 mediastinal lesions, 3 metastinal lesions, 3 COPD, 1 trauma, respectively. 2. No gravity-dependent change was noted in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which was frequently seen in normal subjects. Diminished numbers of pulmonary vessels was noted in COPD. 3. Small nodules in lung, retrosternal, posterior costophrenic and subpleural regions, which were not found on conventional radiography, can be detected by chest CT. 4. Differentiation of dilated central pulmonary artery from pulmonary mass in enlarged hilum and determination of adjacent mediastinal invasion, manifested by obliterated fat plane, was possible. 5. The cases of mediastinal widening such as paraspinal ilpomatosis, pericardial fat pad, teratoma, and bronchogenic cyst were easily determined by means of measuring the attenuation coefficiencies. 6. Small amount

  15. Validation study of the thorax phantom Lungman for optimization purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Pérez, Sunay; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    This work aims to investigate the advantages and limitations of the Kyoto Kagaku thorax phantom Lungman for use in chest radiography optimization studies. First, patient survey data were gathered for chest posterior anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) examinations in a standard chest X-ray room over a period of one year, using a Caesium Iodide (CsI) based flat panel detector with automatic exposure control (AEC). Parameters surveyed included exposure index (EI), dose area product (DAP) and AEC exposure time. PA and LAT projections of the phantom were then compared to these values. Additionally, the equivalence in millimetres of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was established for the different regions of the Lungman phantom (lungs and mediastinum). Finally, a voxel model of the Lungman phantom was developed by the segmentation of a volumetric dataset of the phantom acquired using CT scanning. Subsequently, the model was used in Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE/penEasy code to calculate the energy deposited in the organs of the phantom. This enabled comparison of the phantom tissue-equivalent materials with materials defined by ICRP 89 in terms of energy deposition. For the survey data, close agreement was found between phantom and the median values for the patient data (deviations ranged from 4% to 31%, one outlier). The phantom lung region is equivalent to 89 mm to 106 mm of PMMA, depending on tube voltage. Energy deposited in the phantom material compared to those for ICRP defined material differed by at most 36% in AP irradiations and 49% in PA irradiations.

  16. Chest tube placement in thorax trauma - comparison chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heim, P.; Maas, R.; Buecheler, E.; Tesch, C.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of chest tube placement in patients with thoracic trauma with regard to chest tube malposition in chest radiography in the supine position compared to additional computed tomography of the thorax. Material and methods: Apart from compulsory chest radiography after one or multiple chest tube insertions, 31 severely injured patients with thoracic trauma underwent a CT scan of the thorax. These 31 patients with 40 chest tubes constituted the basis for the present analysis. Results: In chest radiography in the supine position there were no chest tube malpositions (n=40); In the CT scans 25 correct positions, 7 pseudo-malpositions, 6 intrafissural and 2 intrapulmonary malpositions were identified. Moreover 16 sufficient, 18 insufficient and 6 indifferent functions of the chest tubes were seen. Conclusion: In case of lasting clinical problems and questionable function of the chest tube, chest radiography should be supplemented by a CT scan of the thorax in order to estimate the position of the chest tube. (orig.) [de

  17. Optimization of dose radiation and image quality on computed tomography of thorax in adult women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, G. R.; Casian C, G. [Hospital Juarez de Mexico, Av. IPN No. 5160, 07760 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gaona, E.; Franco E, J. G.; Molina F, N., E-mail: gaen1310@correo.xoc.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, 04960 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The objective of the study is the optimization of the dose (Dlp) and image quality in the exploration of adult women in studies of thorax with computed tomography (CT). The CT is a technique of exploration with high radiation doses to patients with an increase of the risk factors of developing cancer in the future, but X-rays are a very important medical diagnostic tool. We performed a retrospective survey of 50 female patients who had thorax tomography using the automatic protocol established by the manufacturer, a database of dose (Dlp), measures of patient A P and radiological parameters such as kV and m A was obtained. Subsequently, we carry out the prospective study with 30 patients with prescription of thorax tomography, scans were conducted with CT with reduced doses using manual techniques protocol of exploration while maintaining diagnostic image quality. The results show that the prospective study patients received doses lower than 30% on average. In general the dose patients were within the confidence interval of 95% of the levels of diagnostic reference (DRL) adopted by the European Community for CT and the most common value is 400 Dlp for thorax. Comparative image quality study was conducted using the protocol of the manufacturer and the manual protocol and image quality was diagnostic after dose reduction up to 30%. The reduction of radiation dose in female patients in studies of thorax CT helps to reduce risk factors of developing cancer later in life. A thorax tomography study includes the fibro-glandular tissue of the breast which is very sensitive to stochastic effects of radiation. (Author)

  18. A biomechanical study regarding the effect of tissue harvesting from the thorax on its movement during inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Asako; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Jin, Hongmei; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Cho, Yasunori; Jiang, Hua; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In the practice of plastic surgery, ribs and cartilage are often harvested for use in auto-grafts. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of such harvesting on the inspiration movement of the thorax. Sixteen three-dimensional computer simulation models were produced by reference to the CT data of 16 patients. To simulate the harvesting of ribs and costal cartilages, parts were removed from these thorax models, thereby producing models with different types of defect. By performing finite element calculation after applying contracture forces on the external intercostal muscles and diaphragm, the movement patterns exhibited by the thoraces during inspiration were analyzed. The relationships between the defect types and the movement patterns were evaluated with reference to the dynamic behavior of the sternum and the increase in thoracic volume. Although the removal of costal cartilage can cause asymmetric movement of the thorax, it did not affect the inspiration movement of the thorax. However, removal of two or more ribs not only caused asymmetric movement of the thorax, but also negatively affected that movement. Removal of two or three ribs impaired the expansion of the hemi-thorax on inspiration by 10% and 40%, respectively. The present study is the first to clarify the quantitative effect of tissue harvesting from the thorax on inspiration. The findings will be useful for surgeons when planning operations requiring harvesting of tissue from the thorax.

  19. Histologically benign but clinically malignant neoplasms in the thorax: CT–pathological overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Kim, T.S.; Han, J.; Kim, H.; Choi, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the computed tomography (CT) and histopathological features of uncommon primary neoplasms of the thorax that can manifest clinically malignant features (multiplicity of pulmonary nodules, an invasive nature, and metastases or recurrence after surgery) with little evidence of histological malignancy.

  20. Digital radiography of the thorax - the selenium detector compared with other imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Prokop, M.

    1996-01-01

    Phantom studies were compared with clinical studies for a comparative analysis of the diagnostic performance of conventional and digital imaging systems. The selenium detector is found to be superior in a number of tasks, and on the whole is judged to adequately perform the multiple tasks of thorax radiography.(Orig.) [de

  1. Preliminary report on a new mode of CT-scanning of the thorax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga-Pires, J.A.; Kaiser, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The A.A. advocate a “longitudino-axial” mode of CT-scanning in examinations of the thorax and suggest it as the standard mode in children and adults of small stature. The full development of the method is at present limited by the design of both hardware and software of the current generations of

  2. Computer Modeling and Simulation of Bullet Impact to the Human Thorax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolly, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of the study was to create a viable finite element model of the human thorax. The model was validated by comparing the results of tests of body armor systems conducted on cadavers to results obtained from finite element analysis...

  3. Surgical treatment of a large congenital cavernous hemangioma on the thorax of a foal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Tnibar, Aziz

    2018-01-01

    A 3-day-old male foal was presented with a fluctuant 25 × 15 cm mass on the thorax. The mass had increased in size since birth. The mass did not respond to conservative treatment consisting of aspiration of serohaemorrhagic contents and compression bandages, and it was therefore surgically remove...

  4. A Simple Device for Measuring Static Compliance of Lung-Thorax Combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the concept of lung compliance remains a challenge to the physiology teacher because it cannot be demonstrated easily in human subjects and all attempts until now have used only simulation models. A simple device is described in the present article to measure the compliance of the "lung-thorax" combine in human subjects with…

  5. Localized air foci in the lower thorax in the patients with pneumothorax: Skip pneumothoraces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higuchi@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Takahashi, Naoya, E-mail: nandtr@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Kiguchi, Takao, E-mail: takakig@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan); Shiotani, Motoi, E-mail: Shiotani14@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Niigata Cancer Center Hospital, 2-15-3 Chuo-ku, Kawagishicho, Niigata 951-8566 (Japan); Maeda, Haruo, E-mail: h-maeda@hosp.niigata.niigata.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Niigata City General Hospital, 463-7 Chuo-ku, Shumoku, Niigata 950-1197 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and imaging features of localized air foci in the lower thorax in patients with pneumothorax using thin-section multidetector computed tomography. Materials and methods: Of 10,547 consecutive CT examinations comprising the chest, the CT scans of 146 patients with ordinary pneumothoraces were identified and retrospectively evaluated. The study group included 110 male and 36 female patients (mean age, 50 years; range, 1–93 years). All examinations were performed at our institution between January 2009 and December 2009. Cause of pneumothorax was classified as traumatic or non-traumatic. Localized air foci in the lower thorax were defined as being localized air collections in the lower thorax that did not appear to be adjacent to the lung. If these criteria were met, the shape, size, location laterality, and number of foci were evaluated. Associations with trauma, sex, severity of the pneumothorax, and laterality were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test. All P values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Localized air foci in the lower thorax presented as slit-like or small ovoid air collections in the lowest part of the pleural space. These foci were observed in 79/146 (54.1%) patients. The traumatic pneumothoraces group showed a higher prevalence of these features than the non-traumatic group. Some foci that were situated in the anterior part mimicked the appearance of free intraperitoneal air. Conclusion: Patients with pneumothorax commonly had localized air foci in the lower thorax. Because such foci can mimic pneumoperitoneum, accurate recognition of them is required to avoid confusion with free intraperitoneal air, especially in traumatic cases.

  6. Hepatic hydro thorax: patient with pleural effusion to the right presenting tracer migration to the contralateral thorax projection on early scintigraphic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, W.A.; Ribeiro, V.P.B.; Gusman, L.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hepatic hydrothorax is a significant pleural effusion, greater than 500 mL, that appears as a clinical manifestation of portal hypertension in patients with advanced cirrhosis, in the absence of cardiopulmonary disease. Its mechanisms may be explained by migration of ascitic fluid through diaphragm defects. Radioisotope scintigraphy may contribute for the diagnostic of hepatic hydrothorax. Case report: Female, 79 years old, with a history of hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis B virus, without primary pulmonary or heart disease. She presented worsening of clinical ascites and dyspnoea, and it was diagnosed an extensive right pleural effusion. She underwent a thoracocentesis with a drainage of 2000 mL of light yellow-citrine fluid with transudate features. The pleural effusion quickly relapsed, leading the hypothesis of a hepatic hydrothorax. A scintigraphy was requested to assess peritoneo-pleural shunt. A dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of 99m Tc sulfur colloid was instilled intraperitoneally. Static images involving the thorax and upper abdomen were acquired at 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes and 4 hours after injection. At 10 minutes the radiotracer was seen on the left side of the thoracic region. The scintigraphy was repeated three days later, just after new thoracocentesis, due to the tracer progression to the left side of the thorax differed to the location of pleural effusion. Likewise, until 4 hours of the second study, the radiotracer was seen again on the left side of the thorax. However, a delayed image of 24 showed accumulation of the radiotracer in the right pleural cavity, confirming peritoneo-pleural shunt as cause of pleural effusion in this patient. Discussion: Hydrothorax is an uncommon complication in patients with decompensated hepatic cirrhosis. Its mechanisms are still not well elucidated, however, it is known that presence of defects in the diaphragm associated with the imbalance of ascitic fluid volume and the pleural absorptive

  7. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  8. Magnetic susceptibility mapping of the human thorax using a SQUID biomagnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S C; Ni, C; Fardy, J; Rassi, D

    1994-01-01

    Biomagnetism is essentially the study of the weak magnetic fields generated by biological organisms, in particular the human body. The human thorax is composed of a variety of tissues and organs of slightly different magnetic susceptibility. In an applied magnetic field (of the order of milliTeslas) these small differences in susceptibility lead to measurable field variations (of the order of nanoTeslas) at the body surface which may be of diagnostic value. Physiological processes such as cardiac activity, cardiac output, blood flow and respiratory related lung volume changes also contribute to the observed signal. In this study susceptibility 'maps' were obtained by measuring the magnetic field at several hundred points over the thorax. Results indicate that magnetic susceptibility mapping produces low-resolution images of internal body structures from which is should be possible to detect pathologies that cause alterations in tissue susceptibility.

  9. Diagnosis of the thorax in the intensive-care ward: Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, G.; Krug, B.

    1989-01-01

    Only few reports have been published so far on the clinical use of digital luminescence radiography (DLR). We report on 3.000 X-ray examinations of the thorax in the intensive-care ward performed by us since a suitable system (Philips PCR) had been installed in December 1987. The following advantages must be pointed out in respect of using DLR in thoracic diagnosis in the intensive-care ward: No faulty exposures; the thorax can be X-rayed with the patient recumbent in bed, with lateral take; the image brightness is maintained at a constant level by histogram selection; electronic image processing and storage. Hence, DLR entails considerable improvement in X-ray diagnosis of intensive-care patients. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiation dose from volumetric helical perfusion CT of the thorax, abdomen or pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Vicky; Dattani, Minaxi; Tam, Emily; Patel, Shilpan; Juttla, Jaspal; Simcock, Ian; Stirling, James; Farwell, Joseph; Shekhdar, Jane; Aird, Edwin; Mandeville, Henry; Hoskin, P.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the radiation doses delivered during volumetric helical perfusion CT of the thorax, abdomen or pelvis. The dose-length product (DLP) and CT dose index (CTDIvol) were recorded and effective dose (E) determined for patients undergoing CT (4D adaptive spiral) for tumour evaluation. Image noise and contrast to noise (CNR) at peak enhancement were also assessed for quality. Forty two consecutive examinations were included: thorax (16), abdomen (10), pelvis (16). Z-axis coverage ranged from 11.4 to 15.7 cm. Mean DLP was 1288.8 mGy.cm (range: 648 to 2456 mGy.cm). Mean CTDIvol was 96.2 mGy (range: 32.3 to 169.4 mGy). Mean effective dose was 19.6 mSv (range: 12.3 mSv to 36.7 mSv). In comparison mean DLP and effective dose was 885.2 mGy.cm (range: 504 to 1633 mGy.cm) and 13.3 mSV (range: 7.8 to 24.5 mSv) respectively for the standard staging CT thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Mean tumour CNR at peak enhancement was 1.87. The radiation dose imposed by perfusion CT was on average 1.5 times that of a CT thorax, abdomen and pelvis. The dose is not insubstantial, and must be balanced by the potential clinical utility of additional physiologic data. Further efforts towards dose reduction should be encouraged. (orig.)

  11. Differential growth and development of the upper and lower human thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; García Martínez, Daniel; Recheis, Wolfgang; Barash, Alon; Coquerelle, Michael; Rios, Luis; Peña-Melián, Angel; García Río, Francisco; O'Higgins, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The difficulties in quantifying the 3D form and spatial relationships of the skeletal components of the ribcage present a barrier to studies of the growth of the thoracic skeleton. Thus, most studies to date have relied on traditional measurements such as distances and indices from single or few ribs. It is currently known that adult-like thoracic shape is achieved early, by the end of the second postnatal year, with the circular cross-section of the newborn thorax transforming into the ovoid shape of adults; and that the ribs become inclined such that their anterior borders come to lie inferior to their posterior. Here we present a study that revisits growth changes using geometric morphometrics applied to extensive landmark data taken from the ribcage. We digitized 402 (semi) landmarks on 3D reconstructions to assess growth changes in 27 computed tomography-scanned modern humans representing newborns to adults of both sexes. Our analyses show a curved ontogenetic trajectory, resulting from different ontogenetic growth allometries of upper and lower thoracic units. Adult thoracic morphology is achieved later than predicted, by diverse modifications in different anatomical regions during different ontogenetic stages. Besides a marked increase in antero-posterior dimensions, there is an increase in medio-lateral dimensions of the upper thorax, relative to the lower thorax. This transforms the pyramidal infant thorax into the barrel-shaped one of adults. Rib descent is produced by complex changes in 3D curvature. Developmental differences between upper and lower thoracic regions relate to differential timings and rates of maturation of the respiratory and digestive systems, the spine and the locomotor system. Our findings are relevant to understanding how changes in the relative rates of growth of these systems and structures impacted on the development and evolution of modern human body shape.

  12. A Case of Bezolds Abscess with an Unusual Extension to the Upper Thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Javad Rashid

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Bezold%u2019s abscess is an abscess in deep cervical spaces that is considered as a complication of otomastoiditis. Antibiotics have produced an overall decline in the frequency of complications of otitis media relative to the pre-antibiotic era. Here we report a 23 year old male with Bezold%u2019s abscess with unusual extension to upper thorax.

  13. Effect of Cardiac Phases and Conductivity Inhomogeneities of the Thorax Models on ECG Lead Selection and Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takano, Noriyuki

    2001-01-01

    ECG lead selection and reconstruction were investigated in the present study using ECG source-to-measurement transfer matrices computed in inhomogeneous and homogeneous conductor thorax-heart models...

  14. Segmentasi Paru-Paru pada Citra X-Ray Thorax Menggunakan Distance Regularized Levelset Evolution (DRLSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Amin Hariyadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available -- Lung is one in control in the circulatory system of air (oxygen in the human body, so the detection of disorders of the human respiratory urgently needed to detect any disturbance in the lungs used X-ray beam, from the results of x-ray image of the thorax contained information used to analyze and determine the shape of an object from the lungs, in order to obtain such information, a process of segmentation. In this study used methods Distance regularized Levelset Evolution (DLRSE, this method region based models which is an improvement of edge-based models. The purpose of this study to implement segmentation methods DRLSE the lungs of the results of x-ray image of the thorax. The trial results with the system DLRSE method performed on the 20 data from X-ray image of the thorax obtained an average result accuracy of 87.90%, a sensitivity of 76.27% and a specificity of 93.98%.

  15. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  16. Dose reduction in thorax radiography in simulated neonates with additional filtration and digital luminescence radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.; Jesberger, H.J.; Schneider, G.; Rein, L.; Blass, G.; Limbach, H.G.; Niewald, M.; Sitzmann, F.C.; Kramann, B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the minimum acceptable radiation dose for an adequate image quality in thorax a.p. radiographs of neonates using mobile X-ray equipment. Material and Methods: The influence of additional filtration (1.0 mm Al+0.1 mm Cu) on image quality and radiation dose was determined for the speed class 400 screen-film system (SFS) and digital luminescence radiography (DLR) by making radiographs of a test phantom. Conventional and digital thorax a.p. radiographs of a rabbit were produced using various tube current-time products. The quality of the rabbit radiographs was judged by eight radiologists applying image quality criteria according to the German guidelines and the recommendations of the European Community. Results: The added filter resulted in a dose reduction of 39% at 66 kV. DLR gave a further dose reduction of 25% in comparison to the speed class 400 SFS while maintaining adequate image quality, i.e. the radiographs were clinically acceptable with regard to quality criteria. Conclusion: The radiation dose resulting from thorax a.p. radiographs of neonates can be reduced by approximately 50% with the use of additional filtration and DLR. (orig.)

  17. Anthropomorphic thorax phantom for cardio-respiratory motion simulation in tomographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwin, Konstantin; Czekalla, Björn; Frohwein, Lynn J.; Büther, Florian; Schäfers, Klaus P.

    2018-02-01

    Patient motion during medical imaging using techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single emission computed tomography (SPECT) is well known to degrade images, leading to blurring effects or severe artifacts. Motion correction methods try to overcome these degrading effects. However, they need to be validated under realistic conditions. In this work, a sophisticated anthropomorphic thorax phantom is presented that combines several aspects of a simulator for cardio-respiratory motion. The phantom allows us to simulate various types of cardio-respiratory motions inside a human-like thorax, including features such as inflatable lungs, beating left ventricular myocardium, respiration-induced motion of the left ventricle, moving lung lesions, and moving coronary artery plaques. The phantom is constructed to be MR-compatible. This means that we can not only perform studies in PET, SPECT and CT, but also inside an MRI system. The technical features of the anthropomorphic thorax phantom Wilhelm are presented with regard to simulating motion effects in hybrid emission tomography and radiotherapy. This is supplemented by a study on the detectability of small coronary plaque lesions in PET/CT under the influence of cardio-respiratory motion, and a study on the accuracy of left ventricular blood volumes.

  18. Problems arising in differential diagnosis in the chest X-ray in patients with small sagittal diameter of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Stiglbauer, R.; Barton, P.; Frank, H.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with a small sagittal diameter of the thorax often carcia murmurs are heard. Since the p.a. chest X-ray in such cases often shows an enlarged heart shadow, problems arise in the interpretation of the films. In this paper, the typical appearance of the heart shadow in patients with small sagittal diameter of the thorax is described and the differential diagnosis is discussed. Echocardiography is the ideal additional diagnostic method, when problems in differential diagnosis occur. (orig.) [de

  19. Determination of a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Celia; Choisne, Julie; Nérot, Agathe; Pillet, Hélène; Skalli, Wafa

    2016-05-03

    Body segment parameters (BSP) for each body׳s segment are needed for biomechanical analysis. To provide population-specific BSP, precise estimation of body׳s segments volume and density are needed. Widely used uniform densities, provided by cadavers׳ studies, did not consider the air present in the lungs when determining the thorax density. The purpose of this study was to propose a new uniform thorax density representative of the living population from 3D external body shape modeling. Bi-planar X-ray radiographies were acquired on 58 participants allowing 3D reconstructions of the spine, rib cage and human body shape. Three methods of computing the thorax mass were compared for 48 subjects: (1) the Dempster Uniform Density Method, currently in use for BSPs calculation, using Dempster density data, (2) the Personalized Method using full-description of the thorax based on 3D reconstruction of the rib cage and spine and (3) the Improved Uniform Density Method using a uniform thorax density resulting from the Personalized Method. For 10 participants, comparison was made between the body mass obtained from a force-plate and the body mass computed with each of the three methods. The Dempster Uniform Density Method presented a mean error of 4.8% in the total body mass compared to the force-plate vs 0.2% for the Personalized Method and 0.4% for the Improved Uniform Density Method. The adjusted thorax density found from the 3D reconstruction was 0.74g/cm(3) for men and 0.73g/cm(3) for women instead of the one provided by Dempster (0.92g/cm(3)), leading to a better estimate of the thorax mass and body mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Thorax Simulator for Complex Dynamic Bioimpedance Measurements With Textile Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Mark; Muhlsteff, Jens; Teichmann, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2015-06-01

    Bioimpedance measurements on the human thorax are suitable for assessment of body composition or hemodynamic parameters, such as stroke volume; they are non-invasive, easy in application and inexpensive. When targeting personal healthcare scenarios, the technology can be integrated into textiles to increase ease, comfort and coverage of measurements. Bioimpedance is generally measured using two electrodes injecting low alternating currents (0.5-10 mA) and two additional electrodes to measure the corresponding voltage drop. The impedance is measured either spectroscopically (bioimpedance spectroscopy, BIS) between 5 kHz and 1 MHz or continuously at a fixed frequency around 100 kHz (impedance cardiography, ICG). A thorax simulator is being developed for testing and calibration of bioimpedance devices and other new developments. For the first time, it is possible to mimic the complete time-variant properties of the thorax during an impedance measurement. This includes the dynamic real part and dynamic imaginary part of the impedance with a peak-to-peak value of 0.2 Ω and an adjustable base impedance (24.6 Ω ≥ Z0 ≥ 51.6 Ω). Another novelty is adjustable complex electrode-skin contact impedances for up to 8 electrodes to evaluate bioimpedance devices in combination with textile electrodes. In addition, an electrocardiographic signal is provided for cardiographic measurements which is used in ICG devices. This provides the possibility to generate physiologic impedance changes, and in combination with an ECG, all parameters of interest such as stroke volume (SV), pre-ejection period (PEP) or extracellular resistance (Re) can be simulated. The speed of all dynamic signals can be altered. The simulator was successfully tested with commercially available BIS and ICG devices and the preset signals are measured with high correlation (r = 0.996).

  1. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Rulon [Henry Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Liacouras, Peter [Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20899 (United States); Thomas, Andrew [ATC Healthcare, Washington, District of Columbia 20006 (United States); Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B. [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  2. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor's trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  3. 3D printer generated thorax phantom with mobile tumor for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Rulon; Liacouras, Peter; Thomas, Andrew; Kang, Minglei; Lin, Liyong; Simone, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between

  4. Verification of gamma knife based fractionated radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, Raj Kishor; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Singh, Manmohan Jit; Agarwal, Deepak; Garg, Ajay; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Pratik; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Purpose of the study is to verify the Gamma Knife Extend™ system (ES) based fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery with newly developed head-thorax phantom. Methods: Phantoms are extensively used to measure radiation dose and verify treatment plan in radiotherapy. A human upper body shaped phantom with thorax was designed to simulate fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery using Extend™ system of Gamma Knife. The central component of the phantom aids in performing radiological precision test, dosimetric evaluation and treatment verification. A hollow right circular cylindrical space of diameter 7.0 cm was created at the centre of this component to place various dosimetric devices using suitable adaptors. The phantom is made of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic material. Two sets of disk assemblies were designed to place dosimetric films in (1) horizontal (xy) and (2) vertical (xz) planes. Specific cylindrical adaptors were designed to place thimble ionization chamber inside phantom for point dose recording along xz axis. EBT3 Gafchromic films were used to analyze and map radiation field. The focal precision test was performed using 4 mm collimator shot in phantom to check radiological accuracy of treatment. The phantom head position within the Extend™ frame was estimated using encoded aperture measurement of repositioning check tool (RCT). For treatment verification, the phantom with inserts for film and ion chamber was scanned in reference treatment position using X-ray computed tomography (CT) machine and acquired stereotactic images were transferred into Leksell Gammaplan (LGP). A patient treatment plan with hypo-fractionated regimen was delivered and identical fractions were compared using EBT3 films and in-house MATLAB codes. Results: RCT measurement showed an overall positional accuracy of 0.265 mm (range 0.223 mm–0.343 mm). Gamma index analysis across fractions exhibited close agreement between LGP and film

  5. Radiation exposure of premature infants by biomedical radiography of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingaertner, R.; Schuchardt, V.; Thiemann, H.H.; Baars, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Thoracic X-ray pictures of premature infants must chiefly be carried out under conditions of neonatal intensive care. For it are very often only single-pulse generators available. Radiation exposure dependends chiefly on the type of generator and comparison between single-pulse generators and 6-pulse generators was performed. CaF 2 thermoluminescent dosimetry revealed that the entrance close of the useful field is considerably higher in single-pulse generators than in the 6-pulse generators. The indication for X-ray pictures of the premature infant thorax under bed-side conditions with single-pulse generators must be very precise. (author)

  6. Time-resolved plastic scintillator dosimetry in a dynamic thorax phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Andersen, Claus E.; Ottosson, Wiviann

    2017-01-01

    in a lung. The phantom motion was controlled by a script in-house developed using LabVIEW (National Instruments) and synchronized with the in-house developed ME40 scintillator dosimetry system (DTU Nutech). The dose in the center of the tumor was measured, using a BCF-60 plastic scintillator detector (Saint...... respiratory motion and lack of lateral charged particle equilibrium, motivating quality assurance based on a system like the one presented in this study. It has specifically been demonstrated that reliable time-resolved scintillator dosimetry in a dynamic thorax phantom can play an essential role in dose...

  7. Dosimetry in thorax X-rays; Dosimetria en radiografia de torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinedo S, A.; Hernandez O, M.; Duran M, H. A.; Gonzalez G, R.; Guerra M, J. A.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: lare_56@hotmail.com

    2009-10-15

    The dose to the entrance of thorax during a radiological study has been measured in a phantom of paraffin and with thermoluminescent dosemeters. This work was realized in the living room 1 of the X-rays service of the General Hospital No. 1 IMSS in Zacatecas. For the study thermoluminescent dosemeters of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy were used. The irradiation of the thoracic region is the more studied through the conventional radiology, method that continues occupying the first place as diagnostic in diverse pathologies due to generates images of the heart, lungs, spine, etc. As well as can to observe the location of subclavian catheters, nasogastric sound, endotracheal tubes and umbilical catheters. The magnitude of the dose that is received during the realization of this study type is not usually measured, since the main concern is to have a good image to make a good diagnostic. The measurements were carried out using parameters of the equipment that were defined with base to the experience of the technical radiologist. It was found that the irradiation field is not uniform and that in any point where the dose was measured it is not exceeded the 7 mGy settled by the Mexican Official Standard-157-SSA-1996 for a thorax study. (author)

  8. Value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dysfunction in Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Amanda Arantes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dilation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas' disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 166 consecutive patients with Chagas' disease and no other associated diseases. The patients underwent cardiac assessment with chest radiography and Doppler echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest radiography were calculated to detect left ventricular dysfunction and the accuracy of the cardiothoracic ratio in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction with the area below the ROC curve. The cardiothoracic ratio was correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction and the left ventricular diastolic diameter. RESULTS: The abnormal chest radiogram had a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 80.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 51.2% and 79.8%, respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction. The cardiothoracic ratio showed a weak correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.23 and left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.30. The area calculated under the ROC curve was 0.734. CONCLUSION: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with Chagas' disease should be reevaluated.

  9. Survey radiography and computerized tomography imaging of the thorax in female dogs with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Carolina C; Rahal, Sheila C; Vulcano, Luiz C; Ribeiro, Sérgio M; Hette, Khadije; Giordano, Tatiana; Doiche, Danuta P; Amorim, Renée L

    2010-03-09

    Accurate early diagnosis of lung metastases is important for establishing therapeutic measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare survey thoracic radiographs and computerized tomography (CT) scans to specifically identify lung metastases in female dogs with mammary tumors. Twenty-one female dogs, weighing 3 to 34 kg and aged from 5 years to 14 years and 10 months, with mammary tumors were studied. In all dogs before the imaging examinations, fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mammary tumors was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Three-view thoracic radiographs were accomplished: right lateral, left lateral and ventrodorsal views. Sequential transverse images of the thorax were acquired on a spiral Scanner, before and after intravenous bolus injection of nonionic iodine contrast. Soft-tissue and lung windows were applied. All the mammary tumors were surgically removed and examined histologically. The correlation between the cytological and histological results regarding presence of malignancy was observed in only 17 cases. In radiographic examinations, no dog displayed signs of lung metastases or thorax chest lesions. CT detected lung metastasis in two cases, while small areas of lung atelectasis located peripherally were found in 28.57% of the dogs. In this study population, spiral CT showed higher sensitivity than chest radiographies to detect lung metastasis; this indicates that CT should be performed on all female dogs with malignant mammary tumors.

  10. Survey radiography and computerized tomography imaging of the thorax in female dogs with mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Tatiana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate early diagnosis of lung metastases is important for establishing therapeutic measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare survey thoracic radiographs and computerized tomography (CT scans to specifically identify lung metastases in female dogs with mammary tumors. Methods Twenty-one female dogs, weighing 3 to 34 kg and aged from 5 years to 14 years and 10 months, with mammary tumors were studied. In all dogs before the imaging examinations, fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mammary tumors was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Three-view thoracic radiographs were accomplished: right lateral, left lateral and ventrodorsal views. Sequential transverse images of the thorax were acquired on a spiral Scanner, before and after intravenous bolus injection of nonionic iodine contrast. Soft-tissue and lung windows were applied. All the mammary tumors were surgically removed and examined histologically. Results The correlation between the cytological and histological results regarding presence of malignancy was observed in only 17 cases. In radiographic examinations, no dog displayed signs of lung metastases or thorax chest lesions. CT detected lung metastasis in two cases, while small areas of lung atelectasis located peripherally were found in 28.57% of the dogs. Conclusion In this study population, spiral CT showed higher sensitivity than chest radiographies to detect lung metastasis; this indicates that CT should be performed on all female dogs with malignant mammary tumors.

  11. Metode Segmentasi Paru-paru dan Jantung Pada Citra X-Ray Thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainatul Mardhiyah

    2013-06-01

    Abstract  Image segmentation is an important technology for image processing, especially in the medical world. If a doctor or radiologist doing wrong in the process of reading the image it will affect the diagnosis of a disease. This research uses x-ray thorax in grayscale and 256x256 pixel. In order to maximum image segmentation is necessary to start the process (preprocessing using Gaussian Lowpass Filter method. Further image preprocessing results are grouped using K-Means Clustering method in which the grouping based on the difference in image pixel values . Furthermore, segmentation using Geometric Active Contour method. In this method, the curve will deflate into accordance with the form the lung edge. Heart segmentation using template method because k-means clustering with K = 2 cannot segment it. Tests performed using method of system ROC (Receiver  Operating Characteristic, from 40 x-ray image using k-means clustering with K = 2 and  Geometric active contour system can segment the left lung, with a percentage accuracy of 90.03%, sensitivity 62.05%, and spesifity 94.62%. Right lung, with a percentage accuracy of 8.35%, sensitivity 63.71%, and spesifity 93.48%. Heart segmentation using template matching system can segment the heart, accuracy 94.33%, sensitivity 64.55%, and spesifity 98.13%.   Keywords—image segmentation, x-ray thorax, k-means clustering, geometric active contour, template matching

  12. Design, development, and implementation of the Radiological Physics Center's pelvis and thorax anthropomorphic quality assurance phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Followill, David S.; Radford Evans, DeeAnn; Cherry, Christopher; Molineu, Andrea; Fisher, Gary; Hanson, William F.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) developed two heterogeneous anthropomorphic quality assurance phantoms for use in verifying the accuracy of radiation delivery: one for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the pelvis and the other for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to the thorax. The purpose of this study was to describe the design and development of these two phantoms and to demonstrate the reproducibility of measurements generated with them. The phantoms were built to simulate actual patient anatomy. They are lightweight and water-fillable, and they contain imageable targets and organs at risk of radiation exposure that are of similar densities to their human counterparts. Dosimetry inserts accommodate radiochromic film for relative dosimetry and thermoluminesent dosimetry capsules for absolute dosimetry. As a part of the commissioning process, each phantom was imaged, treatment plans were developed, and radiation was delivered at least three times. Under these controlled irradiation conditions, the reproducibility of dose delivery to the target TLD in the pelvis and thorax phantoms was 3% and 0.5%, respectively. The reproducibility of radiation-field localization was less than 2.5 mm for both phantoms. Using these anthropomorphic phantoms, pelvic IMRT and thoracic SBRT radiation treatments can be verified with a high level of precision. These phantoms can be used to effectively credential institutions for participation in specific NCI-sponsored clinical trials

  13. Using 3D printing techniques to create an anthropomorphic thorax phantom for medical imaging purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelaar, Colien; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Dahele, Max; Wolff, Jan; Forouzanfar, Tymour; Slotman, Ben; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2018-01-01

    Imaging phantoms are widely used for testing and optimization of imaging devices without the need to expose humans to irradiation. However, commercially available phantoms are commonly manufactured in simple, generic forms and sizes and therefore do not resemble the clinical situation for many patients. Using 3D printing techniques, we created a life-size phantom based on a clinical CT scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer. It was assembled from bony structures printed in gypsum, lung structures consisting of airways, blood vessels >1 mm, and outer lung surface, three lung tumors printed in nylon, and soft tissues represented by silicone (poured into a 3D-printed mold). Kilovoltage x-ray and CT images of the phantom closely resemble those of the real patient in terms of size, shapes, and structures. Surface comparison using 3D models obtained from the phantom and the 3D models used for printing showed mean differences phantom show that the phantom is able to endure radiation doses over 24,000 Gy. It is feasible to create an anthropomorphic thorax phantom using 3D printing and molding techniques. The phantom closely resembles a real patient in terms of spatial accuracy and is currently being used to evaluate x-ray-based imaging quality and positional verification techniques for radiotherapy. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Thorax X-ray diagnostics. DDS (double base description system). Uniform terminology and standardized sytematics. Correct diagnosis; Thorax Roentgendiagnostik. DDS-System*, Einheitliche Terminologie und Standardisierte Systematik {yields} Richtige Diagnose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulke, H.M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum

    2012-07-01

    The booklet describes the so called DDS (double-base description system) to be used in the frame of medical thorax X-ray examinations with modern imaging devices. The following issues are discussed: Description features, shadow characterization, general fundamentals, procedural methodology, diagnostic findings protocol, examples and case descriptions.

  15. Anaesthesiological aspects of thorax-diagnostic procedures in intensive-care units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte am Esch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic procedures of the thorax in intensive-care units are conventional X-ray chest images, chest images by digital luminescence radiography, sonography and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. In addition to these bedside methods the stationary usable techniques, such as computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography and the seldom in intensive care patients used computed nuclear spin resonance tomography (NMR) are applicable. The selection of the above mentioned techniques depends on the availability and the quality of the methods as well as the qualifications of the involved staff. The diagnostic procedures of the chest must be arranged depending on the decision if patients have to be transported or not. In conclusion it can be stated that in spite of growing technical preconditions the availability of the methods in immobile patients and the diagnostic potency of the techniques have to be examined. (orig.) [de

  16. Alternative types of duodenal ulcer induced in mice by partial X irradiation of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowski, A.; Uehara, S.; Yin, W.B.; Burgin, J.; Silvester, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present study extends our earlier observations on gastrointestinal pathology in thorax-irradiated female CFLP mice. It shows that exposure of the lower mediastinum to single doses of 14-30 Gy X rays results in the formation of the proximal duodenal ulcer accompanied frequently by erosion of the antral gastric mucosa. X irradiation of the lateral thoracic fields is responsible for single ulcers in the proximity of duodenal papilla, often associated with a circumscribed area of degeneration of the fundic mucosa of the stomach. In view of the small amount of radiation received by the subdiaphragmatic parts of the alimentary tract, these gastro-duodenal lesions represent abscopal effects of thoracic irradiation

  17. Analysis of the results of CAT of thorax with bronchiectasis protocol, period 2000-2001 Hospital Calderon Guardia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Segura, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This investigation analyses the computerized axial tomography (CAT) of thorax with protocol of bronchiectasis. It was carried out in the Servicio de Radiologia e Imagenes Medicas of the Hospital Calderon Guardia, Costa Rica. The bronchiectasis is the abnormal permanent expansion of the bronchial tuber and is important to diagnose it because the patient can suffer of pulmonary infections, these can be accompanied by bronchial blood flow and hemoptysis. When they are disseminated can be associated with significant obstruction of the aerial tract. When they are gotten into focus can be confused with neoplasia and other diseases. From the bronchiectasis diagnosis it is used methods of image such as x-ray of thorax, bronchography and computerized axial tomography (CAT) of thorax, usually the diagnosis is confirmed by means of a computerized axial tomography (CAT); which is the image of election to establish the presence and extension of the bronchiectasis. In addition, this study analyzes the radiological clinical relation in the patients which were performed the computerized axial tomography (CAT) of thorax with protocol of bronchiectasis and it identifies the most suitable radiological technique to obtain a satisfactory result in the computerized axial tomography with protocol of bronchiectasis [es

  18. An overview of systems for CT- and MRI-guided percutaneous needle placement in the thorax and abdomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolli, Maarten Menno; Hanumara, Nevan C.; Franken, Michel; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive biopsies, drainages and therapies in the soft tissue organs of the thorax and abdomen are typically performed through a needle, which is inserted percutaneously to reach the target area. The conventional workflow for needle placement employs an iterative freehand

  19. Infrared thermography of the pig thorax: an assessment of selected regions of interest by computed tomographical and anatomical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, A; Siewert, C; Gasse, H; Seifert, H; Hoeltig, D; Hennig-Pauka, I

    2015-04-01

    Current methods of diagnosis of respiratory diseases in swine are invasive, time-consuming and expensive. Infrared thermography (IRT) of the thorax might provide a new method of high specificity to select swine affected with lung alterations for further diagnostics. In this study, layer thickness of different tissues was determined in frozen thorax slices (FTS) by computed tomography (CT) and then related to skin temperatures measured by IRT in healthy pigs. The aim was to determine appropriate regions of interest (ROI) for evaluation of IRT images. Organ layer thicknesses measured in CT images correspond to those measured in FTS. Temperature differences between lung ROIs and abdomen ROIs were positively correlated with lung layer thickness at certain localizations, and negatively correlated with the thickness of the thorax wall and of inner organ layers. Reference values of differences between skin temperatures were established for two ROIs on the thorax with potential practical use for lung health status determination. Respective ROIs were located on vertical lines crossing the 7th (right) and the 10th (left) thoracic vertebrae. The presence of ribs affected skin temperature significantly. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Ultra-low-dose CT imaging of the thorax: decreasing the radiation dose by one order of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Lukas; Banerjee, Rohan; Votruba, Jiri; El-Lababidi, Nabil; Zeman, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an indispensable tool for imaging of the thorax and there is virtually no alternative without associated radiation burden. The authors demonstrate ultra-low-dose CT of the thorax in three interesting cases. In an 18-y-old girl with rheumatoid arthritis, CT of the thorax identified alveolitis in the posterior costophrenic angles (radiation dose = 0.2 mSv). Its resolution was demonstrated on a follow-up scan (4.2 mSv) performed elsewhere. In an 11-y-old girl, CT (0.1 mSv) showed changes of the right collar bone consistent with chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. CT (0.1 mSv) of a 9-y-old girl with mucopolysaccharidosis revealed altogether three hamartomas, peribronchial infiltrate, and spine deformity. In some indications, the radiation dose from CT of the thorax can approach that of several plain radiographs. This may help the pediatrician in deciding whether 'gentle' ultra-low-dose CT instead of observation or follow-up radiographs will alleviate the uncertainty of the diagnosis with little harm to the child. (author)

  1. Thorax X-ray diagnostics. DDS (double base description system). Uniform terminology and standardized sytematics. Correct diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The booklet describes the so called DDS (double-base description system) to be used in the frame of medical thorax X-ray examinations with modern imaging devices. The following issues are discussed: Description features, shadow characterization, general fundamentals, procedural methodology, diagnostic findings protocol, examples and case descriptions.

  2. System for CT-guided needle placement in the thorax and abdomen: A design for clinical acceptability, applicability and usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolli, Maarten Menno; Buijze, Martijn; Franken, Michel; de Jong, Koert P.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    BACKGROUND: Various systems exist for CT-guided needle placement in the thorax and abdomen, but widespread adoption is lacking. The goal of this work is to develop a system for precise needle placement with a design focus on clinical acceptability, applicability and usability. METHODS: A system was

  3. Giant synovial cell sarcoma of the thorax in a 46-year-old man: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Although synovial cell sarcoma is a common tumor of the extremities, its occurrence in the thorax has been less frequently documented. Case presentation A 46-year-old Pakistani man presented with a 2 month history of progressively increasing cough and left lower chest pain. Initial evaluation was done using a chest x-ray; the patient was found to have a large mass involving the lower portion of the left chest. A computed tomography scan was performed next which showed a large mass involving the left chest wall with invasion into the pericardium and left hemidiaphragm. En bloc surgical resection of the tumor was undertaken. Final pathology showed synovial cell sarcoma of the thorax. At one-year follow-up, the patient has shown no recurrence of the disease. Conclusion We have described a rare case of a large synovial cell sarcoma of the thorax. Surgical resection appears an appropriate modus operandi for managing giant synovial cell sarcomas of the thorax. However, there is a need to clearly define post-operative strategies for cases with extensive involvement of surrounding structures. PMID:20062586

  4. Efficient organ localization using multi-label convolutional neural networks in thorax-abdomen CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrain Humpire-Mamani, Gabriel; Arindra Adiyoso Setio, Arnaud; van Ginneken, Bram; Jacobs, Colin

    2018-04-01

    Automatic localization of organs and other structures in medical images is an important preprocessing step that can improve and speed up other algorithms such as organ segmentation, lesion detection, and registration. This work presents an efficient method for simultaneous localization of multiple structures in 3D thorax-abdomen CT scans. Our approach predicts the location of multiple structures using a single multi-label convolutional neural network for each orthogonal view. Each network takes extra slices around the current slice as input to provide extra context. A sigmoid layer is used to perform multi-label classification. The output of the three networks is subsequently combined to compute a 3D bounding box for each structure. We used our approach to locate 11 structures of interest. The neural network was trained and evaluated on a large set of 1884 thorax-abdomen CT scans from patients undergoing oncological workup. Reference bounding boxes were annotated by human observers. The performance of our method was evaluated by computing the wall distance to the reference bounding boxes. The bounding boxes annotated by the first human observer were used as the reference standard for the test set. Using the best configuration, we obtained an average wall distance of 3.20~+/-~7.33 mm in the test set. The second human observer achieved 1.23~+/-~3.39 mm. For all structures, the results were better than those reported in previously published studies. In conclusion, we proposed an efficient method for the accurate localization of multiple organs. Our method uses multiple slices as input to provide more context around the slice under analysis, and we have shown that this improves performance. This method can easily be adapted to handle more organs.

  5. Biomechanical model of the thorax under blast loading: a three dimensional numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Thoral-Pierre, Karine; Roth, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    Injury mechanisms due to high speed dynamic loads, such as blasts, are not well understood. These research fields are widely investigated in the literature, both at the experimental and numerical levels, and try to answer questions about the safety and efficiency of protection devices or biomechanical traumas. At a numerical level, the development of powerful mathematical models tends to study tolerance limits and injury mechanisms in order to avoid experimental tests which cannot be easily conducted. In a military framework, developing a fighter/soldier numerical model can help to the understanding of many traumas which are specific to soldier injuries, like mines, ballistic impacts or blast traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the consequences of violent loads in terms of human body response, submitting a developed and validated three-dimensional thorax finite element (FE) model to blast loadings. Specific formulations of FE methods are used to simulate this loading, and its consequence on the biomechanical model. Mechanical parameters such as pressure in the air field and also in internal organs are observed, and these values are compared to the experimental data in the literature. This study gives encouraging results and allows going further in soldier trauma investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analysis of Pelvis-Thorax Coordination Patterns of Professional and Amateur Golfers during Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Yoo, Hakje; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Ki Young; Choi, Mun-Taek; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify the coordination pattern between thorax and pelvis during a golf swing. The coordination patterns were calculated using vector coding technique, which had been applied to quantify the coordination changes in coupling angle (γ) between two different segments. For this, fifteen professional and fifteen amateur golfers who had no significant history of musculoskeletal injuries. There was no significant difference in coordination patterns between the two groups for rotation motion during backswing (p = 0.333). On the other hand, during the downswing phase, there were significant differences between professional and amateur groups in all motions (flexion/extension: professional [γ] = 187.8°, amateur [γ] = 167.4°; side bending: professional [γ] = 288.4°, amateur [γ] = 245.7°; rotation: professional [γ] = 232.0°, amateur [γ] = 229.5°). These results are expected to be a discriminating measure to assess complex coordination of golfers' trunk movements and preliminary study for interesting comparison by golf skilled levels.

  7. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  8. The X-ray intensity pattern in a radiograph of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeschen, C.; Buhr, E.; Doehring, W.

    2000-01-01

    At present digital detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging become more and more important. The image quality provided by these detector systems does not only depend on the properties of the systems but also in the X-ray intensity pattern in the detector plane. This pattern for a radiograph of the thorax was measured with high spatial resolution. This was done by exposing a specially prepared phantom of the lung to X-rays applying the standard examination conditions for thoracic imaging. The X-ray images were stored on industrial X-ray film generally used for non-destructive testing. These images were digitised with a high-resolution drum film scanner. The scanner and the film were able to reproduce the information in the pattern in the range of spatial frequencies up to 15 mm -1 and there were no problems with aliasing due to the scanning process. Using the characteristic curves of the film and the scanner the X-ray intensity pattern was calculated. A new method to evaluate the information content of the X-ray intensity pattern in the frequency domain was developed. The results of this evaluation were used to propose a requirement for digital detector system to have a sampling interval less than 100 μm. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiation to the head, neck, and upper thorax of the young and thyroid neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck and upper thorax of infants, children and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus, or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scattered radiation. It is stressed that the use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice and its value was attested by many. The likelihood of adverse effects was not initially apparent, primarily because of the long periods of time between the administration of the therapy and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions

  10. Optimization of cardiac defibrillation by three-dimensional finite element modeling of the human thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panescu, D. (EP Technologies, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)); Webster, J.G.; Tompkins, W.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)); Stratbucker, R.A. (Radiation Health Center of the State of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States))

    1995-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the optimal electrode placement and size to minimize myocardial damage during defibrillation while rendering refractory a critical mass of cardiac tissue of 100%. For this purpose, we developed a 3-D finite element model with 55 388 nodes, 50 913 hexahedral elements, and simulated 16 different organs and tissues, as well as the properties of the electrolyte. The model used a nonuniform mesh with an average spatial resolution of 0.8 cm in all three dimensions. To validate this model, we measured the voltage across 3-cm[sup 2] Ag-AgCl electrodes when currents of 5 mA at 50 kHz were injected into a human subject's thorax through the same electrodes. For the same electrode placements and sizes and the same injected current, the finite element analysis produced results in good agreement with the experimental data. For the optimization of defibrillation, we tested 12 different electrode placements and seven different electrode sizes. The finite element analyses showed that the anterior-posterior electrode placement and an electrode size of about 90 cm[sup 2] offered the least chance of potential myocardial damage and required a shock energy of less than 350 J for 5-ms defibrillation pulses to achieve 100% critical mass. 47 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Comparison of cone beam SPECT with conventional SPECT by means of cardiac-thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, M.A.; Manglos, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    Because of poor energy characteristics of Tl-201 used for myocardial perfusion imaging, the high sensitivity of cone-beam collimation is highly desirable. Using a cardiac-thorax phantom, the authors have compared single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images obtained with a cone-beam collimator to those from a parallel hole collimator commonly used for thallium studies. A water-filled circular phantom with a cardiac insert was imaged. The myocardial shell was filled with Tl-201 (220 μCi). Two solid inserts within the myocardium simulated perfusion defects. The phantom ignores truncation effects in this preliminary experiment. For the authors' collimator, the resolution was designed to be similar to the authors' all-purpose, parallel-hole collimator at 10 cm. The focal length was 50 cm. The experimental protocol was chosen to be similar to their clinical protocol. A filtered back projection algorithm was used for cone-beam data. The same algorithm was used for the parallel-hole data, but with focal length set to infinity

  12. Measurement of Entrance Surface Dose on an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom Using a Miniature Fiber-Optic Dosimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Sim, Hyeok In; Kim, Seon Geun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Youn, Won Sik; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD) during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR) system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obt...

  13. Thorax irradiation triggers a local and systemic accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirsdörfer, Florian; Cappuccini, Federica; Niazman, Muska; Leve, Simone de; Westendorf, Astrid M; Lüdemann, Lutz; Stuschke, Martin; Jendrossek, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocyte infiltration is a common feature of radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis, but their contribution to the pathogenic processes is still unclear. Here, we addressed the impact of thorax irradiation on the T cell compartment with a focus on immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg). C57BL/6 wild type mice (WT) received anesthesia only (sham controls, 0 Gy) or were exposed to a single dose of whole thorax irradiation (15 Gy). Immune cells from lung tissue, spleen, and cervical lymph nodes were collected 10 to 84 days post-irradiation and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. Whole thorax irradiation provoked an increased influx of CD3+ T cells at 42 and 84 days post-irradiation. In contrast, local irradiation caused a sustained reduction in CD3+ T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, we observed a significant local and systemic increase in the fraction of CD4+ T cells expressing the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), the phenotypic marker for murine Treg, at day 21 post-irradiation. The accumulation of Treg was associated with increased levels of T cells expressing surface proteins characteristic for recruitment and immunosuppressive activity, e.g. CD103, CTLA-4 and CD73. Importantly, Treg isolated at this time point were able to suppress CD4+ effector T cells to a similar extent as Treg isolated from control mice. The response of the adaptive immune system to whole thorax irradiation is characterized by local immunoactivation and systemic immunosuppression. The transient accumulation of immunosuppressive CD4+ FoxP3+ Treg may be required to protect the lung against excessive inflammation-induced tissue damage. Further investigations shall define the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of Treg and their role for the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung disease

  14. A Second New Species of Ice Crawlers from China (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), with Thorax Evolution and the Prediction of Potential Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ming; Jarvis, Karl; Wang, Shu-Yong; Song, Ke-Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2010-01-01

    Modern grylloblattids are one of the least diverse of the modern insect orders. The thorax changes in morphology might be associated with the changes of the function of the forelegs, wing loss, changes in behavior and adaptation to habitat. As temperature is the main barrier for migration of modern grylloblattids, the range of each species is extremely limited. The potential distribution areas of grylloblattids remain unclear. A second new species of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), Grylloblattella cheni Bai, Wang et Yang sp. nov., is described from China. The distribution map and key to species of Grylloblattella are given. A comparison of the thorax of extant and extinct Grylloblattodea is presented, with an emphasis on the pronotum using geometric morphometric analysis, which may reflect thorax adaptation and the evolution of Grylloblattodea. Potential global distribution of grylloblattids is inferred. Highly diversified pronota of extinct Grylloblattodea may reflect diverse habitats and niches. The relatively homogeneous pronota of modern grylloblattids might be explained by two hypotheses: synapomorphy or convergent evolution. Most fossils of Grylloblattodea contain an obviously longer meso- and metathorax than prothorax. The length of the meso- and metathorax of modern grylloblattids is normally shorter than the prothorax. This may be associated with the wing loss, which is accompanied by muscle reduction and changes to the thoracic skeleton system. Threats to grylloblattids and several conservation comments are also provided. PMID:20877572

  15. Tumores primarios de la pared torácica Primary tumors of the thorax wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbaro Agustín Armas Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: se revisan aspectos teóricos en los tumores primarios de la pared torácica, sobre todo en la clasificación y en aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos, con el propósito de conocer los resultados del tratamiento en el centro. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo descriptivo para analizar los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico en 22 pacientes (muestra con tumores primarios de la pared torácica, en un período de 15 años (enero de 1993 a diciembre de 2008, en los servicios de cirugía general y ortopedia del Hospital "Amalia Simoni" de Camagüey. Resultados: hubo ligero predominio del sexo femenino y del grupo de edad entre 17 a 44 años (media 39,4, la comorbilidad que predominó fue la hipertensión arterial, el hemitórax derecho fue el más afectado, y las costillas de la 1 a la 4 las más lesionadas, y predominaron las afecciones benignas, entre ellas, el osteocondroma. El tratamiento más utilizado fue la resección quirúrgica, y la complicación posoperatoria que predominó fue la bronconeumonía. El índice de recidiva tumoral fue alto, no siempre por cáncer. Hubo 4 fallecidos por enfermedad maligna avanzada, y no se presentaron muertes perioperatorias. Conclusiones: fueron comparados los resultados con los de otros reportes y se hallaron puntos de coincidencia en diversos aspectos, pero también discrepantes, se trata de unificar criterios para mejorar el diagnóstico y los resultados del tratamiento en estos enfermos. La mayoría de los pacientes no presentaron complicaciones, y la recidiva tumoral estuvo por encima de lo esperado. La resección tumoral siempre debe ser amplia. El resultado global fue satisfactorio.Introduction: the theoretical features in the primary tumors of the thorax wall, especially in the classification and clinical, diagnostic y therapeutical features were reviewed to know the results of treatment in our institution. Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was

  16. Persistent candidemia in major burn patients: radiologic findings of the thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Seong; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    To describe radiologic findings of burn-associated persistent candidemia of the thorax. This study included 42 patients with major burns in whom blood culture had shown the presence for more than 24 hours of persistent candidemia. The duration of positive culture for candidiasis ranged from two to 67 days(mean, 15 days). Radiographic(n=42) and thin-section CT findings(n=13) were retrospectively analyzed. The onset, pattern, size, distribution and persistence of parenchymal abnormalities as well as the presence or absence of pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and cardiomegaly were assessed. On chest radiographs, positive findings were noticed in 61.9%(26/42) and on thin-section CT, in 76.9%(10/13). The most frequent radiographic finding was pulmonary nodule(s), observed in 14 patients(33.3%); in 13, these were bilateral. Bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6, 14.3%), consolidation(n=4, 9.5%), cardiomegaly(n=6, 14.3%) and pleural effusion(n=4, 9.5%) were also observed. Those lesions appeared eight to 129 days(mean, 33 days) after the burn. Radiographic abnormalities persisted for seven to 115(mean, 35) days, regardless of the treatment. Thin-section CT showed parenchymal abnormalities in 10/13 patients(76.9%) and subpleural nodules of less than 1cm in diameter and without halo in all patients. Cardiomegaly, pleural effusion and mediastinal adenopathy were observed on CT in 5(38.5%), 4(30.8%) and 2(15.4%) of the 13 patients, respectively. In a high proportion of patients with burn-associated candidemia, chest radiograph and thin-section CT findings were positive. The most frequent radiographic parenchymal abnormality was multiple bilateral nodules.

  17. Persistent candidemia in major burn patients: radiologic findings of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eil Seong; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang, Ik Won

    1997-01-01

    To describe radiologic findings of burn-associated persistent candidemia of the thorax. This study included 42 patients with major burns in whom blood culture had shown the presence for more than 24 hours of persistent candidemia. The duration of positive culture for candidiasis ranged from two to 67 days(mean, 15 days). Radiographic(n=42) and thin-section CT findings(n=13) were retrospectively analyzed. The onset, pattern, size, distribution and persistence of parenchymal abnormalities as well as the presence or absence of pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and cardiomegaly were assessed. On chest radiographs, positive findings were noticed in 61.9%(26/42) and on thin-section CT, in 76.9%(10/13). The most frequent radiographic finding was pulmonary nodule(s), observed in 14 patients(33.3%); in 13, these were bilateral. Bronchovascular bundle thickening(n=6, 14.3%), consolidation(n=4, 9.5%), cardiomegaly(n=6, 14.3%) and pleural effusion(n=4, 9.5%) were also observed. Those lesions appeared eight to 129 days(mean, 33 days) after the burn. Radiographic abnormalities persisted for seven to 115(mean, 35) days, regardless of the treatment. Thin-section CT showed parenchymal abnormalities in 10/13 patients(76.9%) and subpleural nodules of less than 1cm in diameter and without halo in all patients. Cardiomegaly, pleural effusion and mediastinal adenopathy were observed on CT in 5(38.5%), 4(30.8%) and 2(15.4%) of the 13 patients, respectively. In a high proportion of patients with burn-associated candidemia, chest radiograph and thin-section CT findings were positive. The most frequent radiographic parenchymal abnormality was multiple bilateral nodules

  18. Gallium scans of the thorax in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Description and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, G.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population.

  19. Gallium scans of the thorax in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Description and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, G.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population

  20. Aspects of radiation protection during chest X-radiography; Strahlenhygienische Aspekte bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, M.C.; Schneider, K. [Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie - Kinderradiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Radiation safety in conventional X-ray diagnostics is based on the concepts of justification, optimization of an X-ray examination and limitation of the radiation exposure achieved during the examination. Optimization of an X-ray examination has to be considered as a multimodal process in which all technical components of the X-ray equipment have to be adapted to each other and also have to be adapted to the anthropometric characteristics of patients and the clinical indications. In this article the technical components of a conventional pediatric chest X-radiograph are presented, and recommendations for optimizing chest X-rays in children are provided. The following measures are of prime importance: correct x-ray beam limitation, using the posteroanterior projection when possible and not using anti-scatter grids in children under approximately 8 years old. In pediatric radiology chest x-rays that are taken not at the peak of inspiration can also be of some diagnostic significance. Optimization of an X-ray examination inevitably results in the limitation of radiation exposure. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlenhygiene in der konventionellen radiologischen Diagnostik basiert auf der Trias Rechtfertigung, Optimierung bzw. Limitierung der Roentgenuntersuchung bzw. Strahlenexposition. Die Optimierung einer Roentgenuntersuchung ist als multimodaler Prozess aufzufassen, in welchem saemtliche technische Komponenten der Roentgeneinrichtung sowohl miteinander als auch mit den anthropometrischen Eigenschaften des Patienten und der klinischen Fragestellung abzustimmen sind. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die technischen Komponenten bei der konventionellen Roentgenuntersuchung des paediatrischen Thorax in ihrer Beziehung zueinander dargestellt und Empfehlungen fuer eine Optimierung der konventionellen Thoraxaufnahme bei Kindern ausgesprochen. Die wichtigsten Massnahmen bestehen in einer korrekten Einblendung, in der Anfertigung der Aufnahmen im posteroanterioren Strahlengang und im

  1. Whole-thorax irradiation induces hypoxic respiratory failure, pleural effusions and cardiac remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhora, Meetha; Gao, Feng; Glisch, Chad

    2015-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of death following a single lethal dose of thoracic radiation, WAG/RijCmcr (Wistar) rats were treated with 15 Gy to the whole thorax and followed until they were morbid or sacrificed for invasive assays at 6 weeks. Lung function was assessed by breathing rate and arterial oxygen saturation. Lung structure was evaluated histologically. Cardiac structure and function were examined by echocardiography. The frequency and characteristics of pleural effusions were determined. Morbidity from 15 Gy radiation occurred in all rats 5 to 8 weeks after exposure, coincident with histological pneumonitis. Increases in breathing frequencies peaked at 6 weeks, when profound arterial hypoxia was also recorded. Echocardiography analysis at 6 weeks showed pulmonary hypertension and severe right ventricular enlargement with impaired left ventricular function and cardiac output. Histologic sections of the heart revealed only rare foci of lymphocytic infiltration. Total lung weight more than doubled. Pleural effusions were present in the majority of the irradiated rats and contained elevated protein, but low lactate dehydrogenase, when compared with serum from the same animal. Pleural effusions had a higher percentage of macrophages and large monocytes than neutrophils and contained mast cells that are rarely present in other pathological states. Lethal irradiation to rat lungs leads to hypoxia with infiltration of immune cells, edema and pleural effusion. These changes may contribute to pulmonary vascular and parenchymal injury that result in secondary changes in heart structure and function. We report that conditions resembling congestive heart failure contribute to death during radiation pneumonitis, which indicates new targets for therapy. (author)

  2. Evaluation of a method for correction of scatter radiation in thorax cone beam CT; Evaluation d'une methode de correction du rayonnement diffuse en tomographie du thorax avec faisceau conique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkel, J.; Dinten, J.M. [CEA Grenoble (DTBS/STD), Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 38 (France); Esteve, F. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: Cone beam CT (CBCT) enables three-dimensional imaging with isotropic resolution. X-ray scatter estimation is a big challenge for quantitative CBCT imaging of thorax: scatter level is significantly higher on cone beam systems compared to collimated fan beam systems. The effects of this scattered radiation are cupping artefacts, streaks, and quantification inaccuracies. The beam stops conventional scatter estimation approach can be used for CBCT but leads to a significant increase in terms of dose and acquisition time. At CEA-LETI has been developed an original scatter management process without supplementary acquisition. Methods and Materials: This Analytical Plus Indexing-based method (API) of scatter correction in CBCT is based on scatter calibration through offline acquisitions with beam stops on lucite plates, combined to an analytical transformation issued from physical equations. This approach has been applied with success in bone densitometry and mammography. To evaluate this method in CBCT, acquisitions from a thorax phantom with and without beam stops have been performed. To compare different scatter correction approaches, Feldkamp algorithm has been applied on rough data corrected from scatter by API and by beam stops approaches. Results: The API method provides results in good agreement with the beam stops array approach, suppressing cupping artefact. Otherwise influence of the scatter correction method on the noise in the reconstructed images has been evaluated. Conclusion: The results indicate that the API method is effective for quantitative CBCT imaging of thorax. Compared to a beam stops array method it needs a lower x-ray dose and shortens acquisition time. (authors)

  3. Design of a multimodal ({sup 1}H/{sup 23}Na MR/CT) anthropomorphic thorax phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Wiebke; Lietzmann, Florian; Schad, Lothar R.; Zoellner, Frank G. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine

    2017-08-01

    This work proposes a modular, anthropomorphic MR and CT thorax phantom that enables the comparison of experimental studies for quantitative evaluation of deformable, multimodal image registration algorithms and realistic multi-nuclear MR imaging techniques. A human thorax phantom was developed with insertable modules representing lung, liver, ribs and additional tracking spheres. The quality of human tissue mimicking characteristics was evaluated for {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MR as well as CT imaging. The position of landmarks in the lung lobes was tracked during CT image acquisition at several positions during breathing cycles. {sup 1}H MR measurements of the liver were repeated after seven months to determine long term stability. The modules possess HU, T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} values comparable to human tissues (lung module: -756 ± 148 HU, artificial ribs: 218 ± 56 HU (low CaCO{sub 3} concentration) and 339 ± 121 (high CaCO{sub 3} concentration), liver module: T{sub 1} = 790 ± 28 ms, T{sub 2} = 65 ± 1 ms). Motion analysis showed that the landmarks in the lung lobes follow a 3D trajectory similar to human breathing motion. The tracking spheres are well detectable in both CT and MRI. The parameters of the tracking spheres can be adjusted in the following ranges to result in a distinct signal: HU values from 150 to 900 HU, T{sub 1} relaxation time from 550 ms to 2000 ms, T{sub 2} relaxation time from 40 ms to 200 ms. The presented anthropomorphic multimodal thorax phantom fulfills the demands of a simple, inexpensive system with interchangeable components. In future, the modular design allows for complementing the present set up with additional modules focusing on specific research targets such as perfusion studies, {sup 23}Na MR quantification experiments and an increasing level of complexity for motion studies.

  4. From military to civil loadings: Preliminary numerical-based thorax injury criteria investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumtcha, Aristide Awoukeng; Bodo, Michèle; Taddei, Lorenzo; Roth, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Effects of the impact of a mechanical structure on the human body are of great interest in the understanding of body trauma. Experimental tests have led to first conclusions about the dangerousness of an impact observing impact forces or displacement time history with PMHS (Post Mortem human Subjects). They have allowed providing interesting data for the development and the validation of numerical biomechanical models. These models, widely used in the framework of automotive crashworthiness, have led to the development of numerical-based injury criteria and tolerance thresholds. The aim of this process is to improve the safety of mechanical structures in interaction with the body. In a military context, investigations both at experimental and numerical level are less successfully completed. For both military and civil frameworks, the literature list a number of numerical analysis trying to propose injury mechanisms, and tolerance thresholds based on biofidelic Finite Element (FE) models of different part of the human body. However the link between both frameworks is not obvious, since lots of parameters are different: great mass impacts at relatively low velocity for civil impacts (falls, automotive crashworthiness) and low mass at very high velocity for military loadings (ballistic, blast). In this study, different accident cases were investigated, and replicated with a previously developed and validated FE model of the human thorax named Hermaphrodite Universal Biomechanical YX model (HUBYX model). These previous validations included replications of standard experimental tests often used to validate models in the context of automotive industry, experimental ballistic tests in high speed dynamic impact and also numerical replication of blast loading test ensuring its biofidelity. In order to extend the use of this model in other frameworks, some real-world accidents were reconstructed, and consequences of these loadings on the FE model were explored. These various

  5. [Leonardo da Vinci the first human body imaging specialist. A brief communication on the thorax oseum images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Raúl; Criales, José Luis; Cardoso, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The impressive development of computed tomography (CT) techniques such as the three dimensional helical CT produces a spatial image of the thoracic skull. At the beginning of the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci drew with great precision the thorax oseum. These drawings show an outstanding similarity with the images obtained by three dimensional helical CT. The cumbersome task of the Renaissance genius is a prime example of the careful study of human anatomy. Modern imaging techniques require perfect anatomic knowledge of the human body in order to generate exact interpretations of images. Leonardo's example is alive for anybody devoted to modern imaging studies.

  6. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Mitigate Collagen Synthesis Induced by a Single Dose of Radiation to the Whole Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Kma, Lakhan; Gao, Feng; Fish, Brian L.; Moulder, John E.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Medhora, Meetha

    2012-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to use angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to mitigate the increase in lung collagen synthesis that is induced by irradiation to the lung, which could result from accidental exposure or radiological terrorism. Rats (WAG/RijCmcr) were given a single dose of 13 Gy (dose rate of 1.43 Gy/min) of X-irradiation to the thorax. Three structurally-different ACE inhibitors, captopril, enalapril and fosinopril were provided in drinking water beginning 1 week after irradi...

  7. The diagnosis of malignant lymphomas of the thorax: Value of computerized tomography in comparison with that of X-ray pictures of the thorax in the detection of lymphomatous distribution patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, W.; Klier, R.; Lenz, M.

    1993-01-01

    Findings in a group of 87 patients, where the presence of a malignant thoracic lymphoma had in each case been confirmed previously, were analysed in order to compare the diagnostic accuracy of computerized tomography to that of X-ray pictures of the thorax in respect of staging; the lymphomatous distribution pattern according to the Lymph Node Mapping Scheme of the American Thoracic Society was additionally determined on the basis of computerized tomography. In comparison with the total number of lymphomatous changes of the thorax detected by computerized tomography, the results of the X-ray examinations were poorer and provided evidence of lymph node enlargements in no more than 49.3% of patients. CT was thus clearly superior to the X-ray procedure. In twelve from among the 87 patients examined here the thoracic lymphomas were detected by computerized tomography alone. In seven patients from this group computerized tomography revealed multiple sites of involvement with lymphoma, while the X-ray examinations in each case detected just one lymphomatous manifestation. In the diagnosis of pulmonary changes CT and X-ray pictures yielded equally accurate information. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Distribution patterns of inhaled polydisperse 147Pm fused clay particles in the beagle dog thorax with and without lavage therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Runkle, G.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hulbert, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment was designed to examine dispersion and retention patterns for polydisperse aerosols of fused montmorillonite clay particles labeled with 147 Pm. Fourteen dogs were exposed and scheduled for serial sacrifice at 0, 8, 64, and 365 days post-exposure. Experimental procedures included producing a series of slices through the thorax at approximately 1 cm intervals and obtaining a series of autoradiograms and 35 mm color transparencies for each set of thorax slices to define (1) the average doses to lung, lung lobes, and other tissues of interest, (2) the number of hot spots of activity per unit volume in the lung, and (3) a size distribution for these hot spots. Comparable data will be analyzed for 4 additional dogs subjected to lavage therapy to remove a portion of the burden from either the left or right lung using 1 or 5 treatments. Totals of 31 to 71 percent of the initial left or right lung burden were removed by the lavage therapy but only preliminary observations are completed on the autoradiography data. (U.S.)

  9. Influence of the measuring condition on vibrocardiographic signals acquired on the thorax with a laser Doppler vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignanelli, L.; Bauer, G.; Klarmann, M.; Wang, H.; Rembe, C.

    2017-07-01

    Velocity signals acquired with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer on the thorax (Optical Vibrocardiography) contain important information, which have a relation to cardiovascular parameters and cardiovascular diseases. The acquired signal results in a superimposition of vibrations originated from different sources of the human body. Since we study the vibration generated by the heart to reliably detect a characteristic time interval corresponding to the PR interval in the ECG, these disturbance have to be removed by filtering. Moreover, the Laser Doppler Vibrometer measures only in the direction of the laser beam and, thus, the velocity signal is only a projection of the tridimensional movement of the thorax. This work presents an analysis of the influences of the filters and of the measurement direction on the characteristic time interval in Vibrocardiographic signals. Our analysis results in recommended settings for filters and we demonstrate that reliable detection of vibrocardiographic parameters is possible within an angle deviation of 30° in respect to the perpendicular irradiation on the front side of the subject.

  10. Improvement of routine X-ray examinations of the thorax by insertion of a lead-containing, thorax-adapted acrylic glass filter close to the X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.

    1985-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to develop an uncomplicated procedure permitting the lungs and mediastinal structures to be visualised simultaneously using conventional film or foil systems as well as any available hardware. For this purpose, comparative X-ray examinations were carried out in 50 patients both with the aid of the pulmonal filter and under conventional conditions. In addition, the pulmonal filter technique was tested in a further 1000 patients subjected to routine X-ray examinations of the thorax. The two alternative techniques were compared on the basis of a special rating scale designed to evaluate the number of visualised thoracic structures: The results proved the filter technique to be superior to conventional X-ray examinations. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64-slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, S.; Karim, M.K.A.; Bakar, K.A.; Sabarudin, A.; Chin, A.W; Saripan, M.I.; Bradley, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) depends on the scan acquisition parameters, investigated herein using an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO®) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Specific interest was in the organ doses resulting from CT thorax examination, the specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation for particular protocols also being determined. For measurement of doses representing five main organs (thyroid, lung, liver, esophagus and skin), TLD-100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) were inserted into selected holes in a phantom slab. Five CT thorax protocols were investigated, one routine (R1) and four that were modified protocols (R2 to R5). Organ doses were ranked from greatest to least, found to lie in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. The greatest dose, for thyroid at 25 mGy, was that in use of R1 while the lowest, at 8.8 mGy, was in breast tissue using R3. Effective dose (E) was estimated using three standard methods: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-103 recommendation (E103), the computational phantom CT-EXPO (E(CTEXPO)) method, and the dose-length product (DLP) based approach. E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, ~8% less than that of the universal k factor. Due to inconsistency in tube potential and pitch factor the k factors from CTEXPO were found to vary between 0.015 and 0.010 for protocols R3 and R5. With considerable variation between scan acquisition parameters and organ doses, optimization of practice is necessary in order to reduce patient organ dose. - Highlights: • Using TLD-100 dosimeters and a RANDO phantom 5 CT thorax protocol organ doses were assessed. • The specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation of protocols differed with approach. • Organ dose was observed to decrease in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. • E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, lower by ~8% compared to the universal k factor.

  12. Interstitial lung illness: Discoveries in x-ray of the thorax vs computerized tomography of high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino O, Maria Olga; Gomez Ramirez, Rafael

    1993-01-01

    This study wants to prove the advantages of the computerized axial tomography (TAC) of high resolution on the conventional radiography and the follow-up of the patients with interstitial pulmonary disease (IPD). 29 patients were studied with conventional RX and TAC with 17. $ % of high resolution which had normal radiography with clear abnormalities in the TAC of high resolution, the type of interstitial pulmonary disease (IPD). In the 68,9% of the cases it showed abnormality as well in TAC as in conventional RX. In the fact, that the TAC does not allow a specific etiologic diagnosis of the IPD type, as it is done in the biopsy. It allows identifying abnormality in those patients apparently normal by the radiography of the thorax and when it already exists the histopathologic diagnosis it allows the follow-up in a no invasive way

  13. Continuous total intravenous anesthesia, using propofol and fentanyl in an open-thorax rabbit model: evaluation of cardiac contractile function and biochemical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, P. A.; van Kerckhoven, R. J.; Adriaensen, H. F.; Gillebert, T. C.; de Hert, S. G.

    1997-01-01

    Effects are reported of an anesthetic protocol involving use of predetermined intravenous (i.v.)-administered drug doses during acute experimental procedures in vagotomized, New Zealand White rabbits with open thorax (n = 20) in a nonsurvival study. After induction of anesthesia by intramuscular

  14. Stellenwert des konventionellen Röntgen-Thorax in der Diagnostik von Infektionen bei ambulanten Patienten nach Chemotherapie und Niedrigrisiko-Neutropenie

    OpenAIRE

    Thaller, Martina

    2015-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Stellenwert des konventionellen Röntgen- Thorax in der Diagnostik von Infektionen bei ambulanten Patienten nach Chemotherapie und Niedrigrisiko-Neutropenie überprüft. In the present work, the importance of the conventional chest radiography in the diagnosis of infections in ambulatory patients after chemotherapy and low-risk neutropenia was reviewed.

  15. Whole thorax irradiation of non-human primates induces persistent nuclear damage and gene expression changes in peripheral blood cells.

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    Shanaz A Ghandhi

    Full Text Available We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals. To evaluate long-term DNA damage in NHP peripheral blood lymphocytes after 10 Gy WTLI, we used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN assay to measure chromosomal aberrations as post-mitotic micronuclei in blood samples collected up to 8 months after irradiation. Regression analysis showed significant induction of micronuclei in NHP blood cells that persisted with a gradual decline over the 8-month study period, suggesting long-term DNA damage in blood lymphocytes after WTLI. We also report transcriptomic changes in blood up to 30 days after WTLI. We isolated total RNA from peripheral blood at 3 days before and then at 2, 5 and 30 days after irradiation. We identified 1187 transcripts that were significantly changed across the 30-day time course. From changes in gene expression, we identified biological processes related to immune responses, which persisted across the 30-day study. Response to oxygen-containing compounds and bacteria were implicated by gene-expression changes at the earliest day 2 and latest, day 30 time-points. Gene expression changes suggest a persistent altered state of the immune system, specifically response to infection, for at least a month after WTLI.

  16. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors mitigate collagen synthesis induced by a single dose of radiation to the whole thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kma, Lakhan; Gao, Feng; Fish, Brian L; Moulder, John E; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Medhora, Meetha

    2012-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to use angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to mitigate the increase in lung collagen synthesis that is induced by irradiation to the lung, which could result from accidental exposure or radiological terrorism. Rats (WAG/RijCmcr) were given a single dose of 13 Gy (dose rate of 1.43 Gy/min) of X-irradiation to the thorax. Three structurally-different ACE inhibitors, captopril, enalapril and fosinopril were provided in drinking water beginning 1 week after irradiation. Rats that survived acute pneumonitis (at 6-12 weeks) were evaluated monthly for synthesis of lung collagen. Other endpoints included breathing rate, wet to dry lung weight ratio, and analysis of lung structure. Treatment with captopril (145-207 mg/m(2)/day) or enalapril (19-28 mg/m(2)/day), but not fosinopril (19-28 mg/m(2)/day), decreased morbidity from acute pneumonitis. Lung collagen in the surviving irradiated rats was increased over that of controls by 7 months after irradiation. This increase in collagen synthesis was not observed in rats treated with any of the three ACE inhibitors. Analysis of the lung morphology at 7 months supports the efficacy of ACE inhibitors against radiation-induced fibrosis. The effectiveness of fosinopril against fibrosis, but not against acute pneumonitis, suggests that pulmonary fibrosis may not be a simple consequence of injury during acute pneumonitis. In summary, three structurally-different ACE inhibitors mitigate the increase in collagen synthesis 7 months following irradiation of the whole thorax and do so, even when therapy is started one week after irradiation.

  17. Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64-slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Bakar, K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Chin, A. W.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude of radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) depends on the scan acquisition parameters, investigated herein using an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO®) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Specific interest was in the organ doses resulting from CT thorax examination, the specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation for particular protocols also being determined. For measurement of doses representing five main organs (thyroid, lung, liver, esophagus and skin), TLD-100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) were inserted into selected holes in a phantom slab. Five CT thorax protocols were investigated, one routine (R1) and four that were modified protocols (R2 to R5). Organ doses were ranked from greatest to least, found to lie in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. The greatest dose, for thyroid at 25 mGy, was that in use of R1 while the lowest, at 8.8 mGy, was in breast tissue using R3. Effective dose (E) was estimated using three standard methods: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-103 recommendation (E103), the computational phantom CT-EXPO (E(CTEXPO)) method, and the dose-length product (DLP) based approach. E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, 8% less than that of the universal k factor. Due to inconsistency in tube potential and pitch factor the k factors from CTEXPO were found to vary between 0.015 and 0.010 for protocols R3 and R5. With considerable variation between scan acquisition parameters and organ doses, optimization of practice is necessary in order to reduce patient organ dose.

  18. Attributes of a real and computational female thorax phantom for dosimetry; Atributos de um fantoma computacional e real de tronco feminino para dosimetria

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    Maia, Margareth; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares]. E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2005-07-01

    This work describes the construction of an anatomic model that keeps the anthropometrics and anthropomorphic relations of human thorax. The work was developed in two stages. The first one is the construction of a real phantom. The second stage discusses a computational pattern. Due to the large use of ionizing radiation in medical area, the creation of a simulator, the more approximate as possible to the human pattern, proved to be useful. The purpose of the simulator was to contribute to minimizing miscalculation in human treatment procedures, to improve medical image quality and even to serve an academic purposes as a pedagogic pattern. The phantom's construction process was totally handicraft and developed in several stages, which are described as well as the used equivalent materials. The following elements were constructed: twelve thorax vertebras, twenty four ribs, two shoulder blades, two collarbones and the external bone. Also the equivalent muscular tissue, the skin and the mammary gland were built. To create the mammary gland, a plastic prosthesis filled with equivalent mammary tissue was used. Meantime, an anatomic three dimensional model was made to simulate the human thorax. A bone skeleton covered by a muscular and a skin coat composed it. The breast was coupled in anatomic position on left hemi thorax. Computed tomography (CT) images were taken to verify the similarity of density tissue when it was compared to human model. This work was photographically recorded during all stages. The computational thorax phantom was based on a digitalized tomography - in a colored voxels model, each entity represents one tissue and each tissue shows a specific color. The model valuates the density and chemical composition of the tissue. As to the images treatment, a network Internet computer program specially developed for SISCODES was used to support it. In the future this model will be useful to dosimetric studies, medical image equipment calibration, and new

  19. Dosimetric impact of interplay effect in lung IMRT and VMAT treatment using in-house dynamic thorax phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhlisin; Pawiro, S A

    2016-01-01

    Tumor motion due to patient's respiratory is a significant problem in radiotherapy treatment of lung cancer. The purpose of this project is to study the interplay effect through dosimetry verification between the calculated and delivered dose, as well as the dosimetric impact of leaf interplay with breathing-induced tumor motion in IMRT and VMAT treatment. In this study, a dynamic thorax phantom was designed and constructed for dosimetry measurement. The phantom had a linear sinusoidal tumor motion toward superior-inferior direction with variation of amplitudes and periods. TLD-100 LiF:Mg,Ti and Gafchromic EBT2 film were used to measure dose in the midpoint target and the spinal cord. The IMRT and VMAT treatment had prescription dose of 200 cGy per fraction. The dosimetric impact due to interplay effect during IMRT and VMAT treatment were resulted in the range of 0.5% to -6.6% and 0.9% to -5.3% of target dose reduction, respectively. Meanwhile, mean dose deviation of spinal cord in IMRT and VMAT treatment were around 1.0% to -6.9% and 0.9% to -6.3%, respectively. The results showed that if respiratory management technique were not implemented, the presence of lung tumor motion during dose delivery in IMRT and VMAT treatment causes dose discrepancies inside tumor volume. (paper)

  20. General fundamentals of radiological diagnostics. Specific diagnostic radiology: Throat, mediastinum, diaphragm, mammary gland, infant thorax. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stender, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals and the technical application methods of the imaging procedures are discussed in detail with regard to their application in medicine. The development of the X-ray contrast media has led to a better tolerance and a significant reduction of risks. Problems relating to radiation protection and radiation exposure are discussed critically. The general point gives an overview of the radiological examination methods and is meant to deepen the understanding of the special techniques and their rationally determined application. The following special part deals with diagnosing of organs in the region of the neck and the thorax. The general basis is the conventional radiological examination. The great increase in information achieved by means of the new imaging methods becomes clear if we look at the diagnostics of the soft tissue of the neck. Computerized tomography and NMR imaging open the view at the fine structures of the mediastinum. Mammography is an examination method which can trace even small carcinomas with a high degree of reliability. Sonography and also NMR-imaging do make a considerable contribution to the differential diagnosis of changes in the mammary glands. Diseases of the respiratory tract of new-borns, infants, young children and children in school age show various changes in the X-ray examination; detailed knowledge is necessary to analyse them. Exact indications, examination methods and assessment criteria are shown in a comprehensive manner. (orig./MG) With 1390 figs., 48 tabs [de

  1. Measurement of entrance surface dose on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a miniature fiber-optic dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Shin, Sang Hun; Jeon, Dayeong; Hong, Seunghan; Sim, Hyeok In; Kim, Seon Geun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Youn, Won Sik; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-04-01

    A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD) during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR) system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obtained DR images using a flat panel detector of the DR system to evaluate the effects of the dosimeter on image artifacts during posteroanterior (PA) chest radiography. From the experimental results, the scintillation output signals of the FOD were similar to the ESDs including backscatter simultaneously obtained using a semiconductor dosimeter. We demonstrated that the proposed miniature FOD can be used to measure real-time ESDs with minimization of DR image artifacts in the X-ray energy range of diagnostic radiology.

  2. Measurement of Entrance Surface Dose on an Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom Using a Miniature Fiber-Optic Dosimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A miniature fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD system was fabricated using a plastic scintillating fiber, a plastic optical fiber, and a multi-pixel photon counter to measure real-time entrance surface dose (ESD during radiation diagnosis. Under varying exposure parameters of a digital radiography (DR system, we measured the scintillating light related to the ESD using the sensing probe of the FOD, which was placed at the center of the beam field on an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Also, we obtained DR images using a flat panel detector of the DR system to evaluate the effects of the dosimeter on image artifacts during posteroanterior (PA chest radiography. From the experimental results, the scintillation output signals of the FOD were similar to the ESDs including backscatter simultaneously obtained using a semiconductor dosimeter. We demonstrated that the proposed miniature FOD can be used to measure real-time ESDs with minimization of DR image artifacts in the X-ray energy range of diagnostic radiology.

  3. External morphology of the adult of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809] (Lepidoptera - Papilionidae II: Thorax and thoracic appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to highlight the morphological components of the thorax and its appendages of the adults of Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809], seeking a comparative focus with other Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea. The morphology was studied using illustrations and scanning electronic microscope. The most relevant morphological characters were: membranous patagia on prothorax; anepisternum II fused with the pleural wing process II as a small sclerite dorsal to the katepisternum II; 3A present on the forewing, reaching the inner margin on its proximal third; presence of basalare III "pad" and meral suture on coxa III.O propósito deste estudo foi evidenciar os componentes morfológicos do tórax e seus apêndices nos adultos de Heraclides anchisiades capys (Hübner, [1809], visando um enfoque comparativo com outros Papilionoidea e Hesperioidea. A morfologia é descrita com ilustrações e fotografias em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Dentre os caracteres morfológicos encontrados, destacam-se: patágia membranosa no protórax, anepisterno II fusionado ao processo pleural da asa II como um pequeno esclerito dorsal ao catepisterno II; 3A presente na asa anterior, alcançando a margem interna em seu terço proximal; presença de "almofada" do basalar III e sutura meral na coxa III.

  4. A New Calibration Methodology for Thorax and Upper Limbs Motion Capture in Children Using Magneto and Inertial Sensors

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    Luca Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU, that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children’s motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors’ frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs’ frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs. We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  5. Etiologic evaluation of patients with dysphagia admitted to ENT and Thorax surgery wards of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Northeast of Iran

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    Mohammad Naeimi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: Dysphagia is a common chief complain of various diseases with different benign or malignant etiologies. Iran is one of countries with a high incidence rate of esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the common causes of dysphagia for earlier diagnosis and treatment of this disease and reduction of its morbidity and mortality rate. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, we analyzed the etiology of dysphagia in 200 patients who were admitted to ENT and thorax surgery wards of Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2005-2007. Results: Of 200 patients, 79 patients were female and 121 patients were male. The most prevalent cause of dysphagia in these patients was esophageal SCC and the most common endoscopic presentation was the ulcerative view. Other common etiologic factors were esophageal stenosis, adenocarcinoma, mediastinal tumors, achalasia, lyomyoma, sarcoma and diffuse esophageal spasm, respectively. Conclusion: According to these results, the complaint of dysphagia with or without odinophagia has particular clinical importance, especially in our country with high frequency of esophageal malignancies.

  6. The influence of pre-existing rib fractures on Global Human Body Models Consortium thorax response in frontal and oblique impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Lauren Wood; Chen, Cong; Hu, Jingwen; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    Many post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) considered for use in biomechanical impact tests have pre-existing rib fractures (PERFs), usually resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation. These specimens are typically excluded from impact studies with the assumption that the fractures will alter the thoracic response to loading. We previously used the Global Human Body Models Consortium 50th percentile whole-body finite element model (GHBMC M50-O) to demonstrate that up to three lateral or bilateral PERFs do not meaningfully influence the response of the GHBMC thorax to lateral loading. This current study used the GHBMC M50-O to explore the influence of PERFs on thorax response in frontal and oblique loading. Up to six PERFs were simulated on the anterior or lateral rib regions, and the model was subjected to frontal or oblique cylindrical impactor, frontal seatbelt, or frontal seatbelt + airbag loading. Changes in thorax force-compression responses due to PERFs were generally minor, with the greatest alterations seen in models with six PERFs on one side of the ribcage. The observed changes, however, were small relative to mid-size male corridors for the loading conditions simulated. PERFs altered rib strain patterns, but the changes did not translate to changes in global thoracic response. Within the limits of model fidelity, the results suggest that PMHS with up to six PERFs may be appropriate for use in frontal or oblique impact testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

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    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Fisica Medica, Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola [AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy); Ceroti, Marco [ISPO, U.O. Epidemiologia Molecolare e Nutrizionale, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali e Cliniche, Florence (Italy); AOU Careggi, Sezione di Radioterapia, Florence (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist der Vergleich der Patientenpositionierung mittels der 3-D/4-D-Erfassung der Patientenoberflaeche durch ein Abtastsystem, kV/MV-Verifikationsaufnahmen mit Hochenergiebildsystemen und Markierungen auf der Haut bei Bestrahlungen im Thorax- bzw. Beckenbereich. Als Goldstandard zum Vergleich dienten CBCT(''cone beam computed tomography'')-Aufnahmen. Die Studie basiert auf Untersuchungen an 20 Patienten. Es wurden

  8. Neoplastic and other pathologic effects of fractionated fast neutrons or photons on the thorax and anterior abdomen of beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Bradley, E.W.; Casarett, G.W.; Rogers, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-nine adult male beagle dogs received either fast-neutron or photon irradiation to the right hemithorax and right rostral abdomen. Twenty-four dogs (six per group) received fast neutrons (15 MeV) to total doses of 1000, 1500, 2250, or 3375 cGy in four fractions per week for six weeks. Fifteen dogs received 3000, 4500, or 6750 cGy of photons in an identical fractionation pattern. One photon-irradiated dog and 13 neutron-irradiated dogs died or were euthanatized because of hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances 47 to 708 days after irradiation; 20 dogs died of other causes. These 34 dogs were necropsied and have been studied microscopically; the remaining five dogs are still alive seven years after irradiation. Neutron-induced lesions included hemorrhage, necrosis, fibrosis, and atrophy of the heart, liver, pancreas, pylorus, duodenum, and kidney. All lesions were associated with degenerative and occlusive vascular changes including coronary arteriosclerosis. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of fast neutrons, assessed by clinical signs and by gross and microscopic pathology, is between 3 and 4.5 for pancreas, ∼4.5 for heart, pylorus, duodenum, and kidney, and greater than 6.75 for liver. Ten malignancies and two benign tumors developed in the irradiated field of six of 12 neutron-exposed dogs that survived over one year after irradiation. Two malignancies and one benign tumor arose in three of 12 photon-exposed dogs surviving over one year postirradiation. Only one neoplasm developed in the same field in 11 nonirradiated controls or in 62 dogs irradiated at sites other than the thorax or abdomen. The neutron RBE for neoplasia is approximately 6.75. 85 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Optionen für eine vernetzte interdisziplinäre Prävention am Beispiel berufsbedingter Hautkrankheiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John, Swen Malte

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses (OD have topped the list of occupational diseases in Germany for years. Presently, approximately 16,000 new OD cases are officially reported to public statutory employers’ liability insurance bodies, each year. The disease burden is high not only for individuals but also for society as a whole. Estimated annual economic costs in Germany due to sick-leave and lack of productivity due to OD are more than 1.5 billion euros. Thus, in recent years, various pilot initiatives aiming to improve prevention of occupational skin diseases (of various degrees of severity have been developed and recently evaluated in Osnabrück. These activities have been funded by statutory employers’ liability insurance schemes. Concepts underpinning these initiatives include multidisciplinary skin protection teaching programs for various high-risk professions, which turned out to be pivotal for the success of these projects. A corollary of this work is a nationwide multi-step intervention approach currently implemented by the public statutory insurance system. This approach offers quick preventive help for all levels of severity of OD. These nation-wide activities are accompanied by a national Prevention Campaign: Skin 2007/2008 (Figure 1 (Fig. 1, which focuses mainly on primary prevention. Despite the high prevalence of OD and its poor prognosis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying individual susceptibility to develop chronic irritant dermatitis. Skin irritation tests are thus far of only limited value. Presently, our institution, in collaboration with Amsterdam universities, focuses on immunogenetic risk factors potentially involved in individual susceptibility to OD in order to improve pre-employment counseling and predictive skin testing. For early secondary prevention, the so-called dermatologist’s procedure was recently up-dated in order to provide more rapid dermatological consultation. Additionally, combined outpatient dermatological and educational intervention seminars (secondary individual prevention, SIP are offered to affected employees. We recently demonstrated the sustainability of the SIP approach in hairdressing for periods of up to 10 years. For those cases of OD, in which the abovementioned outpatient prevention measures are not sufficiently successful, specific interdisciplinary inpatient prevention measures have been developed (tertiary individual prevention, or TIP. TIP represents the ultima ratio within the hierarchical prevention concept of the Osnabrück Model. TIP comprises 2–3 weeks of inpatient dermatological diagnostics and treatment as well as intensive health-related pedagogic and psychological counseling. Subsequent to this, 3 consecutive weeks of outpatient treatment are given by a local dermatologist. Each patient remains on sick-leave for a total of 6 weeks to allow full barrier recovery. A total of 764 out of 1164 (66% TIP patients treated in our university, followed-up regularly by a local dermatologist for up to 1 year, were successful in remaining in their respective (risk- professions as assessed by questionnaire 1 year after discharge. Recently obtained SIP and TIP data reveal that there are reliable, evidence-based options for multidisciplinary prevention and patient management of OD, using a combined approach by a network of clinics, practices and statutory social insurance bodies. A multicentre study, which aims to further standardize TIP and evaluate sustainability of prevention in more depth (3-year dermatological follow-up of 1000 OD patients is currently being conducted in Germany.

  10. Chondrosarcoma of the Thorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Philip A.; Reznik, Scott I.; Smythe, W. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Although a rare entity, chondrosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of the chest wall. Most patients present with an enlarging, painful anterior chest wall mass arising from the costochondrosternal junction. CT scan with intravenous contrast is the gold standard radiographic study for diagnosis and operative planning. Contrary to previous dictum, resection may be performed in an appropriate surgical candidate based on imaging characteristics or image-guided percutaneous biopsy results; incisional biopsy is rarely required. The keys to successful treatment are early recognition and radical excision with adequate margins, as chondrosarcoma is relatively resistant to radiotherapy and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Overall survival is excellent in most surgical series from experienced centers. Complete excision with widely negative microscopic margins at the initial operation is of the utmost importance, as local recurrence portends systemic metastasis and eventual tumor-related mortality. This paper summarizes data from relevant surgical series and thereupon draws conclusions regarding preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of thoracic chondrosarcoma. PMID:21647360

  11. Chondrosarcoma of the Thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Rascoe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare entity, chondrosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of the chest wall. Most patients present with an enlarging, painful anterior chest wall mass arising from the costochondrosternal junction. CT scan with intravenous contrast is the gold standard radiographic study for diagnosis and operative planning. Contrary to previous dictum, resection may be performed in an appropriate surgical candidate based on imaging characteristics or image-guided percutaneous biopsy results; incisional biopsy is rarely required. The keys to successful treatment are early recognition and radical excision with adequate margins, as chondrosarcoma is relatively resistant to radiotherapy and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Overall survival is excellent in most surgical series from experienced centers. Complete excision with widely negative microscopic margins at the initial operation is of the utmost importance, as local recurrence portends systemic metastasis and eventual tumor-related mortality. This paper summarizes data from relevant surgical series and thereupon draws conclusions regarding preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of thoracic chondrosarcoma.

  12. The influence of the use of ankle-foot orthoses on thorax, spine, and pelvis kinematics during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Van Mulders, Benjamin; Verspecht, Julian; Degelaen, Marc

    2018-04-01

    To improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy, ankle-foot orthoses are often prescribed. However, until now, little attention has been devoted to the effect of ankle-foot orthoses on the postural control during walking in children with cerebral palsy. The aim was to compare the differences in thorax, spine, and pelvis movements in children with cerebral palsy during walking barefoot and walking with ankle-foot orthoses. Clinical study with an intra subject design. A total of 15 children (12 boys and 3 girls; mean age, 8 ± 2 years) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (12 with Gross Motor Function Classification System I and 3 with Gross Motor Function Classification System II) performed a full-body three-dimensional gait analysis. Differences in the range of motion of the thorax, spine, and pelvis during walking barefoot and walking with bilateral ankle-foot orthoses were analyzed (SPSS v20, paired-samples t-test). Children with cerebral palsy showed a significantly larger range of motion of the thorax (flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation) and the spine (lateral bending) during walking with ankle-foot orthoses compared to walking barefoot. No significant differences were found in the range of motion of the pelvis between these two conditions. It can be concluded that wearing ankle-foot orthoses influences the postural control during walking in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Due to the increased range of motions, the movement pattern of the trunk diverges from the typically developing children. Clinical relevance Wearing ankle-foot orthoses not only gives more stability at the pelvis and ankle joint but also influences trunk motion. In order of the level of core stability of the child, compensations can be either seen in the lower back or the upper trunk. Clinicians should be aware of these compensations and should evaluate postural control in a more detailed evaluation.

  13. An approach to correlate the CTDIvol to organ dose for thorax and abdomen CT taking tube current modulation and patient size into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Zanca, F.; Oyen, R.; Bosmans, H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate conversion factors for calculating effective dose (E) and organ dose taking tube current modulation (TCM) and patient size into account in adult thorax and abdomen CT examinations. Method: 99 consecutive adult patients were included in this study. All examinations were performed with TCM (CareDose 4D. Siemens Definition Flash) at 120 kVp and 110 (thorax) and 200 (abdomen) reference mAs. E and organ dose were estimated with PCXMC 2.0 (STUK. Helsinki. Finland). using an extension of the software from a planar geometry to spiral acquisitions of aCT scanner. This software accounts for patient size by rescaling the anthropomorphic phantom to actual patient weights and heights. E and organ doses were normalized to the CTDivol as reported in the patient's report. These conversion factors (dE and dorgan were studied as a function of different patient metrics: lateral and anterior-posterior (AP) diameter. sum of the lateral and AP diameter, area of a cross section image and effective diameter. Results:. No trend was found for any of the metrics neither forE nor for the organs investigated (lungs. breasts. stomach and liver). Average value +/- 2 standard deviation were calculated. For a thorax examination, the average dE was 0.57 +/- 0.14 mSv/mGy. dlungs was 1.26 +/- 0.28 mGy/mGy and dbreasts was 1.29 +/- 0.40 mGy/mGy. For an abdomen scan dE was 0.82 +/- 0.18. mSv/mGy. d,tomooh was 1.42 +/- 0.26 mGy/mGy. dliver was 1.42 +/- 0.30 mGy/mGy. Conclusion:. For the scanner studied, average conversion factors, which account for TCM and patient size, were proposed. This is a first step towards patient-specific dosimetry.

  14. Perbandingan Teknik Tegangan Tinggi (KV) Dengan Tegangan Standar (KV) Terhadap Nilai Ekspose Indeks Pada Pemeriksaan Thorax Dengan Menggunakan Computed Radiography ( CR )

    OpenAIRE

    Nainggolan, Nuriani

    2014-01-01

    Research has been conducted to compare the high kV technique with the standard technique checks Radiography kV Thorax postero anterior (PA). In this study, the receptor is the receptor used Kodak radiography computer system. The research was carried out directly on the patient objects, to compare the results of the image of high kV technique using tube voltage 109 kV, 2.2 mAs tube load and use standard techniques kV tube voltage of 66 kV and 85 kV with load tube 8 mAs and 6....

  15. Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation assisted by the CartoSound® system for outflow tract origin nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in a patient with a severely deformed thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Onishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 72-year-old man with a nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and a history of palpitations. He had a severely deformed thorax since childhood due to spinal caries. An integrated computed tomography image of the outflow tract region from the CartoSound® system revealed the detailed anatomical information around the origin of the tachycardia and that the left anterior descending coronary artery was very close (<10 mm to the target site. We carefully ablated that site with a 3.5-mm cooled-tip catheter while confirming it in the sound view, and succeeded without any complications.

  16. Phase I dose escalation study of concurrent palliative radiation therapy with sorafenib in three anatomical cohorts (Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis): The TAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Louise; Longo, Joseph; Wan, Jonathan; Chung, Caroline; Wang, Lisa; Dawson, Laura; Milosevic, Michael; Oza, Amit; Brade, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the tolerability and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of sorafenib administered concurrently with palliative radiotherapy. In patients with incurable cancer, sorafenib was escalated independently in three cohorts based on irradiation site: thorax, abdomen or pelvis. Sorafenib was administered days 1-28 and radiotherapy (30Gy in 10 fractions) was delivered days 8-12 and 15-19. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were acute grade 3+ toxicities attributable to radiotherapy. For the thorax, abdomen and pelvis cohorts, 14, 16 and 4 patients were recruited, and Dose Levels 3, 3 and 2 were reached, respectively. Sorafenib-related systemic toxicity led to significant sorafenib interruption in 10 patients. There were 3 DLTs in total, one per cohort: grade 3 oesophagitis (thoracic), transaminase elevation (abdominal) and grade 5 bowel perforation (pelvic; patient with tumour invading bowel). Grade 2 radiation dermatitis developed in 12 patients. The trial was terminated early as slow accrual and sorafenib-related systemic toxicity prevented efficient evaluation of RT-related DLTs. The MTD of sorafenib when used with 30Gy in 10 fractions was not established due to sorafenib-related systemic toxicity. Severe radiotherapy-related toxicities were also observed. These events suggest this concurrent combination does not warrant further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of preventing aliasing artifacts of arms using electromagnetic-wave shield fabric on coronal images of the thorax or abdomen by fast breath-hold MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masayuki; Okada, Tatsuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine an antialiasing method in the breath-hold coronal imaging of the thorax or abdomen. This paper reports a new method of preventing the aliasing artifacts of arms using ''Hertz II'' as a electromagnetic-wave shield fabric (ESF), which is a very thin and flexible special synthetic fabric. In this study, the ESF method was compared with various conventional preventive measures. Temperature changed around the ESF was also measured by using a fiber optic temperature measurement system during the MR scanning procedure. In addition, the ESF method was tried to use for scanning with some volunteers and some patients in clinical examinations. The results of this study showed that the ESF method could efficiently prevent the aliasing of arms in the MR images. Furthermore, safety of the subjects was hardly affected by the ESF method during MR imaging. Therefore, we concluded that the ESF method was an effectual antialiasing method in the imaging of the thorax or abdomen by using the fast breath-hold scanning. (author)

  18. Calculation of Lung Cancer Volume of Target Based on Thorax Computed Tomography Images using Active Contour Segmentation Method for Treatment Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra Yosandha, Fiet; Adi, Kusworo; Edi Widodo, Catur

    2017-06-01

    In this research, calculation process of the lung cancer volume of target based on computed tomography (CT) thorax images was done. Volume of the target calculation was done in purpose to treatment planning system in radiotherapy. The calculation of the target volume consists of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the target volume was done by adding the target area on each slices and then multiply the result with the slice thickness. Calculations of area using of digital image processing techniques with active contour segmentation method. This segmentation for contouring to obtain the target volume. The calculation of volume produced on each of the targets is 577.2 cm3 for GTV, 769.9 cm3 for CTV, 877.8 cm3 for PTV, 618.7 cm3 for OAR 1, 1,162 cm3 for OAR 2 right, and 1,597 cm3 for OAR 2 left. These values indicate that the image processing techniques developed can be implemented to calculate the lung cancer target volume based on CT thorax images. This research expected to help doctors and medical physicists in determining and contouring the target volume quickly and precisely.

  19. The effects of using high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients on the thorax, lung, and cardiac examination skills of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzer, Hilal; Dinc, Leyla; Elcin, Melih

    2016-10-01

    Existing research literature indicates that the use of various simulation techniques in the training of physical examination skills develops students' cognitive and psychomotor abilities in a realistic learning environment while improving patient safety. The study aimed to compare the effects of the use of a high-fidelity simulator and standardized patients on the knowledge and skills of students conducting thorax-lungs and cardiac examinations, and to explore the students' views and learning experiences. A mixed-method explanatory sequential design. The study was conducted in the Simulation Laboratory of a Nursing School, the Training Center at the Faculty of Medicine, and in the inpatient clinics of the Education and Research Hospital. Fifty-two fourth-year nursing students. Students were randomly assigned to Group I and Group II. The students in Group 1 attended the thorax-lungs and cardiac examination training using a high-fidelity simulator, while the students in Group 2 using standardized patients. After the training sessions, all students practiced their skills on real patients in the clinical setting under the supervision of the investigator. Knowledge and performance scores of all students increased following the simulation activities; however, the students that worked with standardized patients achieved significantly higher knowledge scores than those that worked with the high-fidelity simulator; however, there was no significant difference in performance scores between the groups. The mean performance scores of students on real patients were significantly higher compared to the post-simulation assessment scores (pcardiac examinations; however, practice on real patients increased performance scores of all students without any significant difference in two groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraindividual comparison of image quality using retrospective and prospective respiratory gating for the acquisition of thin sliced four dimensional multidetector CT of the thorax in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Groth, Michael; Henes, Frank Oliver; Schwarz, Dorothee; Deibele, André; Begemann, Philipp G C; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    To intraindividually compare image quality and anatomical depiction of the lung and mediastinum using retrospective and prospective respiratory gating techniques for the acquisition of 4D-multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest in a porcine model. Twelve trachealy intubated domestic pigs underwent 64-row MDCT of the thorax. For retrospective and prospective gating the automated respiratory frequency was adjusted to 10, 14, 18, and 22 respiratory cycles per minute. Further, free breathing MDCT scans of the lung were performed at the same respiratory settings. A breathhold scan was acquired which served as the reference standard. Three reviewers independently analyzed the MDCT data applying a 4-point-grading scale regarding the degree of artifacts observed and anatomical depiction (1, excellent, no artifacts; 4, nondiagnostic due to severe artifacts). For statistical analysis the Wilcoxon matched pairs and Chi-square test were used. Breathhold imaging allowed for the highest image quality (mean value: trachea, 1.00; bronchi, 1.10; lung parenchyma, 1.08; diaphragm, 1.00; pericardium, 1.80). Retrospective gating proved to be of superior image quality compared to prospective gating for all respiratory frequencies. With the respiratory frequency set to 14/min retrospective gating even enabled an identical image quality score as at breathhold. Performing image acquisition during continuous breathing lead to a severe decrease in image quality. High image quality can be acquired using respiratory gating techniques for 4D-MDCT of the thorax. Retrospective is superior to prospective gating and can be of an equivalent image quality as standard breathhold imaging, but at the cost of a significantly higher radiation dose.

  1. Variability in Heart-to-Mediastinum Ratio from Planar123I-MIBG Images of a Thorax Phantom for 6 Common γ-Camera Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owenius, Rikard; Zanette, Michelle; Cella, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    A heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio of 1.6 or greater on planar 123 I-iobenguane ( 123 I-MIBG) images identifies heart failure patients at low risk of experiencing an adverse cardiac event. This phase-4 study used standardized phantoms to assess the intercamera, intracamera, and interhead variability in H/M ratio determinations from planar cardiac 123 I-MIBG imaging using commercially available, dual-head γ-cameras. Methods: A fillable thorax phantom was developed to simulate the typical uptake of 123 I-MIBG. The phantom had a nominal H/M ratio of 1.6 on the reference camera. Commercial cameras used in the study were dual-head and capable of 90° configuration for cardiac imaging. The target sample size was 8 units (examples) per camera model. Two imaging technologists independently analyzed planar images of simulated 123 I-MIBG uptake from the thorax phantom. H/M was the ratio of the average counts per pixel of the heart and mediastinum regions of interest. The primary endpoint, intercamera variability in H/M ratio from head 1, was determined for each camera model via comparison with the H/M ratio on the reference camera. Only cameras with at least 8 units tested ( n ≥ 8) were included in the primary analysis. Intracamera and interhead variability in the H/M ratio were also evaluated. Results: Nine camera models were studied. The mean H/M ratio ranged from 1.342 to 1.677. The primary analysis (6 camera models) using a mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis showed no significant difference in H/M ratio between any camera model and the reference camera. Intracamera variability (head 1) in the H/M ratio among camera models with 8 units or more was high, with SDs ranging from 0.0455 to 0.1193. Interhead variability was low (SDs of the interhead difference, 0.017-0.074). Conclusion: Commonly used γ-cameras produced H/M ratios from simulated 123 I-MIBG phantom images that were not significantly different from those on the reference camera. This finding indicates

  2. Simulated Online Adaptive Magnetic Resonance–Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Oligometastatic Disease of the Abdomen and Central Thorax: Characterization of Potential Advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, Lauren; Kashani, Rojano; Yang, Deshan; Zhao, Tianyu; Green, Olga; Olsen, Lindsey; Rodriguez, Vivian; Wooten, H. Omar; Li, H. Harold; Hu, Yanle; Bradley, Jeffrey; Robinson, Clifford; Parikh, Parag; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Olsen, Jeffrey R., E-mail: Jeffrey.R.Olsen@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To characterize potential advantages of online-adaptive magnetic resonance (MR)-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to treat oligometastatic disease of the non-liver abdomen and central thorax. Methods and Materials: Ten patients treated with RT for unresectable primary or oligometastatic disease of the non-liver abdomen (n=5) or central thorax (n=5) underwent imaging throughout treatment on a clinical MR image guided RT system. The SBRT plans were created on the basis of tumor/organ at risk (OAR) anatomy at initial computed tomography simulation (P{sub I}), and simulated adaptive plans were created on the basis of observed MR image set tumor/OAR “anatomy of the day” (P{sub A}). Each P{sub A} was planned under workflow constraints to simulate online-adaptive RT. Prescribed dose was 50 Gy/5 fractions, with goal coverage of 95% planning target volume (PTV) by 95% of the prescription, subject to hard OAR constraints. The P{sub I} was applied to each MR dataset and compared with P{sub A} to evaluate changes in dose delivered to tumor/OARs, with dose escalation when possible. Results: Hard OAR constraints were met for all P{sub Is} based on anatomy from initial computed tomography simulation, and all P{sub As} based on anatomy from each daily MR image set. Application of the P{sub I} to anatomy of the day caused OAR constraint violation in 19 of 30 cases. Adaptive planning increased PTV coverage in 21 of 30 cases, including 14 cases in which hard OAR constraints were violated by the nonadaptive plan. For 9 P{sub A} cases, decreased PTV coverage was required to meet hard OAR constraints that would have been violated in a nonadaptive setting. Conclusions: Online-adaptive MRI-guided SBRT may allow PTV dose escalation and/or simultaneous OAR sparing compared with nonadaptive SBRT. A prospective clinical trial is underway at our institution to evaluate clinical outcomes of this technique.

  3. [Omentum Transplantation in Thorax to Cover Bronchial Stump as Treatment of 
Bronchopleural Fistula After Pulmonary Resection: Report of 6 Cases' Experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozun; Yang, Xiaojun; Xie, Tianpeng; Hu, Bin; Li, Qiang

    2018-03-20

    Bronchial pleural fistula (BPF) is a common complication after thoracic surgery for lung resection. Clinical treatment is complex and the effect is poor. The treatment of BPF after lung resection has plagued thoracic surgeons. We reviewed retrospectively the clinical and follow-up data of 6 patients in our hospital who underwent the omentum transplantation in thorax to cover bronchial stump as treatment of BPF after pulmonary resection to analyze why BPF occurs and describe this treatment method. We intend to discuss and evaluate the feasibility, safety and small sample success rate ofthis treatment method. During August 2016 to February 2018, six patients in our hospital underwent remedial open thoracotomy and omentum transplantation in pleura space to cover bronchial stump as treatment of bronchopleural fistula after pulmonary resection. Four patients had undergone a prior pneumonectomy and two patients had undergone a prior lobectomy (the residual lungs were resected with the main bronchus cut by endoscopic stapler during the reoperation). The bronchial stumps were sutured by 4-0 string with needle and covered by omentums, which were transplanted in pleura space from the cardiophrenic angle. Postoperatively, the pleura space was irrigated and drained. Summarize the clinical effect and technique learning points. The patients were all males, aged 61 to 73 years (median age: 66). BPF occurred from postoperative day 10 to 45 (median postoperative day 25). The reoperation was finished in 80 mins-150 mins (median 110 mins). Total blood loss was 200 mL-1,000 mL (median 450 mL). These patients were discharged on postoperative day 12-17 (median 14 days), and there was no more complications associated with bronchopleural fistula. All six patients' bronchial stumps were well closed (100%) and have recovered well during the follow-up period, which lasted 1 month-18 months. Remedial operation should be performed as soon as possible when BPF after pulmonary resection

  4. Multi-institutional quantitative evaluation and clinical validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) autosegmentation of target structures and normal tissues on computer tomography images in the head and neck, thorax, liver, and male pelvis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bzdusek, Karl; Brink, Carsten; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Hansen, Olfred; Jensen, Helle Anita; Gay, Hiram A; Thorstad, Wade; Widder, Joachim; Brouwer, Charlotte L; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Vanhauten, Hubertus A M; Cao, Jeffrey Q; McBrayne, Gail; Patel, Salil H; Cannon, Donald M; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Guckenberg, Matthias; Parikh, Parag J

    2013-11-15

    Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE). CT images of 125 treated patients (32 head and neck [HN], 40 thorax, 23 liver, and 30 prostate) in 7 independent institutions were autosegmented using SPICE and computational times were recorded. The number of structures autocontoured were 25 for the HN, 7 for the thorax, 3 for the liver, and 6 for the male pelvis regions. Using the clinical contours as reference, autocontours of 22 selected structures were quantitatively evaluated using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and Mean Slice-wise Hausdorff Distance (MSHD). All 40 autocontours were evaluated by a radiation oncologist from the institution that treated the patients. The mean computational times to autosegment all the structures using SPICE were 3.1 to 11.1 minutes per patient. For the HN region, the mean DSC was >0.70 for all evaluated structures, and the MSHD ranged from 3.2 to 10.0 mm. For the thorax region, the mean DSC was 0.95 for the lungs and 0.90 for the heart, and the MSHD ranged from 2.8 to 12.8 mm. For the liver region, the mean DSC was >0.92 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 5.2 to 15.9 mm. For the male pelvis region, the mean DSC was >0.76 for all structures, and the MSHD ranged from 4.8 to 10.5 mm. Out of the 40 autocontoured structures reviews by experts, 25 were scored useful as autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 90% of the patients and 33 were scored useful autocontoured or with minor edits for at least 80% of the patients. Compared with manual contouring, autosegmentation using SPICE for the HN, thorax, liver, and male pelvis regions is efficient and shows significant promise for clinical utility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple Factors Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of the Thorax: A Pooled Analysis of 88 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jing [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center/Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Li, Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center/Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Department of Shanghai Cancer Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Das, Shiva [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Rimner, Andreas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York (United States); Campbell, Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology, GRU Cancer Center/Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States); Xue, Jinyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Grimm, Jimm [Bott Cancer Center, Holy Redeemer Hospital, Meadowbrook, Pennsylvania (United States); Milano, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To study the risk factors for radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of the thorax. Methods and Materials: Published studies on lung toxicity in patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or metastatic lung tumors treated with SBRT were pooled and analyzed. The primary endpoint was RILT, including pneumonitis and fibrosis. Data of RILT and risk factors were extracted from each study, and rates of grade 2 to 5 (G2+) and grade 3 to 5 (G3+) RILT were computed. Patient, tumor, and dosimetric factors were analyzed for their correlation with RILT. Results: Eighty-eight studies (7752 patients) that reported RILT incidence were eligible. The pooled rates of G2+ and G3+ RILT from all 88 studies were 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.15-11.4) and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.3-2.5), respectively. The median of median tumor sizes was 2.3 (range, 1.4-4.1) cm. Among the factors analyzed, older patient age (P=.044) and larger tumor size (the greatest diameter) were significantly correlated with higher rates of G2+ (P=.049) and G3+ RILT (P=.001). Patients with stage IA versus stage IB NSCLC had significantly lower risks of G2+ RILT (8.3% vs 17.1%, odds ratio = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.29-0.64, P<.0001). Among studies that provided detailed dosimetric data, the pooled analysis demonstrated a significantly higher mean lung dose (MLD) (P=.027) and V20 (P=.019) in patients with G2+ RILT than in those with grade 0 to 1 RILT. Conclusions: The overall rate of RILT is relatively low after thoracic SBRT. Older age and larger tumor size are significant adverse risk factors for RILT. Lung dosimetry, specifically lung V20 and MLD, also significantly affect RILT risk.

  6. Locating the Seventh Cervical Spinous Process: Accuracy of the Thorax-Rib Static Method and the Effects of Clinical Data on Its Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Paula A; Póvoa, Luciana C; Zanier, José F C; Ferreira, Arthur S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the thorax-rib static method (TRSM), a palpation method for locating the seventh cervical spinous process (C7SP), and to report clinical data on the accuracy of this method and that of the neck flexion-extension method (FEM), using radiography as the gold standard. A single-blinded, cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study was conducted. One hundred and one participants from a primary-to-tertiary health care center (63 men, 56 ± 17 years of age) had their neck palpated using the FEM and the TRSM. A single examiner performed both the FEM and TRSM in a random sequence. Radiopaque markers were placed at each location with the aid of an ultraviolet lamp. Participants underwent chest radiography for assessment of the superimposed inner body structure, which was located by using either the FEM or the TRSM. Accuracy in identifying the C7SP was 18% and 33% (P = .013) with use of the FEM and the TRSM, respectively. The cumulative accuracy considering both caudal and cephalic directions (C7SP ± 1SP) increased to 58% and 81% (P = .001) with use of the FEM and the TRSM, respectively. Age had a significant effect on the accuracy of FEM (P = .027) but not on the accuracy of TRSM (P = .939). Sex, body mass, body height, and body mass index had no significant effects on the accuracy of both the FEM (P = .209 or higher) and the TRSM (P = .265 or higher). The TRMS located the C7SP more accurately compared with the FEM at any given level of anatomic detail, although both still underperformed in terms of acceptable accuracy for a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Incident air kerma to absorbed organ dose conversion factors for breast and lung in PA thorax radiography: The effect of patient thickness and radiation quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaranta, A; Toroi, P; Vock, P

    2016-12-01

    Converting the measurable quantities to patient organ doses in projection radiography is usually based on a standard-sized patient model and a specific radiation quality, which are likely to differ from the real situation. Large inaccuracies can therefore be obtained in organ doses, because organ doses are dependent on the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy. In this study, the effect of radiation quality and patient thickness on the organ dose conversion factors were determined. In this study, the posterior-anterior projection radiograph of the thorax was selected in order to determine the effect of radiation quality (tube voltages of 70-130kV and total filtrations of 3mmAl to 4mmAl+0.2 mmCu) and patient thickness (anterior-posterior thicknesses of 19.4-30.8cm) on the breast and lung dose conversion factors. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation programs ImpactMC and PCXMC were used with computed tomography examination data of adult male and female patients and mathematical hermaphrodite phantoms, respectively. Compared to the reference beam quality and patient thickness, the relative variation range in organ dose conversion factors was up to 74% for different radiation qualities and 122% for different patient thicknesses. Conversion factors should only be used with comprehensive understanding of the exposure conditions, considering the exposure parameters, exposure geometry and patient anatomy they are valid for. This study demonstrates that patient thickness-specific and radiation quality-specific conversion factors are needed in projection radiography. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of transforming growth factor beta(1), beta(3), and basic fibroblast growth factor in full-thickness skin wounds of equine limbs and thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoret, C L; Barber, S M; Moyana, T N; Gordon, J R

    2001-01-01

    To map the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1), TGF-beta(3), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in full-thickness skin wounds of the horse. To determine whether their expression differs between limbs and thorax, to understand the pathogenesis of exuberant granulation tissue. Six wounds were created on one lateral metacarpal area and one midthoracic area of each horse. Sequential wound biopsies allowed comparison of the temporal expression of growth factors between limb and thoracic wounds. Four 2- to 4-year-old horses. Wounds were assessed grossly and histologically at 12 and 24 hours, and 2, 5, 10, and 14 days postoperatively. ELISAs were used to measure the growth factor concentrations of homogenates of wound biopsies taken at the same timepoints. TGF-beta(1) peaked at 24 hours in both locations and returned to baseline in thoracic wounds by 14 days but remained elevated in limb wounds for the duration of the study. Expression kinetics of TGF-beta(3) differed from those of TGF-beta(1). TGF-beta(3) concentrations gradually increased over time, showing a trend toward an earlier and higher peak in thoracic compared with limb wounds. bFGF expression kinetics resembled those of TGF-beta(1), but no statistically significant differences existed between limb and thoracic wounds. Growth factor expression is up-regulated during normal equine wound repair. TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) show a reciprocal temporal regulation. Statistically significant differences exist between limb and thoracic wounds with respect to TGF-beta(1) expression. The persistence of TGF-beta(1) expression in leg wounds may be related to the development of exuberant granulation tissue in this location, because TGF-beta(1) is profibrotic. Copyright 2001 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  9. Value of multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in preparation for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: The impact of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings on patient care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissner, Erik; Wellnitz, Clinton V.; Srivathsan, Komandoor; Scott, Luis R. [Mayo Clinic Arizona - Mayo Clinic Hospital, Cardiovascular Diseases, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054 (United States); Altemose, Gregory T. [Mayo Clinic Arizona - Mayo Clinic Hospital, Cardiovascular Diseases, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054 (United States)], E-mail: altemose.gregory@mayo.edu

    2009-11-15

    Objective: In patients referred for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax is routinely performed to assess pulmonary vein anatomy. We sought to investigate the incidence of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings in this select patient population and to establish how these findings influence subsequent patient care. Methods: Ninety-five patients (mean age 62 {+-} 10 years, 35% female) referred to our institution for ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation between July 2003 and October 2007 underwent multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax. Radiologists interpreted all images. Need for additional testing, consultation and eventual diagnosis were assessed by electronic record review. Results: A total of 83 (5 cardiac, 78 extracardiac) unexpected findings were observed in 50/95 (53%) of patients. The findings prompted 23 additional tests (5 cardiac, 18 noncardiac) in 15/95 (16%) of patients and 8 subsequent referrals in 7/95 (7%) patients. In 6 patients the findings significantly altered future patient care and resulted in postponement of ablation therapy in 4 patients. In 2 patients, extracardiac findings (pulmonary emboli and adenocarcinoma of the lung) were of potentially life-saving consequence. Conclusions: In patients undergoing multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in anticipation of planned catheter ablation therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, unexpected findings are common and of potentially significant value. In comparison, there is a higher prevalence of unexpected extracardiac, rather than cardiac findings. Further investigation of these findings may lead to postponement of ablation therapy, but may also be of potentially lifesaving consequence.

  10. Displacement of structures in the thorax from expiration to inspiration as estimated by computed tomography and a 3-D treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmon, Pamela; Huang, David; Lutz, Steve; Zwicker, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The spread of image based three dimensional treatment planning and conformal radiotherapy have brought new attention to the problems of patient motion during treatment. Recent studies of the effects of breathing on the motion of internal structures have led to the suggestion that gated irradiation might improve the therapeutic benefits of conformal therapy. In the present work we investigate the displacement of tumor and other structures in the thorax with breathing in order to assess further the potential benefit of gating in the treatment of lung tumors. Materials and Methods: Thoracic CT scans were obtained for patients immediately after inspiration and after expiration. Tumor positions were assessed by computing the centers of the outlined volumes for both inspiration and expiration. Effects of breathing motion along the longitudinal direction were evaluated by using a three dimensional treatment planning system to measure the distances between scans where the top of the diaphragm was present. Displacement within the transverse direction was assessed by measuring the positions of the field skin markers, the aorta and the esophagus. Results: Movement of the centers of the tumor volumes as computed by reconstructed volumes was measured to be 0.7-1.2cm. The magnitude of this movement was greatest for tumors in the mid to lower region of the lung and was primarily in the direction of superior to inferior combined with anterior to posterior. Displacement of the diaphragm ranged 1-3 cm with breathing. Displacement of the aorta and esophagus was measured to be 0.2-1.5 cm. Movement of these structures was only analyzed transversely and showed displacement to the patients' left and posterior upon expiration. The magnitude did not appear to correlate with position relative to the diaphragm. Patients with less diaphragm movement also had smaller tidal volumes and conversely, patients with larger diaphragm displacement had greater tidal volumes

  11. Evolution of the dose values and image quality for the X-ray of thorax postero/anterior in mature patients of the service of imagenology of the Hospital Dr. Juan Noe of Arica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Galaz, Sergio; Leyton, Fernando; Delgado, Otto; Espinosa, Alfonso; Inzulza, Alonso; Ramirez, Raul; Blanco, Daniel; Oyarzun, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Full text: International Atomic Energy Agency defined guidance level for medical exposure, for the exams of general radiology, reason why the objective of the present work was to evaluate the evolution of the doses for the radiological exam of thorax posterior/anterior among the years 2005 at 2007. The used design was of traverse, descriptive, analytic and comparative type. The study population corresponded to 2 groups of 50 patients selected at random, of both sexes that attended the imagenology service of the public hospital Dr. Juan Noe Crevanni of the city of Arica, to be carried out a X-ray of thorax posterior/anterior. The first group of patients corresponded the participants in the project ARCAL LXXV (Determination of guidance level for Conventional Radiology and Interventionist) carried out in the year 2005. The second group of patients was those incorporate ones during the year 2007 to the project RLA/9/057 (Radiological Protection of Patient in Medical Exhibitions). Both investigations were sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, The Institute of Health Publishes and the Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy. The stages of the study were divided in: characterization of the yield of the teams, taking of exams, evaluation image quality, estimate of the dose values and statistical analysis. The mean values from entrance surface air kerma for the radiological exam of thorax posterior/anterior vary of 0,14 mGy (S.D. 0.29) to 0.08 mGy (S.D. 0.31), among the years 2005 and 2007 respectively, being this significant difference (p=0.001). Both values are inferior to the value recommended in the Adenda III of the BSS. As for the proportions of execution of the approaches of image quality this it was of 0.95 for the project ARCAL LXXV and 0.92 for the project RLA/9/057, without being this significant difference. The continuous evaluation of the guidance level for medical exposure, associated to the quality of the images constitutes an estimator on the

  12. [Wide-spread haemangioma racemosum of the mediastinum associated with paresis of the diaphragm; a finding to be considered in the differential diagnosis of the arteriovenous aneurysm of the thorax (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerer, I; Stampfel, G

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports on a 5 year old boy showing a sprawling haemangioma racemosum of the right side of the mediastinum. The vascular tumor is fed by a tortuous A. thoracica interna dextra and numerous arterial vessels arising from the right subclavian artery and from the aorta including the right coronary artery and branches from the abdominal aorta. The child presents also paresis of the right diaphragm probably secondary to the pressure of the pulsatile tumore along the course of the phrenic nerve. After ligation of three major feeding arteries the continuous murmur disappeared and fatigability and anorexia became less. Apart from this report a review of the literature on vascular malformations of the arterio-venous fistula type within the thorax sums up the most important features of these vascular anomalies: haemodynamics, localisation, clinical signs, therapy, natural history, therapy and etiology.

  13. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Correlation with clinical or pathological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongling; Shen, Chentian; Zhu, Ruisen; Luo, Quanyong; Wu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual phase 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31%) patients with 181 foci had a positive 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the 99m Tc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69%) patients had a negative 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive 9m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61%) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.96 cm and 163

  14. Application of the Voxeldose software for dosimetric evaluation on the thyroid during thorax-AP irradiation considering the peak voltages (k Vp) most used in diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, I.F.; Vieira, J.W.; Leal Neto, V.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution can be obtained through a computational model of exposures (ECM), being one the main difficulties at the specific dosimetric evaluation such as the radiodiagnostic, coupling the Monte Carlo computer code, developed for general use, to a anthropomorphic model. This problem can be solved by the software used in this paper, the VoxelDose, and it consists of an algorithm for X-ray diagnostic sources with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code coupled to the voxel anthropomorphic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel). The graphic interface allows the user to insert the mos common exams parameters, and to execute the simulation, obtaining conversion coefficients and the estimative of the deposited energy on organs/tissues radio sensible during the routine procedures. The data obtained were organized into graphics showing the thyroid equivalent dose, which is a radio sensible with 20 g mass and a weight factor of 5 %, compared with the effective dose during an irradiation of thorax-AP

  15. Image reality and organ dose in digital radiographic examinations of thorax of adult patients at Pato Branco, Parana state, Brazil; Qualidade da imagem e dose orgao em exames radiograficos digitais de torax de pacientes adultos em Pato Branco, PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunelli, Neuri A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade, Marcos Ely A.; Lima, Luiz Felipe A.; Khoury, Helen J.; Kramer, Richard [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Tonet, Lisane [Policlinica Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This study was performed with PA thorax examinations of adult patients performed with CR equipment in a clinic of Pato Branco, Parana state, Brazil. The values of K{sub a,E} were estimated from irradiation parameters and the yield of X ray tube. The absorbed doses in organs and tissues of patients, and the effective risks of cancer incidence were estimated by using the CALDose{sub X}-3.5 computer program. The image quality was evaluated base on criteria established by European Community. The third quartile of the K{sub a,}E estimated was 0.170 mGy, lower than the reference level established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The organs that presented the largest absorbed doses were: lungs (36+-16 micron Gy), kidneys (25+-14 micron Gy) and spleens (23.2+- micron Gy). The incidence of of cancer was of 0.098+-0.051 for case of 100,000 exposed persons. All the image evaluated obtained conformity over 85% of the european quality criteria

  16. Post-Irradiation Treatment with a Superoxide Dismutase Mimic, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+, Mitigates Radiation Injury in the Lungs of Non-Human Primates after Whole-Thorax Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mark Cline

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation injury to the lung is the result of acute and chronic free radical formation, and there are currently few effective means of mitigating such injury. Studies in rodents indicate that superoxide dismutase mimetics may be effective in this regard; however, studies in humans or large animals are lacking. We hypothesized that post-exposure treatment with the lipophilic mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTnHex-2-PyP5+ (hexyl, would reduce radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis in the lungs of nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta received 10 Gy whole thorax irradiation, 10 Gy + hexyl treatment, sham irradiation, or sham irradiation + hexyl. Hexyl was given twice daily, subcutaneously, at 0.05 mg/kg, for 2 months. Animals were monitored daily, and respiratory rates, pulse oximetry, hematology and serum chemistry panels were performed weekly. Computed tomography scans were performed at 0, 2, and 4 months after irradiation. Supportive fluid therapy, corticosteroids, analgesics, and antibiotics were given as needed. All animals were humanely euthanized 4.5 months after irradiation, and pathologic assessments were made. Multifocal, progressive lung lesions were seen at 2 and 4 months in both irradiated groups. Hexyl treatment delayed the onset of radiation-induced lung lesions, reduced elevations of respiratory rate, and reduced pathologic increases in lung weight. No adverse effects of hexyl treatment were found. These results demonstrate (1 development of a nonhuman primate model of radiation-induced lung injury, (2 a significant mitigating effect of hexyl treatment on lung pathology in this model, and (3 no evidence for toxicity of hexyl at the dose studied.

  17. Application of the Voxeldose software for dosimetric evaluation on the thyroid during thorax-AP irradiation considering the peak voltages (k Vp) most used in diagnostic X-ray; Aplicacao do software Voxeldose para avaliacao dosimetrica na tireoide durante irradiacoes de torax-AP nas tensoes de pico (kVp) mais utilizadas em raio-X diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, I.F.; Vieira, J.W., E-mail: igoradiologia@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Leal Neto, V., E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, F.R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution can be obtained through a computational model of exposures (ECM), being one the main difficulties at the specific dosimetric evaluation such as the radiodiagnostic, coupling the Monte Carlo computer code, developed for general use, to a anthropomorphic model. This problem can be solved by the software used in this paper, the VoxelDose, and it consists of an algorithm for X-ray diagnostic sources with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code coupled to the voxel anthropomorphic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel). The graphic interface allows the user to insert the mos common exams parameters, and to execute the simulation, obtaining conversion coefficients and the estimative of the deposited energy on organs/tissues radio sensible during the routine procedures. The data obtained were organized into graphics showing the thyroid equivalent dose, which is a radio sensible with 20 g mass and a weight factor of 5 %, compared with the effective dose during an irradiation of thorax-AP

  18. Pelvis-thorax coordination in the transverse plane during gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoth, C.J.C.; Beek, P.J.; Meijer, O.G.

    2002-01-01

    The coordination between horizontal pelvic and thoracic rotations during treadmill walking was studied in ten subjects. Previous studies have considered the relative phase using the mean to characterize coordination mode, and the S.D. as an index of its stability. However, to use S.D. of relative

  19. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  20. Optimization of the quality and dose in thorax general radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Suy Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Image quality and radiation dose at skin entrance in chest radiography were studied for three exposure protocols, denoted as 1, 2 and 3. Protocol 1 represents the most used technique in radiology services in our country. This technique consists of the following parameters: 81 kV tube voltage, anti-scatter grid and 2 m focus-film distance. Protocol 2 uses the same parameters of the Protocol 1, without grid. Protocol 3 uses I 33kV without grid and 3,5 m focus-film distance. In Protocols 2 and 3 a 30 em air gap was used between patient and film. Two samples of 50 patients were radiographed in two different facilities, herein denoted 1 and 2. Protocol 1 was used in facility I to radiograph the first patient sample, and Protocols 2 and 3 were used in facility 2 to radiograph the second patient sample. Three experts in chest radiology evaluated the obtained chest images according anatomical quality criteria for this examination. For each patient exposure the radiation dose at skin entrance was measured. In this work, a chest phantom, containing test objects to evaluate quantitatively image quality, was made. The phantom was radiographed with the three protocols herein investigated. Results of this study showed clearly that Protocol 3 presents an average dose at skin entrance about half than Protocol 2 and about one third of Protocol 1. In regard to chest radiographic images and radiation dose, it was statistically demonstrated that the Protocol 3 is better than Protocols 1 and 2, with the improvement of the image quality and patient dose reduction in order of 3 times. This work also discusses the perspective of using optimized exposure technique proposed by Protocol 3 as an alternative technique far chest radiographic examinations to those currently used in our diagnostic radiology facilities. (author)

  1. AIDS: radiologic findings in the thorax and abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, M.; Langer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic manifestation of AIDS are initially diagnosed on plain film studies. Pneumocystis carinii infections are characterised by bi-hilar streaky, interstitial and diffuse micronodular infiltrations. These findings are best seen on thoracic CT examinations. Thoracic Kaposi sarcoma is characterized by larger, rounded interstitial infiltrations. In abdominal AIDS ultrasound is the first screening method. It detects equally well lymph nodes in Kaposi sarcoma as in all lymphomas and opportunistic infections. CT can differentiate between mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, because of the central low-density lymphoma in tuberculosis. (orig.)

  2. Ultrasonographic Examination of the Equine Neonate: Thorax and Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprayberry, Kim A

    2015-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging can substantially augment physical examination findings in neonatal foals. Used in combination with radiography or as a stand-alone imaging modality, ultrasound evaluation of the thoracic and abdominal body cavities can be a high-yield diagnostic undertaking. Many of the conditions that afflict neonatal foals are highly amenable to sonographic interrogation, including pneumonia and other changes in the lungs associated with sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction, and prematurity; colic arising from medical and surgical causes; and urinary tract disorders. Sonographic imaging is not affected by intracavitary fluid accumulation and reveals abnormalities of soft tissue and bony origin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Radiographic thorax findings in cardiac disease. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichstaedt, H.

    1999-01-01

    The document contains part 1 of cardiac disease findings. Topics are digital image processing, digital luminescence radiography, selen radiography and x-ray radiography of the healthy and ill heart. (AJ)

  4. Cine MRI of the thorax in patients with pectus excavatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.A.; Zech, C.J.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F.; Strauss, T.; Hatz, R.

    2006-01-01

    Morphologic and dynamic assessment of respiratory chest kinetics was performed in patients with pectus excavatum deformity (PE) using dynamic MRI: cine MRI. Seven consecutive patients with PE (aged 20.3 years±4.0) and ten healthy volunteers of comparable age underwent real-time cine MRI of the chest during breathing on a 1.5 T MR scanner (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany) using a standard phased array body coil and a half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin echo sequence (HASTE) for dynamic imaging. During deep inspiration and expiration, single-shot sequences were performed in one slice level over 20 s at a frequency of 1 image/s covering the entire thoracic cage in three orientations. Morphology and chest kinetics in patients with PE were analyzed and compared with normal values, and typical patterns of chest kinetics were noted. Three different types of chest morphology in PE were identified: (1) the generally flattened thoracic cage, (2) the ''tilted'' sternum, and (3) the focally deepened sternum. Three patterns of motion correspond to these morphological types: (1) elevation of the sternum and the anterior thoracic wall, (2) angulated elevation of the parasternal rib cage with persistent deepening of the sternum resembling a ''wing beat'' movement, and (3) increased diaphragmatic movements with limited chest wall dynamics. Cine MRI is an adequate radiation-free diagnostic modality for the dynamic imaging of both chest morphology and chest wall kinetics in patients with PE. The pectus severity index can easily be determined and three typical movement patterns of chest wall kinetics identified. (orig.) [de

  5. Radiological observations of the thorax and abdomen of the piglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.

    1985-01-01

    A contrast radiographic study of the urinary and gastrointestinal system was carried out in 43 animals, with the aid of barium sulfate, orally for esophageal, stomach, small intestine and large intestine studies; barium sulfate as an enema to complete the large intestine studies; sodium and meglumine diatrizoate intravenously for urography and iodipamide meglumine intravenously for cholecystography. Both unanesthetized and anesthetized or tranquilized animals were used in the study. The results of the study are illustrated, and contrasted with studies of a similar nature in other animals

  6. Sound transmission in porcine thorax through airway insonification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Dai, Zoujun; Mansy, Hansen A; Henry, Brian M; Sandler, Richard H; Balk, Robert A; Royston, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Many pulmonary injuries and pathologies may lead to structural and functional changes in the lungs resulting in measurable sound transmission changes on the chest surface. Additionally, noninvasive imaging of externally driven mechanical wave motion in the chest (e.g., using magnetic resonance elastography) can provide information about lung structural property changes and, hence, may be of diagnostic value. In the present study, a comprehensive computational simulation (in silico) model was developed to simulate sound wave propagation in the airways, lung, and chest wall under normal and pneumothorax conditions. Experiments were carried out to validate the model. Here, sound waves with frequency content from 50 to 700 Hz were introduced into airways of five porcine subjects via an endotracheal tube, and transmitted waves were measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometry at the chest wall surface. The computational model predictions of decreased sound transmission with pneumothorax were consistent with experimental measurements. The in silico model can also be used to visualize wave propagation inside and on the chest wall surface for other pulmonary pathologies, which may help in developing and interpreting diagnostic procedures that utilize sound and vibration.

  7. Hydatidecyster i thorax. En vigtig differentialdiagnose til tuberkulose blandt indvandrere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jensen, F; Hviid, L B

    2000-01-01

    into the thoracic muscle is described in a young immigrant from Morocco to Europe (Denmark). Hydatid cyst is an important differential diagnosis from tuberculosis in immigrants from areas with endemic echinococcosis and tuberculosis, such as North Africa and the Middle East. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  8. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound

    OpenAIRE

    Mabbott, A; Carr, D J; Champion, Steve M.; Malbon, C

    2016-01-01

    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20 %) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tiss...

  9. Uso de fijador externo en la inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior (volet esternal: Presentación de un caso Use of the external fixative in the instability of the anterior thoraxic wall (sternal volet: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes N Mederos Curbelo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente con inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior y esternón tratado previamente con un dispositivo creado por los autores en 1995 para el volet costal. Las costillas artificiales externas del dispositivo, diseñado para el cerclaje subperióstico, actúan como elemento de fijación y han conseguido resultados satisfactorios. Se presenta un paciente, que producto de un accidente automovilístico, sufre lesiones en cráneo, tórax, abdomen y extremidades, entre las que resaltan contusión cerebral, lesión hepática, fractura de fémur e inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior. Esta última requirió de prioridad extrema, pues habría llevado rápidamente al paciente a la insuficiencia respiratoria de no ser solucionado el problema. Se realizó la estabilización externa mediante un equipo que se utiliza en nuestro hospital, reutilizable y aplicable en cualquier inestabilidad torácica independientemente de la localización de esta. El fijador se confecciona con láminas de duraluminio maleables que permiten su adaptabilidad e introduce una forma de tratamiento en las lesiones torácicas bilaterales con inestabilidad esternal, situación compleja en la que puede resultar un instrumento valioso de tratamientoA patient with instability of the anterior thoracic wall and sternum previously treated with a device created by the authors in 1995 for the costal volet, is presented. The artificial external ribs of the device designed for subperiosteous cerclage act as a fixation element with satisfactory results. The case of a patient that due to a car accident suffers from lesions in the cranium, thorax, abdomen and limbs, among which cerebral contusion, liver lesion, femur fracture and instability of the anterior thoracic wall stand out, is reported. Maximum priority was given to the instability of the anterior thoracic wall, since it could have rapidly led to respiratory failure if the problem would have not been solved. The

  10. Prise en charge des traumatismes fermes du thorax chez l'adulte au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drains (15,23%) ont été placés. Quatre thoracotomies et une sternotomie ont été réalisées. 27 décès furent enregistrés (7,76%), en rapport surtout avec les lésions associées extrathoraciques. La radiographie standard reste utile. Une amélioration de la survie passe par l'installation d'un service de chirurgie thoracique.

  11. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    autonomous or semi-autonomous flying robots will be useful for gathering information in nearly any dangerous scenario which precludes direct human...Similarly, a MAV could enter small or dangerous crevices in a collapsed and unstable building. Police might use a MAV in much the same way the military...requirement of M.sexta (Bao, et al. 2011). Other options include comb drive, parallel plate, thermal biomaterial cantilever, and thermal expansion

  12. Planned Complex Occupation-related Suicide by Sulfuric Acid Ingestion and Thorax Stab Wound: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Beltempo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is a colourless, odorless liquid, which causes typical injury patterns such as cutaneous and ocular burns, respiratory complications from inhalation, and ingestion injuries (coagulative necrosis of the mucosa, gastric and intestinal perforations with significant dermal and mucosal injury because of its corrosive action. Most injuries caused by sulfuric acid ingestion are accidental, especially in the paediatric population. Intentional cases of ingestion have rarely been reported in adults as a method of suicide following a major depressive disorder. In this paper, we report the case of a 44-year-old woman who was found dead outside her home with a retained fillet knife embedded in her left chest wall and cutaneous chemical burns extending from her mouth down her chin and anterior torso. During the crime scene investigation, a half empty bottle of chemical drain cleaner containing concentrated sulfuric acid was found next to her body. An autopsy revealed chemical burns to the tongue, trachea, larynx, pharynx and oesophagus along with a blackish fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Histological analyses showed extensive corrosive changes in the gastrointestinal tract. Toxicological screening of blood and urine samples was negative; gastric contents contained a high quantity of concentrated (≈ 96% sulfuric acid with a pH value of < 1.0. Death was attributed to shock following sulfuric acid ingestion. Circumstantial evidence and autopsy findings proved that the manner of death was suicidal. Complex suicides can be challenging for the forensic pathologist because of the plurality of methods used. The authors highlight the importance of systematical exhaustive postmortem investigation in order to ascertain the cause and manner of death in cases of planned complex suicide.

  13. Local recidivation of operated breast cancer after electron cineroentgenotherapy of the thorax wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutschler, J.

    1986-01-01

    Of 354 patients undergoing radiotherapy up to 31 Dec 1982, 268 comparable cases were examined with regard to local recurrences, metastases, and general health status. The incidence of local recurrences suggested a higher efficiency of this technique as compared with the formerly applied technique of 4-field high-voltage therapy. Medial or central tumours were found to have an almost significantly loss favourable prognosis, which suggests a first spread remote metastases via the parastermal lymphatic vessels. The other 86 patients were analyzed descriptively according to subgroups. Radiolesions of the skin and lungs were not significantly less or more frequent than with other radiotherapies. Electron cineroentgenotherapy is well tolerated even by pre-exposed skin: The Tuebingen experience so far proves the acceptability of the new technique. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Dosimetry in computerized tomography and evaluation of doses in organs in thorax scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Thêssa Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography has promoted improvement of the diagnostic process by producing anatomical cut images with high quality and contrast between soft tissues which have very similar absorption of the X-ray beams. The objective of this study is to evaluate the technological park of CT in Brazil correlated with the wide world, and carry out studies of experimental dosimetry to understand the dose distribution feature using phantoms and different methods of measurement of kerma index, as well as perform measures of local doses in sensitive organs. To study the scanner geographic distribution and supply of computed tomography tests in Brazil, a comparison has been made with results found with the specified reference by Brazilian law (Ordinance GM / MS No. 1101, 2002; Resolution RE nº1016, 2006). For dosimetry studies, It was used a standard chest phantom and the anthropomorphic phantom. For image quality evaluation, it was used the CATPHAN-600 phantom. Scans were performed in a GE scanner, Discovery model with 64 channels. Dose measurements have been performed by using a pencil ionization chamber, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiochromic film strips. Sensitive organ shielding devices were evaluated in order to verify their efficiency in organ dose reduction and its influence in the quality of image. Considering Brazilian population, the scanner park showed a greater amount than the minimum parameter recommended by Brazilian law. Dose measurements using three different methods showed the correct procedure of metrological reliability of the measurement system. The findings and conclusions of this study may contribute to the improvement of local practices in Computed Tomography tests, inserted in context of radiological protection in order to define reference levels for optimized diagnosis, and image quality control. (author)

  15. A-V Delay Versus Cardiac Output Measured with Thorax Bioimpedance Monitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondra, Vlastimil; Halámek, Josef; Viščor, Ivo; Jurák, Pavel; Novák, M.; Lipoldová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2008), s. 73 ISSN 1556-7451. [World Congress on Heart Disease /14./. 26.07.2008-29.07.2008, Toronto] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : atrio -ventricular delay * resynchronization therapy * impedance cardiography * cardiac output Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  16. Diagnosis of heart diseases via conventional X-ray examination of the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teifke, A.; Thelen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Thoracic x-ray examination supplies information that is important in diagnosing heart disorders. The article presents the pathophysiological fundamentals and x-ray morphology criteria for assessing the size of the entire heart and of the individual cavities as well the cardiac functions, in a comprehensive survey. (orig.) [de

  17. Survey radiography and computerized tomography imaging of the thorax in female dogs with mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Tatiana; Hette Khadije; Ribeiro Sérgio M; Vulcano Luiz C; Rahal Sheila C; Otoni Carolina C; Doiche Danuta P; Amorim Renée L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate early diagnosis of lung metastases is important for establishing therapeutic measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare survey thoracic radiographs and computerized tomography (CT) scans to specifically identify lung metastases in female dogs with mammary tumors. Methods Twenty-one female dogs, weighing 3 to 34 kg and aged from 5 years to 14 years and 10 months, with mammary tumors were studied. In all dogs before the imaging examinations, fine-needle...

  18. Uji Diagnostik Gambaran Lesi Foto Thorax Pada Penderita Dengan Klinis Tuberkulosis Paru

    OpenAIRE

    Majdawati, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Chest radiography is one of examination to diagnose lung TB. More lesions in chest radiography as infiltrate, fibroinfiltrate, cavitas, calcification, pleural effusion, etc. often find in chronic lung diseases, especially lung TB. The aim of this study to determine the sensitivity and spesificity of clinical symptoms and chest x-ray lesions. This is a retrospective study of medical record of polyclinic and hospitalized patient of Bantul District Hospital year 2010. Diagnostic test research me...

  19. Studi Penentuan Kualitas Citra Computed Radiography (CR) Pada Pemeriksaan Thorax Menggunakan ImageJ

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyid, Dessy Triana

    2016-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) merupakan suatu sistem atau proses untuk mengubah sistem analog pada konvensional radiografi menjadi digital radiografi. ImageJ merupakan software dengan platform java yang dikembangkan dalam teknik pencitraan medis yang dapat mengolah data dengan format DICOM (digital imaging and communication in medicine). Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa nilai histogram dari masing-masing citra berbeda, akan tetapi pada citra normal 2 dan bronchitis 2 memiliki nilai his...

  20. Patient med myelomatose med infiltrat på røntgen af thorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Steentoft, Johnna; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2010-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was referred to the lung department with pain in the right side of the chest through three months, especially when physically active. The patient presented with a tendency to shortness of breath, fatigue, low energy level and night sweats. The tentative diagnosis of pleural tumo...

  1. Thorax CT findings in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF)

    OpenAIRE

    Akta?, Turan; Akta?, Fatma; ?zmen, Zafer; Altunka?, Ay?eg?l; Kaya, Turan; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease with high mortality. The agent causing CCHF is a Nairovirus. The virus is typically transmitted to humans through tick bites. CCHF is a life-threatening disease observed endemically over a wide geographical regions in the world and a little known about pulmonary findings in CCHF patients. Methods The patients that were admitted and diagnosed with CCHF between April 2010 and September 2015 were examined. Patients? medic...

  2. Evaluation of skin entrance dose imparted on pediatric patients by thorax exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Khoury, Helen; Drexler, Guenter; GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg; Barros, Edison

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results of a survey of skin entrance dose imparted on pediatric patients are present. Positioning the thermo luminescence dosimeters in contact with the patient's skin, in the center of the incident X-ray beam, collected the skin entrance dose data. The patients were grouped in five age groups: infants, 1,1 to 4 years, 4,1 to 6 years, 6,1 to 10 years and older than 10 years. The results show that the average of skin entrance doses is very higher as compared to the European Community Commission reference levels and to other values found in literature. (author)

  3. [Interdisciplinary surgery of the thorax-from the general surgeon's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, J R; Yekebas, E; Kastl, S

    2004-04-01

    Interdisciplinary professional management is the most important basic principle for successfully mastering thoracic operations including the thoracic wall and adjacent regions such as neck, axilla, mediastinal vessels, upper limb, and spine. Extended oncological resection in advanced malignant diseases, side-effects of radiotherapy and trauma explain the diversity of possible operative procedures. For technical success, the necessity of vascular grafting, reconstruction of the brachial plexus, spine surgery, cardiac surgery, plastic thoracic wall reconstruction, stabilization of the thoracic wall, modern equipment, and know-how are mandatory. We chose some show-cases which-in our opinion-might be appropriate for demonstrating interdisciplinary therapy management. Functional, oncological, and cosmetic/reconstructive aspects should be considered when approaching these cases.

  4. 111In-chloride thorax scintigraphic study for demonstration of pulmonary edema: Canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih Weijen; Deland, F.H.; Simmons, G.H.; Coupa, J.; Domstad, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary edema induced by injections of oleic acid was demonstrated using 111 In-chloride lung/heart image in five anesthetized dogs. The anesthetized dogs were positioned under a gamma camera interfaced to a computer. After 111 In-chloride IV injections, dynamic data were recorded at 1 frame/min before and after induced pulmonary edema. The computer generated the curve of the lung-to-heart activity ratio; the ratio rose from 0.5-0.6 at baseline to 0.85-1.5 at th end of the study in the dogs. At the end of each study, the removed lungs demonstrated edematous fluid, and a few red blood cells were seen in the alveoli. The results indicating pulmoinary edema exhibited in the 111 In-chloride lung-to-heart ratio obtained froma computerized gamma camera were compatable with the pathological results. Since 111 In-chloride instantly binds to plasma transferrin, an excellent intravascular imaging agent, leakage of this tracer into alveoli indicates loss of membranous wall competence. Pulmonary edema, as in the adult respiratory distress syndrome, is sometimes difficult to diagnose; and this 111 In-chloride lung-to-heart imaging technique may be potentially useful. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of a New E-Learning System on Thorax, Trachea, and Lung Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cuca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lung ultrasound has become an emerging tool in acute and critical care medicine. Combined theoretical and hands-on training has been required to teach ultrasound diagnostics. Current computer technology allows for display, explanation, and animation of information in a remote-learning environment. Objective. Development and assessment of an e-learning program for lung ultrasound. Methods. An interactive online tutorial was created. A prospective learning success study was conducted with medical students using a multiple-choice test (Trial A. This e-learning program was used as preparation for a certified course followed by an evaluation of trained doctors (Trial B by linear analogue scales. Pretests were compared with postcourse tests and sustainability tests as well as a posttest of a one-day custom classroom training. Results. In Trial A, during the learning success study (n=29, the increase of correct answers was 11.7 to 17/20 in the post-test and to 16.6/20 in the sustainability test (relative change 45.1%, P<0.0001. E-learning almost equalled scores of classroom-based training regarding gain and retention of factual knowledge. In Trial B, nineteen participating doctors found a 79.5% increase of knowledge (median, 95% CI: 69%; 88%. Conclusion. The basics of lung ultrasound can be taught in a highly effective manner using e-learning.

  6. PET-CT: current applications and new developments in the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Jeremy J; Mawlawi, Osama; Howard, Brandon; Patz, Edward F

    2014-02-01

    Positron emission tomography computed tomography(PET-CT) imaging has emerged as an essential clinical diagnostic tool in the evaluation of thoracic abnormalities. Currently, its primary role is for tumor imaging; it helps to differentiate benign from malignant nodules, stage tumors, determine response, and follow patients after therapy is complete. It has also been used for nononcologic diseases, but the indications are less well defined. PET is a fundamental component of the molecular imaging initiative, and as new more specific imaging probes and better instrumentation are developed, PET-CT is certain to improve diagnostic accuracy and become even more integrated into the imaging armamentarium. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Optimization and objective and subjective analysis of thorax image for computerized radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velo, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed at optimizing computational chest radiographic images (in previous posterior projection-PA). To this end, we used a homogeneous patient equivalent phantom in Computational Imaging System calibration, in order to obtain a satisfactory noise signal relation for a diagnosis, adjusting to a minimum dose received by the patient. The techniques have been applied in an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO). The images obtained were evaluated by a radiologist, which identified the best image to determine possible pathologies (fracture or pneumonia). The technique were quantified objectively (Detective Quantum Efficiency - DQE, Modulation Transfer Function MTF, Noise Power Spectrum, NPS). Comparing optimized techniques with the clinical routine, it is concluded that all provide doses below reference levels. However the choice of the best technique for viewing possible pneumonia and/or fracture, was determined based on the first 3D (Dose, Diagnostic, Dollar) and regarded as gold standard. This image presented a reduction of dose and loading of tube around 70.5% and 80% respectively when compared with the clinical routine

  8. Cone-beam CT angiography of the thorax. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Katsuya; Shimada, Kazuhiro [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki (and others)

    1999-10-01

    The authors recently developed a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scanner and this report presents their evaluation of its potential for thoracic vascular imaging. An X-ray tube and a video-fluoroscopic system were rotated around the objects and 360 projected images were collected in a 12-s scan. Each image was digitized and a 3 dimensional (D) image (256 x 256 x 256 voxel volume with a voxel dimension of 0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 mm) was reconstructed. Two different 3D-CT angiographies were investigated in 2 pigs: right atriography and thoracic aortography. Each pig was anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and positioned within the scanner. Contrast agent was infused through the right atrium or the aortic root at a rate of 3 ml/s during the scan. The right atriography scan clearly delineated the anatomy of the pulmonary artery, heart chambers and thoracic aorta. The thoracic aortography scan also clearly delineated the aortic anatomy including the internal thoracic and intercostal arteries. In conclusion, cone-beam CT angiography is potentially useful for thoracic vascular imaging. (author)

  9. Vertical field MR imaging of upper thorax and spine in small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockstedt, S.; Malmgren, N.; Malmgren, L.; Ivarsson, M.L.; Larsson, E.M.; Holtaas, S.; Staahlberg, F.

    1993-01-01

    To improve image quality in a vertical field MR imaging unit, operating at low field strength (0.3 T), we have designed a half-elliptical coil for use in the upper thoracic region of small children. Our intention was also to shorten the examination time, which until now has been long, because several scans with different coils have been necessary to cover the thoracic region. The experimental coil is designed so that a child's shoulders fit into the central region. The coil consists of 2 serially connected cable-loops, mounted on a foam rubber vest. The coil performance was tested in a phantom and improvements relative to standard coils were demonstrated in in vivo studies. The results indicate that by using the half-elliptical coil, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio can be improved by a factor of 2 to 3 in the thoracic region of a child. (orig.)

  10. Transcutaneous migration of foreign body into thorax in children: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bothra Jyoti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation and ingestion of foreign bodies is common in pediatric age group. However transcutaneous migration of sharps into the lung parenchyma is rarely reported and can be hazardous. We report two such cases with details on the diagnosis and the treatment modalities used for the management.

  11. Assessment of a new e-learning system on thorax, trachea, and lung ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Colleen; Scheiermann, Patrick; Hempel, Dorothea; Via, Gabriele; Seibel, Armin; Barth, Magnus; Hirche, Tim O; Walcher, Felix; Breitkreutz, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lung ultrasound has become an emerging tool in acute and critical care medicine. Combined theoretical and hands-on training has been required to teach ultrasound diagnostics. Current computer technology allows for display, explanation, and animation of information in a remote-learning environment. Objective. Development and assessment of an e-learning program for lung ultrasound. Methods. An interactive online tutorial was created. A prospective learning success study was conducted with medical students using a multiple-choice test (Trial A). This e-learning program was used as preparation for a certified course followed by an evaluation of trained doctors (Trial B) by linear analogue scales. Pretests were compared with postcourse tests and sustainability tests as well as a posttest of a one-day custom classroom training. Results. In Trial A, during the learning success study (n = 29), the increase of correct answers was 11.7 to 17/20 in the post-test and to 16.6/20 in the sustainability test (relative change 45.1%, P learning almost equalled scores of classroom-based training regarding gain and retention of factual knowledge. In Trial B, nineteen participating doctors found a 79.5% increase of knowledge (median, 95% CI: 69%; 88%). Conclusion. The basics of lung ultrasound can be taught in a highly effective manner using e-learning.

  12. En monstrøs tumor i thorax kan repræsentere et tymom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild

    2014-01-01

    targeted treatment. In mediastinum anterior thymoma is the most frequent form of cancer arising from the thymus epithelium. This case report describes a male patient suspected of lung cancer who happened to have malignant thymoma with atypical dissemination, which challenged the diagnostics....

  13. Deciduoid mesothelioma of the thorax: A comprehensive review of the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Putzu, Carlo; Ginesu, Giorgio Carlo; Cossu, Maria Laura; Feo, Claudio Francesco; Attene, Federico; Scognamillo, Fabrizio; Nonnis, Rita; Cossu, Antonio; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pirina, Pietro; Fois, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Deciduoid mesothelioma is a rare variant of malignant epithelioid mesothelioma. It often involves the peritoneum, but also thoracic cases have been reported. The aim of the present review is to describe the demographic, clinical, radiological, and pathological features of such a rare variant of thoracic mesothelioma, and the state of the art regarding the therapeutic approaches currently available. English-language articles published from 1985 to June 2016, and related to thoracic deciduoid mesothelioma cases were retrieved using the Pubmed database. The search terms were "mesothelioma," "thoracic mesothelioma," "epithelial mesothelioma," "pleural mesothelioma," and "deciduoid mesothelioma." Forty-four cases included in 16 articles, published in the period under investigation, were analyzed in detail. The mean age of the patients was 63 years, and the male to female ratio 1.7:1. Approximately 58% had exposure to asbestos, and 73% had a smoking history; familiarity was rarely reported. The most common anatomical site of origin was the right pleura, and the most frequent clinical manifestations were chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and weight loss. Thoracic X-ray and computed tomography were the imaging techniques most employed for diagnosis and surgical planning. The pathological diagnosis was obtained by examination of surgical or biopsy specimens in most cases. The best treatment strategy of deciduoid mesothelioma is a matter of debate; nevertheless a multidisciplinary approach is currently the best option for the choice of the adequate therapeutic scheme. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cone-beam CT angiography of the thorax. An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuya; Shimada, Kazuhiro; Tadokoro, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    The authors recently developed a cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scanner and this report presents their evaluation of its potential for thoracic vascular imaging. An X-ray tube and a video-fluoroscopic system were rotated around the objects and 360 projected images were collected in a 12-s scan. Each image was digitized and a 3 dimensional (D) image (256 x 256 x 256 voxel volume with a voxel dimension of 0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 mm) was reconstructed. Two different 3D-CT angiographies were investigated in 2 pigs: right atriography and thoracic aortography. Each pig was anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and positioned within the scanner. Contrast agent was infused through the right atrium or the aortic root at a rate of 3 ml/s during the scan. The right atriography scan clearly delineated the anatomy of the pulmonary artery, heart chambers and thoracic aorta. The thoracic aortography scan also clearly delineated the aortic anatomy including the internal thoracic and intercostal arteries. In conclusion, cone-beam CT angiography is potentially useful for thoracic vascular imaging. (author)

  15. What Can Computed Tomography Scans of the Thorax Show after Breast Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Alikhassi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative breast abnormalities after breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy are frequently overlooked and inaccurately assessed or reported using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. These inaccurate results may have legal ramifications for the clinicians, cause patients avoidable anxiety, and lead to additional unnecessary diagnostic follow-up testing and costs.Methods: The patients with a history of breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy up to 6 months prior to undergoing a thoracic MDCT scan consented and enrolled in this study. These patients underwent a thoracic MDCT scan either because of respiratory or cardiac clinical symptoms or as part of breast cancer staging.Results: Forty women were included in this study. Different postoperative breast changes observed on thoracic MDCT scans including fibrous scar tissue, fat necrosis, seroma, abscess, hematoma, and recurrent and residual tumor were described.Conclusions: MDCT scans offer sufficient evidence in many postoperative cases to allow a confident diagnosis. General radiologists who review thoracic MDCT scans should know how to characterize breast lesions incidentally found on MDCT scans after breast surgeries. This information would enhance the value of the radiologist’s report for appropriate case management.

  16. Synovial sarcoma: CT imaging of a rare primary malignant tumour of the thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverosi, R; Muzzio, P C; Panunzio, A; Pasquotti, G; Schiavon, M; Rea, F

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents computed tomography (CT) features of three patients with primary synovial sarcoma of the lung (PSSL) who came to our attention and underwent surgery; reviews of the literature on this rare thoracic tumour are also presented. The patients, all men, with a mean age of 58 years, underwent clinical and radiological re-evaluation after receiving a histological diagnosis. None of the patients had multifocal disease or other concomitant neoplasms. All patients had undergone both chest X-rays and computed tomography, and two had also been studied with positron emission tomography (PET)-CT. Two patients underwent surgical removal of the tumour, whereas the third initially underwent surgery (following an incorrect diagnosis) and then thoracoscopic biopsy of the pleural lesions that subsequently arose. In each case, chest X-rays showed changes, with the presence of pulmonary masses noted in all patients. In one patient, pleural effusion was also visible. CT scans showed parenchymal masses that were largely of a colliquative nature (in two out of three patients). Ipsilateral pleural effusion was present in two patients, associated in one with solid nodules within the pleura. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy, which was not radiologically significant, was present in only one patient. The two patients who also underwent PET-CT examination showed pathological tracer uptake confined to the lesion site without other thoracoabdominal or musculoskeletal localisations. CT-guided biopsy, performed in one patient only, was positive for mesenchymal tumour. In the two patients who underwent surgery, a definitive diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma of the lung was made. The diagnosis of monophasic synovial sarcoma in the third patient was confirmed using thoracoscopic biopsy Both in the cases described and in those identified in the literature review, standard chest X-rays mainly showed a parenchymal mass of pleural origin with either irregular or well-defined margins. CT characteristics are more definite, with evidence of a mass with regular and sharply defined margins, occasionally polycyclic, with inhomogeneous density due to the presence of colliquative areas within the tumour. Although PSSL is a rare tumour, a pulmonary mass of inhomogeneous density, associated with pleural effusion but without lymphadenopathy, detected in an asymptomatic or poorly symptomatic patient, should lead to PSSL being considered in the differential diagnosis, provided that metastases from the more common synovial sarcomas of the musculoskeletal system have been excluded.

  17. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca Sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    and the linkage arm lengths. The arm lengths are fixed based on the design and the slider displacement was computed in the above code segment. In...Polymer." Bionic Robots Workshop. 2011. http://www.emn.fr/z- dre/ bionic -robots-workshop/uploads/Abstracts%20BRW%202011/26.pdf (accessed 2012

  18. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound ballistics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mabbott, A.; Carr, D. J.; Champion, S.; Malbon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20?%) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tiss...

  19. Esophagitis associated with multimodality management of pediatric Ewing sarcoma of thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vibhuti; Logie, Natalie; Morris, Christopher G; Bradley, Julie A; Rotondo, Ronny L; Bradfield, Scott M; Indelicato, Daniel J

    2018-02-12

    Ewing sarcoma of the thoracic spine and chest wall is frequently treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT). Treatment-related acute esophagitis can lead to hospitalization and treatment delays. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence, risk factors, and management of esophagitis in pediatric patients with Ewing sarcoma of the thoracic region. We conducted a single-institution retrospective review of patients treated over a 10-year period. Medical records were reviewed for patient and treatment characteristics associated with Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 2 or higher esophagitis. RT plans were also reviewed and various esophageal dose metrics were analyzed. Twelve of 37 patients (32%) developed acute esophagitis. Neutropenia was associated with an increased risk of esophagitis (60% vs. 14%; P 47 Gy (69% vs. 5%; P 15 Gy (67% vs. 9%; P sarcoma of the thoracic region will develop acute esophagitis. An esophageal D5cm 3 dose < 15 Gy and maximal esophageal dose < 47 Gy may keep the rate of acute esophagitis under 5%. However, the association with neutropenia and consistent response to antifungal therapy suggest chemotherapy-associated toxicity and an infectious component as part of the process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Kerma in the air at entry surface in thorax pediatric examinations at public hospital in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Amanda; Porto, Lorena; Bunick, Ana; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo; Tilly, Joao; Khoury, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This work consisted in the evaluation of the entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) in pediatric chest x-ray examinations. A study of 186 exams in anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior and lateral projections was carried out for patients with ages ranging from 0 to 15 years. The ESAK was measured with the DoseCal software and Li-Fl thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results were compared with measurements done recently at the same place and with the reference dose values established by the European Community. It was observed that the optimization of the technique and the routine changes suggested in the previous study were not maintained. The charge (mAs) and the ESAK values found in the present study were much higher than the previous one, and the voltage (kVp) values found was lower. The results suggest that the implementation of the Quality Assurance Program could adequate these parameters to the established levels and keep the pediatric examinations more uniform. (author)

  1. PROSPECT (Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.; 2. Instituto de Tecnologia ...States of America, 2 Instituto de Tecnologia Quı́mica e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, 3 Department of Thoracic/Head and

  2. Cardiac pathologies incidentally detected with non-gated chest CT; Inzidentelle Pathologien des Herzens im Thorax-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Axel; Kroepil, P.; Lanzman, R.S.; Moedder, U. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-Univ. (Germany); Choy, G.; Abbara, S. [Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Cardiac imaging using electrocardiogram-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) permits noninvasive diagnosis of congenital and acquired cardiac pathologies and has thus become increasingly important in the last years. Several studies investigated the incidence and relevance of incidental extracardiac structures within the lungs, mediastinum, chest wall, and abdomen with gated coronary CT. This resulted in the general acceptance of the review of extracardiac structures as a routine component of coronary CT interpretation. On the other hand radiologists tend to neglect pericardial and cardiac pathologies in non-gated chest CT, which is primarily performed for the evaluation of the respiratory system or for tumor staging. Since the introduction of multi-detector spiral CT technology, the incidental detection of cardiac and pericardial findings has become possible using non-gated chest CT. This article reviews the imaging appearances and differential diagnostic considerations of incidental cardiac entities that may be encountered in non-gated chest CT. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy of a commercial optical 3D surface imaging system for realignment of patients for radiotherapy of the thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeffel, Philipp J [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Harms, Wolfgang [Radiological University Clinic Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sroka-Perez, Gabriele [Radiological University Clinic Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Therapy, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlegel, Wolfgang [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-07-07

    Accurate and reproducible patient setup is a prerequisite to fractionated radiotherapy. To evaluate the applicability and technical performance of a commercial 3D surface imaging system for repositioning of breast cancer patients, measurements were performed in a rigid anthropomorphic phantom as well as in healthy volunteers. The camera system records a respiration-gated surface model of the imaged object, which may be registered to a previously recorded reference model. A transformation is provided, which may be applied to the treatment couch to correct the setup of the patient. The system showed a high stability and detected pre-defined shifts of phantoms and healthy volunteers with an accuracy of 0.40 {+-} 0.26 mm and 1.02 {+-} 0.51 mm, respectively (spatial deviation between pre-defined shift and suggested correction). The accuracy of the suggested rotational correction around the vertical axis was always better than 0.3{sup 0} in phantom measurements and 0.8{sup 0} in volunteers, respectively. Comparison of the suggested setup correction with that detected by a second and independently operated marker-based optical system provided consistent results. The results demonstrate that the camera system provides highly accurate setup corrections in a phantom and healthy volunteers. The most efficient use of the system for improving the setup accuracy in breast cancer patients has to be investigated in routine patient treatments.

  4. Surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up vs. CBCT for radiotherapy of the thorax and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta; Vanzi, Eleonora; Marrazzo, Livia; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Paiar, Fabiola; Ceroti, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare surface imaging, portal imaging, and skin marker set-up in radiotherapy of thoracic and pelvic regions, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data as the gold standard. Twenty patients were included in this study. CBCT, surface acquisition (SA), and two orthogonal portal images (PI) were acquired during the first four treatment sessions. Patient set-up corrections, obtained by registering the planning CT with CBCT, were used as the gold standard. Registration results of the PI and SA were evaluated and compared with those obtained with CBCT. The advantage derived from using SA or PI verification systems over a skin marker set-up was also quantified. A statistically significant difference between PI and SA (in favour of PI) was observed in seven patients undergoing treatment of the pelvic region and in two patients undergoing treatment of the thoracic region. The use of SA or PI, compared with a skin marker set-up, improved patient positioning in 50% and 57 % of the thoracic fractions, respectively. For pelvic fractions, the use of PI was beneficial in 73 % of the cases, while the use of SA was beneficial in only 45 %. Patient positioning worsened with SA, particularly along longitudinal and vertical directions. PI yielded more accurate registration results than SA for both pelvic and thoracic fractions. Compared with the skin marker set-up, PI performances were superior to SA for pelvic fractions while comparable results were obtained for thoracic fractions. (orig.) [de

  5. PROSPECT (Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Stewart, David J

    2008-01-01

    We will develop a high throughput therapeutic-target focused (TTF) profiling platform and will combine this with tumor genome wide mRNA profiling and with serum or plasma profiling of phosphopeptides and DNA...

  6. Five-dimensional motion compensation for respiratory and cardiac motion with cone-beam CT of the thorax region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian; Hahn, Andreas; Brehm, Marcus; Paysan, Pascal; Seghers, Dieter; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We propose an adapted method of our previously published five-dimensional (5D) motion compensation (MoCo) algorithm1, developed for micro-CT imaging of small animals, to provide for the first time motion artifact-free 5D cone-beam CT (CBCT) images from a conventional flat detector-based CBCT scan of clinical patients. Image quality of retrospectively respiratory- and cardiac-gated volumes from flat detector CBCT scans is deteriorated by severe sparse projection artifacts. These artifacts further complicate motion estimation, as it is required for MoCo image reconstruction. For high quality 5D CBCT images at the same x-ray dose and the same number of projections as todays 3D CBCT we developed a double MoCo approach based on motion vector fields (MVFs) for respiratory and cardiac motion. In a first step our already published four-dimensional (4D) artifact-specific cyclic motion-compensation (acMoCo) approach is applied to compensate for the respiratory patient motion. With this information a cyclic phase-gated deformable heart registration algorithm is applied to the respiratory motion-compensated 4D CBCT data, thus resulting in cardiac MVFs. We apply these MVFs on double-gated images and thereby respiratory and cardiac motion-compensated 5D CBCT images are obtained. Our 5D MoCo approach processing patient data acquired with the TrueBeam 4D CBCT system (Varian Medical Systems). Our double MoCo approach turned out to be very efficient and removed nearly all streak artifacts due to making use of 100% of the projection data for each reconstructed frame. The 5D MoCo patient data show fine details and no motion blurring, even in regions close to the heart where motion is fastest.

  7. CT guided biopsies as a part of the investigations in findings in the lung and thorax wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    Introduction: The widespread use of CT have resulted in an increased detection of pulmonary lesions, and not only detected at an increased rate but also at a smaller size. CT guided lung biopsies are now more frequently being used compared to fluoroscopy guidance. The main aim of this paper...

  8. Frontal impact response of a virtual low percentile six years old human thorax developed by automatic down-scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries in the whole population spectrum. The numbers of deaths and seriously injured citizens prove that traffic accidents and their consequences are still a serious problem to be solved. The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology with a virtual approach. Exploitation of the previously developed scaling algorithm enables the creation of a specific anthropometric model based on a validated reference model. The aim of the paper is to prove the biofidelity of the small percentile six years old virtual human model developed by automatic down-scaling in a frontal impact. For the automatically developed six years old virtual specific anthropometric model, the Kroell impact test is simulated and the results are compared to the experimental data. The chosen approach shows good correspondence of the scaled model performance to the experimental corridors.

  9. A clinical approach to brown adipose tissue in the para-aortic area of the human thorax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixing Wei

    Full Text Available Human thoracic brown adipose tissue (BAT, composed of several subdivisions, is a well-known target organ of many clinical studies; however, the functional contribution of each part of human thoracic BAT remains unknown. The present study analyzed the significance of each part of human thoracic BAT in the association between regional distribution, cellularity, and factors involved in the functional regulation of thoracic BAT.We analyzed 1550 healthy adults who underwent medical check-ups by positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT imaging, 8 cadavers, and 78 autopsy cases in an observational study. We first characterized the difference between the mediastinum and the supraclavicular areas using counts of BAT detection and conditions based on PET-CT outcomes. The measurable important area was then subjected to systematic anatomical and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 antibody to characterize the cellularity in association with age and sex.In PET-CT scanning, the main site of thoracic BAT was the mediastinum rather than the supraclavicular area (P < 0.05. Systemic macroanatomy revealed that the thumb-sized BAT in the posterior mediastinal descending para-aortic area (paBAT had feeding vessels from the posterior intercostal arteries and veins and sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation from trunks of the sympathetic and vagus nerves, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that the paBAT exhibited immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter located in the pericellular nervous fibers and intracellular UCP1. The brown adipose cells of paBAT showed age-dependent decreases in UCP1 expression (P < 0.05, accompanied by a significant increase in vacuole formation, indicating fat accumulation (P < 0.05, from 10 to 37 years of age (P < 0.01.paBAT may be one of the essential sites for clinical application in BAT study because of its visible anatomy with feeding vessels and sympathetic/parasympathetic innervation functionally affected by outer condition and senescence.

  10. Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Damiano, Teresa Gelardi, Gennaro Daniele, Fortunato Ciardiello, Giampaolo Tortora : Rational combination of targeted therapies as a strategy to overcome...angiogenesis, and invasiveness (Lynch et al., 2004; Paez et al., 2004; Pao et al., 2004; Janne et al., 2005; Pao and Miller, 2005; Ciardiello and Tortora , 2008...Anticancer Res 23: 4877–4884. Ciardiello F, Tortora G. (2008). EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment. N Engl J Med 358: 1160–1174. Cooper CS, Tempest

  11. PROSPECT: Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    milk and then probed in PBS...ap ill ar y pa tte rn b ut n o so lid p at te rn ; g ro up 3 , a ci na r an d le pi di c pa tte rn s bu t n o so lid o r pa pi lla ry pa...T E R N G ro up So lid a P ap ill ar yb L ep id ic a M ic ro -p ap ill ar ya A ci na ra F re qu en cy , N ( % ) G ro up 1 , n =9 2 (3 8% ) 56 (

  12. Clarifications Regarding the Topographical Location of the Vascular, Lymphatic and Nervous Formations from the Thorax Aperture in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our studies are intended to bring some clarification on the topographic situation of lymphatic vascular and nerve formations in the thoracic aperture to the dog. Data from the literature are less relevant because the other factions by surprise earlier in the mediastinum without to make a correlation between them [6, 7, 8]. The study was performed on 20 corpses of dog different breeds, ages and gender. Vascular formations were injected with a mixture prepare the laboratory of anatomy of the discipline. Photographic paper presents several models dissected setting with as much precision topographic situation of the anatomical formations and has a highly application in human medicine, bringing clarification on topography thoracic duct lymph in the large vessels transport underlying heart. Lymphatic ducts is attached the entire length of the front right mediastinal aorta. That is opening in cranial vena cava without having a secundar channel.

  13. Kyste hydatique du foie révélé par sa fistulisation dans le thorax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une patiente âgée de 28ans, sans antécédent pathologique particulier, avec notion de contact avec les chiens (hébergement d'un chien au domicile), accusait depuis 2 mois des douleurs basithoraciques droites avec gêne respiratoire. Dix jours avant son hospitalisation, le tableau s'est aggravé par l'apparition d'une toux ...

  14. PROSPECT: Profiling of Resistance Patterns Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    resistance and into the relationship of resistance mechanisms to factors innately affecting tumor growth rate and prognosis 4. Identification of readily...B–D). The cells were harvested by trypsinization from subconfluent stock cultures and seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 3,000 per wellCancer...associated with a shorter latency , more frequent metastasis, and accelerated pul- monary tumorigenesis.22 Also, in support of these observations are

  15. Diagnoses accuracy in the detection of abnormalities in the thorax x-ray: Teleradiology vs. conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron, Fanny Emilia; Melendez, Patricia; Martinez, Carlos Eli

    1998-01-01

    Background: introduction of teleradiology in Colombia is very recent and its operative characteristics and reliability are unknown. Objective: to evaluate intra and interobserver concordance in the interpretation of digitized chest x-ray films and to compare diagnostic Accuracy of teleradiology and film screen interpretation. Design: cross-sectional study for evaluation or concordance and operative characteristics of a diagnostic test. Patients and methods: convenience sample of 40 chest films. Independent lecture of digitized images for each radiologist to evaluate interobserver concordance: second lecture of digitized images for evaluation of intraobserver concordance. Generation of a gold standard diagnosis with a consensus interpretation of film screens, comparison of operative characteristics of teleradiology and conventional interpretation, using as a reference the gold standard (consensus lectures) and comparison of diagnostic precision using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves). Results: agreements and concordance were significant higher than expected in both evaluations (inter and intraobserver). Sensitivity of teleradiology was similar to sensitivity of film screen interpretation and areas under ROC curves were not statistically different. Conclusions: concordance in the interpretation of chest radiological studies are significant in a teleradiology system and diagnostic utility of teleradiology is the same as conventional film screen interpretation. Accuracy and reliability of teleradiology are optimal

  16. Giant desmoid tumour of the thorax following latissimus dorsi and implant breast reconstruction: case report and review of the literature

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, AM

    2017-03-01

    The case of a giant thoracic desmoid tumour in a 44-year-old woman, who presented two years following a breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and implant, is reported. Clinical findings included a rapidly growing, painless mass. Computed tomography (CT) suggested skin and intercostal soft tissue invasion. The tumour was resected en bloc with the LD muscle, implant capsule and underlying rib segments. The resultant thoracic and abdominal wall defects were reconstructed with Dualmesh® and polypropylene meshes respectively. There was no evidence of recurrence at thirty-six months follow-up.

  17. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  18. A comparison of the predicted and observed low energy radiation from the thorax of a normal human male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speight, R.G.

    1967-07-01

    The normal human male emits a continuum of low energy photons (< 100 KeV) whose magnitude depends on the body content of potassium-40 and caesium-137 and the physical parameters of the body. An experiment is described from which it has been possible to devise a method of forecasting the level of this continuum with an accuracy of ± 6%. (author)

  19. [Radiological study of the thorax. Evaluation of efficacy-efficiency of a large-field image intensifier in mass screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, M G; Gregori, S; Lamarche, V; Radice, E; Spiga, G; Maggi, S; Giorgini, P; Giovagnoni, A; De Nigris, E; Amici, F

    1989-09-01

    Chest X-ray is the most frequent examination in radiology and accounts for a considerable portion of total population radiation exposure, mostly in screening programs. The ideal radiographic system is the one providing the best image quality together with the lowest dose to the patient, at a low cost. In this paper the authors analyze the potentials of a new chest X-ray examination unit equipped with a large-screen image intensifier (TS 57-Siemens). Two-thousand subjects were examined with this unit. The technical aspects of everyday practice are analyzed from the radiologist's point of view, together with the dose to the patient, image quality, and costs.

  20. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Rune Slot; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five...... lung cancer patients. Projection image based artefact corrections of image lag, detector scatter, body scatter and beam hardening are described and applied to CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Image quality is evaluated through visual appearance of the reconstructed images, HU...

  1. Evaluation of setup accuracy for NSCLC patients; studying the impact of different types of cone-beam CT matches based on whole thorax, columna vertebralis, and GTV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, W.; Baker, M.; Hedman, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to evaluate the patient setup accuracy by investigating the impact of different types of CBCT matches, performed with 3 (translations only) or 6 (including rotations) degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The purpose is also to calculate and compare CTV to PTV margins based ...

  2. Novel 755-nm diode laser vs. conventional 755-nm scanned alexandrite laser: Side-by-side comparison pilot study for thorax and axillary hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.

  3. Unexpected finding of T-cell lymphoma in a previously healthy 16-year-old patient after a thorax trauma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Okholm-Hansen, Anna; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course and emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The differential diagnostic difficulties have previously been described in regard to pneumonia, but to the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case report...... to describe lymphoma in relation to trauma.CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 16-year-old Danish boy presented to our hospital with chest pain and accentuated protruding thoracic veins. Ten days prior to hospitalization he had suffered a blunt thoracic trauma while playing soccer. After drainage...... of an excessive amount of pleural fluid, he developed severe respiratory distress. A chest tube was inserted and he was transferred to a level 1 trauma centre. Here, a computed tomography scan unexpectedly revealed significantly swollen mediastinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and he was later diagnosed...

  4. Focal breast lesions in clinical CT examinations of the chest. A retrospective analysis; Senologische Befunde bei CT-Untersuchungen des Thorax. Eine retrospektive Auswertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Kathrin Barbara; Houbois, Christian; Grinstein, Olga; Borggrefe, Jan; Puesken, Michael; Maintz, David [Cologne Univ. Medical School, Cologne (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostical and Interventional Radiology; Hanstein, Bettina; Malter, Wolfram [Cologne Univ. Medical School, Cologne (Germany). Breast Center and Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Hellmich, Martin [Cologne Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Epidemiology

    2017-10-15

    Based on radiological reports, the percentage of breast cancers visualized as incidental findings in routine CT examinations is estimated at ≤2%. In view of the rising number of CT examinations and the high prevalence of breast cancer, it was the goal of the present study to verify the frequency and image morphology of false-negative senological CT findings. All first contrast-enhanced CT examinations of the chest in adult female patients carried out in 2012 were retrospectively included. A senior radiologist systematically assessed the presence of breast lesions on all CT images using the BI-RADS system. All BI-RADS ≥3 notations were evaluated by a second senior radiologist. A consensus was obtained in case of differing BI-RADS assessments. Reference diagnoses were elaborated based on all available clinical, radiological and pathological data. The findings of the CT reports were classified according to the BI-RADS system and were compared with the retrospective consensus findings as well as with the reference diagnoses. The range of indications comprised a broad spectrum including staging and follow-up examinations of solid tumors/lymphoma (N = 701, 59.9 %) and vascular (190, 16.2 %), inflammatory (48, 4.1 %) and pulmonologic (22, 1.9 %) issues. BI-RADS 1/2 classifications were present in 92.5 % and BI-RADS 6 classifications were assessed in 1.7 % of the 1170 included examinations. 68 patients (5.8 %) had at least one lesion retrospectively classified as BI-RADS 3 - 5. The histological potential was known in 57 of these lesions as benign (46, 3.9 %) or malignant (11, 0.9 %). 13 BI-RADS 4/5 consensus assessments (1.1 %) were false-positive. 2 of the 10 lesions classified as being malignant based on the further clinical and radiological course were not mentioned in the written CT reports (0.2 %). Both false-negative CT reports were therapeutically and prognostically irrelevant. The relative frequency of BI-RADS 3 - 5 findings was 5.8 %. It reflects the situation encountered in clinical imaging for primarily non-senologic questions and therefore differs from what would be expected in a dedicated screening program. The rates of known false-positive BI-RADS 4/5 findings in the retrospective evaluations (1.1 %) and of false-negative findings in the written CT reports (0.2 %) reflect the different diagnostic approaches of image-based senological screening and radiological examinations indicated in order to solve clinical problems not primarily concerning the breast region. Statements regarding the prevalence of clinically occult breast cancers can only be made with caution in the presented, highly selective group of patients due to the often incomplete visualization of breast tissue and the retrospective approach. Key points Intramammary mass and non-mass lesions needing clarification may be present in up to 5.8 % of all contrast enhanced CT-examinations of the female chest. Irregular forms, unscharp/spiculated margins, inhomogeneous matrices and a pronounced contrast medium enhancement point towards a malignant genesis of an intramammary mass or non-mass lesion. The results of the study highlight the importance of paying systematical and targeted attention on senological additional findings in CT-examinations of the chest also in other clinical settings than that of the included patients in a clinic with oncological main focus.

  5. Pocket altas of sectional anatomy - Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Vol. 2. Thorax, heart, abdomen, and pelvis. 3rd. rev. and upd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E. [Caritas Hospital, Dillingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    Known to radiologists around the world for its superior illustrations and practical features, the Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy now reflects the very latest in imaging technology. In the clinic, this compact book is the perfect navigational tool for radiologists and technicians working with CT and MRI. Highlights of Volume II: - Many CT and MR images of the highest quality, presented alongside brilliant full-color drawings, now enhanced with cardiac imaging. - More than 440 illustrations. - Didactic approach and consistent format throughout - one slice per page pair. - Consistent color coding, making it easy to identify individual structures across contiguous sections. (orig.)

  6. Development of a external exposure computational model for studying of input dose in skin for radiographs of thorax and vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Menezes, Claudio J.M.; Vieira, Jose W.

    2014-01-01

    The dosimetric measurements do not always happen directly in the human body. Therefore, these assessments can be performed using anthropomorphic models (phantoms) evidencing models computational exposure (MCE) using techniques of Monte Carlo Method for virtual simulations. These processing techniques coupled with more powerful and affordable computers make the Monte Carlo method one of the tools most used worldwide in radiation transport area. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGS4 program was used to develop a computer model of external exposure to study the entrance skin dose for chest and column X-radiography and, aiming to optimize these practices by reducing doses to patients, professionals involved and the general public. The results obtained experimentally with the electrometer Radcal, model 9015, associated with the ionization chamber for radiology model 10X5-6, showed that the proposed computational model can be used in quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic, evaluating the entrance skin dose when varying parameters of the radiation beam such as kilo voltage peak (kVp), current-time product (mAs), total filtration and distance surface source (DFS), optimizing the practices in radiodiagnostic and meeting the current regulation

  7. Modulation of the ρ/rock pathway in heart and lung after thorax irradiation reveals targets to improve normal tissue toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monceau, V.; Pasinetti, N.; Schupp, C.; Pouzoulet, F.; Opolon, P.; Vozenin, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The medical options available to prevent or treat radiation-induced injury are scarce and developing effective countermeasures is still an open research field. In addition, more than half of cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy, which displays a high antitumor efficacy but can cause, albeit rarely, disabling long-term toxicities including radiation fibrosis. Progress has been made in the definition of molecular pathways associated with normal tissue toxicity that suggest potentially effective therapeutic targets. Targeting the Rho/ROCK pathway seems a promising anti-fibrotic approach, at least in the gut; the current study was performed to assess whether this target was relevant to the prevention and/or treatment of injury to the main thoracic organs, namely heart and lungs. First, we showed activation of two important fibro-genic pathways (Smad and Rho/ROCK) in response to radiation-exposure to adult cardio-myocytes; we extended these observations in vivo to the heart and lungs of mice, 15 and 30 weeks post-irradiation. We correlated this fibro-genic molecular imprint with alteration of heart physiology and long-term remodelling of pulmonary and cardiac histological structures. Lastly, cardiac and pulmonary radiation injury and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were successfully modulated using Rho/ROCK inhibitors (statins and Y-27632) and this was associated with a normalization of fibro-genic markers. In conclusion, the present paper shows for the first time, activation of Rho/ROCK and Smad pathways in pulmonary and cardiac radiation-induced delayed injury. Our findings thereby reveal a safe and efficient therapeutic opportunity for the abrogation of late thoracic radiation injury, potentially usable either before or after radiation exposure; this approach is especially attractive in (1) the radiation oncology setting, as it does not interfere with prior anti-cancer treatment and in (2) radioprotection, as applicable to the treatment of established radiation injury, for example in the case of radiation accidents or acts of terrorism. (authors)

  8. Modulation of the Rho/ROCK pathway in heart and lung after thorax irradiation reveals targets to improve normal tissue toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Virginie; Pasinetti, Nadia; Schupp, Charlotte; Pouzoulet, Fred; Opolon, Paule; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine

    2010-11-01

    The medical options available to prevent or treat radiation-induced injury are scarce and developing effective countermeasures is still an open research field. In addition, more than half of cancer patients are treated with radiation therapy, which displays a high antitumor efficacy but can cause, albeit rarely, disabling long-term toxicities including radiation fibrosis. Progress has been made in the definition of molecular pathways associated with normal tissue toxicity that suggest potentially effective therapeutic targets. Targeting the Rho/ROCK pathway seems a promising anti-fibrotic approach, at least in the gut; the current study was performed to assess whether this target was relevant to the prevention and/or treatment of injury to the main thoracic organs, namely heart and lungs. First, we showed activation of two important fibrogenic pathways (Smad and Rho/ROCK) in response to radiation-exposure to adult cardiomyocytes; we extended these observations in vivo to the heart and lungs of mice, 15 and 30 weeks post-irradiation. We correlated this fibrogenic molecular imprint with alteration of heart physiology and long-term remodelling of pulmonary and cardiac histological structures. Lastly, cardiac and pulmonary radiation injury and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis were successfully modulated using Rho/ROCK inhibitors (statins and Y-27632) and this was associated with a normalization of fibrogenic markers. In conclusion, the present paper shows for the first time, activation of Rho/ROCK and Smad pathways in pulmonary and cardiac radiation-induced delayed injury. Our findings thereby reveal a safe and efficient therapeutic opportunity for the abrogation of late thoracic radiation injury, potentially usable either before or after radiation exposure; this approach is especially attractive in (1) the radiation oncology setting, as it does not interfere with prior anti-cancer treatment and in (2) radioprotection, as applicable to the treatment of established radiation injury, for example in the case of radiation accidents or acts of terrorism.

  9. Value of orientating computed-tomographical evaluations of the thorax as compared to thoracic X-rays in patients showing severe multiple traumatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehren, W.; Biehl, C.

    1990-01-01

    In a total of 68 subjects showing multiple traumatisation or isolated craniocerebral injuries the usual CT examination of the cranium was followed by orientating computed-tomographical studies of the thoracic organs, which were invariably carried out in connection with the diagnostic X-ray routine and then compared to conventional thoracic X-rays obtained from supine patients. Computed-tomographical imaging offered adavantages over conventional X-rays taken of supine patients, as it provided more accurate diagnostic information as to the presence of pneumothorax, haemothorax and pulmonary infiltration. (orig./GDG) [de

  10. Effect of reconstruction methods and x-ray tube current–time product on nodule detection in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom: A crossed-modality JAFROC observer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J. D., E-mail: j.d.thompson@salford.ac.uk [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Frederick Road Campus, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU, United Kingdom and Department of Radiology, Furness General Hospital, University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust, Dalton Lane, Barrow-in-Furness LA14 4LF (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, D. P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, FARP Building, Room 212, 3362 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Szczepura, K.; Tootell, A. K. [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Frederick Road Campus, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom); Vamvakas, I. [Department of Radiology, Christie Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 550 Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Manning, D. J. [Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster Medical School, Furness College, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YG (United Kingdom); Hogg, P. [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Frederick Road Campus, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU, United Kingdom and Department of Radiography, Karolinksa Institute, Solnavägen 1, Solna 171 77 (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate nodule detection in an anthropomorphic chest phantom in computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR{sup 3D}) and filtered back projection (FBP) over a range of tube current–time product (mAs). Methods: Two phantoms were used in this study: (i) an anthropomorphic chest phantom was loaded with spherical simulated nodules of 5, 8, 10, and 12 mm in diameter and +100, −630, and −800 Hounsfield units electron density; this would generate CT images for the observer study; (ii) a whole-body dosimetry verification phantom was used to ultimately estimate effective dose and risk according to the model of the BEIR VII committee. Both phantoms were scanned over a mAs range (10, 20, 30, and 40), while all other acquisition parameters remained constant. Images were reconstructed with both AIDR{sup 3D} and FBP. For the observer study, 34 normal cases (no nodules) and 34 abnormal cases (containing 1–3 nodules, mean 1.35 ± 0.54) were chosen. Eleven observers evaluated images from all mAs and reconstruction methods under the free-response paradigm. A crossed-modality jackknife alternative free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis method was developed for data analysis, averaging data over the two factors influencing nodule detection in this study: mAs and image reconstruction (AIDR{sup 3D} or FBP). A Bonferroni correction was applied and the threshold for declaring significance was set at 0.025 to maintain the overall probability of Type I error at α = 0.05. Contrast-to-noise (CNR) was also measured for all nodules and evaluated by a linear least squares analysis. Results: For random-reader fixed-case crossed-modality JAFROC analysis, there was no significant difference in nodule detection between AIDR{sup 3D} and FBP when data were averaged over mAs [F(1, 10) = 0.08, p = 0.789]. However, when data were averaged over reconstruction methods, a significant difference was seen between multiple pairs of mAs settings [F(3, 30) = 15.96, p < 0.001]. Measurements of effective dose and effective risk showed the expected linear dependence on mAs. Nodule CNR was statistically higher for simulated nodules on images reconstructed with AIDR{sup 3D} (p < 0.001). Conclusions: No significant difference in nodule detection performance was demonstrated between images reconstructed with FBP and AIDR{sup 3D}. mAs was found to influence nodule detection, though further work is required for dose optimization.

  11. Pitfalls in diagnostic imaging and assessment of benign asbestos-related thoracic diseases; Fallstricke in der radiologischen Diagnostik und Begutachtung der benignen asbestbedingten Erkrankungen des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehbock, B. [Praxis fuer Diagnostische Radiologie am St.-Hedwig-Krankenhaus Berlin-Mitte, Berlin (Germany). Diagnostische Radiologie; Hofmann-Preiss, K. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Erlangen (Germany). Radiologische Diagnostik; Kraus, T. [Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin

    2012-05-15

    The recognition of asbestos-related diseases of the lung and/or pleura as an occupational disease is of psychosocial, medical and legal importance to the insured person. Radiological imaging is an essential part of the assessment and requires an increasingly high level of competence in the field of radiological diagnosis of pneumoconiosis in interdisciplinary collaboration with occupational medicine and pneumonology. The chest radiogram remains an integral part of basic diagnostic procedures in asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and/or pleura. Its importance lies in the detection of extended pleural changes as well as substantial fibrosis. The inherent low sensitivity and specificity of projection radiography is taken into account by the increasing use of multi-slice high resolution (HR) CT (in low dose technique). Radiological pitfalls in pleural plaque assessment with respect to plain chest X-ray concern all structures that superimpose on the pleural circumference, particularly the anatomical layers of the chest wall (extra-pleural fatty tissue, muscles, thoracic skeleton) as well as other pulmonary findings that can only be reliably assigned using CT. Even if state-of the-art CT is applied, asymmetries and abnormal expression of anatomical structures and variants (e.g. muscles and blood vessels) can lead to false-positive findings. The interstitial fibrosis of asbestosis, manifested as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is non-pathognomonic for asbestosis. Therefore, parietal pleural thickening as a coincident finding to UIP is considered as being the main feature and a highly suggestive indicator of asbestosis in patients with a history of asbestos exposure. (orig.)

  12. Optimization and objective and subjective analysis of thorax image for computerized radiology; Otimizacao e analise objetiva e subjetiva de imagem de torax para radiologia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velo, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Jose Ricardo A., E-mail: afvelo@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Pina, Diana R.; Ribeiro, Sergio M., E-mail: drpina@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem; Duarte, Sergio, E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro,RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This research aimed at optimizing computational chest radiographic images (in previous posterior projection-PA). To this end, we used a homogeneous patient equivalent phantom in Computational Imaging System calibration, in order to obtain a satisfactory noise signal relation for a diagnosis, adjusting to a minimum dose received by the patient. The techniques have been applied in an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO). The images obtained were evaluated by a radiologist, which identified the best image to determine possible pathologies (fracture or pneumonia). The technique were quantified objectively (Detective Quantum Efficiency - DQE, Modulation Transfer Function MTF, Noise Power Spectrum, NPS). Comparing optimized techniques with the clinical routine, it is concluded that all provide doses below reference levels. However the choice of the best technique for viewing possible pneumonia and/or fracture, was determined based on the first 3D (Dose, Diagnostic, Dollar) and regarded as gold standard. This image presented a reduction of dose and loading of tube around 70.5% and 80% respectively when compared with the clinical routine.

  13. Therapeutic options in chronic heart failure. Findings on chest X-ray; Nicht medikamentoese Therapieoptionen der chronischen Herzinsuffizienz. Befunde in der Projektionsradiografie des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granitz, M.R.; Meissnitzer, T.; Meissnitzer, M.W.; Hergan, K.; Altenberger, J.; Granitz, C. [Uniklinikum Salzburg - Landeskrankenhaus (Austria)

    2016-05-15

    The contribution covers drugless therapeutic options for chronic heart failure: the implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), the interventional catheter treatment of functional mitral insufficiency, and mechanical heart supporting systems and heart transplantation.

  14. Evaluation of skin entrance dose imparted on pediatric patients by thorax exams; Avaliacao da dose de entrada na pele ao paciente pediatrico em exames de torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mercia L.; Khoury, Helen [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Drexler, Guenter [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas]|[GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Protection; Barros, Edison [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2001-07-01

    In this work the results of a survey of skin entrance dose imparted on pediatric patients are present. Positioning the thermo luminescence dosimeters in contact with the patient's skin, in the center of the incident X-ray beam, collected the skin entrance dose data. The patients were grouped in five age groups: infants, 1,1 to 4 years, 4,1 to 6 years, 6,1 to 10 years and older than 10 years. The results show that the average of skin entrance doses is very higher as compared to the European Community Commission reference levels and to other values found in literature. (author)

  15. Evaluation of setup accuracy for NSCLC patients; studying the impact of different types of cone-beam CT matches based on whole thorax, columna vertebralis, and GTV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, W.; Baker, M.; Hedman, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to evaluate the patient setup accuracy by investigating the impact of different types of CBCT matches, performed with 3 (translations only) or 6 (including rotations) degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The purpose is also to calculate and compare CTV to PTV margins based......V CV setups, the translational shifts were within [-3, 2] mm for all three directions. Corresponding values for the 6 DOF/non-IGRT CV and the 6 DOF/non-IGRT ST matches were [-5, 8] mm. Furthermore, 80% of all setups were within +/- 2 degrees for pitch-, roll- and yaw-rotations, and none exceeded 5...

  16. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy is Superior to Standard Computer Tomography of the Thorax for Selection of Patients With Spontaneous Pneumothorax for Bullectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius P. Janssen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP is a common disease of unknown cause often attributed to rupture of a subpleural bulla or bleb [in this study described as emphysema-like changes (ELC]. Treatment of SP varies from conservative (rest to aggressive (surgery. Patients with bullae >2 cm diameter, found either by chest roentgenogram or during thoracoscopy, are often treated surgically (bullectomy and pleurectomy, or abrasion. Thoracoscopy is frequently used as the method of choice to select patients for surgery. With the recent introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopy (VAT, it is now possible to combine a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. However, to do this general anesthesia and a fully equipped operating theater are needed. Proper selection of patients for this costly and time-consuming procedure is necessary. We evaluated whether standard computed tomography (CT is appropriate for selection of patients with SP who are candidates for surgical intervention.

  17. Thoracic CT-scans in ICU patients - Additional diagnostic information supplementing chest radiographs; Thorakale Computertomographie am Intensivpatienten - Zusatzinformation zum Thorax-Roentgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsjaeger, M.; Hoermann, M.; Lechner, G.; Herold, C. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik; Germann, P. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Anaesthesiologie und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin

    2000-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of thoracic CT-scans in comparison with conventional chest radiographs in ICU-patients. Methods: Chest radiographs and corresponding thoracic CT-scans of 25 consecutive surgical ICU-patients were reviewed and interpreted independently by two radiologists. We analyzed the additional information provided by CT-scans and the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of these findings. Results: In 22 patients (88%), thoracic CT revealed 35 single additional findings, in comparison with the corresponding bedside radiographs. In 7 cases (28%), these findings (tubemalpositioning, mediastinitis, mediastinal abscess and pneumothorax) required modification of patient management. Of 7 patients with tube thoracostomy, 3 tubes were malpositioned, which was only depicted on CT-scans. In 10 of 21 cases (48%), pleural effusions could only be visualized by CT. 3 of 5 (60%) pneumothoraces were detected by CT-scans only. There were no significant complications during transport or CT-examination. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war die Definition des diagnostischen Zugewinns durch die thorakale Computertomographie (CT) gegenueber der Thoraxbettaufnahme am Intensivpatienten. Methodik: In einer vergleichenden Analyse wurden retrospektiv radiologische Aufnahmen und Daten von 25 konsekutiven Patienten einer chirurgischen Intensivstation ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: In 22 Faellen (88%) wurden durch die CT 35 zusaetzliche Befunde erhoben, wobei die haeufigsten Zusatzinformationen Pleura- und Perikarderguesse, Buelaudrainagefehllagen und Pneumothoraces betrafen. In 7 Faellen (28%) waren diese zusaetzlichen Informationen von intensivmedizinischer Relevanz, d.h., sie verlangten nach einer Intervention oder Aenderung der laufenden Therapie. Es kam zu keinerlei kardiovaskulaeren Komplikationen waehrend des Transportes oder der computertomographischen Untersuchung. (orig.)

  18. A Randomized Trial to Assess the Contribution of a Novel Thorax Support Vest (Corset) in Preventing Mechanical Complications of Median Sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, Philippe P; Sabbatini, Maurizio; Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Cantone, Silvia; Ferraz, Marcus V; Cannas, Mario; Tesler, Ugo F

    2017-06-01

    Mechanical complications of median sternotomy may cause significant morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgical patients. This study was aimed at assessing the role of Posthorax support vest (Epple, Inc., Vienna, Austria) in the prevention of sternal complications and the improvement of anatomical healing in patients at high risk for mechanical sternal dehiscence after cardiac surgery by mean of median sternotomy. A prospective, randomized, study was performed and 310 patients with predisposing factors for sternal dehiscence after sternotomy for cardiac surgery were included. The patients were divided into two groups: patients who received the Posthorax support vest after surgery, and patients who did not. Primary variables assessed included the incidence of mechanical sternal complications, the quality of sternal healing, the rate of re-operation, the duration of hospitalization, rate and duration of hospital, re-admission for sternal complications. Secondary variables assessed were the post-operative pain, the number of requests for supplemental analgesia and the quality of life measured by means of the EQ-5D format. Patients using vest demonstrated a lower incidence of mechanical sternal complications, a better anatomical sternum healing, lower hospital stay, no re-operations for sternal dehiscence before discharge and lower re-admissions for mechanical sternal complication. In addition, patients using a vest reported a better quality of life with better freedom from limitations in mobility, self-care, and pain. Our findings demonstrate that the use of the Posthorax vest reduces post-sternotomy mechanical complications and improves the healing of the sternotomy, the clinical course, and the post-operative quality of life.

  19. Doxepin Hydrochloride in Treating Esophageal Pain in Patients With Thoracic Cancer Receiving Radiation Therapy to the Thorax With or Without Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    Esophageal Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma; Laryngeal Carcinoma; Lymphoma; Mesothelioma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Lung; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Pleura; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Spinal Cord; Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Sarcoma; Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoma; Thymoma; Thyroid Gland Carcinoma

  20. Coronary imaging quality in routine ECG-gated multidetector CT examinations of the entire thorax: preliminary experience with a 64-slice CT system in 133 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, Damien; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Salem, Randa; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques; Delannoy-Deken, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate image quality in the assessment of the coronary arteries during routine ECG-gated multidetector CT (MDCT) of the chest. One hundred and thirty three patients in sinus rhythm underwent an ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the entire chest without β-blockers with a 64-slice CT system. In 127 patients (95%), it was possible to assess the coronary arteries partially or totally; coronary artery imaging failed in six patients (5%), leading to a detailed description of the coronary arteries in 127 patients. Considering ten coronary artery segments per patient, 75% of coronary segments were assessable (948/1270 segments). When the distal segments were excluded from the analysis (i.e., seven coronary segments evaluated per patient), the percentage of assessable segments was 86% (768/889 proximal and mid coronary segments) and reached 93% (474/508) when assessing proximal segments exclusively. The mean number of assessable segments was significantly higher in patients with a heart rate ≤80 bpm (n=95) than in patients with a heart rate >80 bpm (n=38) (p<0.002). Proximal and mid-coronary segments can be adequately assessed during a whole-chest ECG-gated CT angiographic examination without administration of β-blockers in patients with a heart rate below 80 bpm. (orig.)

  1. Automatic 2D segmentation of airways in thorax computed tomography images; Segmentacao automatica 2D de vias aereas em imagens de tomografia computadorizada do torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Tarique da Silveira; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Almeida, Thomaz Maia de, E-mail: tarique@lesc.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Teleinformatica; Felix, John Hebert da Silva [Universidade da Integracao Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira (UNILAB), Redencao, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Energias; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: much of the world population is affected by pulmonary diseases, such as the bronchial asthma, bronchitis and bronchiectasis. The bronchial diagnosis is based on the airways state. In this sense, the automatic segmentation of the airways in Computed Tomography (CT) scans is a critical step in the aid to diagnosis of these diseases. Methods: this paper evaluates algorithms for airway automatic segmentation, using Neural Network Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Lung Densities Analysis (LDA) for detecting airways, along with Region Growing (RG), Active Contour Method (ACM) Balloon and Topology Adaptive to segment them. Results: we obtained results in three stages: comparative analysis of the detection algorithms MLP and LDA, with a gold standard acquired by three physicians with expertise in CT imaging of the chest; comparative analysis of segmentation algorithms ACM Balloon, ACM Topology Adaptive, MLP and RG; and evaluation of possible combinations between segmentation and detection algorithms, resulting in the complete method for automatic segmentation of the airways in 2D. Conclusion: the low incidence of false negative and the significant reduction of false positive, results in similarity coefficient and sensitivity exceeding 91% and 87% respectively, for a combination of algorithms with satisfactory segmentation quality. (author)

  2. Evaluation of radioprotection conditions and patient dose in thorax exams carried out in a public children's hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Guedes, Elton C.; Khoury, Helen J.; Azevedo, Ana C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a survey of the conditions of radiation protection, radiographic techniques, dose and risk for pediatric patients undergoing chest X-rays exams in a children's hospital in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. From a total of 125 chest exams (projections AP and PA) were noted the patient data (gender, weight, and age) and parameters of radiographic technique (kV, mAs and distance focus-skin). I was also evaluated the working procedures and the conditions of radiation protection. The values of input air kerma (K a,e ) and effective dose (E) were determined using the DoseCal software developed by Radiological Protection Center of Saint Georges's Hospital in London. With respect to the procedures and conditions for radiation protection, many aspects of Portaria 453 are not considered. The use of radiographic techniques with high values of mAs and low voltage values are not according with the quality criteria adopted by the European Community (EC). The values of Ka for patients aged 1 to 5 years varied between 51 μGy and 64 μGy, below the reference levels proposed by the EC. For patients over 5 years old, the values of Ka were substantially higher than those for other patients. The results allow to conclude that there is a need for optimization of the procedures adopted in order to reduce the dose and the risk to patients

  3. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology. Pt. 5. Organ doses in chest radiography; Zur Strahlenexposition von Kindern in der paediatrischen Radiologie. T. 5. Organdosen bei der Roentgenuntersuchung des Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidenbusch, M.C.; Schneider, K. [Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2009-05-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of organ doses of selected organs and tissues from radiographic settings and exposure data collected during chest X-ray examinations of children of various age groups performed in Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the University of Munich, DvHK) between 1976 and 2007. Materials and Method: The dosimetric data of all X-ray examinations performed since 1976 at DvHK were stored electronically in a database. After 30 years of data collection, the database now includes 305 107 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies), especially 119 150 chest radiographs of all age groups. Reconstruction of organ doses in 40 organs and tissues in X-ray examinations of the chest was performed based on the conversion factor concept. Results: The radiation exposure of organs in projection radiography is determined by the exact site of the organs relative to the edges of the X-ray field and the beam direction of X-rays. Optimal collimation in chest radiography can reduce the exposure of organs located at the periphery of the X-ray field, e.g. thyroid gland, stomach and partially the liver, by a factor of 2 to 3, while organs located in the center of the X-ray-field, e.g. thymus, breasts, lungs, esophagus and red bone marrow, are not affected by exact collimation. (orig.)

  4. Comparative analysis of 99mTc-depreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC thorax scintigrams acquired for the purpose of differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachcińska, Anna; Mikołajczak, Renata; Kozak, Józef; Rzeszutek, Katarzyna; Kuśmierek, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at comparison of diagnostic efficacy of 2 radiopharmaceuticals: 99mTc-depreotide (Neospect, Amersham) and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (Tektrotyd, Polatom), in differentiation between malignant and benign etiology of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), radionuclide studies with 2 radiotracers were performed in 18 patients. For both radiopharmaceuticals the same acquisition and processing protocols were applied. Studies were acquired with SPECT technique, after administration of 740 MBq of activity. Scintigrams were assessed visually, as: positive (+), equivocal (+/-) and negative (-). Additionally, uptake intensity of both radiotracers in nodules was assessed semiquantitatively, using a tumour-to-background ratio. Verification of scintigraphic results was based in 14 cases upon a pathological examination of tumour samples (histopathology) and in the remaining 4 - on clinical observation and bacteriological studies. Normal scintigrams obtained with both radiopharmaceuticals differed significantly. 99mTc-depreotide was markedly accumulated in spine, sternum, ribs and lungs (mean lung/heart ratio = 2.2). This accumulation was not observed on 99mTc- -EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams (mean lung/heart ratio = 0.7). In 6 patients a malignant etiology--lung cancer--was revealed (5--adenocarcinoma, 1--squamous cell) and the other 12 cases turned out to be benign (4 hamartomas, 3 tuberculomas, a tuberculous infiltrate, an alien body with inflammatory reaction, a hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue and 2 cases of unknown etiology, from which one had a stable size and the other resolved during a 6 month observation period). In all 6 cases of lung cancer positive results were obtained with both tracers. Moreover, in 2 patients metastases in mediastinum could be observed on scintigrams obtained with both radiopharmaceuticals. From among 12 cases of benign etiology 6 99mTc-depreotide scintigrams were true negative, 1--equivocal and 5--false positive, whereas 6 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams were true negative, 4--equivocal and 2 false positive. Moreover, 99mTc-depreotide additionally revealed mediastinal and hilar lesions in 9 patients with benign lesions and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC - in 8. A visual comparison of scintigrams revealed a higher quality of 99mTc-Depreotide images in comparison with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ones. 99mTc-Depreotide showed a higher than 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC accumulation in lung tumours compared with blood pool (heart) - 4.5 (s.d. 1.05) and 1.8 (s.d. 0.29), respectively (p < 0.05). However, mean values of tumour-to-lung-background ratio were equal for both radiotracers (2.2 in malignant and 1.4 in benign lesions, respectively). A statistically significantly higher non-uniformity of counts inside lung background regions was found on 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams than on 99mTc-depreotide ones (16.4% vs. 11.4%; p < 0.01). Although both radiopharmaceuticals show similar diagnostic efficacy in differentiation of SPNs, a tendency toward a higher number of false positive results on 99mTc-depreotide scintigrams probably leads to a lower specificity. Better statistical quality of 99mTc-depreotide scintigrams facilitates their interpretation and a distinct outline of lungs simplify localization of lesions. A substantial number of false positive lesions in mediastinal and hilar regions in patients without a neoplastic process hamper the usefulness of both radiotracers for effective detection of lung cancer metastases to lymph nodes.

  5. Multi-institutional Quantitative Evaluation and Clinical Validation of Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE) Autosegmentation of Target Structures and Normal Tissues on Computer Tomography Images in the Head and Neck, Thorax, Liver, and Male Pelvis Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bzdusek, Karl; Brink, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE).......Clinical validation and quantitative evaluation of computed tomography (CT) image autosegmentation using Smart Probabilistic Image Contouring Engine (SPICE)....

  6. CT-morphological characterization of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in immune-compromised adults; Morphologische Charakterisierung und Verlaufsbeurteilung von Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Pneumonien bei immunkompromittierten Erwachsenen in der Thorax-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.L.; Kauczor, H.U. [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Lehners, N.; Egerer, G. [Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Internal Medicine V of Hematology, Oncoloy and Rheumatology; Heussel, C.P. [Thoracic Hospital at Univ. Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine

    2014-07-15

    Characterization and follow-up evaluation of chest CT of RSV pneumonia in immune-compromised adults during a seasonal epidemic. Retrospective analysis of 132 chest CT examinations of 51 adult immune-compromised patients (29 m/22f, diameter 58 years) with clinical signs of pneumonia and positive RSV test in winter 2011/2012. Two experienced chest radiologists evaluated the morphology (bronchial wall thickening, tree-in-bud, nodules, halo, ground-glass opacities, consolidations, pleural fluid) of the CT scans by consensus. Pathological findings were in 86 % of the chest CT scans: Areas of ground-glass attenuation in 64 %, consolidations in 56 %, nodules in 55 % (diameter 8 mm in maximal diameter, with halo in 71 %), pleural fluid in 44 % (diameter 2 cm), tree-in-bud in 36 %, bronchial wall thickening in 27 % and more than one morphological finding in 72 %. There were no pathological CT findings in 14 % of patients with clinical symptoms of pneumonia because these patients did not undergo follow-up. Radiological progression was found in 45 % of patients and regression in 33 % in follow-up examinations. In 37 % an additional examination of the paranasal sinuses was performed and showed sinusitis in 63 % of cases. 90 % of the patients had sinusitis as well as pneumonia. In addition to RSV, a further pathogenic agent was found in bronchoalveolar lavage of five patients (Aspergillus spec., herpes simplex virus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The most characteristic signs in chest CT scans were at the beginning of pneumonia with nodules and tree-in-bud often combined with bronchial wall thickening. The following CT scans showed characteristic but not pathognomonic chest CT findings of RSV pneumonia. These morphological findings should be recognized seasonally (winter) especially at the beginning of the case of pneumonia. RSV-associated additional sinusitis is probably common and should be noticed.

  7. Comparative analysis of 99mTc-depreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC thorax scintigrams acquired for the purpose of differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plachcinska, A.; Kusmierek, J.; Mikolajczak, R.; Kozak, J.; Rzeszutek, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at comparison of diagnostic efficacy of 2 radiopharmaceuticals: 99m Tc-depreotide (Neospect, Amersham) and 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (Tektrotyd, Polatom), in differentiation between malignant and benign etiology of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs), radionuclide studies with 2 radiotracers were performed in 18 patients. For both radiopharmaceuticals the same acquisition and processing protocols were applied. Studies were acquired with SPECT technique, after administration of 740 MBq of activity. Scintigrams were assessed visually, as: positive (+), equivocal (±) and negative (-). Additionally, uptake intensity of both radiotracers in nodules was assessed semiquantitatively, using a tumour-to-background ratio. Verification of scintigraphic results was based in 14 cases upon a pathological examination of tumour samples (histopathology) and in the remaining 4 - on clinical observation and bacteriological studies. Normal scintigrams obtained with both diopharmaceuticals differed significantly. 99m Tc-depreotide was markedly accumulated in spine, sternum, ribs and lungs (mean lung/heart ratio = 2.2). This accumulation was not observed on 99m Tc- -EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams (mean lung/heart ratio = 0.7). In 6 patients a malignant etiology - lung cancer - was revealed (5 - adenocarcinoma, 1 - squamous cell) and the other 12 cases turned out to be benign (4 hamartomas, 3 tuberculomas, a tuberculous infiltrate, an alien body with inflammatory reaction, a hyperplasia of lymphatic tissue and 2 cases of unknown etiology, from which one had a stable size and the other resolved during a 6 month observation period). In all 6 cases of lung cancer positive results were obtained with both tracers. Moreover, in 2 patients metastases in mediastinum could be observed on scintigrams obtained with both radiopharmaceuticals. From among 12 cases of benign etiology 6 99m Tc-depreotide scintigrams were true negative, 1 - equivocal and 5 - false positive, whereas 6 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams were true negative, 4 - equivocal and 2 false positive. Moreover, 99m Tc-depreotide additionally revealed mediastinal and hilar lesions in 9 patients with benign lesions and 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC - in 8. A visual comparison of scintigrams revealed a higher quality of 99m Tc-Depreotide images in comparison with 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ones. 99m Tc-Depreotide showed a higher than 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC accumulation in lung tumours compared with blood pool (heart) - 4.5 (s.d. 1.05) and 1.8 (s.d. 0.29), respectively (p 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigrams than on 99m Tc-depreotide ones (16.4% vs. 11.4%; p 99m Tc-depreotide scintigrams probably leads to a lower specificity. Better statistical quality of 99m Tc-depreotide scintigrams facilitates their interpretation and a distinct outline of lungs simplify localization of lesions. A substantial number of false positive lesions in mediastinal and hilar regions in patients without a neoplastic process hamper the usefulness of both radiotracers for effective detection of lung cancer metastases to lymph nodes. (author)

  8. Kerma in the air at entry surface in thorax pediatric examinations at public hospital in Parana, Brazil; Kerma no ar na superficie de entrada em exames pediatricos de torax em hospital publico no Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Amanda; Porto, Lorena; Bunick, Ana; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo; Tilly, Joao, E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.b [DERAX Desenvolvimento Radiologico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DOIN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Dosimetria e Instrumentacao Nuclear; Ferreira, Jose [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work consisted in the evaluation of the entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) in pediatric chest x-ray examinations. A study of 186 exams in anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior and lateral projections was carried out for patients with ages ranging from 0 to 15 years. The ESAK was measured with the DoseCal software and Li-Fl thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results were compared with measurements done recently at the same place and with the reference dose values established by the European Community. It was observed that the optimization of the technique and the routine changes suggested in the previous study were not maintained. The charge (mAs) and the ESAK values found in the present study were much higher than the previous one, and the voltage (kVp) values found was lower. The results suggest that the implementation of the Quality Assurance Program could adequate these parameters to the established levels and keep the pediatric examinations more uniform. (author)

  9. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 2Memfy's Hospital for Neurosurgery,. Enugu, Nigeria .... chest injuries. Lung contusion. Haemo-thorax. Peumo-thorax. Haemo/ pneumo-thorax. Major vessel. Total. Mortality. Extradural hematoma. 1. –. 1. –. –. 2. –. Subdural hematoma. 1. 1.

  10. Influence of using high kV and low m As techniques in the dose of patients submitted to X ray thorax examinations; Influencia do uso de tecnicas de alto kV e baixo mAs na dose em pacientes submetidos a exames de raios X de torax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de, E-mail: pmco@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Squair, Peterson Lima; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: pls@cdtn.b, E-mail: masl@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Dosimetric studies of patients subject to radiodiagnostic have got a special attention in Brazil although they are not required by the Brazilian legislation. However, in several Brazilian clinics there have been observed the use of techniques with lower peak voltage and higher electric charges values in spite the European Commission recommends the high voltages with low electric charge values in order to reduce the patient dose. This work compares three methodologies for evaluating the organ absorbed doses in patients undergoing chest x-rays at two techniques (80 k Vp and 10 m As; 120 k Vp and 2 m As): the PCXMC and CALDose{sub X} Monte Carlo based software and experimental measurements with T L dosimeters in a anthropomorphic phantom. The experimental measurements showed the technique with high voltage was dose reduced by approximately 60% in the entrance skin in relation to low voltage technique and the software showed similar dose reduction, shows the importance of adopting techniques which have high voltage values and low electrical charges, unlike usually found on chest x-rays in some hospitals and clinics in Brazil. (author)

  11. Étude anatomique d'une espèce de lémurien (Eulemur fulvus) : coupes topographiques et tomodensitométriques du thorax, de l'abdomen et du bassin. Application à la pratique de l'échographie du cœur et des reins

    OpenAIRE

    Raharison, Fidiniaina

    2008-01-01

    L'objectif de notre étude est d'élaborer un document de référence mettant en relation l'anatomie, l'imagerie et la clinique du lémurien brun (Eulemur fulvus) et débouchant sur des mesures échographiques normales des reins et du cœur. Les études anatomique et tomodensitométrique ont été effectuées sur deux lémuriens et l'étude échographique sous différents modes sur 16 animaux après anesthésie. Les coupes anatomiques et tomodensitométriques nous ont permis de préciser la position et la conform...

  12. Development of a external exposure computational model for studying of input dose in skin for radiographs of thorax and vertebral column; Desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional de exposicao externa para estudo da dose de entrada na pele para radiografias de torax e coluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Bianca C.; Menezes, Claudio J.M., E-mail: bianca.cm95@gmail.com, E-mail: cjmm@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W., E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.net [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The dosimetric measurements do not always happen directly in the human body. Therefore, these assessments can be performed using anthropomorphic models (phantoms) evidencing models computational exposure (MCE) using techniques of Monte Carlo Method for virtual simulations. These processing techniques coupled with more powerful and affordable computers make the Monte Carlo method one of the tools most used worldwide in radiation transport area. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGS4 program was used to develop a computer model of external exposure to study the entrance skin dose for chest and column X-radiography and, aiming to optimize these practices by reducing doses to patients, professionals involved and the general public. The results obtained experimentally with the electrometer Radcal, model 9015, associated with the ionization chamber for radiology model 10X5-6, showed that the proposed computational model can be used in quality assurance programs in radiodiagnostic, evaluating the entrance skin dose when varying parameters of the radiation beam such as kilo voltage peak (kVp), current-time product (mAs), total filtration and distance surface source (DFS), optimizing the practices in radiodiagnostic and meeting the current regulation.

  13. Evaluation of radioprotection conditions and patient dose in thorax exams carried out in a public children's hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; Avaliacao das condicoes de radioprotecao e dose paciente em exames de torax realizados em um hospital publico infantil de Belo Horizonte, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Guedes, Elton C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Azevedo, Ana C.P. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP-CESTEH), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    We conducted a survey of the conditions of radiation protection, radiographic techniques, dose and risk for pediatric patients undergoing chest X-rays exams in a children's hospital in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. From a total of 125 chest exams (projections AP and PA) were noted the patient data (gender, weight, and age) and parameters of radiographic technique (kV, mAs and distance focus-skin). I was also evaluated the working procedures and the conditions of radiation protection. The values of input air kerma (K{sub a,e}) and effective dose (E) were determined using the DoseCal software developed by Radiological Protection Center of Saint Georges's Hospital in London. With respect to the procedures and conditions for radiation protection, many aspects of Portaria 453 are not considered. The use of radiographic techniques with high values of mAs and low voltage values are not according with the quality criteria adopted by the European Community (EC). The values of Ka for patients aged 1 to 5 years varied between 51 {mu}Gy and 64 {mu}Gy, below the reference levels proposed by the EC. For patients over 5 years old, the values of Ka were substantially higher than those for other patients. The results allow to conclude that there is a need for optimization of the procedures adopted in order to reduce the dose and the risk to patients.

  14. Les traumatismes du diaphragme en urgence clinique et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La radiographie standard du thorax mettait en évidence des images digestives dans le thorax. Un drainage premier du thorax a été réalisé chez 18 patients présentant un hémothorax, un pneumothorax ou un hémo-pneumothorax. La voie d'abord de la laparotomie était médiane (n=24), sous-costale gauche (n=4) et ...

  15. 24th International Symposium on Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-26

    2008s.ppt Experimental Set-up Reverse ballistics experiments Flash radiography used to measure position of nose and tail of rod versus time 3 IBS 2008s.ppt...s Ballistic Testing. [VC]max vs Velocity Thorax -Kevlar Thorax -Twaron Thorax -Zylon Abdomen-Kevlar Abdomen-Twaron Abdomen-Zylon 25% Severe Thoracic...Injury 25% Severe Abdominal Injury -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 D is pl ac em en tm m Time sec Displacement vs Time Thorax

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-05

    . Postnatal examination showed macrocephaly, narrow chest, curved and shortened limbs. Postnatal bone radiography showed anomalies as follows: chest: hypomineralization, narrow thorax, multiple beaded ribs (Figure 1);.

  17. Our Experiences with Chest Trauma Patients in Syrian Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samil Gunay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracic surgery is a branch, the efficiency of which is unquestionable for war. And during the civil war in Syria, thoracic surgery specialists have been feeling this efficiency so closely. So we want to share our experiences on patients sent from this region. Material and Method: The cases comprised of 41 patients in total, 33 men and 8 women, between the ages of 16-75, who were brought from Syria between the dates of August 2012 %u2013 November 2013. The files of the patients were received from archive. Results: Except 11 isolated thorax trauma patients, it was determined thorax and abdomen injuries at 9 patients (21.9%, thorax and extremity injuries at 8 patients (19.5%, thorax and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and cranium injuries at 5 patients (12.1%, thorax, abdomen and eye injuries at one patient (2.4%, thorax, abdomen and vertebra injuries at 3 patients (7.3%, thorax, abdomen and extremity injuries at one patient (2.4%. Discussion: Thoracic surgery is a lifesaving branch in case of fast and effectual medical intervention to injuries during war.

  18. Arthropod pattern theory and Cambrian trilobites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundberg, Frederick A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of duplomere (= segment) distribution within the cephalon, thorax, and pygidium of Cambrian trilobites was undertaken to determine if the Arthropod Pattern Theory (APT) proposed by Schram & Emerson (1991) applies to Cambrian trilobites. The boundary of the cephalon/thorax occurs within

  19. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Stop Screws 4. Agency Part Replacement Records i. Pelvis Helicoil Insert ii. Neck and Ribcage Replacement iii. Other Replacements 5. Durability Summary c. Qualification Procedures and Requirements 1... thorax, which is not optimal anthropometrically. In the HIII-10C, the upper part of the thorax spine...

  20. Apogonia burmanica, n. sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1913-01-01

    Length 13 mm., breadth at the shoulders 7 mm. — Black; head, thorax and abdomen with a faint coppery hue, scutellum and elytra with a faint metallic green hue mixed with coppery; antennae pale fulvous, the palpi slightly darker. Head and thorax lustreless, elytra and abdomen subshining. — Clypeus

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance tomography for medical-technical radiology assistants and radiologists; Magnetresonanztomografie fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzebiatowski, Elisabeth [MVZ Hanserad Radiologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The textbook on NMR tomography for medical-technical radiology assistants and radiologists covers the following issues: (1) Before the NMR examination; (2) Physical background; (3) Angiography; (4) Measurements; (5) The NMR imaging facility; (6) Parameter planning; (7) Examination of different anatomical regions: head/neck, spinal cord, abdomen, thorax, extremities; (8) Selection of indications: head/neck, spinal cord, abdomen, thorax, extremities.

  2. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 7, Edition 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    cannot be controlled ( thorax , abdomen), transfusion should be considered when evidence of end- organ dysfunction exists and hypotensive resuscitation...uncontrolled site (abdomen/ thorax ) and al- tered mental status d. Hypotensive patient with extremity hemorrhage controlled with a tourniquet prior to...bed facility equipped with one operating theater and an outpatient clinic. Diagnostic resources include plain film radiography and minimal laboratory

  3. Genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity of metric thoracic traits in an invasive drosophilid in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitner-Mathé, Blanche Christine; David, Jean Robert

    2015-08-01

    Thermal phenotypic plasticity of 5 metric thoracic traits (3 related to size and 2 to pigmentation) was investigated in Zaprionus indianus with an isofemale line design. Three of these traits are investigated for the first time in a drosophilid, i.e. thorax width and width of pigmented longitudinal white and black stripes. The reaction norms of white and black stripes were completely different: white stripes were insensitive to growth temperature while the black stripes exhibited a strong linear decrease with increasing temperatures. Thorax width exhibited a concave reaction norm, analogous but not identical to those of wing length and thorax length: the temperatures of maximum value were different, the highest being for thorax width. All traits exhibited a significant heritable variability and a low evolvability. Sexual dimorphism was very variable among traits, being nil for white stripes and thorax width, and around 1.13 for black stripes. The ratio thorax length to thorax width (an elongation index) was always >1, showing that males have a more rounded thorax at all temperatures. Black stripes revealed a significant increase of sexual dimorphism with increasing temperature. Shape indices, i.e. ratios between size traits all exhibited a linear decrease with temperature, the least sensitive being the elongation index. All these results illustrate the complexity of developmental processes but also the analytical strength of biometrical plasticity studies in an eco-devo perspective.

  4. Thermoregulation of individual paper wasps ( Polistes dominula) plays an important role in nest defence and dominance battles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höcherl, Nicole; Tautz, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Paper wasps, like Polistes dominula, are considered as primitively eusocial. Hence, they are often used as model species for studies about the evolution of eusociality and dominance hierarchies. However, our knowledge about basic physiological processes in these wasps remains limited. In particular, the thermoregulation of individual wasps in their natural habitat has not yet been investigated in detail. We conducted a comprehensive field study to test their ability to respond to external hazards with elevated thorax temperatures. We presented artificial threats by applying smoke or carbon dioxide simulating fire and predator attacks, respectively, and monitored the thorax temperature of wasps on the nest using infrared thermography. We found that P. dominula workers recognized smoke and CO2 and reacted almost instantaneously and simultaneously with an increase of their thorax temperature. The maximal thorax temperature was reached about 65 s after the application of both stressors, but subsequently, the wasps showed a different behaviour pattern. No rise of the thorax temperature was detectable after an air blast was applied or in wasps resting on the nest. These observations provide evidence that P. dominula is able to heat up its thorax and that thermoregulation is employed in escape and defence reactions. Additionally, we investigated the thorax temperatures of queens during dominance battles. We found that the thorax temperature of the dominant queens rose up to 5 °C compared to that of subordinate queens that attacked the former, suggesting that the dominant queen defends herself as well as her nest.

  5. Genetic variability of sexual size dimorphism in a natural population ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a homogeneous sample of 30 lines of Drosophila melanogaster, both indices provided similar intraclass correlations, on average 0.21, significantly greater than zero but lower than those for the traits themselves: 0.50 and 0.36 for wing and thorax length respectively. Wing and thorax length were strongly positively ...

  6. Individual difficulties and resources – a qualitative analysis in patients with advanced lung cancer and their relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparla A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anika Sparla,1 Sebastian Flach-Vorgang,1 Matthias Villalobos,2 Katja Krug,1 Martina Kamradt,1 Kadiatou Coulibaly,1 Joachim Szecsenyi,1 Michael Thomas,2 Sinikka Gusset-Bährer,2 Dominik Ose1,3 1Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, Heidelberg University Hospital, 2Internistische Onkologie der Thoraxtumoren, Thoraxklinik im Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC-H, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Heidelberg, Germany; 3University of Utah, Department of Population Health Sciences, Health System Innovation and Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Purpose: Lung cancer is a disease with a high percentage of patients diagnosed in an advanced stage. In a situation of palliative treatment, both patients and their relatives experience diverse types of distress and burden. Little research has been done to identify the individual difficulties and resources for patients with advanced lung cancer and their relatives. Especially, standardized questionnaire-based exploration may not assess the specific distressing issues that pertain to each individual on a personal level. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore and compare individual difficulties and resources for lung cancer patients and their relatives within the palliative care context.Methods: Data were collected by qualitative interviews. A total of 18 participants, nine patients diagnosed with advanced lung cancer (International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, diagnosis C-34, stage IV starting or receiving palliative treatment and nine relatives, were interviewed. Data were interpreted through qualitative content analysis.Results: We identified four main categories of difficulties: communication and conflicts, home and everyday life, thinking about cancer, and treatment trajectory. In general, difficulties were related to interpersonal relationships as well as to impact of chemotherapy. Family

  7. [Diaphragm dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, A.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by alterations in the airways and lung parenchyma resulting in an increased respiratory workload. Besides an increased load and hyperinflation of the thorax, additional factors, such as systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia and

  8. sexual dimorphism and genetic correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Claude Moreteau, Helene Legout and Brigitte Moreteau. J. Genet. 90, 295–302. Table 1. Correlations between wing and thorax length at the within (n = 420) and between line level (n = 30). Temperature. Within line. Between line. ◦. C. Female.

  9. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  10. Acoustic Sensor for Voice with Embedded Physiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scanlon, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... It is low cost and comfortable to wear for extended periods. When the sensor pad is in contact with a patient's thorax, neck, or temple region, sounds can be immediately and continuously monitored...

  11. A New Craniothoracic Mattress for Immobilization of the Cervical Spine in Critical Care Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.; Driessen, M.; Eggen, T.G.E.; Daanen, R.A.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Hannink, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Current immobilization techniques of the cervical spine are associated with complications including pressure ulcers, discomfort, and elevated intracranial pressures with limited access to the thorax and airway. In this study, a newly developed craniothoracic immobilizer (Pharaoh mattress) for

  12. Essentials of clinical MRI; Essentials der klinischen MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (eds.) [Heidelberg Univ. Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Runge, Val M. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Morelli, John N. [Texas A and M Univ., Temple, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    The text book on practical magnetic resonance imaging includes the following chapters: brain; cervical spine; thoracic spine; lumbar spine; head and neck; heart and thorax; mammary glands; abdomen and pelvis; musculoskeletal system; MRI contrast media; magnetic resonance angiography.

  13. Pathophysiology and Toxicokinetic Studies of Blue-Green Algae Intoxication in the Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-31

    63 VII. Visualization of rat hepatocytes within the pulmonary vasculature via microscopic radiography ....................... 65...saline administration), the thorax was opened and a cannula was placed in the left ventricle. Whole body perfusion and fixation, using Tyrode’s solution

  14. A pictorial key to the species of the Aedes (Zavortinkius) in the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiau-Min; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2015-10-06

    Six species of the subgenus Zavortinkius of Aedes Meigen in the Afrotropical Region are treated in a pictorial key based on diagnostic morphological features. Images of the diagnostic morphological structures of the adult thorax and leg are included.

  15. Sled Tests Using the Hybrid III Rail Safety ATD and Workstation Tables for Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is a crash test dummy developed in the United Kingdom to evaluate abdomen and lower thorax injuries that occur when passengers impact workstation tables during train accidents. The ...

  16. BTS guideline for the investigation and management of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Ian; Bishop, Lesley; Darlison, Liz; de Fonseka, Duneesha; Edey, Anthony; Edwards, John; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Fennell, Dean A; Holmes, Steve; Kerr, Keith M; Nakas, Apostolos; Peel, Tim; Rahman, Najib M; Slade, Mark; Steele, Jeremy; Tsim, Selina; Maskell, Nick A

    2018-01-01

    The full guideline for the investigation and management of malignant pleural mesothelioma is published in Thorax . The following is a summary of the recommendations and good practice points. The sections referred to in the summary refer to the full guideline.

  17. Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    transfusion, radiography , and laboratory support. May be supplemented with surgical assets (2b) (forward surgical team, US Army; mobile field surgical...every 8 hours to 12 hours, should be provided for penetrating wounds to the abdomen and penetrating wounds to the thorax that result in esopha- geal...metro- nidazole, 500 mg IV every 8 hours to 12 hours, should be provided for penetrating wounds to the abdomen and penetrating wounds to the thorax

  18. Development of a Dedicated Radiotherapy Unit with Real-Time Image Guidance and Motion Management for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    will also build at least two moving thorax phantom-one from the 4D CT scan of the hardware motion phantom and one from the 4D CT scan of a real patient...cone-beam projection images of the Mathematical Cardiac Torso (MCAT) thorax phantom for three panoramic views. Gaps, repeated/missing columns and... radiography . To address this obstacle, we performed poly-energetic forward projections (see 2.3.A Software Phantom for more details) using Open Computing

  19. Use of Chest Computed Tomography in Stable Patients with Blunt Thoracic Trauma: Clinical and Forensic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Makbule Ergin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the medical and forensic importance of thorax computed tomography in stable patients with blunt chest trauma. Material and Methods: Fifty patients with blunt chest injury were retrospectively evaluated with chest radiography and thorax computed tomography in the first 24 hours after trauma. Patient demographics, thoracic lesions, management options, and forensic assessment were rewieved. Results: The most common lesion of the study was ri...

  20. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 1, Edition 3, Fall 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Fall 2001 viduals present with dyspnea, cough, rales, and hemop- tysis. Chest radiography shows the classical picture of pulmonary edema and pulse...Vietnam included wounds to the head and face (36% vs. 35%), neck (7% vs. 8%), thorax (14% vs. 39%), abdomen (14% vs. 7%), thoracoabdominal (7% vs. 2...0 1 1.1 penetrating 1 1 2 2.2 Thorax /back 2 0 4 0 6 6.6 penetrating 0 0

  1. Analysis of Miscellaneous Human Osteological Remains Recovered from Multi-County Areas of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    for analysis were those for which radiography could supplement, as well as supply information beyond that obtained through gross macroscopic...Location of burial recovered from the Blue Blanket Recreation Area. 39 including; the skull, the long bones, and portions of the thorax and vertebra! column...infracranial elements of the thorax and upper appendages. 4.12 Pike Haven Recreation Area - Exhibit K, Catalogue No. 12 The manager of the Pike Haven Resort

  2. Concentration Levels of Particulate Matter of Common Dental Lab Materials in a Military Dental Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    questionnaire detailing the patient’s occupational and pulmonary history, chest radiography to look for abnormalities in the lungs, spirometry to assess... thorax . 9 Two thin pleural membranes encase the lungs. 9 Theses membranes are lubricated with interstitial fluids to prevent friction and tissue... Thorax 2010, 58(2):135-141 52 13 Choudat D, Triem S, Weill B, Vicrey C, Ameille J, Brochard P, Letourneux M, Rossignol C

  3. Mediastinal tuberculosis presenting as traction diverticulum of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi Anurag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male presented with history of low-grade fever, epigastric pain and dysphagia. Ultrasound of abdomen and thorax revealed presence of paraesophageal lymphadenopathy. ′Barium swallow′ and computerized tomography scan thorax with oral contrast suggested a provisional diagnosis of paraesophageal diverticulum. Esophagoscopy was normal. Endoscopic ultrasonography with biopsy confirmed tuberculosis. The patient was started on four-drug antitubercular treatment.

  4. [Clinical case--voluminous diaphragmatic hernia--surgically acute abdomen: diagnostic and therapeutical challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, D; Savlovschi, C; Borcan, R; Pantu, H; Serban, D; Gradinaru, S; Smarandache, G; Trotea, T; Branescu, C; Musat, L; Comandasu, M; Priboi, M; Baldir, M; Sandolache, B; Oprescu, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old male patient admitted in the surgery section of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest and diagnosed with acute abdomen. The minimal clinical-paraclinical investigation (i.e., thorax-pulmonary Xray, biological probes) raises questions as to the differentiated diagnosis and other associated diseases, also suggesting the existence of voluminous diaphragmatic hernia. The CT thorax-abdomen examination confirms the diaphragmatic hernia suspicion, with intra-thorax ascent of the colon up to the anterior C4 level, but does not explain the abdominal suffering; thus we suspected a biliary ileus or acute appendicitis. Medial laparotomy was imperative. Intrasurgically peritonitis was noticed located by gangrenous acute apendicitis, perforated, with coprolite, for which apendictomy and lavage-drainage pf the peritoneal cavity was performed. Post-surgical status: favourable to recovery.

  5. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil; Avaliacao de kerma de entrada na pele em exames radiologicos no Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas; Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE/DEN), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  6. Repeated computed tomography during treatment of small cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boijsen, M.; Svensson, G.; Tylen, U.; Central Hospital, Kristianstad

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were examined with CT and conventional chest radiography before treatment, 19 after 3 courses of chemotherapy, before radiation therapy, and 8 after cessation of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In most patients high abdominal CT was also employed. CT provided more information about the thoracic involvement than did conventional radiography in more than half of the cases. In 3 cases CT before irradiation demonstrated progression in the thorax, not visible at conventional radiography, and in 4 cases progression of extrathoracic metastases in spite of intrathoracic regression. After therapy, one case of progression in the thorax not seen at conventional radiography was demonstrated. With repeated CT examinations of the thorax and abdomen, progression/regression both intra- and extrathoracically is well demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Pulmonary Wegener' s granulomatosis. Correlation between high-resolution CT findings and clinical scoring of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel A, Reuter M; Tetzlaff K, Wesner F

    1999-01-01

    It has been considered that the treatment to the patient with Wegener granulomatosis (WG) it should be adapted to the activity of the illness. In this work it was looked for to evaluate if the discoveries in the high-resolution tomography of thorax of in several clinical stadiums of the illness were correlated with the clinical score of activity of the illness. 73 patients were studied with WG (30 women, 43 men) with age between 34 and 71 years. They were carried out 98 radiological exams. The pursuit was made with bronchoscopy, BAL, tests of pulmonary function, Rx thorax. The high-resolution tomography was taken before the bronchoscopy and it was the base for the realization of the BAL. Patient with Rx normal thorax they were also included

  8. X-ray dose metering in infants during thoracic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroiss, K.

    1981-01-01

    Gonadal doses of children due to routine X-ray examinations are investigated. In the experimental part, dose measurements in dead bodies of children and during catheder examinations of the heart are reported. The statistical part starts with tables on the most important radiological examinations of the thorax, age and weight distributions, the frequencies of the various types of thorax examinations, exposure values, and surface dose product distributions. On the basis of the results of phantom measurements and KRAGH computer models and experimental investigations of other authors in the Munich paediatric hospital, conversion factors are given which enable the probable gonadal doses to be calculated from known data, e.g. the type of examination and the surface dose product of a thorax X-ray. Finally, tables are given on gonadal doses per examination for seven different age groups. (orig.) [de

  9. Mature cystic Theratome. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera B, Aura Lucia; Carrillo B, Jorge Alberto; Ojeda L, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The case of a patient of five months of age is presented, to which was diagnosed cystic theratome, initially was assisted in another institution to present consistent square of four days in dry cough and sialorrea. It was managed initially with pneumonia diagnosis and spill paraneumonic. The x-ray of initial thorax demonstrated an opacity committing the two inferior thirds of the left hemithorax, with obliteration of the costofrenic angle and contralateral deviation of the cardio mediastinum, later on another thorax x-ray to the entrance with diagnostic impression of sepsis of lung origin and pneumonia suspicion with spill associate pleural, was practiced closed thoracotomy, obtaining 60 cc of sallow liquid. For the persistence of the opacity basal left in the control x-ray, he was practiced thorax tomography. For the presence of multiple densities and the localization of the lesion it outlines the possibility of cystic theratome

  10. Evaluation of skin entry kerma in radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas, Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Lorena E.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Santos, Amanda C. dos; Bunick, Ana Paula; Paschuk, Sergei; Denyak, Valeriy; Tilly Junior, Joao G.; Khoury, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the skin entry dose of pediatric and adults patients when submitted to radiological examinations at the Hospital de Clinicas do Parana, Brazil, as part integrate of the data assessment of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for Latin America. It was performed measurements of dose for evaluation of skin entry kerma in pediatric patients in thorax AP/PA examinations, adults of thorax in AP/PA, cranio caudal mammography and median lateral and patients of computerized tomography in examination of head, thorax and abdomen. The obtained data demonstrate the necessity of verification of diagnostic analysis standards. The great value amplitudes demonstrate the incompatibility of examination executions with those recommended by the literature. The dose values presented partially inside the range recommended and the other over the expected for the due examination when compared with the literature

  11. [Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuch, J; Kuník, Z; Herczegh, S; Pelc, J; Machan, L; Chamko, M

    1990-07-01

    Traumatic ruptures of the diaphragm occur most frequently at blunt injuries of the abdomen or thorax as a component of polytraumatism. At the acute stage they present a serious diagnostic problem since signs of polytrauma are predominant. The authors report 3 cases of traumatic rupture of the diaphragm with thoracotomy as the therapeutic approach. The first patient presented with severe polytraumatism and shock, rupture of the diaphragm, pericardium and lungs, along with serial fracture of the left ribs. The second patient was not in shock, he had suffered serial fracture of the left ribs and fracture of the pelvis. In both these cases of blunt injury to the thorax, careful examination of the patients resulted in early diagnosis and surgery. The third patient presented with open injury of the right side of the thorax, injured diaphragm and liver, serial fracture of the ribs, fractured sternum, and was in a state of deep shock. There was no mortality, all three patients recovered.

  12. Imaging of thoracic sarcomas of the chest wall, pleura, and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Paul; Colleran, Gabrielle; Madewell, John; O'Sullivan, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    Primary sarcomas of the thorax are uncommon. The purpose of this review is to describe the radiologic findings of sarcomas affecting the thorax, in particular the chest wall, pleura, and lungs. Most primary sarcomas affecting the thorax arise in the chest wall, and the most common sarcomas of the chest wall are chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and fibrosarcoma. Primary pleural and pulmonary sarcomas are rare. Although histologic analysis is almost always required for accurate diagnosis, imaging is important for staging of these tumors, and several of these tumors have distinctive radiologic features, allowing the radiologist to narrow the differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trunk movements during gait in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Michael; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Lempereur, Mathieu; Lascombes, Pierre; De Coulon, Geraldo; Armand, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Lower limb deficits have been widely studied during gait in cerebral palsy, deficits in upper body have received little attention. The purpose of this research was to describe the characteristics of trunk movement of cerebral palsy children in terms of type of deficits (diplegia/hemiplegia) and gross motor function classification system (1, 2 or 3). Data from 92 cerebral palsy children, which corresponds to 141 clinical gait analysis, were retrospectively selected. Kinematic parameters of trunk were extracted from thorax and spine angles in the sagittal, transverse and coronal planes. The range of motion and the mean positions over the gait cycle were analysed. Intra-group differences between the children with diplegia or hemiplegia, gross motor function classification systems 1 to 3 and typically developing participants were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests and post hoc tests. Pearson correlation coefficients between the gait profile score normalised walking speed and kinematic parameters of the thorax were assessed. The results revealed: 1) the range of motion of the thorax and spine exhibited more significant differences between groups than the mean positions; 2) greater levels of impairment were associated with higher thorax range of motion, and 3) the children with diplegia and gross motor function classification system 3 exhibited a greater range of motion for all planes with the exception of spine rotation. This study confirmed that greater levels of impairment in cerebral palsy are associated with greater thorax range of motion during gait. The thorax plays an important role during gait in cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of fiber optic based respiratory sensor for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Arika; Devara, Kresna; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih, Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the design of respiratory sensor using fiber optic for newborn incubator application. The sensor works based on light intensity losses difference obtained due to thorax movement during respiration. The output of the sensor launched to support electronic circuits to be processed in Arduino Uno microcontroler such that the real-time respiratory rate (breath per minute) can be presented on LCD. Experiment results using thorax expansion of newborn simulator show that the system is able to measure respiratory rate from 10 up to 130 breaths per minute with 0.595% error and 0.2% hysteresis error.

  15. Neck Injury in Advanced Military Aircraft Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    and computerized tonsegraphic radiography (CT), then dissected. Table 2 provideq the maximum moment axial force and shear force applied to the...rontti a 60 1 des accidents rorporeils. Ia fr~q~ionce do leemiens dii ciii tntfu 5imbe rang (10,2 %) sprhs lea members inf~riours 134 X), le thorax 031...mesure: - isongle maximum de flexion ds Is Ci~te par rapport as thorax - l’acciliratioe anguasire ds Ia Cite I- 15itease augulaire de It Ctke -le IlIC

  16. Quality assurance in diagnostic chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerbach, S.

    1988-01-01

    The quality criteria for standard radiographs of the thorax give measurable parameters for evaluation of X-ray pictures of the thorax. These include (1) Image characteristics that are organ-specific image elements, (2) critical structures that shed light on image characteristics especially important for the diagnosis, and (3) measures of single structures as significant details that give information due to their size. Technical data and requirements complete the criteria, which, however, ought to be applied in combination with a suitable interpretation of the image data in order to achieve good quality control. (orig.) [de

  17. Real-Time Tracking of Implanted Markers During Radiation Treatment by Use of Simultaneous kV and MV Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    issue, and potentially can reduce normal tissue complications while increasing local control through dose escalation to mobile tumors in the thorax and...major factor hindering the full exploitation of the efficacy of modulated arc therapy for disease sites such as the thorax or upper abdomen. Real-time...organs in real time,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 14, 91–100 2004. 32J. Zhang et al., “Multiplexing radiography for ultra-fast computed tomog- raphy: A feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 34, 2527 2007.

  18. Value of hilar tomography in children with positive tuberculin reaction and not inoculated with BCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, R.; Mueller, H.; Hardt, H. von der

    1983-01-01

    X-ray films of the thorax in two levels were prepared of 15 children of 3-14 years of age who had not been BCG-inoculated, after the tuberculin test had shown a positive reaction. Besides bacteriology and bronchoscopy, tomography of the hilus and of the anterior mediastinum was performed to exclude hilar lymph node enlargements. In this manner, it became possible to disclose an enlargement of lymphatic nodes in four children in whom plain radiography of the thorax had not yielded any abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  19. Use of Chest Computed Tomography in Stable Patients with Blunt Thoracic Trauma: Clinical and Forensic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Ergin

    2011-01-01

    fractures were the most common injury. Thorax computed tomography was significantly superior to chest radiography in detecting pneumothorax , hemothorax and lung contusion. Eightyone life threatening lesions were detected and 50 (61%; pneumothorax 13, hemothorax 24, lung contusion 9,and pneumomediastinum 4 of these lesions could not be detected with plain chest radiography. The clinical management [in 15 patients (30%], and the forensic assesment was changed [in 14 (28%] patients were changed.  Conclusion:We concluded that using Computed Tomography of the thorax in thoracic travmas prive meticulous assesment in management of patients and forens icissues.

  20. Cystic thymoma in a cat with cholesterol-rich fluid and an unusual ultrasonographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, P.E.J.; Barr, F.J.; Holt, P.E.; Brown, P.J.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A cystic thymoma was identified in an eight-year-old domestic longhair cat with a chronic cough. Radiographs indicated a large mass of soft tissue density in the anterior thorax. Ultrasonography revealed an echogenic mass occupying the cranial and mid-thorax with a slight swirling movement of the echoes. Subsequent drainage under ultrasound guidance yielded a cholesterol-rich fluid. The mass was resected at exploratory thoracotomy and the diagnosis of thymoma confirmed. There was no sign of recurrence one year postoperatively. The clinical features and unusual laboratory findings are presented and compared with previously reported cases of thymomata in the cat

  1. [When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

    2014-04-01

    The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric cardiology. Clinical and practical experiences with heart diseases of children, juveniles and young adults; Kinderkardiologie. Klinik und Praxis der Herzerkrankungen bei Kindern, Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Nikolaus A. [Herz- und Diabeteszentrum NRW, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany). Klinik fuer angeborene Herzfehler; Kleideiter, Ulrich [Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Coesfeld (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The book on pediatric cardiology covers the following chapters: (I) Fundamentals and diagnostics: pediatric cardiologic anamnesis, electrocardiograms, thorax X-radiography, MRT and CT of the heart, nuclear medical diagnostics, exercise tests, heart catheter examination, electrophysiological tests. (II) Leading symptoms: Cyanosis, cardiac murmur, thorax pain, palpitation, syncopes. (III) Disease pictures: congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, heart rhythm disturbances, heart insufficiency, arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, other heart involving syndromes. (IV) Therapy: Catheter interventional therapy, post-surgical pediatric cardiac therapy, surgery involving the life-support machine, mechanical cardiovascular support systems, initial treatment of newborns with critical heart defects, heart transplantation, vaccination of children with heart diseases, medicinal therapy.

  3. Pediatric cardiology. Clinical and practical experiences with heart diseases of children, juveniles and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Nikolaus A.

    2011-01-01

    The book on pediatric cardiology covers the following chapters: (I) Fundamentals and diagnostics: pediatric cardiologic anamnesis, electrocardiograms, thorax X-radiography, MRT and CT of the heart, nuclear medical diagnostics, exercise tests, heart catheter examination, electrophysiological tests. (II) Leading symptoms: Cyanosis, cardiac murmur, thorax pain, palpitation, syncopes. (III) Disease pictures: congenital heart defects, acquired heart defects, cardiomyopathies, heart rhythm disturbances, heart insufficiency, arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, other heart involving syndromes. (IV) Therapy: Catheter interventional therapy, post-surgical pediatric cardiac therapy, surgery involving the life-support machine, mechanical cardiovascular support systems, initial treatment of newborns with critical heart defects, heart transplantation, vaccination of children with heart diseases, medicinal therapy.

  4. Delayed development of radiation sickness in animals following partial exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Causes of reduction of the life span of animals after partial exposure of the head, thorax, and abdomen are analyzed. Pulmonosclerosis and cardiosclerosis were mainly responsible for animal death following partial radiation exposure of the thorax; these conditions appreciably shortened the life span of the animals. After exposure of the head deaths were due to pneumonias which negligibly reduced the duration of life. Exposure of the abdomen led to the development of diabetes mellitus which shortened the life span by half. 18 refs., 1 tab

  5. Analysis of coordination between thoracic and pelvic kinematic movements during gait in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Joon; Sim, Taeyong; Suh, Seung-Woo; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Koo, Hyeran; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-02-01

    In this research, we investigated the coordination pattern and consistency of coordination between the thorax and pelvis during gait in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Across the study, 69 adolescent girls (controls: 30, patients: 39) participated. All participants were asked to walk 10 m barefoot at a self-selected speed. The walking speed, stride length, and range of motion of the pelvic and thoracic angles were collected using a three-dimensional optical motion analysis system, and the thorax-pelvis coordination was quantified using a vector coding technique. The frequency of four different patterns of coordination (in-phase, anti-phase, pelvis only, and thorax only) and the consistency of coordination including direction and magnitude during the gait cycle of the two groups were investigated. Independent-sample t tests were performed to examine differences between the two groups with regard to coordination patterns and consistency. The patients with idiopathic scoliosis showed significantly higher in-phase and relatively lower anti-phase in the transverse plane compared to controls. Additionally, the pelvis only in the transverse, frontal, and sagittal planes was significantly lower in patients. The consistency of coordination in patients was significantly lower than in controls in direction and magnitude on the transverse and frontal planes. From viewpoint of the thorax-pelvis coordination, patients with IS had less gait stability in the trunk than controls.

  6. Comparison of respiratory muscle training methods in individuals with motor and sensory complete tetraplegia: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, G.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Perret, C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of inspiratory resistance training and isocapnic hyperpnoea vs incentive spirometry (placebo) on respiratory function, voice, thorax mobility and quality of life in individuals with tetraplegia. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 24

  7. Non-Lethal Defense III, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, February 25 & 26, 1998, Revised Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-26

    Thorax, and Abdomen to Blunt Trauma," Annals New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 152 (1968). 8) Clare, V. R., A. P. Mickiewicz , J. H. Lewis, and L. M...Lewis, J.H., Mickiewicz , A.P., and Sturdivan, L.M. Body Armor - Blunt Trauma Data. Technical Report. EB-TR-75016, Edgewood Arsenal. May, 1975. 2

  8. REML estimates of genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mals were reared at 25°C. Ten adult males and ten adult females per line were recorded for wing length (WL) from the thoracic articulation to the wing tip on the left side view and thorax length (TL) from the neck to the tip of the scutellum. As measured animals within a line were reared together, the grandmother was known.

  9. A new species of Lymantriidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collenette, C.L.

    1933-01-01

    Euproctis allocota sp. nov. ♀. Palpus upturned, orange buff. Antenna rather long, cinnamon buff, the shaft tipped with pinkish buff. Head and thorax light orange yellow, mixed at the base of tegula with whitish. Abdomen snuff brown, ringed at the base of each segment with whitish; basal segments

  10. Management of malignant pleural effusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzbeck, Mateen H

    2010-06-01

    Malignant pleural effusions are a common clinical problem in patients with primary thoracic malignancy and metastatic malignancy to the thorax. Symptoms can be debilitating and can impair tolerance of anticancer therapy. This article presents a comprehensive review of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical approaches to the management of malignant pleural effusion, and a novel algorithm for management based on patients\\' performance status.

  11. Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomography (CT) neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, positron emission tomography-CT, total body scintigraphy with MIB. Figure 1: (a) Thyroidectomy specimen on the cut surface showing homogenous grey white areas with tiny colloid filled area,. (b) Hashimoto's thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltrate and follicles lined.

  12. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Rydhög, J. S.; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki

    2016-01-01

    , which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results shown in figure 3 were subjected to a multiple regression analysis and, in each case, a simple linear model was rejected. There are, however, clear differences between traits. For thorax length, the derivatives of male and female data are monotonically decreasing curves and a linear regression is convenient ...

  14. Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and developtnent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dis Child 1960; 35: 544-547. 17. Cooney TP, Thurlbeck WM. The radial alveolar count method of. Emery and Mithal: a reappraisal: L Postnatal lung growth. Thorax. 1982; 3: 572-579. 18. Hoidal JR, Niewoehner DE. Cigarene smoke inhalation potentiates elastase-induced emphysema in hamsters. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;.

  15. Multicenter evaluation of rectal cancer reimaging post neoadjuvant (MERRION) therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanly, Ann M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of reimaging rectal cancer post-CRT (chemoradiotherapy) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis for local staging and computed tomography of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis (CT TAP) to identify distant metastases.

  16. Evaluation de la pertinence des examens radiographiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : La vulgarisation du guide de bon usage des examens d'imagerie médicale aux prescripteurs togolais sera d'un apport précieux dans leur prescription d'examen radiographique utile. Mots clés : Radiographie du thorax, justification, Guide de bon usage de la SFR, Radioprotection, CHU Campus de Lomé.

  17. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    un lupus érythémateux systémique était retenu devant la présence de 5 critères de l'ACR (photosensibilité, péricardite, lymphopénie, anticorps anti-nucléaires et anticorps anti-DNA positifs). La radiographie de thorax montrait ...

  18. Detection of ALMB-toxin in the larval body of Myrmeleon bore by anti-N-terminus peptide antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Sugama, H; Gotoh, S; Matsuda, K; Nishimura, K; Komai, K

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies were raised against a synthetic antigen carrying the N-terminus peptide of ALMB-toxin, which had been isolated from the antlion, Myrmeleon bore, that exhibited high specificity to the toxin. Analyses with the antibodies showed the toxin to be present mainly at the larval stage and localized in a region from the thorax to abdomen of the larval body.

  19. (Pyralidae, Lepidoptera) from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-12-18

    Dec 18, 1990 ... Head, thorax and abdomen above dark grey, under- side and legs a lighter grey. Forewings (Figure 15) dade: grey, in some specimens without any pattern, in others there is a vague pattern consisting of a broad black antemedial band and of a postmedial band: a zigzagged black line, starting near apex of ...

  20. CASE SERIES Substantive incidental cardiac findings revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joint Division of Medical Imaging and Division of Cardiology, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Canada. A Crean, MD, MRCP, FRCR. Corresponding author: M Durand (mirandadurand@gmail.com). Limitations inherent in CT imaging of the thorax left the heart as an ill-defined and largely ...

  1. Aggregation pheromones of bark beetles, pityogenes quadridens and P. bidentatus, colonizing scotch pine: olfactory avoidance of interspecific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bark beetles Pityogenes bidentatus and P. quadridens (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) compete for bark areas on branches of Scotch pine, Pinus sylvestris. Hindguts and head/thoraxes of males and females of both species feeding in hosts were extracted in pentane and analyzed by gas chromat...

  2. A new species of Antonia Loew (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Holotype (male): body length about 13 mm; wing length about 7.5 mm. Head: As broad as thorax when seen from above, higher than broad when seen from front; narrow upper third or more of frons with a blackish coloration extending downwards, forming a mid-dorsal longitudinal stripe on the center of the bulging boss-like ...

  3. Promising results in treating lymphoma in young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical tri

  4. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... Mediastinal and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Khaoula Elatiqi1,&, Najiba Yassine1 ... Key words: Lymphadenopathy, lymphoma, tuberculosis. Received: 24/06/2015 - Accepted: 12/11/2015 ... radiography showed an enlarged upper and middle mediastinum. (A). Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax ...

  5. Effect of staff training on radiation dose in pediatric CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojreh, Azadeh; Weber, Michael; Homolka, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of staff training on radiation doses applied in pediatric CT scans. Pediatric patient doses from five CT scanners before (1426 scans) and after staff training (2566 scans) were compared statistically. Examinations included cranial CT (CCT), thoracic, abdomen-pelvis, and trunk scans. Dose length products (DLPs) per series were extracted from CT dose reports archived in the PACS. A pooled analysis of non-traumatic scans revealed a statistically significant reduction in the dose for cranial, thoracic, and abdomen/pelvis scans (p0.05). The percentage of scans performed with DLPs exceeding the German DRLs was reduced from 41% to 7% (CCT), 19% to 5% (thorax-CT), from 9% to zero (abdominal-pelvis CT), and 26% to zero (trunk; DRL taken as summed DRLs for thorax plus abdomen-pelvis, reduced by 20% accounting for overlap). Comparison with Austrian DRLs - available only for CCT and thorax CT - showed a reduction from 21% to 3% (CCT), and 15 to 2% (thorax CT). Staff training together with application of DRLs provide an efficient approach for optimizing radiation dose in pediatric CT practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ISSN 2073 East Cent. Afr. j. surg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Adinolfi MF, Hardin WD, O'Connell RC, et al: Amputations after vascular trauma in civilians. South Med ... body cavities (thorax and abdomen) require different approaches depending on the primary pathology ... Extensile exposures to the thoraco-lumbar spine is indicated in trauma, infection, degenerative disease, tumours ...

  7. Generalities of anomalous CT chest non tumoral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibarboure, L.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the generalities of multidetector CT in the pulmonary, the diaphragmatic, the pleural and the mediastinum pathology.These techniques as well as the virtual endoscopy allow visualize volumetric thorax reconstructions, brain diseases, opacities, radiolucent images, respiratory and vascular diseases, pneumonia, embolism, AIDS stage, tuberculosis, tumors, etc

  8. Ward Round – Cough, painful throat and progressive hoarseness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-30

    Mar 30, 2010 ... pulmonary tuberculosis: a nested case control study. Thorax 2009; 64: 705-8. 3. Tesic-Vidovic L. Laryngeal Tuberculosis. A Report of Three Cases. The Internet Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 2006; 4: 2. 4. Mehndiratta A, Bhat P, D'Costa L, Mesquita A.M and Nadkarni N. Primary Tuberculosis of the Larynx.

  9. Aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm confirmed by computerized tomography. Aneurisma de arteria subclavia derecha aberrante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteche, M.D.; Tejera, E.; Vega-Hazas, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present a case of aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm in an asymptomatic woman. This disorder was found by chance in a thorax radiography due to an upper right mediastinal mass. CT confirmed the vascular anomaly as well as the aneurysm occurrence. (Author)

  10. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    8 déc. 2017 ... approach. We here report two cases with two different forms of pulmonary aspergilloma associated with bronchial carcinoma. Key words: Aspergilloma ... un syndrome de condensation au niveau de tout l'hémi-thorax gauche. .... H. Acute airway obstruction and necrotizing tracheobronchitis from invasive ...

  11. Reproducible positioning in chest X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A device is described that can be used to ensure reproducibility in the positioning of the patient during X-ray radiography of the thorax. Signals are taken from an electrocardiographic monitor and from a device recording the respiratory cycle. Radiography is performed only when two preselected signals coincide

  12. INITIAL INJURY CARE IN NAIROBI, KENYA: A CALL FOR TRAUMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-09-09

    Sep 9, 2003 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. Design: A prospective study. ... injury and injury trends in least developed countries are scanty. Media reports have raised ... neck, face, thorax, abdomen pelvis, extremity/pelvis and skin. (external). Injuries sustained in ...

  13. Dosimetric assessments multi-slice CT of the chest and abdomen in pediatrics; Evaluaciones dosimetricas en TC multicorte de torax y abdomen en pediatria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giner Sala, M.; Roch Gonzalez, M.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Espana Lopez, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is the dosimetry evaluation in pediatric MSCT of thorax and abdomen, and the estimation of effective dose in the different ranges of age taking into account the new ICRP recommendations, by variations that may be involved in explorations that affect breast. (Author)

  14. Thoracic skeletal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.W.; Scott, P.D.; Trerotola, S.O.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews the radiographic presentations of all hard and soft tissue disorders of the thorax. The signposts for diagnosis are described and all imaging modalities are included. Topics include: breast carcinoma metastasis to the bones of the chest, polio, scoliosis, ancylosis spondylitis, lung cancer with rib metastases

  15. Deliberate, repeated self-administration of metallic mercury injection: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givica-Perez, A.; Santana-Montesdeoca, J.M.; Diaz-Sanchez, M.; Martinez-Lagares, F.J.; Castaneda, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    Self-administration of metallic mercury through the intravenous route is rare. This event has been reported in psychiatric patients and in suicide attempts. We report a case of successive intravenous self-injections of mercury demonstrated by plain film radiographs and CT scans of the thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  16. [Thoracic trauma in the pre-hospital phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, B

    1989-02-01

    Preclinically relevant injuries of the thorax are described patho-physiologically. The diagnosis at the scene of accident and the treatment of the emergency of the functional after-effect injury are described. Respiratory insufficiency requires early artificial respiration. A pneumothorax should be drained, at least, on the respired patient. If there is a pneumothorax associated with tension due to the confined air, the relief would be obligatory. The relief should take place after the digital opening of the thorax by silicon drainage. If there is a mediastinal emphysema with a seriously haemodynamic effect, the relief would be indicated by collar mediastinostomy. If there is a pericardium tamponade with circulatory collapse after a perforating trauma, the patient must be brought to the medical attention of a surgeon as quickly as possible. The delay in time must not be the consequence of the relief of puncture. If a person injured in an accident who has a rupture of the trachea can not be respired immediate exposure of the rupture site is imperative. Resuscitation measures in case of an injured thorax must be done at the opened thorax.

  17. Single-surgeon Extensile Approach and Fixation of Thoraco-lumbar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Extensile approaches to the thoracic and lumbar spine are required for tumours, fractures, malignancies, deformity corrections and degenerative diseases. The body cavities (thorax and abdomen) require different approaches depending on the primary pathology and the desired exposure plus fixation method.

  18. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 6, Edition 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    chest radiography , although this is an imperfect test. Ideally, culture of sputum to obtain a specific pathogen in the right clin- ical scenario...free air within the thorax and will result in a larger vital capacity following clo- sure of the chest wound. The patient should be examined about the

  19. Two K versus 4 K storage phosphor chest radiography: detection performance and image quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelblinger, Claus; Prokop, Mathias; Weber, Michael; Sailer, Johannes; Cartes-Zumelzu, Fabiola; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of matrix size (4-K versus 2-K) in digital storage phosphor chest radiographs on image quality and on the detection of CT-proven thoracic abnormalities. In 85 patients who underwent a CT of the thorax, we obtained two additional posteroanterior

  20. Short Communication: Preliminary cardiothoracic ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    horizontal distances measured from the spine to the most rightward and most leftward cardiac borders taken as the cardiac diameter and divided by the horizontal width of thorax from inner surfaces of ribs measured at the diaphragmatic apices also known as the thoracic diameter on a dorso-ventral radiograph. The CTR ...

  1. Radiology trainer. Surgical ambulance. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Roentgen-Trainer. Chirurgische Ambulanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Ole [Wedau-Kliniken Duisburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Unfallchirurgie; Ruchholtz, Steffen [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Marburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Unfall-, Hand- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie; Siemann, Holger [LVR Klinikum Essen (Germany); Barkhausen, Joerg [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2013-08-01

    The radiology trainer for surgical ambulance includes informative X-ray imaging examples for the following issues: zygoma, nasal bone, spinal cord, clavicle, shoulder, upper arms, elbow, forearms, wrist, hand, phalanx, thorax, sternum, pelvis, abdomen, hips, femur, knee, lower leg, ankle, feet.

  2. The Naval Flight Surgeon’s Pocket Reference to Aircraft Mishap Investigation. Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Specimen Collection) d. Radiography : Perform radiological studies: as clinically indicated, after all ejections, bailouts, & crashes with or without...about 45 Gx, the heart rotates in the thorax , causing intimal tears of the aorta. As we cannot restrain the heart, 50 G is the upper limit of Gx

  3. Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009 (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 59, Number RR-6, July 23, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    radiography often reveals the charac- teristic widened mediastinum (12,79). Antimicrobial agents are effective against germinating and vegetative B...and clavulanate in lung compartments in adults without pulmonary infection. Thorax 1994;49:1134–8. 228. Witkowski G, Lode H, Höffken G, Koeppe P

  4. An Evaluation of the Latent Tuberculosis Control Program in the United States Military at Accession

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Communicable and Other Diseases. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army 1928. [38] Spillman R. The value of radiography in...Schulzer M, FitzGerald JM. A meta-analysis of the effect of Bacille Calmette Guerin vaccination on tuberculin skin test measurements. Thorax . 2002 Sep;57

  5. Examinations for radiology. 1450 examination questions, with comments. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Facharztpruefung Radiologie. 1450 kommentierte Pruefungsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albes, Guido [Klinikum Stuttgart (Germany). Neurozentrum

    2013-07-01

    The book on examinations for radiology contains 1450 examination questions, with comments. The chapter on technical fundamentals and radiation protection covers the topics X-ray technologies, ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography. The chapter on specific diagnostic radiology covers the topics brain, spinal cord, head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis organs and the muscoskeletal system.

  6. Yap1 as a New Therapeutic Target in Neurofibromatosis Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    context of mesothelioma. We have already established the Adenoviral injections into the thorax of animals and using reporter strains, we have...visualized by radiography . Soft Agar Assay HepG2 cell lines were suspended in DMEM with 10% FBS, 0.3% SeaPlaque agarose (Lonza, #50101), and 1,000 ng/ml Dox

  7. Anthropometry: Basic Studies ad Applications. Volume 1. 1964-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    of cadaver dissection, anthropometry, radiography and cinetluoroscopy, photogrammetric, and computer analysis. Seventy-two antnropoaetric...harness), Males, Mobility, Radiography , photogrammetry, Spinal column, Head, Motion, Statistical analysis, Positioning reactions. Programming...Anatomy), Thorax , Vulnerability, Design standards, Impact tests, Performance standards, Evaluation, Acceleration, Motion, Anthropometry

  8. Mediastinal and peripheral lymphadenopathy | Elatiqi | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chest radiography showed an enlarged upper and middle mediastinum (A). Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax showed a large and non homogeneous mass in the anterior and middle mediastinum and a small pericardial effusion, with displacement of vascular structures (B). Laboratory analysis revealed an elevated ...

  9. Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    The following aspects of scintiscanning were developed: radioactive tracers effective for imaging applications; radiation safety for patient and personnel; development of a clinical scintigraphic examination and application of scintiscanning to various body areas (head and neck, thorax, abdomen, total-body); clinical investigations using positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals; position of scintiscanning among other medical imaging techniques (biomedical radiography, computerized tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging) [fr

  10. Clinical Investigation Program Report, RCS MED-300 (R-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-31

    Dermoid Cyst: A Case Report. SOMOS, Colorado Springs, CO, Nov 1984. Donovan L Routine Adult Skeletal Radiography : Do You Really Know It? Part II Am...Approach: To be eligible, patients must have a pathologically verified diagnosis of mesothelioma. The mesothelioma may arise either in the thorax or

  11. A Data Mining Approach for Acoustic Diagnosis of Cardiopulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    of chest radiography and CT scans. They discovered that TEWA performed better than chest radiography in detecting the early phases of asbestosis and...comparative study," Thorax , vol. 48, pp. 347-353, April 1. 1993. [22] P. Bettencourt, E. Del Bono, D. Spiegelman, E. Hertzmark and R. Murphy Jr

  12. Comparative experimental study of dual energy subtraction and conventional digital radiography on chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Rui; Feng Gansheng; Li Lin; Wei Qinghai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficiency of dual energy subtraction and conventional direct digital radiography in signal detecting ability. Methods: 200 plastic balls which were 4 mm in diameter were taken as signals and were placed on a 10 cm thick plastic board and the right upper thorax of a healthy volunteer. The signals were examined by DES and CDR separately and were estimated by 3 radiologists with 5-value-differentiation method. ROC curve analysis was made by ROC kit software. Results: when signals on plastic board were detected by CDR and DES, ROC curve analysis indicated that there was no significant difference (P=0.4851 > 0.05, two-tailed) between the area under the ROC curves of the two methods (Az=0.9931 for CDR and Az=0.9879 for DES). The difference was significant (P=0.0002 <0.01, two-tailed) between the area under the ROC curves of CDR and DES (Az=0.7276 for CDR and Az=0.8561 for DES), when the signals on the right upper thorax of a volunteer were detected by the two methods. Conclusion: DES surpasses CDR in detecting signals on thorax without superposition of ribs. There is good outlook in the application of DES in thorax examination. (authors)

  13. Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Treatment of Chemical Agent Casualties and Conventional Military Chemical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    or both. Some pain may occur in the lower thorax and salivation increases. Secretions may be thick, sticky, and persistent. If postural drainage...often with fever, chills, and cyanosis, may develop two to six weeks after the initial exposure. Crackles are present; chest radiography may

  14. Profil epidemiologique et clinique de la trisomie 21 au Togo. | Koffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilan honoré : caryotype standard (100%), échocardiographie (23,5%), et radiographie du thorax (13,2%). Conclusion : Cette étude montre que certaines notions ... Bilan honored: standard karyotype (100%), echocardiography (23.5%), and chest radiography (13.2%). Conclusion: This study shows that certain notions ...

  15. Morgagni hernia presenting with lung consolidation unresponsive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 15-month-old patient who presented with a non-resolving opacity on a chest radiograph despite extensive antibiotic ... A large anterior mediastinal mass was seen on the chest radiograph with effacement of the right cardiac border .... liver in the fetal thorax and an abnormal position of stomach below.

  16. Multiple cystic lung disease in an adolescent boy | Sogut | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT scanning of thorax is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection and the distribution of lung cysts. Patients with cystic lung disease may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific symptoms, such as chronic cough or shortness of breath. They are at increased risk for spontaneous pneumothorax. Surgical ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Heart Failure Using a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    artery in 3D dynamic contrast medium enhanced MR angiography of the thorax --a brief review of causes and prevention. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2003;19(2...America, Associated Sciences Consortium, Educational Planning Committee 2003-2004 Assisted with installation of Computerized Radiography at the US... Radiography , #237974 1992 Registry of MRI Technologists, #1048 1995-present American Registry of Radiologic Technologists, Magnetic Resonance

  18. MAQUETTE ORL Décembre 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    un bilan à distance : comportant de façon systématique une radiographie du thorax, une échographie abdominale et une scintigraphie osseuse. Lʼétude statistique .... Metastatic assessment: comprising systematically a chest radiography, an abdominal ultrasonography and an osseous scintiscanning. The statistical study ...

  19. Prostate Dose Escalation by Innovative Inverse Planning-Driven IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    obtaining low-dose, high-resolution radiography , fluoroscopy and CBCT. The system is mounted on the treatment machine via robotically controlled arms...in conjunction with the proposed DEDM method, may provide a valuable solution to the problem of CBCT-based dose calculation in the regions of thorax

  20. Top 3: Differential diagnosis in radiology. A case-based training book; Top 3 Differenzialdiagnosen in der Radiologie. Ein fallbasiertes Trainingsbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, William T. Sr. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The case-based training book on differential diagnosis in radiology includes the following chapters: (1) Heart and thorax. (2) Gastrointestinal tract. (3) Urogenital tract. (4) Musculoskeletal system. (5) Head and neck. (6) Central nervous system. (7) Pediatric radiology. (8) Sonography. (9) Prenatal imaging. (10) Vascular and interventional radiology. (11) Nuclear medicine. (12) Mammary gland imaging. (13) X-ray and CT classics.

  1. Equalization radiography with radiation quality modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, Ronald J.; Vlasbloem, Hugo

    1991-07-01

    By local variation of exposure, the wide absorption-range of the thorax can be equalized. Normally, the X-ray spectrum remains constant during this process. Further improvement seems possible if the radiation quality is included in the equalization process. A system has been built to investigate the merits of such a process. An overall improvement of contrast is demonstrated.

  2. Endovascular Skills for Trauma and Resuscitative Surgery (ESTARS) Course: Curriculum Development, Content Validation, and Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage; resuscitation; aortic balloon occlusion. N oncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH, defined ashemorrhage from the thorax , solid organ injury...have that you can just use digital radiography and that is adequate. Okay? And as far as Dr. Wall’s questions, howmuch is the course focused on failure

  3. Home-care treatment of swimmer syndrome in a miniature schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-A; Na, Ki-Jeong; Cho, Jong-Ki; Shin, Nam-Shik

    2013-09-01

    A 50-day-old, female miniature schnauzer dog was presented for astasia, dorsoventral flattening of the thorax, hypoplasia of hind-limb muscles, stiffness of hind-limb joints, paddling leg motion, and panting. The dog was diagnosed with swimmers syndrome. The dog recovered completely following 40 days of home-care treatment that involved environmental and nutritional management along with intensive physiotherapy.

  4. Lung cysts as indicator for Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesma, P C; Thunnissen, E; Postmus, P E

    2014-02-01

    In this case, we describe a patient with a history of recurrent pneumothorax. Based on CT-thorax and histopathology of the lung tissue, the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome was suspected and confirmed after genetic testing. Recognizing this syndrome by pulmonologists and radiologists is very important, because the risk on developing of renal cell cancer is high.

  5. Pictorial keys to the sections, groups, and species of the Aedes (Finlaya) in the Afrotropical Region (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiau-Min; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2017-01-16

    Eight species of the subgenus Finlaya Theobald, genus Aedes Meigen, in the Afrotropical Region are treated in pictorial keys based on diagnostic morphological features.  Images of the diagnostic morphological structures of the adult thorax, leg and wing are included.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of in-vivo measurement of lung contamination; Simulacion Monte Carlo de medida in-vivo de contaminacion en pulmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraleda, M.; Gomez-Ros, J. M.; Lopez, M. A.; Navarro, J. F.; Broggio, D.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the technique used to simulate in-vivo measurement of lung contaminated with enriched uranium using an anthropomorphic phantom of thorax. This work was carried out as part of an international intercomparison between different institutions within collaborative actions EURADOS promoted.

  7. Prevalence of cerebral and pulmonary thrombosis in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A S; Idorn, L; Thomsen, C

    2015-01-01

    stable adult patients with CCHD with a medical questionnaire, blood samples, MRI of the cerebrum (n=72), multidetector CT imaging (MDCT) of the thorax (n=76) and pulmonary scintigraphy (ventilation/perfusion/single-photon emission computerised tomography/CT) (n=66). The prevalence of cerebral infarction...

  8. PHYSICAL ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN TO LIFE AT HIGH-ALTITUDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEER, K; HEYMANS, HSA; ZIJLSTRA, WG

    Children permanently exposed to hypoxia at altitudes of > 3000 m above sea level show a phenotypical form of adaptation. Under these environmental conditions, oxygen uptake in the lungs is enhanced by increases in ventilation, lung compliance, and pulmonary diffusion. Lung and thorax volumes in

  9. Comparison of radiographic technique by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochi, M.A.C.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    A computational algorithm to compare radiographic techniques (KVp, mAs and filters) is developed based in the fixation of parameters that defines the images, such as optical density and constrast. Before the experience, the results were used in a radiography of thorax. (author) [pt

  10. Assays of damage to the alimentary canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalowski, A.; Hornsey, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present note is an appendix to the review of Potter et al (1983) and concentrates on studies of damage to the oesophagus and stomach, using heavily thorax-irradiated mice. The stomach and duodenum as sites of abscopal effects of partial-body irradiation, the influence of LET, and ileal malabsorption as a radiotherapy side effect are discussed. Substantial bibliography.

  11. Mathematical human body models representing a mid size male and a small female for frontal, lateral and rearward impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Lange, R. de; Bours, R.; Ridella, S.; Nayef, A.; Hoof, J. van

    2000-01-01

    A human body model representing a mid size male has been presented at the 1998 STAPP conference. A combination of modeling techniques was applied using rigid bodies for most segments, but describing the thorax as a deformable structure. In this paper, this modeling strategy was employed to also

  12. Incidence, circonstances de decouverte, et prise en charge des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effort dyspnea (75.5%). The brancho pulmonary infection (55.10%) and retardement of growth (36.73%) were the principal cause of consultation. The Systolique souffle, the sound of the B2 in the pulmonary. chamber the tachycardia, the polypnea, the deformation of the thorax, the enlargement of the base of the heart ...

  13. A case of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Dadaş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft tissue tumor. Friction of scapula to chest wall excessively in manuel laborers or genetic factors may be responsible for consist of elastofibroma dorsi. Thorax computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are most frequent used imaging methods in diagnosis of elastofibroma dorsi. Surgical excision is a good treatment opsion for cases with symptomatic.

  14. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    Dadaş, Erdoğan; Petik, Bülent; Akatlı, Ayşe Nur; Çolak, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare soft tissue tumor. Friction of scapula to chest wall excessively in manuel laborers or genetic factors may be responsible for consist of elastofibroma dorsi. Thorax computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are most frequent used imaging methods in diagnosis of elastofibroma dorsi. Surgical excision is a good treatment opsion for cases with symptomatic.

  15. Thermal biology of Pacific cicada killers, Sphecius convallis Patton, in the Upper Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joseph R; Holliday, Charles W; Hastings, Jon M; Phillips, Christy M

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Pacific cicada killer, Sphecius convallis Patton, was undertaken to examine the behavioral and physiological mechanisms by which they are able to complete their life cycle in the thermal extremes of the Upper Sonoran Desert. S. convallis were endothermic, exhibiting elevated and relatively constant thorax temperatures during many activities. Males basked in trees at dawn to warm up, then used a variety of behaviors and perching strategies to maintain thorax temperature during territorial behavior. The thorax temperature of females was highest during provisioning and orientation flights, somewhat lower while investigating burrows, and lowest while digging burrows. The optimal thorax temperature for flight was about 40°C, which was approximated most closely by males resting in the shade during the afternoon. In mating clusters, the mated male was the hottest, the female was coolest and the other males were intermediate. Wasps lost about 5% of body mass during heating treatments, and may use evaporative water loss for cooling. Pacific cicada killers use a complex suite of behavioral and physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature during their nesting season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. case report role of imaging in the diagnosis of achalasia cardia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    Plain chest radiograph (postero-anterior) showed a widened superior mediastinum with soft tissue mass extending from the root of the neck through the right thorax ... Barium swallow under fluoroscopy guidance showed grossly dilated oesophagus with barium seen collected at the lower oesophagus with smooth narrowed ...

  17. Mid-ventilation CT scan construction from four-dimensional respiration-correlated CT scans for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthaus, Jochem W. H.; Schneider, Christoph; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; van Herk, Marcel; Belderbos, José S. A.; Rossi, Maddalena M. G.; Lebesque, Joos V.; Damen, Eugène M. F.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Four-dimensional (4D) respiration-correlated imaging techniques can be used to obtain (respiration) artifact-free computed tomography (CT) images of the thorax. Current radiotherapy planning systems, however, do not accommodate 4D-CT data. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple,

  18. Disease: H01241 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is defined as a protrusion of abdominal viscera into the thorax through an abnormal opening or defect that is present at birth...le in the development of CDH. It has been reported that a patient who has nonsense mutation in FOG2/ ZFPM2, died at birth

  19. Imaging with a multiplane multiwire proportional chamber using heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.T.; Alonso, J.R.; Tobias, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 16-plane multiwire proportional chamber has been developed to accurately map intensity profiles of heavy ion beams at the Bevalac. The imaging capability of the system has been tested for reconstruction of 3-dimensional representation of a canine thorax region using heavy ion beams

  20. Sternal Anomalies with Supernumerary and Subnumerary Vertebrae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Osteological variations in the rib cage and vertebrae are clinically important because they can mislead an unsuspecting clinician during diagnostic and therapeutic lumbar punctures, counting of ribs during heart examinations, drainage of the thorax and the 12th rib is important in citing of the incision for ...

  1. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  2. The orientation of the Saculinidae (Crustacea Rhizocephala) in respect to their hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1948-01-01

    Delage (1884) and Smith (1906), two authors who published extremely important contributions on Rhizocephala, largely differed in their views concerning the morphology of these parasites. Both regarded the surface of the parasites touching the thorax of the host as the left side, but in other

  3. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Road traffic crashes generally affect young people and this is most evident in bodaboda crashes because .... ing concussions were classified as head injuries. Injuries involving the thorax including rib fractures ... ers and passengers bear the brunt of the impact (4). About one fourth of the injured had cranial ...

  4. UAM JOURNAL 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exoskeleton. The body is segmented and the thorax and head are fused to form the cephalothorax. It has a short rostrum, lacks dorsal teeth but has a pair of lateral teeth. The first and second legs (chelipeds) are reduced and specialized appearing as mouth parts. The modified chelae bear brushes of setae along the whole ...

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids protect fatty and lean mouse livers after major hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Linecker, Michael; Limani, Perparim; Kambakamba, Patryk; Kron, Philipp; Tschuor, Christoph; Calo, Nicolas; Foti, Michelangelo; Dufour, Jean-François; Graf, Rolf; Humar, Bostjan; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the regional distribution of ventilation in horses during spontaneous breathing and controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Study design: Prospective, experimental case series. Animals: Four anaesthetized experimental horses. Methods: Horses were anaesthetized with isoflurane in an oxygen-air mixture and medetomidine continuous rate infusion, placed in dorsal recumbency with an EIT belt around the thorax, and allowed...

  6. Massive Spontaneous Hemothorax, Giant Intrathoracic Meningocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: Review of occurrence in Japan. Thorax 1997;52:575‑8. 3. Fedoruk LM, English J, Fradet GJ. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: A review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc. Thorac Ann 2007;15:342‑4. 4. Conlon NP, Redmond KC, Celi LA.

  7. Latitudinal clines in Drosophila melanogaster: body size, allozyme ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Body size may be measured as fresh weight, wing length, wing area or thorax length. .... starvation resistance. Indeed, a latitudinal cline for star- vation resistance and desiccation resistance is present in. Indian populations of D. melanogaster (Karan et al. 1998). ..... 215 effects. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the insulin-.

  8. K.A.Subramanian (2005) Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Subramaniam

    reddish brown paler towards lateral and undersides. Thorax: Dark chocolate brown above, which pales to golden olivaceous-brown on sides. Legs: Black. Hind femora marked with bright blood-red spot. Wings: Transparent and tinted with deep golden amber at base. In the hind wings the amber tint encircles a black opaque.

  9. REML estimates of genetic parameters of sexual dimorphism for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    male traits, is present in most animal species. In Drosophila melanogaster, females have a larger body size and longer wings and thorax. Other differences, for example the pig- mentation of the abdomen, make it possible to distinguish flies from the two sexes. This sexual dimorphism is believed to evolve under the pressure ...

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting adherence to asthma controller ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caress AL, Beaver K, Luker K, Campbell M, Wood- cock A. Involvement in treatment decisions: what do adults with asthma want and what do they get? Results of a cross sectional survey. Thorax. 2005 Mar;60(3):199-. 205. 23. Onyirimba F, Apter A, Reisine S, et al. Direct clini- cian-to-patient feedback discussion of inhaled ...

  11. Effects of body-size variation on flight-related traits in latitudinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... C) latitudinal populations of Drosophila melanogaster from the Indian subcontinent. We observed positive clinal variation in the wing– thorax ratio, wing aspect ratio and wing area, along a latitudinal gradient for both the sexes. In contrast, geographical changes in three parameters of flight ability, i.e. ...

  12. Clinical applications of PET-CT in nuclear medicine to medical specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    This regional training course about Clinical Applications of PET-Tc in nuclear medicine include: imaging, pathology, scintigraphy, computed tomography, radiology, endoscopy, magnetic resonance, biopsy, and histology. It also describes pathologies and diseases of organs and bone structures such as: musculoskeletal and osseous damage, tumors, fibroids, metastasize, neoplasm, adenopathies and cancer of liver, brain, glands, kidney, neck, thorax, lungs, uterus, ovaries, craniums, hypophysis etc

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Complications of tube thoracostomy for chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-01

    Feb 1, 2009 ... Laws D, Neville E, Duffy J. BTS guidelines for the insertion of a chest drain. Thorax 2003; 58. (suppl II): ii53-ii59. 6. Hyde J, Sykes T, Graham T. Reducing morbidity from chest drains. BMJ 1997; 314: 914. 7. American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. Thoracic trauma. In: Advanced Trauma.

  14. A Three-Compartment Model Describing Temperature Changes in Tethered Flying Blowflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Tinbergen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-compartment model is presented that describes temperature measurements of tethered flying blowflies, obtained by thermal imaging. During rest, the body temperature is approximately equal to the ambient temperature. At the start of flight, the thorax temperature increases exponentially with a

  15. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Peninsular India-A Field Guide. E

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Subramaniam

    35. Pigmy Dartlet (Agriocnemis pygmaea). Size: Male: Abdomen: 16-17mm, Hindwing: 9.5-10mm. Female: Abdomen: 18 mm, Hindwing: 11-12 mm. Description: A small apple green damselfly with black thoracic stripes orange coloured termianl abdominal segments. Male: Eyes:Black above, pale apple green below. Thorax:.

  16. How do elite endurance runners alter movements of the spine and pelvis as running speed increases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Stephen J; Mason, Duncan; Bramah, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Elite endurance runners are characterised by their performance ability and higher running economy. However, there is relatively little research aimed at identifying the biomechanical characteristics of this group. This study aimed to understand how motions of the pelvis, lumbar spine and thorax change with speed in a cohort of elite endurance runners (n=14) and a cohort of recreational runners (n=14). Kinematic data were collected during over ground running at four speeds ranging from 3.3 to 5.6ms(-1) and a linear mixed model used to understand the effect of speed on both range of motion and mean sagittal inclination. The results showed the two groups to exhibit similar changes in range of motion as speed was increased, with the most pronounced increases being observed in the transverse plane. However, the adaptation of thorax inclination with speed differed between the two groups. Whereas the recreational runners increased thorax inclination as running speed was increased, elite endurance runners consistently maintained a more upright thorax position. This is the first study to identify specific differences in upper body motions between recreational and elite runners and the findings may have implications for training protocols aimed at improving running performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of mediastinum tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariglia, S.N.; Schultz, R.; Funari, M.B.G.; Menezes Neto, J.R. de

    1989-01-01

    A patient with a tumor in the anterior mediastinum is presented. The patient ununderswent chest X-ray studies and thorax CT which demonstrated a large mass involving the heart and compressing the lungs. A malignant teratoma was eventually diagnosed by anatomopathologic examination. (author) [pt

  18. Geometry parameters for musculoskeletal modelling of the shoulder system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, F C; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Pronk, G M; Van der Woude, L H; Rozendal, R H

    A dynamical finite-element model of the shoulder mechanism consisting of thorax, clavicula, scapula and humerus is outlined. The parameters needed for the model are obtained in a cadaver experiment consisting of both shoulders of seven cadavers. In this paper, in particular, the derivation of

  19. Erratum REML estimates of genetic parameters of sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dimorphism for wing and thorax length in. Drosophila melanogaster. Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau, Jean David, Patricia Gibert, Hélène Legout, Georges Pétavy, Brigitte Moreteau and Catherine Beaumont. J. Genet. 83, 163–170. The printed article (August 2004 issue) has a wrong figure 5. The correct figure 5 is printed below.

  20. Primary thyroid cancer after a first tumour in childhood (the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study): a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Liu, Yan; Berkow, Roger L.; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P.; Meadows, Anna T.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Survivors of malignant disease in childhood who have had radiotherapy to the head, neck, or upper thorax have an increased risk of subsequent primary thyroid cancer, but the magnitude of risk over the therapeutic dose range has not been well established. We aimed to quantify the long-term risk of

  1. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    groups based on the level of infection in their head, thorax, ovary, intestines and spermatheca. Four queens exhibited egg-laying deficiency, but visually all queens appeared healthy. Viral infection was generally at a low level in terms of AKI copy numbers, with 134/430 tissues (31 %) showing...

  2. Studies on the morphometric characteristics of the Simulium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thorax length, antenna length, wing length, wing width and femur length were measured and the data obtained were transformed into ratios. The morphometric studies on the Simulium damnosum populations in Nkpologu showed a higher abundance of savanna flies (54) than forest flies (21) among those sampled.

  3. Chylous ascites and chylothorax: a case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-07

    Sep 7, 2010 ... find out the possible etiology. It showed bilateral ... abdominal process such as nephrotic syndrome, hy- pothyroidism, cirrhosis of the liver, abdominal opera- tions, and pancreatitis (1). In our patient, CT of thorax and abdomen were not contributory. The treatment of the chylothorax and chylous ascites.

  4. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... involves centering the BPB seat on the seating position of the test bench seat. A 30 lb (133 Newton (N)) force is then applied to push the BPB seat rearward into the test bench seat. The dummy is prepared with... rearward by applying a 40 lb (177 N) force on the dummy's lower pelvis and the thorax. The dummy's knees...

  5. Thermal phenotypic plasticity of body size in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... 2006a), we analysed the phenotypic plasticity of a French population by considering three different samples, each of 10 isofemale lines collected in three different years. This paper was mostly dedicated to the analysis of the shapes of the reaction norms of two size traits, wing and thorax length, and of their ...

  6. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  7. Tracheobroncopathia Osteochondroplastica: Three Case Reports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... Generally chest radiography is normal, so thorax computed tomography can be remarkable in diagnosis of TO. Besides, final diagnosis can be established by viewing ossified nodules in trachea and bronchus through the fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Amyloidosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoma,.

  8. Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Vermeer (Frank)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of thrombolytic therapy with intracoronary streptokinase in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Five centres participated in the study, the Thorax center in Rotterdam (237 patients), the Academic Hospital of the Free

  9. Thoracic Splenosis | Jeebun | Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 22-year old man presented with the history of productive cough and also complained of some weight loss. Examination was essentially unremarkable. On detailed investigations like chest X-ray, CT thorax, Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Tc-99m scan, a diagnosis of thoracic splenosis was then made. To conclude,

  10. Case Report: A Rare Case of Sternal Erosion Due to Bronchogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed osteolytic erosion of manubrium sterni, along with a mass of lesion in the upper lobe of left lung and left sided mediastinal lymphadenopathy. CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the left lung mass showed squamous cell carcinoma and FNAC of the sternal ...

  11. Thermal phenotypic plasticity of body size in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... body size in Drosophila melanogaster: sexual dimorphism and genetic correlations. Jean R. David, Amir Yassin, Jean-Claude Moreteau, Helene Legout and Brigitte Moreteau. J. Genet. 90, 295–302. Table 1. Correlations between wing and thorax length at the within (n = 420) and between line level (n = 30). Temperature.

  12. Malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Alkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy percent of patients with malignant mesothelioma have had exposure to asbestos fibers. Other patients without this exposure have had chronic pleural inflammation or received radiation to the thorax. Occasionally patients present with no obvious exposure history relevant to the development of malignant mesothelioma. This diagnosis needs to be in the differential diagnosis of all patients with unexplained pleural disease.

  13. Scintigraphic diagnosis of spleen complication; Diagnostic scintigraphique d'une splenose thoracique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viau, P.; Tessonnier, L.; Bussiere, F. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice, (France); Darcourt, J. [CHU de Nice, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The thorax splenosis does not justify an invasive exploration. The certainty diagnosis lies on the scintigraphy with denatured labelled erythrocytes or labelled colloids that are less specific but propose an efficient alternative. The SPECT-T.D.M. seems to be the prime examination for this diagnosis. (N.C.)

  14. The influence of computer tomography on radiological diagnostics of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, P.; Glueck, E.; Siems, H.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of the present status of cancer diagnostics in the following organs and organ systems: neurocranium, visceral cranium and base of skull, larynx and thyroid, thorax, pancreas, retroperitoneum, kidneys and adrenal glands, pelvis, and skeletal system. The rank of computer tomography is compared with those of other examination techniques. (HT) [de

  15. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were

  16. CT and MR findings of chest wall masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Woo; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Eun Suk; Kwon, Sun Young; Ko, Eun Ju; Lee, Sang Young; Kang, Hye Jeong

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic radiological findings of various diseases forming chest wall masses by CT and MR. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MR findings of the chest wall masses in 31 patients. Morphology, density, features of contrast enhancement, and location of the mass within the bony thorax or soft tissue were analyzed. Benign lesions of bony thorax were osteochondritis (n = 2), tuberculosis (n = 1), and osteochon droma (n = 1). Malignant lesions of bony thorax were Ewing's sarcoma (n = 1) and metastasis (n = 3). Benign lesions of soft tissue were abscess (n = 1), tuberculosis (n = 7), lipoma (n = 1), cavernous hemangioma (n = 2), cavernous lymphangioma (n = 1), and neurofibroma (n = 1). Malignant lesions of soft tissue were lymphoma (n = 1), spindle cell sarcoma (n = 1), metastasis (n = 8). Tuberculosis of the chest wall (n = 8) were ill-defined hypodense (n = 7) or isodense (n = 1) mass than surrounding muscle on pre-enhanced CT scan. All massess showed peripheral rim enhancement after contrast enhancement. Five cases were associated with pulmonary or pleural tuberculosis. All malignant lesions of bony thorax showed bone destruction, but inflammatory processes also showed bone destruction. MR showed characteristic signal intensity in the case of lipoma (n = 1) and hemangioma (n = 1). We conclude that CT and MR are helpful for differential diagnosis of chest wall masses

  17. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The aorta was not clearly visible on lateral views. The mean ratio of the CVC diameter to the height of the fourth thoracic vertebral body (T4) was 1.08 ± 0.07. Speciesspecific differences exist in the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax.

  18. Comparison of the different kinematic patterns during lateral bending between subjects with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Danial, Pamela; Lee, Dongchul C

    2016-10-01

    Lateral bending is a prerequisite for various functional activities of daily life, which require combined three-dimensional motion. Even though a number of studies have evaluated spinal kinematic changes during lateral bending, the literature reveals a lack of data based on limb dominance. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic angular displacement of the spinal regions for dominant and non-dominant lateral bending in subjects with and without recurrent low back pain. Forty-four right hand dominant individuals with recurrent low back pain (43.1 [17.4] years) and without low back pain (39.7 [18.7] years) participated in this study. All participants were asked to perform trunk lateral bending to the dominant and non-dominant sides with a bar, three times repeatedly. The outcome measures included three-dimensional angular displacements for the three regions of the spine (upper thorax, lower thorax, and lumbar spine). Lumbar rotation (degrees) increased to the dominant side in the low back pain group (9.29 [1.06]) compared to the control group (6.20 [1.02]) with increased rotation in the upper thorax as well (t=-2.09, p=0.04). However, the upper thorax rotation increased in the low back pain group to the non-dominant side (t=2.08, p=0.03) and to the dominant side (t=-2.35, p=0.02). There was a group interaction with planes (F=5.82, p=0.02) during lateral bending. Although lower thorax motion was not different between groups, increased lumbar spine and upper thorax rotations to the dominant side in the low back pain group were evident during lateral bending. This directional asymmetry should be carefully monitored to understand increased lumbar rotation to the dominant side in subjects with recurrent low back pain. The interactions between group and plane explain compensation strategies through increased lumbar rotation to the dominant side with decreased lateral bending of the upper thorax in subjects with recurrent low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide on thermoregulation of African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Simone; Démares, Fabien J; Nicolson, Susan W; Medrzycki, Piotr; Pirk, Christian W W; Human, Hannelie

    Thiamethoxam is a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide that, as agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, has been shown to elicit a variety of sublethal effects in honey bees. However, information concerning neonicotinoid effects on honey bee thermoregulation is lacking. Thermoregulation is an essential ability for the honey bee that guarantees the success of foraging and many in-hive tasks, especially brood rearing. We tested the effects of acute exposure to thiamethoxam (0.2, 1, 2ng/bee) on the thorax temperatures of foragers exposed to low (22°C) and high (33°C) temperature environments. Thiamethoxam significantly altered honey bee thorax temperature at all doses tested; the effects elicited varied depending on the environmental temperature and pesticide dose to which individuals were exposed. When bees were exposed to the high temperature environment, the high dose of thiamethoxam increased their thorax temperature 1-2h after exposure. When bees were exposed to the low temperature, the higher doses of the neonicotinoid reduced bee thorax temperatures 60-90min after treatment. In both experiments, the neonicotinoid decreased the temperature of bees the day following the exposure. After a cold shock (5min at 4°C), the two higher doses elicited a decrease of the thorax temperature, while the lower dose caused an increase, compared to the control. These alterations in thermoregulation caused by thiamethoxam may affect bee foraging activity and a variety of in-hive tasks, likely leading to negative consequences at the colony level. Our results shed light on sublethal effect of pesticides which our bees have to deal with. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Medeiros, Cynthia Coelho de; Lins, Glaucia Virginia de Queiroz; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Lima, Marcelo Marques de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome. (author)

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins by magnetic resonance imaging: report of two cases; Diagnostico pre-natal de gemeos unidos com uso da ressonancia nuclear magnetica: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland de; Medeiros, Cynthia Coelho de; Lins, Glaucia Virginia de Queiroz [Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Noronha Neto, Carlos [Centro Integrado de Saude Amaury de Medeiros (CISAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Marcelo Marques de Souza [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: alexrolland@uol.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Conjoined twins have a rare prevalence and special curiosity among physicians and the general population. The reported frequency varies from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000 pregnancies. Its early diagnosis becomes very important when we think about pregnancy management, method of delivery and neonatal care. We describe two cases of conjoined twins diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance during prenatal care with the aim to better studying the fetus anatomy. The first conjoined twins were cephalopagus sharing head, thorax and abdominal wall and with two pelvis and four arms and four legs. The second were thoracopagus, united by thorax and part of abdomen. Magnetic resonance imaging contribution was not important to diagnose conjoined twins. However, it was useful to describe the shared organs, contributing to define fetal outcome. (author)

  2. Frequency of New Pulmonary Neoplasm Incidentally Detected by Computed Tomography Angiography in Acute Stroke Patients—A Single-Center Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Line; Christensen, Anders; Havsteen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incidental findings of suspect lung opacities are common in computed tomography (CT)-based thorax examinations, especially in high-risk patients, such as stroke patients. Screening with CT of the thorax has detected lung cancer in approximately .31%-1.20% of high-risk populations....... The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of suspect lung opacities on routine acute stroke imaging. METHODS: Seven hundred and fifty-seven consecutive stroke patients evaluated for intravenous thrombolysis treatment within 4.5 hours of symptom debut, from June 2009 to December 2011, were...... suspect lung opacities were categorized as malignant and 3 suspect lung opacities were categorized as presumed malignant. This corresponds to an incidence of 1.1% (8 of 750). CONCLUSIONS: Malignant lung opacities were found in approximately 1% of this high-risk population, whereas our findings do...

  3. Using NURBS type phantoms for the investigation of morphological factors affecting pulmonary anthropo-radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, J.; Broggio, D.; Franck, D.

    2010-01-01

    As existing phantoms used for the calibration of dosimetry measurements, notably in anthropo-radiometry, exhibit a poor anatomic realism because of their crude geometries, compositions and densities, and some other drawbacks, the authors, within the frame of improvement of calibration techniques, report the combined use of Mesh and NURBS-type phantoms (Non Uniform Rational B-Splines) which allow smooth shapes and finer geometries to be replicated. More precisely, they report the application of this type of phantoms to the modelling of a thorax and of a ribcage. They describe the protocols used to generate these phantoms and how some variations are introduced to take morphological characteristics (for example a female thorax) as well as various gamma ray distributions into account. Results are discussed in terms of validation of phantoms, and morphology variation

  4. TRAUMATIC GASTROPLEURAL FISTULA COMPLICATED BY EMPYEMA AND PNEUMOTHORAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We herein report a case of traumatic gastropleural fistula complicated by empyema and pneumothorax which is a rare entity. A 22 year old male was admitted with alleged history of stab injury to left lower chest. Patient was f ound to have left sided pneumothorax, for which intercostal drainage tube was inserted and the patient stabilised. Chest radiograph taken three days after the chest tube insertion showed persistent hydropneumothorax for which the patient underwent a contra st enhanced computed tomography of thorax (CECT. CECT of thorax revealed herniation of fundus of stomach through a defect in the left dome of diaphragm into the left thoracic cavity with leakage of oral contrast into the left pleural cavity. Preoperative diagnosis of gastropleural fistula was made and the same was confirmed in the intraoperative findings. The patient underwent laparotomy with repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the gastric perforation. The patient made an uneventful recovery

  5. Chest wall abnormalities and their clinical significance in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumbourlis, Anastassios C

    2014-09-01

    The thorax consists of the rib cage and the respiratory muscles. It houses and protects the various intrathoracic organs such as the lungs, heart, vessels, esophagus, nerves etc. It also serves as the so-called "respiratory pump" that generates the movement of air into the lungs while it prevents their total collapse during exhalation. In order to be performed these functions depend on the structural and functional integrity of the rib cage and of the respiratory muscles. Any condition (congenital or acquired) that may affect either one of these components is going to have serious implications on the function of the other. Furthermore, when these abnormalities occur early in life, they may affect the growth of the lungs themselves. The following article reviews the physiology of the respiratory pump, provides a comprehensive list of conditions that affect the thorax and describes their effect(s) on lung growth and function. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. In vivo regional quantitation of intrathoracic /sup 99m/Tc using SPECT: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.E.; Greer, K.; Lischko, M.

    1982-01-01

    A whole-body single-photon emission computed tomographic system (SPECT) was used to quantitate the activities of a series of /sup 99m/Tc point sources in the dog's thorax and to evaluate attenuation of a uniform esophageal line source containing a known concentration of /sup 99m/Tc. A first-order attenuation correction and an empirically derived attenuation coefficient of 0.09 cm-1 were used in the SPECT analyses of the intrathoracic point sources. The relationship between SPECT measurements of multiple point-source activities and the same sources measured in air was linear over a range of 100 to 1000 muCi (slope 1.08; R2 coefficient of determination 0.97). These data are sufficiently accurate to allow an estimate of the regional activity of radiopharmaceutical in the dog's thorax and justify their use in experimental quantitation of regional pulmonary perfusion

  7. Diagnosis of pulmonary infections with HIV (+) patients. Brought of aerosol DTPA-Tc99m and of Ga67 citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzo, I.; Quirce, R.; Serrano, J.; Jimenez, J.; Tabuenca, O.; Carril, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pulmonary clearance of aerosol DTPA-Tc99m is a technology easy to use, well support by patients with immediate results. With the pneumonia at Pneumocystis Carinii (PPC), the clearance is more sensitive and more specific than the thoracic scintigraphy with Ga67. Used with a thorax radiography, results will lead to three directions: High probability of PPC, di phasic curve and very fast T50, equal inferior to 5,10 mn. Low probability of PPC, monoexponential curve and abnormal thorax radiography or di phasic curve with a value T50 superior to 5,10 mn. With these patients other explorations will be made (Ga67, biopsy) and if possible search pulmonary tuberculosis. Extra pulmonary pathology: monoexponential curve associated with a normal thoracic radiography. 2 figs

  8. Long term treatment with gabapentin in an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Andrews, N.; Wegener, Gregers

    2013-01-01

    . Daily treatment with gabapentin 30 mg/kg sc. or saline for 6 consecutive weeks. Mechanical sensitivity thresholds (MST) to von Frey stimulation of hindpaws and thorax measured by both reflex withdrawal and supra-spinal responses. Anxiety-like behaviour using the openfield paradigm. Drug effect...... was measured after initial dose, 1 and 6 weeks of treatment. Preliminary results show that saline-treated SCC animals (N=10) have significantly lower MST with supra-spinal responses on the thorax compared to saline-treated shams (N=10), and gabapentin-treated SCC (N=10) and sham animals (N=10) throughout...... the study. The SCC animals had significantly decreased MST with reflex responses on the hindpaws in the two first time points compared with gabapentin-treated SCC animals (and both sham groups). There was no effect of injury on the MST with supra-spinal responses on the hindpaws and thus no effect...

  9. Traumatic Rupture of the Right Hemidiaphragm: Diagnosis aided by Computerized Tomography and Image Reformation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Ranjan R; Sankhla, Dilip; Al-Qassabi, Badriya; Al Ramadani, Khalsa

    2008-07-01

    Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm (TRD) poses a challenge to both radiologists and surgeons. They are uncommon and occur following blunt abdominal or lower thoracic trauma. The right side involvement is less common than the left side and is easily missed. Spiral computed tomography (Spiral CT) with image reformation is very useful in the diagnosis of TRD and in identifying associated injuries. Early diagnosis and repair reduces mortality and morbidity. We present the case of a 16 year old boy who was involved in a high speed traffic accident with blunt injury to his thorax and abdomen. He was referred from a peripheral hospital in Oman for further management at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. A spiral CT scan of thorax and abdomen with image reformation helped in the early diagnosis and management of the traumatic rupture of his right hemidiaphragm.

  10. Penetrating abdomino-thoracic injury with an iron rod: An anaesthetic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdomino-thoracic injuries are potentially life-threatening due to the associated haemorrhagic shock and visceral injury. The management of these injuries poses specific challenges in pre-hospital care, transport, and management strategies. We report a 35-year-old male having impalement injury of the left thorax and left upper arm with a metallic rod used for construction of the house after a fall from height. One rod penetrated thorax from left shoulder and exit point was present just above the iliac crest and second rod was seen piercing left upper arm. Patient was successfully managed without any intraoperative, post-operative surgical complications, neurological damage or permanent injuries.

  11. Airway protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    Cough and swallow are highly coordinated reflex behaviors whose common purpose is to protect the airway. The pharynx is the common tube for air and food/liquid movement from the mouth into the thorax, has been largely overlooked, and is potentially seen as just a passive space. The thyropharyngeus muscle responds to cough inducing stimuli to prepare a transient holding area for material that has been removed from the subglottic airway. The cricopharyngeus muscle participates with the larynx to ensure regulation of pressure when a bolus/air is moving from the upper airway through to the thorax (i.e., inspiration or swallow) or the reverse (i.e., expiration reflex or vomiting). These vital mechanisms have not been evaluated in clinical conditions but could be impaired in many neurodegenerative diseases, leading to aspiration pneumonia. These newly described airway protective mechanisms need further study, especially in healthy and pathologic human populations.

  12. Multidetector row CT for imaging the paediatric tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaioannou, Georgia; Young, Carolyn; Owens, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners has altered the approach to imaging the paediatric thorax. In an environment where the rapid acquisition of CT data allows general hospitals to image children instead of referring them to specialist paediatric centres, it is vital that general radiologists have access to protocols appropriate for paediatric applications. Thus a dramatic reduction in the delivered radiation dose is ensured with optimal contrast bolus delivery and timing, and inappropriate repetition of the scans is avoided. This article focuses on the main principles of volumetric CT imaging that apply generically to all MDCT scanners. We describe the reconstruction techniques for imaging the paediatric thorax and the low-dose protocols used in our institution on a 16-slice detector CT scanner. Examples of the commonest clinical applications are also given. (orig.)

  13. Computed tomography of chest wall abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Morimoto, Shizuo; Akira, Masanori

    1986-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions of the chest wall become less common because of the improvement of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents. Over a 5-year period, 7 patients with chest wall inflammatory diseases underwent chest computed tomography. These were 2 tuberculous pericostal abscesses, 2 empyema necessitatis, 1 spinal caries, and 2 bacterial chest wall abscesses (unknown organisms). Computed tomography (CT) helped in demonstrating the density, border, site, and extent of the lesions. CT images also demonstrated the accompaning abnormalities which included bone changes, pleural calcification, or old tuberculous changes of the lung. CT was very effective to demonstrate the communicating portions from the inside of the bony thorax to the outside of the bony thorax in 2 empyema necessitatis. (author)

  14. Cardiorespiratory Frequency Monitoring Using the Principal Component Analysis Technique on UWB Radar Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pittella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Principal Component Analysis technique is applied on the signal measured by an ultra wide-band radar to compute the breath and heart rate of volunteers. The measurement set-up is based on an indirect time domain reflectometry technique, using an ultra wide-band antenna in contact with the subject’s thorax, at the heart height, and a vector network analyzer. The Principal Component Analysis is applied on the signal reflected by the thorax and the obtained breath frequencies are compared against measures acquired by a piezoelectric belt, a widely used commercial system for respiratory activity monitoring. Breath frequency results show that the proposed approach is suitable for breath activity monitoring. Moreover, the wearable ultra wide-band radar gives also promising results for heart activity frequency detection.

  15. An unusual case of rapidly progressive contractures: Case report and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasree R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, diagnosed as cervical dystonia, was referred to our tertiary center. After a trivial trauma he had developed painful lumps in the axial region, which was followed by restricted movements of neck, shoulder, and abdominal muscles over 4 months. He had kyphoscoliosis, torticollis, rigid abdomen, and multiple muscle contractures. He also had short great toes. A detailed skeletal survey showed calcification in the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder anterior chest wall, thorax, and paraspinal muscles; there was also beaking of vertebrae, which was confirmed by CT thorax. This report showcases the diagnostic challenge posed by myositis ossificans progressiva, which can rarely cause rapidly progressing muscle contractures. A brief review of literature is also presented.

  16. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoil, M.; Gillis, P.; Gossuin, Y.; Pankhurst, Q. A.; Hautot, D.

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  17. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoil, M; Gillis, P; Gossuin, Y; Pankhurst, Q A; Hautot, D

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin

  18. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoil, M [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gillis, P [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gossuin, Y [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Pankhurst, Q A [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Hautot, D [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-en-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  19. Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounibos, L. P.; Makhni, S.; Alto, B. W.; Kesavaraju, B.

    2008-01-01

    Surplus or ‘wasteful’ killing of uneaten prey has been documented in the fourth larval instar of various species of the mosquito genus Toxorhynchites that occur in treeholes and other phytotelmata. Here we document surplus killing by the predatory midge Corethrella appendiculata, which in Florida cohabits treeholes and artificial containers with larvae of Toxorhynchites rutilus. Provided with a surfeit of larval mosquito prey, surplus killing was observed only in the fourth instar of C. appendiculata, peaking in intensity in the final 24 h prior to pupation, as observed for Toxorhynchites spp. Attack sites identified from videotaped encounters with mosquito prey were divided among head, thorax, abdomen, and siphon. Consumed mosquito larvae (n = 70) were attacked primarily on the head (46%) or siphon (34%), but surplus-killed prey (n = 30) were attacked predominantly on the thorax (83%). Despite its independent evolution among different insect species in aquatic container habitats, the functional significance of prepupal surplus killing remains unclear. PMID:19081802

  20. Pulmonary Artery Agenesis with Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghobadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral Pulmonary Artery Agenesis (UPAA is a rare congenital anomaly during the 4 th  week of gestational age. It is defined as an absence of pulmonary parenchyma and its supporting artery. A 9-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital because of chronic cough. Chest examination showed a decrement in lung sound of right hemi-thorax with expiratory wheeze. Chest radiography (CXR revealed a semi-opaque right hemi-thorax. Chest CT with intra-venous contrast demonstrated absence of the right pulmonary artery and lung parenchyma with hyper-inflated left lung and dextro-position of mediastinum. This case emphasizes that in patients with respiratory compliant and chronic cough CXR must be done to rule out similar diagnosis other than asthma.    

  1. Chest X-ray: routine indication in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Beese, M.; Mester, J.; Brumma, K.; Beyer, W.; Clausen, M.

    1998-01-01

    The hospital files of 609 patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer were analysed. Pulmonary formation of metastases was diagnosed in 50 patients. The thyroglobulin value at the time of diagnosis was compared with the chest X-ray findings and, if present, additional diagnostic information such as Iodine-131 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) and thorax CT. The sensitivity of the chest X-ray to detect pulmonary metastases was at 52% lower than that of WBS (64%), thorax CT (82%) and thyroglobulin during suppression therapy (86%). Among the patients with papillary carcinoma stage I and II (UICC 1987), only 1 patient developed pulmonary metastases during follow up. In this low risk group of patients, detection of lung metastases exclusively by chest X-ray, without elevation of thyroglobulin level is extremely rare (calculated probability 1/4000) and associated with considerable costs. (orig.) [de

  2. Diagnostic radiology - focussing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, L.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this book has been grouped under two main headings, namely General Aspects and Technical Aspects. The first part, dealing with more general aspects, discusses the occupational background of X-ray medical technicians, places of work and equipment. This is supplemented by an outline of contrast media, exposure tables, explanation of terms for movement and positioning, and of symbols. X-ray films, and how they ought to be used and handled, are discussed and hints are given as to the preparations to be taken prior to X-ray examinations. The part on Technical Aspects deals with focussing techniques for the most current X-ray examinations, presenting drawings and symbols. This part is subdivided into various chapters in accordance with the various body regions such as skull, spine, pelvis, lower extremities, osseous thorax, upper extremities, thorax, and abdomen. (MG) [de

  3. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  4. Bochdalek hernia with intrathoracic kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti D Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bochdalek hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic defect that allows abdominal viscera to herniate into the thorax. Intrathoracic kidney is a very rare finding representing less than 5% of all renal ectopias. A 20 year old female presented with complaints of dry cough since 15 days and intermittent fever of 4 days duration. As part of routine investigation chest X-ray was done which showed a left retro-cardiac homogenous opacity, rest of the lung field appeared normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed the right kidney to be normal, left kidney was not visualized. Computed tomography scan demonstrated left-sided Bochdalek hernia with the left kidney within the thorax. An IVP was done to confirm the diagnosis. Many a times intrathoracic kidney is confused with a thoracic mass and the patient undergoes a battery of unnecessary investigations, surgical interventions and image guided biopsies for the same, hence to avoid this we are reporting this case.

  5. Experimental determination of foetal doses received during conventional X rays explorations of troncus. Influence of the lead apron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pifarre, X.; Brualla, L.; Ruiz, J.; Escalada, C.; Planes, D.; Paredes, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the real doses received by pregnant women during some X rays conventional explorations of thorax and abdomen. The procedure that has been used is the measurement of doses by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters located on the uterus position of a Random Phantom, and simulating different conventional X rays explorations. The results of such measurements are compared with other data published in ICRP 34, which were our reference. We have obtained smaller doses with the measurements than those derived from ICRP 34. The causes of these differences are analysed. The influence of the use of lead apron to protect abdomen during thorax examination is also analysed, computing the real value of this protection. We conclude that it seems interesting to obtain measurements of theses doses with our own equipment and techniques, because it offers a more realistic approximation to real doses received by patients. (author)

  6. Radiation doses in angiography in the University Hospital of Caracas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Aponte, Angel R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work is evaluated, in angiography procedures carried out in the Radiology Department of the University Hospital of Caracas, the radiation dose received by the exposed professional when they carry out these explorations invasive and the followed norms of radiological protection during the exploration. The measurement was carried out on the exposed professional conformed by a medical interventionist, a medical assistant (resident), a nurse and a technical radiologist. Dosimeters TL was placed in the inter-orbital line at level of the crystalline lens, on thyroid, on the hands, thorax, breast, and on the gonads. The maximum values of dose (in mGy) that were measured: 1,84 at level of the crystalline lens; 1,24 on thyroid; 9,04 on the right hand; 65,04 on hand left; 0,07 on thorax; 0,07 on Breast; 0,07 for ovaries; and smaller than 0,04 for testicle. (author)

  7. Role of volume rendered 3-D computed tomography in conservative management of trauma-related thoracic injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OʼLeary, Donal Peter

    2012-09-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are a tool used commonly in the construction industry and are widely available. Accidental injuries from nail guns are common, and several cases of suicide using a nail gun have been reported. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging, together with echocardiography, has been shown to be the gold standard for investigation of these cases. We present a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the accident and emergency unit of a community hospital following an accidental pneumatic nail gun injury to his thorax. Volume-rendered CT of the thorax allowed an accurate assessment of the thoracic injuries sustained by this patient. As there was no evidence of any acute life-threatening injury, a sternotomy was avoided and the patient was observed closely until discharge. In conclusion, volume-rendered 3-dimensional CT can greatly help in the decision to avoid an unnecessary sternotomy in patients with a thoracic nail gun injury.

  8. Roentgen signs in diagnostic imaging. Vol. 4/1: The chest. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.; Farrer-Meschan, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This first part of two of the volume on biomedical radiography of the thorax primarily deals with the roentgenography of the body regions and organs mentioned in the title augmentation. Chapters: Introduction. Patient positioning, projections, pathological findings, terminology. Chaper 1, Upper respiratory tract and lungs. Chapter 2, Radiography of the diaphragm, pleura, the osseous thorax, and the upper respiratory tract (excluding the larynx). Chapter 3, Mammography. Chapter 4, Laryngography. Chapter 5, Radiographic signs of pathological changes in the lungs - a survey. Chapter 6, Radiographic signs of respiratory illness in newborns, infants and children. Chapter 7, Unsharp, homogenous shadows in the lung parenchyma. Chapter 8, Roentgendiagnosis of round foci in the lung. Chapter 9, Linear and reticular lung shadows. Chapter 10, Diffuse and focal changes of the lung parenchyma with enhanced radiolucency. Non-roentgenographic imaging methods, such as CT, NMR imaging or nuclear medicine, are discussed only occasionally. (orig./MG) With 1590 figs., 61 tabs [de

  9. Effects of lung elasticity on the sound propagation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Wada, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masanori; Horii, Noriaki; Mizushima, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Sound propagation in the lung was simulated for gaining insight into its acoustic properties. A thorax model consisting of lung parenchyma, thoracic bones, trachea and other tissues was made from human CT images. Acoustic nature of the lung parenchyma and bones was expressed with the Biot model of poroelastic material, whereas trachea and tissues were modeled with gas and an elastic material. A point sound source of white noises was placed in the first bifurcation of trachea. The sound propagation in the thorax model was simulated in a frequency domain. The results demonstrated the significant attenuation of sound especially in frequencies larger than 1,000 Hz. Simulations with a stiffened lung demonstrated suppression of the sound attenuation for higher frequencies observed in the normal lung. These results indicate that the normal lung has the nature of a low-pass filter, and stiffening helps the sound at higher frequencies to propagate without attenuations. (author)

  10. The fourth incision: a cosmetic autopsy incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Amarjyoti

    2010-03-01

    Autopsy procedure includes thorough external examination as well as internal examination including opening of all the body cavities for proper visualization of all the visceral organs. As such, there remains incision marks with stitches which harts the sentiment of the already traumatized relatives of the deceased. Moreover, it looks odd especially in cases of otherwise healthy dead bodies. So, autopsy incisions should be such that, we can get maximum possible visualization of the body cavities, particularly the thorax and abdomen, and at the same time the incision as well as the stitch marks are also hidden. This article is aimed to describe few modifications in the autopsy incisions for opening the thorax and abdomen and also proper visualization of the neck structures during autopsy where the incisions and the stitches are kept hidden.

  11. Thoracic ROM measurement system with visual bio-feedback: system design and biofeedback evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takeshi; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujitani, Junko; Koike, Tomokazu; Fujimoto, Masashi; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) need to improve their thorax mobility. Thoracic ROM is one of the simplest and most useful indexes to evaluate the respiratory function. In this paper, we have proposed the prototype of a simple thoracic ROM measurement system with real-time visual bio-feedback in the chest expansion test. In this system, the thoracic ROM is measured using a wire-type linear encoder whose wire is wrapped around the thorax. In this paper, firstly, the repeatability and reliability of measured thoracic ROM was confirmed as a first report of the developed prototype. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of the bio-feedback system on the respiratory function. The result of the experiment showed that it was easier to maintain a large and stable thoracic ROM during deep breathing by using the real-time visual biofeedback system of the thoracic ROM.

  12. Congenital lobar emphysema: Is surgery routinely necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Ismet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE is a rare congenital abnormality characterised by overinflation of a pulmonary lobe. Its aetiology is unknown. The management of CLE has traditionally been surgical. A newborn boy with a birthweight of 2.5 kg was delivered at full-term by caesarian section due to food delivery. There was no marked respiratory distress at birth, and little meconium stained liquor was seen on the skin. The initial diagnosis was meconium aspiration syndrome. After computed tomography of the thorax, CLE was diagnosed. The patient was observed throughout for a week and the CT of the thorax was repeated, which revealed that the emphysema had resolved. The nonoperative approach should be considered in asymptomatic patients with CLE.

  13. Swyer-James-Macleod's syndrome. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco C, Dario; Ojeda Leon, Paulina; Varo Acosta, Humberto; Salcedo Veles, Patricia; Salazar Juan Carlos

    1998-01-01

    This is a case report about a 67 years-old female patient with respiratory syndrome of 8 years with cough and dyspnoea. End-inspiration crackles in the pulmonary auscultation were found in left hemi thorax. Chest x-ray in expiration and inspiration showed hyperluscency and air trapping in the same hemi-thorax. Chest high-resolution CT revealed a low sized, oligohemic left lung with cylindrical bronchiectasis. Perfusion scintigraphy 99Tc labeled showed markedly left lung hypo-perfusion. Mild obstructive process was found in pulmonary function test. Lung biopsy of lingula reported bronchiolitis obliterans. Considered all the results that were obtained from clinical, x-ray and histopathology, a diagnosis of Swyer-James-Macleods syndrome was made

  14. Ultrasound-guided pleural access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee, Samira; Argento, A Christine

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography of the thorax has become a more recognized tool in pulmonary medicine, thanks to continuing clinical research that has proven its many valuable roles in the day-to-day management of pulmonary and pleural diseases. Ultrasound examination is a cost-effective imaging modality that permits the pulmonologist to obtain information about the pathologies in the thorax without the risk of exposure to ionizing radiation, providing the examiner with real-time and immediate results. Its ease of use and training along with its portability to the patient's bedside and accurate examination of the pleural space has allowed for safer pleural procedures such as thoracentesis, chest tube placement, tunneled pleural catheter placement, and medical thoracoscopy. In this review, we summarize the technique of chest ultrasonography, compare ultrasound to other frequently used thoracic imaging modalities, and focus on its use in obtaining pleural access while performing invasive pleural procedures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Hepatoblastoma in an infant with paternal uniparental disomy 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Mariko; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Momoeda, Mikio; Nakagawa, Machiko; Hirata, Michio; Kusakawa, Isao; Yamanaka, Michiko

    2012-12-01

    A 29-year-old primigravida developed polyhydramnios at 24 weeks of gestation, requiring six serial amnioreductions. In addition, prenatal ultrasound examinations revealed a fetus with small stomach pouch, small thorax, slightly shortened limbs, and skin edema; paternal uniparental disomy 14(upd(14)pat) phenotype was suspected. At 37 weeks, the patient delivered a 2558 g female infant with characteristic facial features, webbed neck, thoracic deformity, abdominal wall defect, skin edema, overlapping fingers, placentomegaly, and small thorax with 'coat-hanger' appearance of the ribs on chest X-ray. A phenotype consistent with upd(14)pat was confirmed by DNA analysis. Although the infant's condition was initially stable, hepatoblastoma was subsequently detected and right hepatectomy was performed on day 224. On day 382, the infant was discharged with in-home respiratory management. © 2012 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2012 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.W.; Bucheler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring canine heart size in radiographs was developed on the basis that there is a good correlation between heart size and body length regardless of the conformation of the thorax. The lengths of the long and short axes of the heart of 100 clinically normal dogs were determined with calipers, and the dimensions were scaled against the length of vertebrae dorsal to the heart beginning with T4. The sum of the long and short axes of the heart expressed as vertebral heart size was 9.7 +/- 0.5 vertebrae. The differences between dogs with a wide or deep thorax, males and females, and right or left lateral recumbency were not significant. The caudal vena cava was 0.75 vertebrae +/- 0.13 in comparison to the length of the vertebra over the tracheal bifurcation

  17. A case report of corgenotal cystic adenomatoid malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Cha, Kyung Sub; Chi, Je Geun

    1987-01-01

    Congenital cystic adnomatoid malformation (CCAM) is rare pulmonary cystic disease. CCAM has been detected on prematurity, stillborn and respiratory distress infant or child by chest X-ray film and CT scan. One case of CCAM diagnosed in utero at gestational age 22 weeks is reported with sonographic findings and autopsy findings. Ultrasonographic findings are large cystic lesion in fetal thorax and fetal hydrops without hydramnios. The survival of these infants is very poor despite accurate prenatal diagnosis and maximal postnatal care

  18. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Amardeep Singh; Panteleimon Mortzos; Torben Lykke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum, neck and upper thorax revealed internal carotid dissection. The symptoms and hallucinatory experiences resolved soon after antiplatelet therapy was commenced. We propose peduncular hallucinosis as the ...

  19. Beware of the devastating pulmonary aspergillosis syndromes In certain environments

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooblall, M

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays with more stem cell transplants and immunosuppressive therapies there has been a rise in pulmonary aspergillosis syndromes. The following illustrates such a case. A 49 year old man had a past history of ankylosing spondylitis with a bilateral hip replacement. He was also on surveillance for a superficial bladder tumour since 2007. His chest x-ray in 2008 was normal. In 2010 his CXR showed patchy opacification in the right apex. CT thorax confirm fibrotic changes.

  20. Human thoracic anatomy relevant to implantable artificial hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, G.B.; Kiraly, R.J.; Nose, Y.

    1976-10-01

    The objective of the study is to define the human thorax in a quantitative statistical manner such that the information will be useful to the designers of cardiac prostheses, both total replacement and assist devices. This report pertains specifically to anatomical parameters relevant to the total cardiac prosthesis. This information will also be clinically useful in that the proposed recipient of a cardiac prosthesis can by simple radiography be assured of an adequate fit with the prosthesis prior to the implantation.

  1. Dermatophilus congolensis infections in wildlife in New York State.

    OpenAIRE

    Salkin, I F; Stone, W B; Gordon, M A

    1981-01-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis infection is described for the first time in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). This actinomycete was also recovered from a raccoon (Procyon lotor) carcass which had been frozen for a year. Encrusted lesions or denuded patches or both were seen during necropsy on the head, thorax, abdomen, and legs of each carcass. D. congolensis was demonstrated in strained smears or paraffin sections or both from the three animals and was recovered...

  2. THE EXPERIENCE OF DECOMPRESSION-AND-STABILIZING SURGERIES IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THORACIC AND LUMBAR SPINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shapovalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the surgical treatment of 34 patients with multiple malignant, mainly metastases tumors of thorax and lumbar spine, using spinal implants. The results of the estimation of life quality, neurological status and survival after the surgery have shown the effectiveness of decompress and stabilization technologies at any variants of malignant tumor spine injuries, especially involving specific therapy. 27 patients were observed during the period from 10 months to 5 years.

  3. Implementation of tomo-therapy in France: clinic results over two years; Mise en oeuvre de la tomotherapie en France: resultats cliniques a deux ans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Yassa, M. [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Giraud, P.; Zefkili, S.; Campana, F. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Kantor, G.; Dejean, C. [Institut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Lisbona, A.; Mahe, M.A. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2010-10-15

    As three French centres (Curie Institute in Paris, Bergonie Institute in Bordeaux, and Rene-Gauducheau centre in Nantes) have been equipped with helical tomo-therapy in 2007, the authors discuss the results obtained after two years of operation. More than six hundred patients have been treated, mainly for head or neck, central nervous system, thorax, pelvic and abdominal cavity, and bone tumours. Session durations, acute toxicity rates, and toxicity effects are discussed. Short communication

  4. Thanatophoric Dysplasia; a Rare Case Report on a Congenital Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Francis Yuvaraj; Ponuswamy Kasirajan Sankaran; Gunapriya Raghunath; Zareena Begum Kumaresan; Kumaresan kumaresan M

    2017-01-01

    The rare form of skeletal dysplasia is thanatophoric dysplasia. The meaning for thanatophoric dysplasia is death bearing which is derived from Greek word. It occurs 1in 20,000 to 50,000. It is mainly due to mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3gene. Features of thanatophoric dysplasia are frontal bossing, prominent eyes, narrow thorax, protruded abdomen and bowed legs. The knowledge about this condition is useful in the fields of Anatomy, Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology...

  5. histiocytose langerhansienne multiviscerale avec atteinte auriculaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 déc. 2007 ... des opacités réticulo-nodulaires bilatérales ainsi que des adénopathies médiastinales à la radiographie et au scan- ner du thorax. Le scanner des rochers a montré un comblement de. J. TUN ORL - N° 19 DÉCEMBRE 2007. 41. HISTIOCYTOSE LANGERHANSIENNE. MULTIVISCERALE AVEC ATTEINTE.

  6. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUMEUR NEUROECTODERMIQUE PERIPHERIQUE PRIMITIVE DES PARTlES MOLLES. Fig. 3: TDM: Tumeur à développement exo et endopelvien refoulant la vessie. 5 mm, Radiographie du thorax tuberculine normale, BK crâchat directe négatif). Le drainage chirurgical a été décidé, et la patiente a été abordée par voie ...

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2 juil. 2015 ... La radiographie de thorax montrait une opacité apicale droite hétérogène de 5 cm de grand axe avec lyse costale du deuxième arc antérieur droit. Le scanner X thoracique montrait une masse tumorale du segment apical droit associée à des adénopathies médiastinales. La biopsie bronchique concluait à ...

  8. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    4 août 2015 ... La radiographie du thorax et l'angio-scanner thoracique montrent un volumineux anévrisme non compliqué de la crosse et du tiers distal de l'aorte thoracique descendante (7cmx7.8cm en vue axiale). Le patient a bénéficié d'une cure chirurgicale de ce volumineux anévrisme de l'aorte thoracique. Nous.

  9. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2 déc. 2015 ... Il était sous méthotrexate. La radiographie standard du thorax et la tomodensitométrie montraient un décollement pleural complet droit, des nodules et des images excavées sur les deux champs pulmonaires. Il a bénéficié d'un drainage thoracique aspiratif permettant une bonne ré-expansion pulmonaire.

  10. Fibroleiomioma hamartomatoso múltiple pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Zarate Galeano

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of P .M.H.F.L. is reported in a 55 year old woman, who was admitted to Bogota's St. Clara Hospital, with respiratory symptoms over a ten year period RX of the thorax revealed multiple bilateral nodules. She underwent antituberculosis treatment for five years without clinical or radiological improvement. A biopsy allowed us to make a definitive diagnosis. We surveyed the literature, the pathological findings and the treatment of P.M.H.F.L.

  11. Effect of staff training on radiation dose in pediatric CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, Azadeh; Weber, Michael; Homolka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pediatric patient CT doses were compared before and after staff training. • Staff training increasing dose awareness resulted in patient dose reduction. • Application of DRL reduced number of CT's with unusually high doses. • Continuous education and training are effective regarding dose optimization. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of staff training on radiation doses applied in pediatric CT scans. Methods: Pediatric patient doses from five CT scanners before (1426 scans) and after staff training (2566 scans) were compared statistically. Examinations included cranial CT (CCT), thoracic, abdomen–pelvis, and trunk scans. Dose length products (DLPs) per series were extracted from CT dose reports archived in the PACS. Results: A pooled analysis of non-traumatic scans revealed a statistically significant reduction in the dose for cranial, thoracic, and abdomen/pelvis scans (p < 0.01). This trend could be demonstrated also for trunk scans, however, significance could not be established due to low patient frequencies (p > 0.05). The percentage of scans performed with DLPs exceeding the German DRLs was reduced from 41% to 7% (CCT), 19% to 5% (thorax-CT), from 9% to zero (abdominal–pelvis CT), and 26% to zero (trunk; DRL taken as summed DRLs for thorax plus abdomen–pelvis, reduced by 20% accounting for overlap). Comparison with Austrian DRLs – available only for CCT and thorax CT – showed a reduction from 21% to 3% (CCT), and 15 to 2% (thorax CT). Conclusions: Staff training together with application of DRLs provide an efficient approach for optimizing radiation dose in pediatric CT practice

  12. A case report of corgenotal cystic adenomatoid malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Cha, Kyung Sub; Chi, Je Geun [Cha Women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-08-15

    Congenital cystic adnomatoid malformation (CCAM) is rare pulmonary cystic disease. CCAM has been detected on prematurity, stillborn and respiratory distress infant or child by chest X-ray film and CT scan. One case of CCAM diagnosed in utero at gestational age 22 weeks is reported with sonographic findings and autopsy findings. Ultrasonographic findings are large cystic lesion in fetal thorax and fetal hydrops without hydramnios. The survival of these infants is very poor despite accurate prenatal diagnosis and maximal postnatal care.

  13. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS. Scintigraphie pulmonaire au citrate de Ga67 chez des patients VIH(+) ou sida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumal, J.; Pena, C.; Mata, F.; Paternostro, C.; Penafiel, A. (Hopital Son Dureta, Palma de Mallorca (Spain))

    1993-04-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs.

  14. COORDINATION BETWEEN RIBS MOTION AND THORACOABDOMINAL VOLUMES IN SWIMMERS DURING RESPIRATORY MANEUVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine J. Sarro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify if swimmers present better chest wall coordination during breathing than healthy non-athletes analyzing the correlation between ribs motion and the variation of thoracoabdominal volumes. The results of two up-to-date methods based on videogrammetry were correlated in this study. The first one measured the volumes of 4 separate compartments of the chest wall (superior thorax, inferior thorax, superior abdomen and inferior abdomen as a function of time. The second calculated the rotation angle of the 2nd to the 10th ribs around the quasi-transversal axis also in function of time. The chest wall was represented by 53 markers, attached to the ribs, vertebrae, thorax and abdomen of 15 male swimmers and of 15 non- athletes. A kinematical analysis system equipped with 6 digital video cameras (60Hz was used to obtain the 3D coordinates of the markers. Correlating the curves of ribs rotation angles with the curves of the separate volumes, swimmers presented higher values than non-athletes when the superior and inferior abdomen were considered and the highest correlation values were found in swimmers for the inferior thorax. These results suggest a better coordination between ribs motion and thoracoabdominal volumes in swimmers, indicating the prevalent and coordinated action of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to inflate and deflate the chest wall. The results further suggest that swimming practice leads to the formation of an optimized breathing pattern and can partially explain the higher lung volumes found in these athletes reported in literature.

  15. Determination of the dose index in computerized tomography using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Determinacion del indice de dosis en tomografia computada usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin, J.C.; Calderon, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work the obtained results of the determination of the dose index are presented in thorax studies in computed tomography and helical tomography carried out in Mexico using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe developed and manufactured in our country. The results showed that under similar conditions of irradiation and operation (pitch = 1), significant differences don't exist among the doses absorbed measures in the phantom due to the two types of used tomographs. (Author)

  16. Congenital asymptomatic diaphragmatic hernias in adults: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Enrica; Mancini, Paola; De Vito, Stefania; Pompili, Elena; Taurone, Samanta; Guerrisi, Isabella; Guerrisi, Antonino; D'Andrea, Vito; Cantisani, Vito; Artico, Marco

    2013-05-13

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a major malformation occasionally found in newborns and babies. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is defined by the presence of an orifice in the diaphragm, more often to the left and posterolateral, that permits the herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax. The aim of this case series is to provide information on the presentation, diagnosis and outcome of three patients with late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernias. The diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is based on clinical investigation and is confirmed by plain X-ray films and computed tomography scans. In the present report three cases of asymptomatic abdominal viscera herniation within the thorax are described. The first case concerns herniation of some loops of the large intestine into the left hemi-thorax in a 75-year-old Caucasian Italian woman. The second case concerns a rare type of herniation in the right side of the thorax of the right kidney with a part of the liver parenchyma in a 57-year-old Caucasian Italian woman. The third case concerns herniation of the stomach and bowel into the left side of the chest with compression of the left lung in a 32-year-old Caucasian Italian man. This type of hernia may appear later in life, because of concomitant respiratory or gastrointestinal disease, or it may be an incidental finding in asymptomatic adults, such as in the three cases featured here. Patients who present with late diaphragmatic hernias complain of a wide variety of symptoms, and diagnosis may be difficult. Additional investigation and research appear necessary to better explain the development and progression of this type of disease.

  17. Airway Protective Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitts, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Cough and swallow are highly coordinated reflex behaviors whose common purpose is to protect the airway. The pharynx is the common tube for air and food/liquid movement from the mouth into the thorax, has been largely overlooked, and is potentially seen as just a passive space. The thyropharyngeus muscle responds to cough inducing stimuli to prepare a transient holding area for material that has been removed from the subglottic airway. The cricopharyngeus muscle participates with the larynx t...

  18. Neck Posture Clusters and Their Association With Biopsychosocial Factors and Neck Pain in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karen V; Beales, Darren J; Smith, Anne J; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Straker, Leon M

    2016-10-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the association between sagittal neck posture and neck pain. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the existence of clusters of neck posture in a cohort of 17-year-olds and (2) to establish whether identified subgroups were associated with biopsychosocial factors and neck pain. This was a cross-sectional study. The adolescents (N=1,108) underwent 2-dimensional photographic postural assessment in a sitting position. One distance and 4 angular measurements of the head, neck, and thorax were calculated from photo-reflective markers placed on bony landmarks. Subgroups of sagittal sitting neck posture were determined by cluster analysis. Height and weight were measured, and lifestyle and psychological factors, neck pain, and headache were assessed by questionnaire. The associations among posture subgroups, neck pain, and other factors were evaluated using logistic regression. Four distinct clusters of sitting neck posture were identified: upright, intermediate, slumped thorax/forward head, and erect thorax/forward head. Significant associations between cluster and sex, weight, and height were found. Participants classified as having slumped thorax/forward head posture were at higher odds of mild, moderate, or severe depression. Participants classified as having upright posture exercised more frequently. There was no significant difference in the odds of neck pain or headache across the clusters. The results are specific to 17-year-olds and may not be applicable to adults. Meaningful sagittal sitting neck posture clusters were identified in 17-year-olds who demonstrated some differences with biopsychosocial profiling. The finding of no association between cluster membership and neck pain and headaches challenges widely held beliefs about the role of posture in adolescent neck pain. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  19. Pulmonary scintigraphy by citrate of Ga67 for HIV(+) patients or AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumal, J.; Pena, C.; Mata, F.; Paternostro, C.; Penafiel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Pulmonary scintigraphy with citrate of gallium 67 is useful when combined with a thorax radiography to establish the presence of an infection. When the two examinations are negative we can conclude there is no infection, but if the radiography is positive with a scintiscanning negative the most possible diagnosis is tuberculosis. If the scintiscanning is positive with a diffuse model we can envisage a pneumonia by Pneumocystis Carinii and if the model is ganglionic we can think to tuberculosis. 4 tabs

  20. Wegener granulomatosis--rare case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Uday; Baligar, Basavaraj; Terdal, Nandish

    2012-10-01

    Wegener granulomatosis is often misdiagnosed as pneumonia and most common cause for bilateral lung infiltrates' are bacterial, viral, pneumocystis jiroveci infection. We describe a 35 year old female with 15 days history of nasal obstruction, breathlessness and fever. Investigations in this patient revealed chronic necrotizing vasculitic and granulomatous lesion in nasal biopsy, vasculitic pauciimmune glomerulonephritis in renal biopsy, serology test was positive for C-ANCA, nodular with cystic lesion in CT-thorax. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of Wegener granulomatosis.