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Sample records for thompson type spectrometer

  1. RITA-type triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennow, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The RITA spectrometer at Risoe National Laboratory was the first to incorporate a complete re-thinking of the neutron-path from source, through detector to analysis. Since then, other RITA-type spectrometers such as SPINS at NIST, RITA-II at PSI have been built, and several new spectrometers around the world are adapting the same philosophy. The main novelty of RITA was the introduction of a single back-end tank featuring both an analyser block with multiple individually turnable analyser blades and a 2D position sensitive detector. Several new triple-axis spectrometers are presently being built at existing and future sources, and almost all of them have learnt from the experience with RITA. (R.P.)

  2. Beta-spectrometer with magnetic filter of mini orange type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorozhankin, V.M.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Sereeter, Z.; Fominykh, V.I.; Malikov, Sh.R.; Yuldashev, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    At the ISOL facility YASNAPP-2 a β-spectrometer with a magnetic filter of the miniorange type is constructed to measure γ-ray internal conversion coefficients. The magnetic filter of the mini orange type is an assemblage of permanent magnets creating a toroidal magnetic field perpendicular to the electron trajectories from the source to the Si(Li) detector. The chosen profile of the permanent magnets allowed electron registration in the defined energy energy interval with some transmission increase. There are two sets of permanent magnets of the different thickness. Varying the type and number of permanent magnets one can set the detected electron energy intervals in a 50-2500 keV range. The efficiency of the spectrometer was investigated for different assemblages of the mini orange magnet. The facility can be used for the e-γ coincidence investigation. (A.A.D.)

  3. Stitching Type Large Aperture Depolarizer for Gas Monitoring Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Li, M.; An, N.; Zhang, T.; Cao, G.; Cheng, S.

    2018-04-01

    To increase the accuracy of radiation measurement for gas monitoring imaging spectrometer, it is necessary to achieve high levels of depolarization of the incoming beam. The preferred method in space instrument is to introduce the depolarizer into the optical system. It is a combination device of birefringence crystal wedges. Limited to the actual diameter of the crystal, the traditional depolarizer cannot be used in the large aperture imaging spectrometer (greater than 100 mm). In this paper, a stitching type depolarizer is presented. The design theory and numerical calculation model for dual babinet depolarizer were built. As required radiometric accuracies of the imaging spectrometer with 250 mm × 46 mm aperture, a stitching type dual babinet depolarizer was design in detail. Based on designing the optimum structural parmeters the tolerance of wedge angle refractive index, and central thickness were given. The analysis results show that the maximum residual polarization degree of output light from depolarizer is less than 2 %. The design requirements of polarization sensitivity is satisfied.

  4. STITCHING TYPE LARGE APERTURE DEPOLARIZER FOR GAS MONITORING IMAGING SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To increase the accuracy of radiation measurement for gas monitoring imaging spectrometer, it is necessary to achieve high levels of depolarization of the incoming beam. The preferred method in space instrument is to introduce the depolarizer into the optical system. It is a combination device of birefringence crystal wedges. Limited to the actual diameter of the crystal, the traditional depolarizer cannot be used in the large aperture imaging spectrometer (greater than 100 mm. In this paper, a stitching type depolarizer is presented. The design theory and numerical calculation model for dual babinet depolarizer were built. As required radiometric accuracies of the imaging spectrometer with 250 mm × 46 mm aperture, a stitching type dual babinet depolarizer was design in detail. Based on designing the optimum structural parmeters,the tolerance of wedge angle,refractive index, and central thickness were given. The analysis results show that the maximum residual polarization degree of output light from depolarizer is less than 2 %. The design requirements of polarization sensitivity is satisfied.

  5. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  6. Installation of a tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, Toshihiko; Togawa, Orihiko; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi

    2000-02-01

    Tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer (hereinafter referred to as Tandetron) was installed at the Ominato Facility of Mutsu Establishment, JAERI in April, 1997. The objective of its installation is to investigate the mechanism of the mixing and circulation of seawater in the ocean, by collecting seawater samples around Japan and analyzing the horizontal and vertical distributions of 14 C contained in the samples. The Tandetron consists of two lines to measure isotopic ratios of carbon and those of heavier iodine. The adjustment for the carbon line was finished and the measurements of seawater samples were started. The iodine line, on the other hand, is on the final step of its adjustment and performance tests are being carried out with a TOF (Time of Flight) detector. The iodine line will be used to analyze 129 I released from a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and other nuclear facilities. In this report, we summarize the status of installation of the carbon and iodine lines for the Tandetron. The report describes the situations of their adjustments until now, the outline of the Tandetron, tests of measurement performance, evaluation and inspection of shielding performance, problems and their solutions, and so on. (author)

  7. Still Reading Edward P. Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hernández Sandoica

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the final decades of the 20th century, the reading of the works of E.P. Thompson was a necessary exercise for many historians. The object of these reflections, starting from the changes occurred in historiography, is to assert its force as a historian and to reiterate its status of “classic”.

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer Console Upgrade for a Type II Quantum Computer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cory, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) spectrometer to enable an improved implementation of type II quantum computers (TTQC). This upgrade is fully functional and has permitted our NMR studies to be moved to higher strength magnetic fields for better sensitivity and spectral dispersion...

  9. A new/old type of neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vylet, V.; Fasso, A.; Luckau, N.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed portable spectrometer is a large sphere made of a plastic scintillator loaded with boron, possibly enriched with boron 10. The sphere is divided into spherical shells coated with a reflective or opaque material. Each shell is made of two hemispherical shells or smaller segments. Each segment is connected by a light-guide to a photomultiplier or a photodiode. It might be possible to use miniature photomultipliers directly embedded in detector layers. Each shell measures the thermal fluence at a different moderator depth and the set of shell responses can be used to unfold the original neutron spectrum, covering the range of energies from thermal to 20 MeV. (M.D.)

  10. Evaluation of the Thompson articular index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H. R.; van der Heide, A.; Jacobs, J. W.; van der Veen, M. J.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Three articular indices for measuring disease activity are compared. In a cross sectional study the Thompson articular index (a modified Lansbury index) correlated better with laboratory variables than the Ritchie articular index or a swollen joint score (Thompson 0.74-0.77; Ritchie 0.57-0.58;

  11. The Golden-Thompson inequality: Historical aspects and random matrix applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Thompson, Colin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Golden-Thompson inequality, Tr (e A+B ) ⩽ Tr (e A e B ) for A, B Hermitian matrices, appeared in independent works by Golden and Thompson published in 1965. Both of these were motivated by considerations in statistical mechanics. In recent years the Golden-Thompson inequality has found applications to random matrix theory. In this article, we detail some historical aspects relating to Thompson's work, giving in particular a hitherto unpublished proof due to Dyson, and correspondence with Pólya. We show too how the 2 × 2 case relates to hyperbolic geometry, and how the original inequality holds true with the trace operation replaced by any unitarily invariant norm. In relation to the random matrix applications, we review its use in the derivation of concentration type lemmas for sums of random matrices due to Ahlswede-Winter, and Oliveira, generalizing various classical results

  12. Data acquisition and processing system for surface ionization mass spectrometers (types MS5 and R20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.-C.; Retali, G.; Grandcollot, P.; Hagemann, R.

    1977-01-01

    The data acquisition and processing system developed for surface ionization mass spectrometers is described. The main interest of the system is to shorten significantly the duration of isotopic analysis, the results of which are printed almost immediately after the end of the acquisition of the data. The quality of the results is also improved, particularly for isotopes at low concentration owing to an automatic range selection unit driven by the computer. The processing program, which includes several options, is adapted to all types of isotopic analysis. This system, in use for more than two years, has demonstrated its versatility and its safety [fr

  13. Thompson Test in Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Albertson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available HPI: A 26-year old male presented to the emergency department after experiencing the acute onset of left ankle pain while playing basketball. Upon jumping, he felt a “pop” in his left posterior ankle, followed by pain and difficulty ambulating. His exam was notable for a defect at the left Achilles tendon on palpation. The practitioner performed a Thompson test, which was positive (abnormal on the left. Significant Findings: The left Achilles tendon had a defect on palpation, while the right Achilles tendon was intact. When squeezing the right (unaffected calf, the ankle spontaneously plantar flexed, indicating a negative (normal Thompson test. Upon squeeze of the left (affected calf, the ankle did not plantar flex, signifying a positive (abnormal Thompson test. The diagnosis of left Achilles tendon rupture was confirmed intraoperatively one week later. Discussion: The Achilles tendon (also: calcaneal tendon or heel cord is derived from the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as the soleus muscle. Rupture of the Achilles tendon most commonly occurs in the distal tendon, approximately 2-6 cm from its attachment to the calcaneal tuberosity, in an area of hypovascularity known as the “watershed” or “critical” zone.1-3 The Thompson test (also: Simmonds-Thompson test, described by Simmonds in 1957 and Thompson in 1962, is done while the patient is in the prone position, with feet hanging over the end of a table/gurney, or with the patient kneeling on a stool or chair.4-5 Squeezing the calf of an unaffected limb will cause the ankle to plantar flex, but squeezing the calf of a limb with an Achilles tendon rupture will cause no motion. The sensitivity of the Thompson’s test for the diagnosis of a complete Achilles tendon rupture is 96-100% and the specificity is 93-100%, but data is limited.6-8

  14. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mercader-Trejo, Flora [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Metrologia de Materiales, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, km. 4.5 Carretera a Los Cues, El Marques, Queretaro (Mexico); Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de [G.A.S. Gesellschaft fuer analytische Sensorsysteme mbH, BioMedizinZentrumDortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 15, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Arce, Lourdes [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. > Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. > The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. > The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  15. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio; Mercader-Trejo, Flora; Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de; Arce, Lourdes; Valcarcel, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. → Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. → The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. → The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  16. El discurso intelectual de E. P. Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. León

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un análisis exploratorio de las estrategias narrativas en el trabajode E. P. Thompson, especialmente en obras como The Making of the English Working Class y Miseria de la teoría. Esto es desarrollado en el marco de una historiografíac

  17. Tests of the space gamma spectrometer prototype at the JINR experimental facility with different types of neutron generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. L.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Golovin, D. V.; Dubasov, P. V.; Zontikov, A. O.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Repkin, A. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Udovichenko, K. V.; Shvetsov, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the tests of the HPGe gamma spectrometer performed with a planetary soil model and different types of pulse neutron generators are presented. All measurements have been performed at the experimental nuclear planetary science facility (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) for the physical calibration of active gamma and neutron spectrometers. The aim of the study is to model a space experiment on determining the elemental composition of Martian planetary matter by neutron-induced gamma spectroscopy. The advantages and disadvantages of a gas-filled neutron generator in comparison with a vacuum-tube neutron generator are examined.

  18. Electronic module for control of sample feeding device of spectrometers of X-ray fluorescent analysis of CRV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Fursov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The scheme of electronic module for sample feeding device control for the CRV type X-ray fluorescence analysis spectrometers is considered. This module provides realization of next functions: sample change operations and installation in starting position; signaling and defense at emergency cases; indication of any sample amount in the spectrometer chamber; testing function at tuning and testing of modules. All these principal functions are entrusted with microcontroller. Programming of the microcontroller is putting into effect by algorithm of the whole sample feeding device. In the capacity of microcontroller the single crystalline processor PICI16C54 and stepping motor of NV-306-V2202 model have been used

  19. Improvement of the intrinsic time resolving power of the Cologne iron-free orange type electron spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, J.-M.; Materna, Th.; Pascovici, G.; Christen, S.; Dewald, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Petkov, P.; Zell, K. O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKP), Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Conversion electron spectroscopy represents an important tool for nuclear structure analysis of medium and heavy nuclei. Two iron-free magnetic electron spectrometers of the orange type have been installed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the University of Cologne. The very large transmission of 15% and the very good energy resolution of 1% makes the iron-free orange spectrometer a powerful instrument. By means of fast timing techniques, lifetimes of nuclear excited states can be measured with an accuracy better than 20 ps. For the first time, the energy dependent centroid position of prompt events yielding the time-walk characteristics (the prompt curve) of the orange spectrometer fast timing setup has been measured using prompt secondary {delta}-electrons generated in a pulsed beam experiment. The prompt curve calibrated as a function of energy allows precise lifetime determination down to a few tens of picoseconds by the use of the centroid shift method.

  20. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  1. A Note on Information-Directed Sampling and Thompson Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This note introduce three Bayesian style Multi-armed bandit algorithms: Information-directed sampling, Thompson Sampling and Generalized Thompson Sampling. The goal is to give an intuitive explanation for these three algorithms and their regret bounds, and provide some derivations that are omitted in the original papers.

  2. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L M; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R.; Dijk, Peter H; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H; de Haan, Timo R

    BACKGROUND: The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson

  3. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C.; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L. M.; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R.; Dijk, Peter H.; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P.; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H.; de Haan, Timo R.

    2016-01-01

    The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson encephalopathy score

  4. Paresev in flight with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    This movie clip runs 37 seconds in length and begins with a shot from the chase plane of NASA Dryden test pilot Milt Thompson at the controls of the Paresev, then the onboard view from the pilot's seat and finally bringing the Paresev in for a landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards AFB. The Paresev (Paraglider Rescue Vehicle) was an indirect outgrowth of kite-parachute studies by NACA Langley engineer Francis M. Rogallo. In early 1960's the 'Rogallo wing' seemed an excellent means of returning a spacecraft to Earth. The delta wing design was patented by Mr. Rogallo. In May 1961, Robert R. Gilruth, director of the NASA Space Task Group, requested studies of an inflatable Rogallo-type 'Parawing' for spacecraft. Several companies responded; North American Aviation, Downey, California, produced the most acceptable concept and development was contracted to that company. In November 1961 NASA Headquarters launched a paraglider development program, with Langley doing wind tunnel studies and the NASA Flight Research Center supporting the North American test program. The North American concept was a capsule-type vehicle with a stowed 'parawing' that could be deployed and controlled from within for a landing more like an airplane instead of a 'splash down' in the ocean. The logistics became enormous and the price exorbitant, plus NASA pilots and engineers felt some baseline experience like building a vehicle and flying a Parawing should be accomplished first. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was used to gain in-flight experience with four different membranes (wings), and was not used to develop the more complicated inflatable deployment system. The Paresev was designed by Charles Richard, of the Flight Research Center Vehicle and System Dynamics Branch, with the rest of the team being: engineers, Richard Klein, Gary Layton, John Orahood, and Joe Wilson; from the Maintenance and Manufacturing Branch: Frank Fedor, LeRoy Barto; Victor Horton as Project Manager, with

  5. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  6. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl, C.R.H.; Andersen, P.; Klausen, S.N.; Lefmann, K.

    2004-01-01

    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (0 0 2) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread of the ray from each analyser blade

  7. The monochromatic imaging mode of a RITA-type neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: christian.bahl@risoe.dk; Andersen, P. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Klausen, S.N. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Lefmann, K. [Department of Materials Research, Riso National Laboratory, Building 227, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The imaging monochromatic mode of a neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed RITA analyser system is so far unexplored. We present analytical calculations that define the mode. It is shown that the mode can be realised for PG (0 0 2) analyser crystals, from incident energies of about 3.2 meV and up, allowing the important cases of 3.7, 5.0 and 13.7 meV. Due to beam divergence, the neutron rays from neighbouring analyser blades are found to overlap slightly. Hence, the optimal use of the monochromatic imaging mode would be found by employing an adjustable radial collimator to limit the spread of the ray from each analyser blade.

  8. The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, J.; Barth, C. J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)

  9. Discriminating Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs) in the Coastal Ocean Using the Inversion Algorithm Phydotax and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Sherry L.; Schafer, Chris; Broughton, Jennifer; Guild, Liane S.; Kudela, Raphael M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need in the Biological Oceanography community to discriminate among phytoplankton groups within the bulk chlorophyll pool to understand energy flow through ecosystems, to track the fate of carbon in the ocean, and to detect and monitor-for harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ocean color community has responded to this demand with the development of phytoplankton functional type (PFT) discrimination algorithms. These PFT algorithms fall into one of three categories depending on the science application: size-based, biogeochemical function, and taxonomy. The new PFT algorithm Phytoplankton Detection with Optics (PHYDOTax) is an inversion algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass to differentiate among six taxa found in the California Current System: diatoms, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, and cyanophytes. PHYDOTax was developed and validated in Monterey Bay, CA for the high resolution imaging spectrometer, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON - 3.5 nm resolution). PHYDOTax exploits the high spectral resolution of an imaging spectrometer and the improved spatial resolution that airborne data provides for coastal areas. The objective of this study was to apply PHYDOTax to a relatively lower resolution imaging spectrometer to test the algorithm's sensitivity to atmospheric correction, to evaluate capability with other sensors, and to determine if down-sampling spectral resolution would degrade its ability to discriminate among phytoplankton taxa. This study is a part of the larger Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) airborne simulation campaign which is collecting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft during three seasons in each of two years over terrestrial and marine targets in California. Our aquatic component seeks to develop and test algorithms to retrieve water quality properties (e.g. HABs and river plumes) in both marine and in

  10. Mounting and testing of a 'sandwich' type neutron spectrometer with semiconductor detectors and 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabro, M.A.

    1973-01-01

    Commercial surface barrier detectors (Si(Au)) were used to construct the spectrometer; the 6 LiF was evaporated by vacuum onto a film of Formvar and afterwards over the surface of one of the detectors, with a 6 LiF thickness of 0,2 μm (50 μg/cm 2 ) and 1,5 μm(400 μg/cm 2 ) respectively. Tests were made with slow neutrons and with neutrons from the reactions D(d,n) 3 He (2,65 MeV) and T(d,n) 4 He (14 MeV). The energy resolution for thermal neutrons was about 200 keV (FWHM) for the sum (E sub(t) + E sub(α)) and about 7 keV (FWHM) for the difference (E sub(t) - E sub(α)) with an evaluated efficiency of 5,5x10 -4 , for the sum. For the 2,65 MeV neutrons, the energy resolution was about 240 keV (FWHM) and an evaluated efficiency of 2,1 x 10 -7 . It was not possible to detect 14 MeV neutrons [pt

  11. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  12. The Performance of CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer In Concentration Acetone Detection As Biomarker For Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, F. H.; Nikita, J. G.; Apriyanto, D. K.; Mitrayana; Amin, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    Breath analysis is useful for the diagnosis of human diseases and monitoring of metabolic status. However, because of the low concentrations and the large numbers of compounds in the breath, the breath analysis requires highly sensitive and highly selective instruments to identify and determine the concentrations of certain biomarkers [1]. Various methods developed over the past 20 years to detect biomarker gases [2]. CO2 laser photoacoustic spectroscopy offers a sensitive technique for the detection and monitoring of gas footprints at low concentrations [3]. The performance of photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) examined with intracavity configuration. In this research, the highest observed intracavity power was (49,96 ± 0,02) W for active medium gas composition He: N2: CO2 at 30:50:50. The highest laser absorption line for standard acetone gas set at 10P20, and the lowest detection limit set at (30 ± 4) ppb. For application purposes, the photoacoustic spectrometer was used to measure the concentration of acetone gas in exhaled gases from a group of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a group of healthy volunteers. Exhaled gas sampling method took manually, and the measurement result was examined using multicomponent analysis. The measurement showed that the highest acetone gas concentration for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was (162 ± 3) × 10 ppb and the lowest one was (101 ± 3) × 10 ppb. Furthermore, for healthy volunteers, the highest acetone gas concentration was (85 ± 3) × 10 ppb and the lowest one was (15 ± 3) × 10 ppb.

  13. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  14. The use of Thompson sampling to increase estimation precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider a sequential sampling scheme for efficient estimation of the difference between the means of two independent treatments when the population variances are unequal across groups. The sampling scheme proposed is based on a solution to bandit problems called Thompson

  15. High precision measurements of 16O12C17O using a new type of cavity ring down spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daëron, M.; Stoltmann, T.; Kassi, S.; Burkhart, J.; Kerstel, E.

    2016-12-01

    Laser absorption techniques for the measurement of isotopologue abundances in gases have been dripping into the geoscientific community over the past decade. In the field of carbon dioxide such instruments have mostly been restricted to measurements of the most abundant stable isotopologues. Distinct advantages of CRDS techniques are non-destructiveness and the ability to resolve isobaric isotopologues. The determination of low-abundance isotopologues is predominantly limited by the linewidth of the probing laser, laser jitter, laser drift and system stability. Here we present first measurements of 16O12C17O abundances using a new type of ultra-precise cavity ring down spectrometer. By the use of Optical Feedback Frequency Stabilization, we achieved a laser line width in the sub-kHz regime with a frequency drift of less than 20 Hz/s. A tight coupling with an ultra-stable ring down cavity combined with a frequency tuning mechanism which enables us to arbitrarily position spectral points (Burkart et al., 2013) allowed us to demonstrate a single-scan (2 minutes) precision of 40 ppm on the determination of the 16O12C17O abundance. These promising results imply that routine, direct, high-precision measurements of 17O-anomalies in CO2 using this non-destructive method are in reach. References:Burkart J, Romanini D, Kassi S; Optical feedback stabilized laser tuned by single-sideband modulation; Optical Letters 12:2062-2063 (2013)

  16. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  17. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  18. Embryologie précoce de Sacculina carcini Thompson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocquet-Védrine, J.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Dans sa monographie pourtant très complète de Sacculina carcini Thompson, publiée en 1884, Delage ne traite pas de l'étude embryologique de cette espèce. Il ne se désintéressait pas pour autant de ce sujet sur lequel il exprimait son intention de revenir „plus tard, dans un moment

  19. Yawning, fatigue and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclero...

  20. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate

  1. A MODIFIED GIFFLER AND THOMPSON ALGORITHM COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC SLACK TIME FOR SOLVING DYNAMIC SCHEDULE PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanti Octavia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Modified Giffler and Thompson algorithm combined with dynamic slack time is used to allocate machines resources in dynamic nature. It was compared with a Real Time Order Promising (RTP algorithm. The performance of modified Giffler and Thompson and RTP algorithms are measured by mean tardiness. The result shows that modified Giffler and Thompson algorithm combined with dynamic slack time provides significantly better result compared with RTP algorithm in terms of mean tardiness.

  2. Pollutants identification of ambient aerosols by two types of aerosol mass spectrometers over southeast coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Liqi; Lin, Qi; Zhao, Shuhui; Li, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Two different aerosol mass spectrometers, Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) were deployed to identify the aerosol pollutants over Xiamen, representing the coastal urban area. Five obvious processes were classified during the whole observation period. Organics and sulfate were the dominant components in ambient aerosols over Xiamen. Most of the particles were in the size range of 0.2-1.0μm, accounting for over 97% of the total particles measured by both instruments. Organics, as well as sulfate, measured by AMS were in good correlation with measured by SPAMS. However, high concentration of NH 4 + was obtained by AMS, while extremely low value of NH 4 + was detected by SPAMS. Contrarily, high particle number counts of NO 3 - and Cl - were given by SPAMS while low concentrations of NO 3 - and Cl - were measured by AMS. The variations of POA and SOA obtained from SPAMS during event 1 and event 2 were in accordance with the analysis of HOA and OOA given by AMS, suggesting that both of AMS and SPAMS can well identify the organic clusters of aerosol particles. Overestimate or underestimate of the aerosol sources and acidity would be present in some circumstances when the measurement results were used to analyze the aerosol properties, because of the detection loss of some species for both instruments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras and the Thompson groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlak, Selcuk; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebra O_2 and endomorphisms of the Thompson groups F, T and V represented inside the unitary group of O_2. For an endomorphism λ_u of O_2, we show that λ_u(V) is contained in V if and only if uεV. If λ_u is an automorphism of O_2...... then uεV is equivalent to the containment of λ_u(F) in V. Our investigations are facilitated by introduction of the concept of modestly scaling endomorphism of O_n, whose properties and examples are investigated....

  4. D'Arcy Thompson and the theory of transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Wallace

    2006-05-01

    D'Arcy Thompson was a biologist, a mathematician and a classicist. His writing was great literature as well as great science. He is primarily known for a single book--On Growth and Form--and indeed for a single chapter within it, on his 'theory of transformations', which shows how the differences between the forms of related species can be represented geometrically. This theory cries out for causal explanation, which is something the great man eschewed. Perhaps the time is close when comparative developmental genetics will be able to provide such an explanation.

  5. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A. [High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  6. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions

  7. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  8. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, G B; Poehlmann, F R; Cappelli, M A

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  9. Quantum electrical and chromodynamics treated through Thompson's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif, Claudio; Silva, P.R.

    2006-09-01

    In this work we apply Thompson's method (of the dimensions and scales) to study some features of the Quantum Electro and Chromodynamics. This heuristic method can be considered as a simple and alternative way to the Renormalisation Group (R.G.) approach and when applied to QED-Lagrangian is able to obtain in a first approximation both the running coupling constant behavior of α(μ) and the mass m(μ). The calculations are evaluated just at d c = 4, where d c is the upper critical dimension of the problem, so that we obtain the logarithmic behavior both for the coupling α and the excess of mass Δm on the energy scale μ. Although our results are well-known in the vast literature of field theories, the advantage of Thompson's method, beyond its simplicity is that it is able to extract directly from QED-Lagrangian the physical (finite) behavior of α(μ) and m(μ), bypassing hard problems of divergences which normally appear in the conventional renormalisation schemes applied to field theories like QED. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is also treated by the present method in order to obtain the quark condensate value. Besides this, the method is also able to evaluate the vacuum pressure at the boundary of the nucleon. This is done by assuming a step function behavior for the running coupling constant of the QCD, which fits nicely to some quantities related to the strong interaction evaluated through the MIT-bag model. (author)

  10. HISS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented

  11. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  12. Novel type of neutron polarization analysis using the multianalyzer-equipment of the three-axes spectrometer PUMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesig, Steffen; Maity, Avishek; Sobolev, Oleg; Ziegler, Fabian; Eckold, Götz

    2018-01-01

    The combination of polarization analysis and multianalyzer system available at the three axes spectrometer PUMA@FRM II allows the simultaneous determination of both spin states of the scattered neutrons and the absolute value of the polarization. The present paper describes the technical details along with the basic formalism used for the precise calibration. Moreover, the performance of this method is illustrated by several test experiments including first polarized inelastic studies of the magnetic excitations of CuO in the multiferroic and the uniaxial antiferromagnetic phases.

  13. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spe...

  14. Geochronology of the Thompson Creek Mo Deposit: Evidence for the Formation of Arc-related Mo Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C. D.; Coleman, D. S.; Stein, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Thompson Creek Mo deposit in central ID, has been categorized as an arc-related Mo deposit due to the location, grade of Mo, and relative lack of enrichments in F, Rb, and Nb, compared to the Climax-type Mo deposits. Geochronology from this arc-related deposit provides an opportunity to compare and contrast magmatism, and mineralization to that in Climax-type deposits. Distinct pulses of magmatism were required to form the Thompson Creek Mo deposit, which is consistent with recent geochronology from Climax-type deposits. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology from five veins requires at least three pulses of magmatism and mineralization between 89.39 +/- 0.37 and 88.47 +/- 0.16 Ma. Zircon U-Pb ages from these mineralized samples overlap with molybdenite mineralization, but show a much wider range (91.01 +/- 0.37 to 87.27 +/- 0.69). Previous work from Climax-type Mo deposits suggest a correlation between a super eruption, and the subsequent rapid (<1 Ma) onset, and completion of Mo mineralizing intrusions. The longer life (3-4 Ma) for the Thompson Creek Mo deposit suggests that the mineralizing intrusions for arc-related Mo deposits may not need to have as high [Mo] as the Climax-type deposits. This study also finds a shift in the source of magmatism from the pre- to syn-mineralizing intrusions. Zircons from pre-mineralizing intrusions have much higher (15-60 pg) concentrations of radiogenic Pb than zircons from mineralized intrusions, which all have less than 15 pg, though whole rock [U] are similar.

  15. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  16. Thompson Receives 2013 Early Career Hydrologic Science Award: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Sally Thompson grew up in Perth, where she was trained as an environmental engineer at the University of Western Australia. She graduated with honors in 2003 and worked for a few years as an environmental engineering consultant. Following the award of the Sir John Monash Fellowship in Australia, Sal accepted the admissions offer from the Nicholas School of the Environment at Duke University in 2006, completing her Ph.D. within 4 years and defending her dissertation in 2010. I was most fortunate to have Sal join me at Duke after an enthusiastic recommendation from Siva. Upon her arrival at Duke University, it was immediately clear to all that Sal is a special person with the remarkable skill of being able to identify the main aspects of a problem and throw at them the best that theory, experiment, and modeling tools offer.

  17. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  18. Frequency-Modulation Correlation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, J. S.; Martonchik, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    New type of correlation spectrometer eliminates need to shift between two cells, one empty and one containing reference gas. Electrooptical phase modulator sinusoidally shift frequencies of sample transmission spectrum.

  19. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    1967-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson - Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat covers the significant contributions of Count Rumford in the fields of physics. Count Rumford was born with the name Benjamin Thompson on March 23, 1753, in Woburn, Massachusetts. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 11 chapters, and begins with a presentation of Benjamin Thompson's biography and his interest in physics, particularly as an advocate of an """"anti-caloric"""" theory of heat. The subsequent chapters are devoted to his many discoveries that profoundly affected the physical thought

  20. Final 2014 Remedial Action Report Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    This report was prepared to document remedial action (RA) work performed at the former Project Chariot site located near Cape Thompson, Alaska during 2014. The work was managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Alaska District for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). Due to the short field season and the tight barge schedule, all field work was conducted at the site July 6 through September 12, 2014. Excavation activities occurred between July 16 and August 26, 2014. A temporary field camp was constructed at the site prior to excavation activities to accommodate the workers at the remote, uninhabited location. A total of 785.6 tons of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL)-contaminated soil was excavated from four former drill sites associated with test holes installed circa 1960. Diesel was used in the drilling process during test hole installations and resulted in impacts to surface and subsurface soils at four of the five sites (no contamination was identified at Test Hole Able). Historic information is not definitive as to the usage for Test Hole X-1; it may have actually been a dump site and not a drill site. In addition to the contaminated soil, the steel test hole casings were decommissioned and associated debris was removed as part of the remedial effort.

  1. Thompson e Gramsci: história, política e processos de formação Thompson and Gramsci: history, politics and educational processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se apresentar e explorar as conexões entre as ideias de dois destacados pensadores sociais do século xx, o italiano Antonio Gramsci e o inglês Edward Thompson. O intuito é refletir sobre a centralidade conferida pelas obras desses intelectuais à política, à cultura e à formação humana. Considerando que uma das fontes do pensamento historiográfico de Thompson é a obra de Gramsci, pretendemos dimensionar os pontos de contato entre as duas obras com o fim de pensar nas possibilidades heurísticas que este diálogo poderá ensejar no campo educacional. Concluímos demonstrando que as reflexões de Thompson e de Gramsci convergem em três aspectos principais: a ênfase na história das classes subalternas, a opção pela abordagem historicista do conhecimento e a problematização das concepções de cultura e de formação.This paper investigates the connections between the ideas of two prominent twentieth century's social thinkers, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the English Edward Thompson. It sets a discussion on the importance these intellectuals granted to politics, culture and human education to highlight similar aspects in both works yet considering that one of the main sources of Thompson's historiographic thought is Gramsci's work. It then reflects on the heuristic possibilities this dialogue may bring to the field of education. It concludes that Gramsci and Thompson's reflections converge on three main aspects: the emphasis on working class history, the option for a historical approach of knowledge and the discussion on the conceptions of culture and education.

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 19920323 to 19921020 (NODC Accession 9700194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oxygen production, abundance of marine snow, and other data were collected from bottle and video camera casts in the Pacific Ocean from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from...

  3. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  4. Water quality and trend analysis of Colorado--Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances, 1969 through 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in an ongoing cooperative monitoring program with the Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, Bureau of Reclamation, and City of Fort Collins, has collected water-quality data in north-central Colorado since 1969 in reservoirs and conveyances, such as canals and tunnels, related to the Colorado?Big Thompson Project, a water-storage, collection, and distribution system. Ongoing changes in water use among agricultural and municipal users on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, changing land use in reservoir watersheds, and other water-quality issues among Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District customers necessitated a reexamination of water-quality trends in the Colorado?Big Thompson system reservoirs and related conveyances. The sampling sites are on reservoirs, canals, and tunnels in the headwaters of the Colorado River (on the western side of the transcontinental diversion operations) and the headwaters of the Big Thompson River (on the eastern side of the transcontinental diversion operations). Carter Lake Reservoir and Horsetooth Reservoir are off-channel water-storage facilities, located in the foothills of the northern Colorado Front Range, for water supplied from the Colorado?Big Thompson Project. The length of water-quality record ranges from approximately 3 to 30 years depending on the site and the type of measurement or constituent. Changes in sampling frequency, analytical methods, and minimum reporting limits have occurred repeatedly over the period of record. The objective of this report was to complete a retrospective water-quality and trend analysis of reservoir profiles, nutrients, major ions, selected trace elements, chlorophyll-a, and hypolimnetic oxygen data from 1969 through 2000 in Lake Granby, Shadow Mountain Lake, and the Granby Pump Canal in Grand County, Colorado, and Horsetooth Reservoir, Carter Lake, Lake Estes, Alva B. Adams Tunnel, and Olympus Tunnel in Larimer County, Colorado

  5. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  6. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  7. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  8. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  9. Optimal control of information epidemics modeled as Maki Thompson rumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhway, Kundan; Kuri, Joy

    2014-12-01

    We model the spread of information in a homogeneously mixed population using the Maki Thompson rumor model. We formulate an optimal control problem, from the perspective of single campaigner, to maximize the spread of information when the campaign budget is fixed. Control signals, such as advertising in the mass media, attempt to convert ignorants and stiflers into spreaders. We show the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem when the campaigning incurs non-linear costs under the isoperimetric budget constraint. The solution employs Pontryagin's Minimum Principle and a modified version of forward backward sweep technique for numerical computation to accommodate the isoperimetric budget constraint. The techniques developed in this paper are general and can be applied to similar optimal control problems in other areas. We have allowed the spreading rate of the information epidemic to vary over the campaign duration to model practical situations when the interest level of the population in the subject of the campaign changes with time. The shape of the optimal control signal is studied for different model parameters and spreading rate profiles. We have also studied the variation of the optimal campaigning costs with respect to various model parameters. Results indicate that, for some model parameters, significant improvements can be achieved by the optimal strategy compared to the static control strategy. The static strategy respects the same budget constraint as the optimal strategy and has a constant value throughout the campaign horizon. This work finds application in election and social awareness campaigns, product advertising, movie promotion and crowdfunding campaigns.

  10. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L M; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R; Dijk, Peter H; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H; de Haan, Timo R

    2016-07-01

    The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson encephalopathy score was developed before the use of therapeutic hypothermia, its value was reassessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the Thompson encephalopathy score with adverse short-term outcomes, defined as death before discharge, development of severe epilepsy, or the presence of multiple organ failure in asphyxiated newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. The study period ranged from November 2010 to October 2014. A total of 12 tertiary neonatal intensive care units participated. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the "PharmaCool" multicenter study, an observational cohort study analyzing pharmacokinetics of medication during therapeutic hypothermia. With multiple logistic regression analyses the association of the Thompson encephalopathy scores with outcomes was studied. Data of 142 newborns were analyzed (male: 86; female: 56). Median Thompson score was 9 (interquartile range: 8 to 12). Median gestational age was 40 weeks (interquartile range 38 to 41), mean birth weight was 3362 grams (standard deviation: 605). All newborns manifested perinatal asphyxia and underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Death before discharge occurred in 23.9% and severe epilepsy in 21.1% of the cases. In total, 59.2% of the patients had multiple organ failure. The Thompson encephalopathy score was not associated with multiple organ failure, but a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥12 was associated with death before discharge (odds ratio: 3.9; confidence interval: 1.3 to 11.2) and with development of severe epilepsy (odds ratio: 8.4; confidence interval: 2.5 to 27.8). The Thompson encephalopathy score is a useful clinical tool, even in cooled asphyxiated

  11. Corrections to the Walker-Thompson estimate of the cascade volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminarayan, S.; Nastasi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sigmund [P. Sigmund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25 (1974) 169] analytically predicted that the ratio of cascade volume to energy distribution volume should follow a universal curve that is sigmoidal in shape. Subsequent Monte Carlo simulations by Walker and Thompson [R.S. Walker, D.A. Thompson, Radiat. Eff. 37 (1978) 113] showed that although this curve is sigmoidal in shape, the curve is different for different materials with large deviations from Sigmund's prediction at high M 2 /M 1 . Our analysis of the Walker and Thompson approach has revealed an error in the analytical equations used. A correct analysis of volume ratios using a different set of equations is presented. Analysis of data produced by SRIM [J.F. Ziegler, J.P. Biersack, U. Littmark, in: The Stopping and Range of Ions in solids, Pergamon, New York, 1985] (Monte Carlo) simulations gives results that are in good agreement with Sigmund's predictions.

  12. Environmental Restoration of Diesel-Range Organics from Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hutton, Rick [Navarro Research & Engineering; Miller, Judy [Navarro Research & Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than 40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site (Figure 1) was cancelled because of strong public opposition [1]. No nuclear explosions were ever conducted at the site.

  13. Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Schmidt, W.; Geick, R.

    1997-01-01

    After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a mulitplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument. Despite these instrument merits its individual beam position at ISIS has only an unsatisfactorily weak flux, thus hindering this instrument yet to become fully competitive with other high-performance neutron spectrometers based at high-flux reactors. However, we strongly recommend a ROTAX-type instrument to be emphasized when the instrumentation suite of the future European spallation source ESS will come under scrutiny. (orig.)

  14. "Miríades por toda a eternidade": a atualidade de E. P. Thompson "Myriads of eternity": the actuality of E. P. Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fortes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo reexamina o trabalho clássico de E. P. Thompson, nele identificando elementos relevantes para o estudo do contexto histórico contemporâneo. Critica as abordagens que buscaram sintetizar um "método thompsoniano" em algumas fórmulas do prefácio da obra recorrentemente citadas. Defende ainda que a compreensão do persistente apelo do livro deve ser buscada na análise de sua estrutura narrativa.The article re-examines the classic work by E. P. Thompson, The making of the English working class, identifying many elements relevant to the study of the contemporary historical context. It criticizes those approaches that look to synthesize a 'Thompsonian method' in a number of recurrently cited formulas found in the preface to the work. It also argues that the persistent appeal of the book can be explained through an analysis of its narrative structure.

  15. Maquinações Satânicas: Edward Thompson e as leituras do sistema fabril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Marson

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The author elaborates Ihroagh the writings of Andrew Ure different interpretations of labor changes as interpreted by Marx and by the historian Edward P. Thompson. From the scientificist argument of the invention of a technological mechanism for re-organizing human relation, Marx detected the dialectical process of exploitation of the working class. Thompson, on the other hand, discerns different mediations in this process, mainly the role of religious faith in the UiscipHnnrizalion of industrial labor. The historian is mainly interested in reconstituting antagonistic values that opposed entrepreuneurial hegemony and the making of the working classes.

  16. Edith Marie Thompson (1877–1961), sports and empire settlement administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Thompson, Edith Marie (1877–1961), sports and empire settlement administrator, was born at 44 Russell Road, Kensington, London, on 19 May 1877, the only daughter of William Frederic Thompson (1847/8–1921), barrister and mineral and chemical merchant, and his wife, Marie Charlotte, née Warde (1849/50–1900). She was educated at Norland Place School and was a boarder at Cheltenham Ladies' College in 1892–3, at a period when there was still very little sport played at the school. In January 1895,...

  17. Test pilots 1962 - Armstrong, Walker, Dana, Peterson, McKay, Thompson, Butchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    The research pilots at what in 1962 was called the Flight Research Center standing in front of the X-1E. They are (left to right) Neil Armstrong, Joe Walker, Bill Dana, Bruce Peterson, Jack McKay, Milt Thompson, and Stan Butchart. of the group, Armstrong, Walker, Dana, McKay and Thompson all flew the X-15. Bruce Peterson flew the M2-F2 and HL-10 lifting bodies, while Stan Butchart was the B-29 drop plane pilot for many of the D-558-II and X-1 series research aircraft.

  18. Semi-analytic equations to the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy for special cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmai, T.; Apagyi, B.; Horvath, M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem at fixed energy 1-3 is reformulated resulting in semi-analytic equations. The new set of equations for the normalization constants and the nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta are free of matrix inversion operations. This simplification is a result of treating only the input phase shifts of partial waves of a given parity. Therefore, the proposed method can be applied for identical particle scattering of the bosonic type (or for certain cases of identical fermionic scattering). The new formulae are expected to be numerically more efficient than the previous ones. Based on the semi-analytic equations an approximate method is proposed for the generic inverse scattering problem, when partial waves of arbitrary parity are considered. (author)

  19. Background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A study for Johann-type spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Mellone, O. A.; Bianco, L. M.; Ceppi, S. A.; Goncalves Honnicke, M.; Stutz, G. E.

    2018-06-01

    A study of the background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on an analytical model is presented. The calculation model considers spurious radiation originated from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the beam paths of a Johann-type spectrometer. The dependence of the background radiation intensity on the medium of the beam paths (air and helium), analysed energy and radius of the Rowland circle was studied. The present study shows that both for IXS and XES experiments the background radiation is dominated by spurious radiation owing to scattering processes along the sample-analyser beam path. For IXS experiments the spectral distribution of the main component of the background radiation shows a weak linear dependence on the energy for the most cases. In the case of XES, a strong non-linear behaviour of the background radiation intensity was predicted for energy analysis very close to the backdiffraction condition, with a rapid increase in intensity as the analyser Bragg angle approaches π / 2. The contribution of the analyser-detector beam path is significantly weaker and resembles the spectral distribution of the measured spectra. Present results show that for usual experimental conditions no appreciable structures are introduced by the background radiation into the measured spectra, both in IXS and XES experiments. The usefulness of properly calculating the background profile is demonstrated in a background subtraction procedure for a real experimental situation. The calculation model was able to simulate with high accuracy the energy dependence of the background radiation intensity measured in a particular XES experiment with air beam paths.

  20. Evaluation of errors for mass-spectrometric analysis with surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer (statistical evaluation of mass-discrimination effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer is widely used as an apparatus for quality assurance, accountability and safeguarding of nuclear materials, and for this analysis it has become an important factor to statistically evaluate an analytical error which consists of a random error and a systematic error. The major factor of this systematic error was the mass-discrimination effect. In this paper, various assays for evaluating the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect were studied and the data obtained were statistically evaluated. As a result of these analyses, it was proved that the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect was not attributed to the acid concentration of sample, sample size on the filament and supplied voltage for a multiplier, but mainly to the filament temperature during the mass-spectrometric analysis. The mass-discrimination effect values β which were usually calculated from the measured data of uranium, plutonium or boron isotopic standard sample were not so significant dependently of the difference of U-235, Pu-239 or B-10 isotopic abundance. Furthermore, in the case of U and Pu, measurement conditions and the mass range of these isotopes were almost similar, and these values β were not statistically significant between U and Pu. On the other hand, the value β for boron was about a third of the value β for U or Pu, but compared with the coefficient of the correction on the mass-discrimination effect for the difference of mass-number, ΔM, these coefficient values were almost the same among U, Pu, and B.As for the isotopic analysis error of U, Pu, Nd and B, it was proved that the isotopic abundance of these elements and the isotopic analysis error were in a relationship of quadratic curves on a logarithmic-logarithmic scale

  1. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Stephen; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production (ship effect), (a, n) reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  2. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  3. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  4. E. P. Thompson, un marxista contra el marxismo como “materialismo histórico”

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Acha

    2013-01-01

    Análisis de la obra de Thompson como historiador marxista. Fil: Acha, José Omar. Consejo Nacional de Invest.cientif.y Tecnicas. Oficina de Coordinacion Administrativa Saavedra 15. Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana "dr. Emilio Ravignani";

  5. Matrix algebra and sampling theory : The case of the Horvitz-Thompson estimator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, W.; Steerneman, A.G.M.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    Matrix algebra is a tool not commonly employed in sampling theory. The intention of this paper is to help change this situation by showing, in the context of the Horvitz-Thompson (HT) estimator, the convenience of the use of a number of matrix-algebra results. Sufficient conditions for the

  6. Dr. Steve Thompson, Chief Executive, The Royal Society of New Zealand

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Austin Ball, Deputy Technical Coordinator, CMS experiment; Dr Roland Horisberger, Paul Scherrer Institute and CERN, CMS experiment; Dr Steve Thompson, Chief Executive, The Royal Society of New Zealand; Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment and Dr Alick Macpherson, Paul Scherrer Institute and CERN, CMS experiment, in the CMS Silicon Tracker assembly hall.

  7. MOMFER: A Search Engine of Thompson's Motif-Index of Folk Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, F.B.; van der Meulen, Marten; Meder, Theo; van den Bosch, Antal

    2015-01-01

    More than fifty years after the first edition of Thompson's seminal Motif-Indexof Folk Literature, we present an online search engine tailored to fully disclose the index digitally. This search engine, called MOMFER, greatly enhances the searchability of the Motif-Index and provides exciting new

  8. Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmai, Tamas; Apagyi, Barnabas; Horvath, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events

  9. CARBON TRACE GASES IN LAKE AND BEAVER POND ICE NEAR THOMPSON, MANITOBA, CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 were measured in beaver pond and lake ice in April 1996 near Thompson, Manitoba to derive information on possible impacts of ice melting on corresponding atmospheric trace gas concentrations. CH4 concentrations in beaver pond and lake ice ranged...

  10. BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed

  11. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  12. Propagação por enxertia de atemoia 'Thompson' sobre espécies de Rollinia 'Thompson' atemoya grafting onto Rollinia rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Paes de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o índice de sobrevivência do enxerto de atemoia 'Thompson' sobre dois porta-enxertos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2, dois porta-enxertos [araticum-de-terra-fria (Rollinia sp. e biribá (Rollinia mucosa] e dois métodos de enxertia (topo em fenda lateral e topo à inglesa simples, em 6 blocos, 4 tratamentos e 5 plantas por parcela, totalizando 120 plantas. Para as condições locais, verificou-se que a atemoia pode ser propagada com sucesso via enxertia, usando o porta-enxerto araticum-de-terra-fria, com diferença significativa em relação ao biribá. O melhor método de enxertia para araticum-de-terra-fria foi o inglês simples, com índice de sobrevivência do enxerto de 90%. Observou-se baixo índice de sobrevivência do enxerto, utilizando-se de ambos os métodos de enxertia para o porta-enxerto biribá.This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of atemoya 'Thompson' on two rootstocks.The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with factorial scheme 2 x 2 consisting of 6 blocks, 4 treatments and 5 replicates per parcel totaling 120 plants. Two grafting methods (side cleft graft and whip graft and two rootstocks [araticum-de-terra-fria (Rollinia sp. and biriba (Rollinia mucosa] were evaluated for propagation of 'Thompson' atemoya. Scion survival rate was evaluated and analyzed by Tukey test, with 5% of significance level. Atemoya tree under local conditions can be propagated successfully by grafting using araticum-de-terra-fria rootstock. Whip graft was the best grafting method for araticum-de-terra-fria rootstock with 90% survival. Both grafting methods for biriba rootstock resulted in low scion survival rate.

  13. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  14. A magnetic-lens - mini-orange coincidence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Holmberg, L.; Ruus, N.; Tegner, P.E.; Weiss, G.

    1997-04-01

    A coincidence spectrometer consisting of a Gerholm type magnetic lens and a permanent magnet mini-orange spectrometer is described. Electron-electron or electron-positron coincidences may be registered in various angular settings. The spectrometer has been developed mainly to search for anomalous contributions to Bhabha scattering or positrons and is at present used for such studies. 6 refs

  15. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  16. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  17. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  18. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  19. Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Apagyi, B; Scheid, W

    2003-01-01

    A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure.

  20. Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apagyi, Barnabas; Harman, Zoltan; Scheid, Werner

    2003-01-01

    A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure

  1. "Miríades por toda a eternidade": a atualidade de E. P. Thompson

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes,Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    O artigo reexamina o trabalho clássico de E. P. Thompson, nele identificando elementos relevantes para o estudo do contexto histórico contemporâneo. Critica as abordagens que buscaram sintetizar um "método thompsoniano" em algumas fórmulas do prefácio da obra recorrentemente citadas. Defende ainda que a compreensão do persistente apelo do livro deve ser buscada na análise de sua estrutura narrativa.

  2. Review of "Echinococcus and Echinococcosis, Part A." edited by R. C. Andrew Thompson, Alan J. Lymbery and Peter Deplazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akira

    2017-09-04

    Thompson RCA, Deplazes P, Lymbery AJ, Editors. Echinococcus and Echinococcosis, Part A. Volume 95, Advances in Parasitology 95. Academic Press; 2017. 525 pages, ISBN 978-0-12-8114711 (hardcover); 9780128114728 (eBook).

  3. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  4. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  5. ISLA: An Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D., E-mail: bazin@nscl.msu.edu; Mittig, W.

    2013-12-15

    A novel type of recoil mass spectrometer and separator is proposed for the future secondary radioactive beams of the ReA12 accelerator at NSCL/FRIB, inspired from the TOFI spectrometer developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for online mass measurements. The Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances (ISLA) is able to achieve superior characteristics without the compromises that usually plague the design of large acceptance spectrometers. ISLA can provide mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) measurements to better than 1 part in 1000 by using an optically isochronous time-of-flight independent of the momentum vector of the recoiling ions, despite large acceptances of 20% in momentum and 64 msr in solid angle. The characteristics of this unique design are shown, including requirements for auxiliary detectors around the target and the various types of reactions to be used with the re-accelerated radioactive beams of the future ReA12 accelerator.

  6. Thirty Years Later: Reflections of the Big Thompson Flood, Colorado, 1976 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. D.; Costa, J. E.; Brunstein, F. C.; Quesenberry, C. A.; Vandas, S. J.; Capesius, J. P.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    Thirty years ago, over 300 mm of rain fell in about 4 to 6 hours in the middle reaches of the Big Thompson River Basin during the devastating flash flood on July 31, 1976. The rainstorm produced flood discharges that exceeded 40 m3/s/km2. A peak discharge of 883 m3/s was estimated at the Big Thompson River near Drake streamflow-gaging station. The raging waters left 144 people dead, 250 injured, and over 800 people were evacuated by helicopter. Four-hundred eighteen homes and businesses were destroyed, as well as 438 automobiles, and damage to infrastructure left the canyon reachable only via helicopter. Total damage was estimated in excess of $116 million (2006 dollars). Natural hazards similar to the Big Thompson flood are rare, but the probability of a similar event hitting the Front Range, other parts of Colorado, or other parts of the Nation is real. Although much smaller in scale than the Big Thompson flood, several flash floods have happened during the monsoon in early July 2006 in the Colorado foothills that reemphasized the hazards associated with flash flooding. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts flood research to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson flood. A summary of hydrologic conditions of the 1976 flood, what the 1976 flood can teach us about flash floods, a description of some of the advances in USGS flood science as a consequence of this disaster, and lessons that we learned to help reduce loss of life from this extraordinary flash flood are discussed. In the 30 years since the Big Thompson flood, there have been important advances in streamflow monitoring and flood warning. The National Weather Service (NWS) NEXRAD radar allows real-time monitoring of precipitation in most places in the United States. The USGS currently (2006) operates about 7,250 real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the United States that are monitored by the USGS, the NWS, and emergency managers

  7. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  8. The SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  9. The MEG positron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing an innovative spectrometer for the MEG experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. This experiment searches for a lepton flavour violating decay μ + →e + γ with a sensitivity of 10 -13 in order to explore the region predicted by supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The MEG positron spectrometer consists of a specially designed superconducting solenoidal magnet with a highly graded field, an ultimate low-mass drift chamber system, and a precise time measuring counter system. This innovative positron spectrometer is described here focusing on the drift chamber system

  10. Common support and integration of the BMS/BMF type MDT/RPC chambers of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gus'kov, A.V.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Krumshtejn, Z.V.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Lomidze, D.D.; Potrap, I.N.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Podkladkin, S.Yu.; Sekhniaidze, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    The common support system for muon BMS/BMF drift chambers with trigger RPC chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is described. The support systems are intended for the chambers integration into combined modules and for the subsequent installation in the experimental set-up. The technology of chambers integration is described. The sagging of the drift chambers was tested by tilting the modules at different angles. The measurements were performed by means of the RASNIK optical system. The normal operation of kinematic supports was confirmed. We also present the method of the sag regulation for the BMS/BMF chambers lying in the horizontal plane which provides the minimum difference between signal wire and detector tube body sags when the modules are later installed in their working positions

  11. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  12. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  13. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  14. Revisiting Intel Xeon Phi optimization of Thompson cloud microphysics scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikainen, Jarno; Huang, Bormin; Huang, Allen

    2015-10-01

    The Thompson cloud microphysics scheme is a sophisticated cloud microphysics scheme in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The scheme is very suitable for massively parallel computation as there are no interactions among horizontal grid points. Compared to the earlier microphysics schemes, the Thompson scheme incorporates a large number of improvements. Thus, we have optimized the speed of this important part of WRF. Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) ushers in a new era of supercomputing speed, performance, and compatibility. It allows the developers to run code at trillions of calculations per second using the familiar programming model. In this paper, we present our results of optimizing the Thompson microphysics scheme on Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) hardware. The Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor is the first product based on Intel MIC architecture, and it consists of up to 61 cores connected by a high performance on-die bidirectional interconnect. The coprocessor supports all important Intel development tools. Thus, the development environment is familiar one to a vast number of CPU developers. Although, getting a maximum performance out of MICs will require using some novel optimization techniques. New optimizations for an updated Thompson scheme are discusses in this paper. The optimizations improved the performance of the original Thompson code on Xeon Phi 7120P by a factor of 1.8x. Furthermore, the same optimizations improved the performance of the Thompson on a dual socket configuration of eight core Intel Xeon E5-2670 CPUs by a factor of 1.8x compared to the original Thompson code.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  16. Study of neutron spectrometers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellne, Jan

    2005-11-15

    A review is presented of the developments in the field of neutron emission spectrometry (NES) which is of relevance for identifying the role of NES diagnostics on ITER and selecting suitable instrumentation. Neutron spectrometers will be part of the ITER neutron diagnostic complement and this study makes a special effort to examine which performance characteristics the spectrometers should possess to provide the best burning plasma diagnostic information together with neutron cameras and neutron yield monitors. The performance of NES diagnostics is coupled to how much interface space can be provided which has lead to an interest to find compact instruments and their NES capabilities. This study assesses all known spectrometer types of potential interest for ITER and makes a ranking of their performance (as demonstrated or projected), which, in turn, are compared with ITER measurement requirements as a reference; the ratio of diagnostic performance to interface cost for different spectrometers is also discussed for different spectrometer types. The overall result of the study is an assessment of which diagnostic functions neutron measurements can provide in burning plasma fusion experiments on ITER and the role that NES can play depending on the category of instrument installed. Of special note is the result that much higher quality diagnostic information can be obtained from neutron measurements with total yield monitors, profile flux cameras and spectrometers when the synergy in the data is considered in the analysis and interpretation.

  17. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head; Conception et realisation d'un spectrometre de masse a temps de vol spatialisable de type 'reflectron' electronique et tete de mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoto, P

    2006-03-15

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  19. Consul Thompson, the Bostonians and the Formation of the Chichen Galaxy, 1893-1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Palacios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article continues the narrative of the experiences of the businessmen-academics and collectors connected to Harvard University –the so-called Bostonians– in the archaeological sites of Yucatán, which were explored towards the end of the 1880s by Edward H. Thompson under their patronage, including his appointment as the U.S. consul in Mérida – as a form of protection – on their recommendation. This article reconstructs the loss of control of the strategic consulate by the Bostonians between 1893 and 1897. This narrative covers the occupation and the beginning of the looting of Chichen Itza, as well as the pseudo-scientific narrative the excavation provokes. It also analyzes the networks of alliances and rivalries resulting from the arrival of other U.S. archaeologists and archaeological institutions. It concludes with the paths Thompson pursued to undertake the adventure of his lifetime: the dredging of Chichen Itza’s Sacred Cenote.

  20. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  1. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  2. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  3. Microprocessor monitored Auger spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Ghaleb, Dominique; Pernot, Bernard.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of an Auger spectrometer, used for studying surface impurity diffusion, has been fully automatized with the help of a microprocessor. The characteristics, performance and practical use of the system are described together with the main advantage for the experimentator [fr

  4. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  5. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  6. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  7. High intensity line source for x-ray spectrometer calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1986-06-01

    A high intensity electron-impact x-ray source using a one-dimensional Pierce lens has been built for the purpose of calibrating a bent crystal x-ray spectrometer. This source focuses up to 100 mA of 20-keV electrons to a line on a liquid-cooled anode. The line (which can serve as a virtual slit for the spectrometer) measures approximately 800 μ x 2 cm. The source is portable and therefore adaptable to numerous types of spectrometer applications. One particular application, the calibration of a high resolution (r = 10 4 ) time-resolved cyrstal spectrometer, will be discussed in detail

  8. Development of triple axis neutron spectrometer (Paper No. 24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.C.; Wadhwa, N.R.; Goveas, S.H.

    1987-02-01

    The triple axis neutron spectrometers are the basic instruments intended for use with neutron beams from reactors. Various types of spectrometers, each devoted to different kinds of measurement can be designed and manufactured, once a prototype having all the attributes of a versatile instrument is designed and developed. With the view to achieving self reliance in this field, Central Workshops of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay designed and developed a prototype of triple axis spectrometer meeting the specifications prepared by Nuclear Physics Division of BARC . This spectrometer, with a moving wedge system was successfully manufactured and installed at 'DHRUVA'. Another version of this spectrometer, called the 'Polarised Neutron Spectrometer' was also built and exported to South Korea and installed at Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute, Seoul. This paper deals with basic concept, development of design, engineering of mechanical assemblies, the manufacturing approach and problems encountered during manufacture. (author). 3 figs

  9. Theoretical resolving power of a radiofrequency mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, A.; Le Gac, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiofrequency mass spectrometers of L.G. Smith's type can reach a resolving power of 10 6 -10 7 and a precision of 10 -9 -10 -10 . The resolving power, shape of peaks and limitations are described. As an example, the spectrometer to be used in an experiment aimed at measuring the anti p/p mass ratio is considered. (orig.)

  10. Automation, development and performance of a photoacoustic spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, F.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This work consists in the development of a circuit to interface a photoacoustic spectrometer with a microcomputer. The obtained spectra are identical to those obtained in commercial photoacoustic spectrometers. The system permits a great versatility and it has possibilities to automatize other types of experiments. The system can be duplicated from national components and at a relatively low coast. (author)

  11. A superheterodyne spectrometer for electronic paramagnetic. Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, J.L.

    1963-12-01

    After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author) [fr

  12. Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature Relación entre el Crecimiento Radical de Vid 'Thompson Seedless' y la Temperatura del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Callejas R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the Copiapó and Huasco Valleys. Four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. Measurements were performed once a week from September 2004 to September 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. Temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. The thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. Root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in July (winter. Root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. High thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth.Con el objetivo de caracterizar el crecimiento del sistema radical de la vid (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless y su relación con la temperatura del suelo, durante la temporada 2004-2005 se llevó a cabo un estudio en parronales ubicados en los valles de Copiapó y Huasco. Se instalaron cuatro cámaras de observación de raíces o rizotrones en plantas homogéneas, en plena producción, pie franco, sanas, y ubicadas en diferentes localidades de la región. Las mediciones del crecimiento de las raíces se efectuaron semanalmente, desde septiembre de 2004 hasta completar 1 año, estimándose la intensidad de crecimiento radical anual y su distribución en los rangos de 0 a 40, 40 a 80 y 80 a 120 cm de profundidad. Adicionalmente, se instalaron sensores de temperatura a 25, 50, 75 y

  13. Lazer, modernidade, capitalismo: um olhar a partir da obra de Edward Palmer Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de consolidação do modo de produção fabril paulatinamente configurou uma clara distinção entre a jornada de trabalho e um tempo livre. Que relação se pode estabelecer entre essa nova dinâmica dos tempos sociais e as tensões relacionadas à construção de um novo conjunto de comportamentos considerados adequados para a consolidação do capitalismo? Esse estudo tem por objetivo discutir o trato dessa questão na obra de Edward Palmer Thompson. Parece possível afirmar que, para ele, o controle do tempo do não-trabalho e das práticas de lazer foi compreendido como uma dimensão fundamental para garantir o "progresso".

  14. Materialismo histórico, cultura e educação: Gramsci, Thompson e Williams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo destaca pontos de confluência das contribuições de Antonio Gramsci, Edward Palmer Thompson e Raymond Williams para romper com a tradição do materialismo histórico, denominada por eles, respectivamente, de materialismo economicista, marxismo idealista e materialismo mecânico. Ao recuperar a historicidade do materialismo histórico no século XX, os três autores ampliam as noções de cultura e de educação, atribuindo-lhes um papel estratégico nos processos de dominação de classe, de transformação social e de emancipação humana.

  15. Os alicerces metateóricos da teoria social de John B. Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes, Felipe Tavares Paes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivamos discutir os pressupostos metateóricos que embasam a teoria social de John B. Thompson. Para tanto, estruturamos o trabalho em três partes. Num primeiro momento, apresentamos e analisamos os pressupostos dessa teoria que dizem respeito à filosofia da ciência, ou seja, aqueles que se referem à ontologia, à epistemologia, à natureza humana e à metodologia. Num segundo momento, abordamos aqueles referentes à teoria sobre a sociedade, isto é, aqueles que se referem à natureza do mundo social. Num terceiro e último momento, analisamos a forma como a teoria social em questão amarra esses dois conjuntos de pressupostos e as implicações éticas decorrentes dessa amarra

  16. Quantum electrical and chromodynamics treated through Thompson's approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, Claudio [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: cnassifCBPF@yahoo.com.br; Silva, P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ. (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: prsilva@fisica.ufmg.br

    2006-09-15

    In this work we apply Thompson's method (of the dimensions and scales) to study some features of the Quantum Electro and Chromodynamics. This heuristic method can be considered as a simple and alternative way to the Renormalisation Group (R.G.) approach and when applied to QED-Lagrangian is able to obtain in a first approximation both the running coupling constant behavior of {alpha}({mu}) and the mass m({mu}). The calculations are evaluated just at d{sub c} = 4, where d{sub c} is the upper critical dimension of the problem, so that we obtain the logarithmic behavior both for the coupling {alpha} and the excess of mass {delta}m on the energy scale {mu}. Although our results are well-known in the vast literature of field theories, the advantage of Thompson's method, beyond its simplicity is that it is able to extract directly from QED-Lagrangian the physical (finite) behavior of {alpha}({mu}) and m({mu}), bypassing hard problems of divergences which normally appear in the conventional renormalisation schemes applied to field theories like QED. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is also treated by the present method in order to obtain the quark condensate value. Besides this, the method is also able to evaluate the vacuum pressure at the boundary of the nucleon. This is done by assuming a step function behavior for the running coupling constant of the QCD, which fits nicely to some quantities related to the strong interaction evaluated through the MIT-bag model. (author)

  17. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  18. The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Dusini, S; Dulach, B; Fanin, C; Felici, G; Corso, F D; Garfagnini, A; Grianti, F; Gustavino, C; Monacelli, P; Paoloni, A; Stanco, L; Spinetti, M; Terranova, F; Votano, L

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Final...

  19. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  20. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  1. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  2. Development and analytical characterization of a Grimm-type glow discharge ion source operated with high gas flow rates and coupled to a mass spectrometer with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Claus; Feldmann, Ingo; Gilmour, Dave; Hoffmann, Volker; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A Grimm-type glow discharge ion source has been developed and was coupled to a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with high mass resolution (Axiom, ThermoElemental, Winsford, UK) by exchanging the front plate of the ICP-MS interface system only. In addition to high discharge powers of up to 70 W, which are typical for a Grimm-type design, this source could be operated with relative high gas flow rates of up to 240 ml min -1 . In combination with a high discharge voltage the signal intensities are reaching a constant level within the first 20 s after the discharge has started. An analytical characterization of this source is given utilizing a calibration using the steel standard reference material NIST 1261A-1265A. The sensitivity for the investigated elements measured with a resolution of 4000 is in the range of 500-6000 cps μg -1 g -1 , and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the measured isotope relative to Fe of less than 8% for the major and minor components of the sample has been achieved. Limits of detection at ng g -1 levels could be obtained

  3. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  4. Imaging spectrometers for atmosphere monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Thido; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Münzenmayer, Ralf; Weiss, Stefan; Posselt, Winfried

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric monitoring missions aim at products like O3, H2O, NO2, SO2, BrO, CH4, CO, CO2 as well as aerosols and cloud information. Depending on the application area (Ozone Monitoring, Green House Gas Monitoring, Tropospheric Composition and Air Quality, Chemistry Climate Interaction etc.) total or tropospheric columns as well as profile information is required. The user community of these data as well as their central requirements w.r.t. the payload aspects will be described. A large range of relevant passive instrument types is available, in particular imaging spectrometer, sounder and polarisation measuring systems in the UV-VIS, SWIR and TIR spectral range. Differences between instruments for dedicated missions are highlighted and evolution of requirements is explained, also in comparison with relevant existing instrumentation partly in orbit today. Aspects of technology roadmaps for instrument implementation as well as synergetic effects of instrument combinations and according mission scopes are discussed.

  5. The BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the programm controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both ''on-line'' and ''off-line'' operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  7. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  8. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons

  9. HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1980-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame but, instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. The beam can be brought into the magnet at a variable position and the magnet can be rotated

  10. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  11. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  12. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hauschild, K. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-06-15

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  13. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.; Hauschild, K.

    2015-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  14. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Div.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  15. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  16. Transcriptome analysis during ripening of table grape berry cv. Thompson Seedless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Balic

    Full Text Available Ripening is one of the key processes associated with the development of major organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This process has been extensively characterized in climacteric fruit, in contrast with non-climacteric fruit such as grape, where the process is less understood. With the aim of studying changes in gene expression during ripening of non-climacteric fruit, an Illumina based RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed on four developmental stages, between veraison and harvest, on table grapes berries cv Thompson Seedless. Functional analysis showed a transcriptional increase in genes related with degradation processes of chlorophyll, lipids, macromolecules recycling and nucleosomes organization; accompanied by a decrease in genes related with chloroplasts integrity and amino acid synthesis pathways. It was possible to identify several processes described during leaf senescence, particularly close to harvest. Before this point, the results suggest a high transcriptional activity associated with the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and cell wall metabolism, which can be related to growth of berries and firmness loss characteristic to this stage of development. This high metabolic activity could be associated with an increase in the transcription of genes related with glycolysis and respiration, unexpected for a non-climacteric fruit ripening.

  17. A celebration of mechanics: from nano to macro. The J. Michael T. Thompson Festschrift issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elishakoff, Isaac

    2013-06-28

    This Theme Issue is dedicated to the topic 'Mechanics: from nano to macro' and marks the 75th birthday of Dr J. Michael T. Thompson, Fellow of the Royal Society, whose current affiliations are as follows: (i) Honorary Fellow, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge; (ii) Emeritus Professor of Nonlinear Dynamics, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London; and (iii) Professor of Theoretical and Applied Dynamics (Distinguished Sixth Century Chair, part-time), University of Aberdeen. He also serves as Chairman of the Board of Directors at ES-Consult (consulting engineers) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The pertinent question that arises from the very start is: should we first salute Michael and then describe the Theme Issue, or vice versa? Indeed, according to Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), the last thing one discovers in composing a work is what to put first. I would like to take the liberty of deviating from the tradition of the Philosophical Transactions and start with the tribute to Michael; after all he is the prime cause of this Theme Issue.

  18. Communication and Control in Organizations: Applying the Work of James Thompson and Gregory Bateson to Interpretive Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    developing integrated theories of organization and administration . His theoretical lineage and written work is explicitly structuralist . He drew much...1979). ’Unobtrusive Measures in Organizational Theory : A Reminder’. Administrative Science SQarJt .XJly, 24, 650-659. Weick, K. (1974). ’Middle...the work of James Thompson and Gregory Bateson. (3) It is a treatise about the application of interpretive methods and theory to organizational research

  19. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19920325 to 19921021 (NODC Accession 9700085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Picophytoplankton and bacteria were collected from the Thomas G. Thompson as part of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Data were collected...

  20. WATER TEMPERATURE and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19920130 to 19921021 (NODC Accession 9700050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical, hydrophysical, and other data were collected from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from January 30, 1992 to October 21, 1992. Data were submitted by Dr. Robert...

  1. Chemical data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON using CTD and bottle casts in Arabian Sea from 08 January 1995 to 26 November 1995 (NODC Accession 9800161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using CTD and bottle casts in the Arabian Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 08 January 1995 to 26 November 1995 by...

  2. PHYTOPLANKTON - WET WEIGHT and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19920203 to 19921213 (NODC Accession 9700068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton were collected from the Thomas G. Thompson as part of the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program to assess biomass and abundance. Data...

  3. ZOOPLANKTON SPECIES IDENTITIES and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19920203 to 19921021 (NODC Accession 9700062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abundance, biovolume, and biomass of (Cyanobacteria, phototrophic, heterotrophic eucaryotic pico and nanoplanktons) were collected from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from...

  4. ZOOPLANKTON SPECIES IDENTITIES and Other Data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19920203 to 19921021 (NODC Accession 9700058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth, abundance and biomass of (Radiolarians, Formainiferans, Acantharians) were collected from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from February 3, 1992 to October 21, 1992....

  5. Zooplankton, chemical, and other data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in Arabian Sea; 09 January 1995 to 07 April 1995 (NODC Accession 9800109)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, chemical, and other data were collected using zooplankton net casts in Arabian Sea from THOMAS G. THOMPSON. Data were collected from 09 January 1995 to...

  6. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 1983-11-14 to 1984-10-28 (NODC Accession 9000206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data were collected during 83 casts from Ship T.G. THOMPSON. The data was collected over a period spanning from...

  7. Viable-but-Nonculturable Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Thompson Induced by Chlorine Stress Remain Infectious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum J. Highmore

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological safety of fresh produce is monitored almost exclusively by culture-based detection methods. However, bacterial food-borne pathogens are known to enter a viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC state in response to environmental stresses such as chlorine, which is commonly used for fresh produce decontamination. Here, complete VBNC induction of green fluorescent protein-tagged Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson was achieved by exposure to 12 and 3 ppm chlorine, respectively. The pathogens were subjected to chlorine washing following incubation on spinach leaves. Culture data revealed that total viable L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson populations became VBNC by 50 and 100 ppm chlorine, respectively, while enumeration by direct viable counting found that chlorine caused a <1-log reduction in viability. The pathogenicity of chlorine-induced VBNC L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Thompson was assessed by using Caenorhabditis elegans. Ingestion of VBNC pathogens by C. elegans resulted in a significant life span reduction (P = 0.0064 and P < 0.0001, and no significant difference between the life span reductions caused by the VBNC and culturable L. monocytogenes treatments was observed. L. monocytogenes was visualized beyond the nematode intestinal lumen, indicating resuscitation and cell invasion. These data emphasize the risk that VBNC food-borne pathogens could pose to public health should they continue to go undetected.

  8. Calculational approach to ionization spectrometer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1974-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the design and overall performance of an ionization spectrometer. These factors include the conditions under which the spectrometer is to be used, the required performance, the development of the hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, leakage and binding energies, saturation effects of densely ionizing particles, nonuniform light collection, sampling fluctuations, etc. The calculational procedures developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that have been applied to many spectrometer designs and that include many of the influencing factors in spectrometer design are discussed. The incident-particle types which can be considered with some generality are protons, neutrons, pions, muons, electrons, positrons, and gamma rays. Charged kaons can also be considered but with less generality. The incident-particle energy range can extend into the hundreds of GeV range. The calculations have been verified by comparison with experimental data but only up to approximately 30 GeV. Some comparisons with experimental data are also discussed and presented so that the flexibility of the calculational methods can be demonstrated. (U.S.)

  9. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  10. Nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer for chlorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasanda, J.

    1976-01-01

    An NQR spectrometer is described based on a superregenerative oscillator for high sensitivity. The application of a Pound-Knight type oscillator using field effect transistors resulted in higher stability of oscillation amplitude in the desired range of 10 to 50 MHz. The use of a current source allowed to set good signal-to-noise ratio independently of the amplitude of oscillations. For synchronizing of both oscillators a balanced modulator was used. (author)

  11. MEMS based digital transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Yariv; Ramani, Mouli

    2005-09-01

    Earlier this year, a new breed of Spectrometers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) engines has been introduced to the commercial market. The use of these engines combined with transform mathematics, produces powerful spectrometers at unprecedented low cost in various spectral regions.

  12. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groitl, Felix, E-mail: felix.groitl@psi.ch [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bartkowiak, Marek [Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bergmann, Ryan M. [Division Large Research Facilities, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Birk, Jonas Okkels [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Markó, Márton [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Neutron Spectroscopy Department, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bollhalder, Alex; Graf, Dieter [Laboratory for Scientific Developments and Novel Materials, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Niedermayer, Christof [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rüegg, Christian [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Quantum Matter Physics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Rønnow, Henrik M. [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-06-21

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each other where the neutrons have to pass through the bonding compound of the different analyzer crystals. The different methods, namely screws, shellac, indium soldering and clips, have been evaluated with regards to background, transmission, cooling, activation and handling. The results presented here will give valuable input for future CAMEA-type spectrometers currently planned and designed at various neutron sources.

  13. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groitl, Felix; Bartkowiak, Marek; Bergmann, Ryan M.; Birk, Jonas Okkels; Markó, Márton; Bollhalder, Alex; Graf, Dieter; Niedermayer, Christof; Rüegg, Christian; Rønnow, Henrik M.

    2017-01-01

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each other where the neutrons have to pass through the bonding compound of the different analyzer crystals. The different methods, namely screws, shellac, indium soldering and clips, have been evaluated with regards to background, transmission, cooling, activation and handling. The results presented here will give valuable input for future CAMEA-type spectrometers currently planned and designed at various neutron sources.

  14. VEGAS: VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussa, Srikanth; VEGAS Development Team

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation Advanced Technologies and Instrumentation (NSF-ATI) program is funding a new spectrometer backend for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). This spectrometer is being built by the CICADA collaboration - collaboration between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the Center for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) at the University of California Berkeley.The backend is named as VErsatile GBT Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) and will replace the capabilities of the existing spectrometers. This backend supports data processing from focal plane array systems. The spectrometer will be capable of processing up to 1.25 GHz bandwidth from 8 dual polarized beams or a bandwidth up to 10 GHz from a dual polarized beam.The spectrometer will be using 8-bit analog to digital converters (ADC), which gives a better dynamic range than existing GBT spectrometers. There will be 8 tunable digital sub-bands within the 1.25 GHz bandwidth, which will enhance the capability of simultaneous observation of multiple spectral transitions. The maximum spectral dump rate to disk will be about 0.5 msec. The vastly enhanced backend capabilities will support several science projects with the GBT. The projects include mapping temperature and density structure of molecular clouds; searches for organic molecules in the interstellar medium; determination of the fundamental constants of our evolving Universe; red-shifted spectral features from galaxies across cosmic time and survey for pulsars in the extreme gravitational environment of the Galactic Center.

  15. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  16. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  17. Software for mass spectrometer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Anghel, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Trancota, Dan; Kaucsar, Martin; Oprea, Cristiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a software application for the MAT 250 mass spectrometer control, which was refurbished. The spectrometer was bring-up-to-date using a hardware structure on its support where the software application for mass spectrometer control was developed . The software application is composed of dedicated modules that perform given operations. The instructions that these modules have to perform are generated by a principal module. This module makes possible the change of information between the modules that compose the software application. The use of a modal structure is useful for adding new functions in the future. The developed application in our institute made possible the transformation of the mass spectrometer MAT 250 into a device endowed with other new generation tools. (authors)

  18. The Lise spectrometer at Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    The doubly achromatic spectrometer LISE is available at the french national heavy ion accelerator GANIL. Experimental results, obtained in radioactive beam production and search for new exotic nuclei are briefly reported

  19. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R.

    1994-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239 Pu, 187 Re, and 238 U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis

  1. Reply to J. C. Thompson, Jr. 's comments on the paper 'Radiation doses from iodine-129 in the environment'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, J K [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, Wash. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    Reference is made to comments by Thompson (Health Phys.; 31: 287 (1976)) on the present author's paper on 'Radiation Doses from /sup 129/I in the Environment' (Health Phys; Jan 1976) concerning the human and bovine consumption data that were used to arrive at thyroid dose estimates. Clarification is given of the diet and consumption data used in the original work and the sources of such data cited. Should modified diet data be accepted the thyroid dose estimates from unit concentrations of /sup 129/I in air originally tabulated could easily be altered in proportion to the diet assumed.

  2. Theory and optical design of x-ray echo spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a space-domain counterpart of neutron spin echo, is a recently proposed inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique. X-ray echo spectroscopy relies on imaging IXS spectra and does not require x-ray monochromatization. Due to this, the echo-type IXS spectrometers are broadband, and thus have a potential to simultaneously provide dramatically increased signal strength, reduced measurement times, and higher resolution compared to the traditional narrow-band scanning-type IXS spectrometers. The theory of x-ray echo spectrometers presented earlier [Yu. Shvyd'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 080801 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.080801] is developed here further with a focus on questions of practical importance, which could facilitate optical design and assessment of the feasibility and performance of the echo spectrometers. Among others, the following questions are addressed: spectral resolution, refocusing condition, echo spectrometer tolerances, refocusing condition adjustment, effective beam size on the sample, spectral window of imaging and scanning range, impact of the secondary source size on the spectral resolution, angular dispersive optics, focusing and collimating optics, and detector's spatial resolution. Examples of optical designs and characteristics of echo spectrometers with 1-meV and 0.1-meV resolutions are presented.

  3. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  4. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  5. Simplified monte carlo simulation for Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taijie; Wang Shuqin; Yan Wuguang; Huang Yinzhi; Huang Deqiang; Lang Pengfei

    1986-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method based on the functionization of the performance of detectors and the transformation of values of kinematical variables into ''measured'' ones by means of smearing has been used to program the Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in FORTRAN language named BESMC. It can be used to investigate the multiplicity, the particle type, and the distribution of four-momentum of the final states of electron-positron collision, and also the response of the BES to these final states. Thus, it provides a measure to examine whether the overall design of the BES is reasonable and to decide the physical topics of the BES

  6. Discrimination of bacteria by rapid sensing their metabolic volatiles using an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer (a-IMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiu, Ileana Andreea; Bocos-Bintintan, Victor; Patrut, Adrian; Moll, Victor Hugo; Turner, Matthew; Thomas, C L Paul

    2017-08-22

    The objective of our study was to investigate whether one may quickly and reliably discriminate different microorganism strains by direct monitoring of the headspace atmosphere above their cultures. Headspace samples above a series of in vitro bacterial cultures were directly interrogated using an aspiration type ion mobility spectrometer (a-IMS), which produced distinct profiles ("fingerprints") of ion currents generated simultaneously by the detectors present inside the ion mobility cell. Data processing and analysis using principal component analysis showed net differences in the responses produced by volatiles emitted by various bacterial strains. Fingerprint assignments were conferred on the basis of product ion mobilities; ions of differing size and mass were deflected in a different degree upon their introduction of a transverse electric field, impacting finally on a series of capacitors (denominated as detectors, or channels) placed in a manner analogous to sensor arrays. Three microorganism strains were investigated - Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus; all strains possess a relatively low pathogenic character. Samples of air with a 5 cm 3 volume from the headspace above the bacterial cultures in agar growth medium were collected using a gas-tight chromatographic syringe and injected inside the closed-loop pneumatic circuit of the breadboard a-IMS instrument model ChemPro-100i (Environics Oy, Finland), at a distance of about 1 cm from the ionization source. The resulting chemical fingerprints were produced within two seconds from the moment of injection. The sampling protocol involved to taking three replicate samples from each of 10 different cultures for a specific strain, during a total period of 72 h after the initial incubation - at 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate between the IMS fingerprints. PCA was found to successfully discriminate between bacteria at three

  7. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  8. Current instrument status of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.; Porter, Wallace M.

    1991-01-01

    An upgraded version of AVIRIS, an airborne imaging spectrometer based on a whiskbroom-type scanner coupled via optical fibers to four dispersive spectrometers, that has been in operation since 1987 is described. Emphasis is placed on specific AVIRIS subsystems including foreoptics, fiber optics, and an in-flight reference source; spectrometers and detector dewars; a scan drive mechanism; a signal chain; digital electronics; a tape recorder; calibration systems; and ground support requirements.

  9. Forward spectrometers at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Most of SSC phase space and a great deal of physics potential is in the forward/backward region (absolute value of theta < 100 mrad). Comprehensive open-geometry spectrometers are feasible and very cost effective. Examples of such devices are sketched. Because such spectrometers are very long and may operate at high β and longer bunch spacing, they impact now on SSC interaction - region design. The data acquisition load is as heavy as for central detectors, although there may be less emphasis on speed and more emphasis on sophisticated parallel and/or distributed processing for event selection, as well as on high-capacity buffering

  10. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ramirez G, J.

    2009-10-01

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  11. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  12. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G.; Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R.; Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Fernandez, J.; Fuchs, J.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C 6+ , O 8+ , etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser

  13. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Krygier, A. G.; Doria, D.; Clarke, R.; Fernandez, J.; Freeman, R. R.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Green, J. S.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Morrison, J. T.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Nersisyan, G.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Ruiz, J. A.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2014-09-01

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C6 +, O8 +, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  14. Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo, A.; Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Nersisyan, G. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Krygier, A. G.; Freeman, R. R. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Clarke, R.; Green, J. S.; Notley, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fernandez, J. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Fuchs, J. [LULI, École Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Morrison, J. T. [Propulsion Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Lab, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-09-15

    A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C{sup 6+}, O{sup 8+}, etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.

  15. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  16. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  17. Small angle single arm spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.Y.

    1976-01-01

    A study is given of an experiment described in the 1975 Summer Study to review the adequacy of the apparatus for its physics goals, equipment needs, logistic needs, vacuum chambers, compatibility with other experiments and to summarize its impacts on ISABELLE. The spectrometer is designed to study single particle inclusive spectra near x = 1 with particle identification and good momentum resolution

  18. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  19. IPNS-I chopper spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Carpenter, J.M.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Sinha, S.K.; Bresof, I.; Ostrowski, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly describe the layout and operation of the two chopper experiments at IPNS-I. The recent measurement on solid 4 He by Hilleke et al. provides examples of time-of-flight data from the Low Resolution Chopper Spectrometer

  20. The story of a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.; Uhrberg, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development and design of a photoelectron spectrometer for use by researchers using synchrotron radiation. Originally developed for a new beam line at the MAXI Synchrotron at Lund in Sweden, the device has many research applications where its high level of performance is required. (UK)

  1. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  2. Inside the ETH spectrometer magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The ETH spectrometer magnet being prepared for experiment S134, which uses a frozen spin polarized target to study the associated production of a kaon and a lambda by negative pions interacting with protons (CERN-ETH, Zurich-Helsinki-Imperial College, London-Southampton Collaboration). (See Photo Archive 7406316)

  3. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M.; Kozyr, A.

    1999-08-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity [measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2.

  4. The old and new faces of morphology: the legacy of D'Arcy Thompson's 'theory of transformations' and 'laws of growth'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2017-12-01

    In 1917, the publication of On Growth and Form by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson challenged both mathematicians and naturalists to think about biological shapes and diversity as more than a confusion of chaotic forms generated at random, but rather as geometric shapes that could be described by principles of physics and mathematics. Thompson's work was based on the ideas of Galileo and Goethe on morphology and of Russell on functionalism, but he was first to postulate that physical forces and internal growth parameters regulate biological forms and could be revealed via geometric transformations in morphological space. Such precise mathematical structure suggested a unifying generative process, as reflected in the title of the book. To Thompson it was growth that could explain the generation of any particular biological form, and changes in ontogeny, rather than natural selection, could then explain the diversity of biological shapes. Whereas adaptationism, widely accepted in evolutionary biology, gives primacy to extrinsic factors in producing morphological variation, Thompson's 'laws of growth' provide intrinsic directives and constraints for the generation of individual shapes, helping to explain the 'profusion of forms, colours, and other modifications' observed in the living world. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Estimating incidence of problem drug use using the Horwitz-Thompson estimator - A new approach applied to people who inject drugs in Oslo 1985-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ellen J; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne L; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    The trend in the number of new problem drug users per year (incidence) is the most important measure for studying the diffusion of problem drug use. Due to sparse data sources and complicated statistical models, estimation of incidence of problem drug use is challenging. The aim of this study is to widen the palette of available methods and data types for estimating incidence of problem drug use over time, and for identifying the trends. This study presents a new method of incidence estimation, applied to people who inject drugs (PWID) in Oslo. The method took into account the transition between different phases of drug use progression - active use, temporary cessation, and permanent cessation. The Horwitz-Thompson estimator was applied. Data included 16 cross-sectional samples of problem drug users who reported their onset of injecting drug use. We explored variation in results for selected probable scenarios of parameter variation for disease progression, as well as the stability of the results based on fewer years of cross-sectional samples. The method yielded incidence estimates of problem drug use, over time. When applied to people in Oslo who inject drugs, we found a significant reduction of incidence of 63% from 1985 to 2008. This downward trend was also present when the estimates were based on fewer surveys (five) and in the results of sensitivity analysis for likely scenarios of disease progression. This new method, which incorporates temporarily inactive problem drug users, may become a useful tool for estimating the incidence of problem drug use over time. The method may be less data intensive than other methods based on first entry to treatment and may be generalized to other groups of substance users. Further studies on drug use progression would improve the validity of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation of animal form by the Chordin/Tolloid/BMP gradient: 100 years after D'Arcy Thompson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Robertis, Edward M; Moriyama, Yuki; Colozza, Gabriele

    2017-09-01

    The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history. Chordin is a BMP antagonist secreted by the Spemann organizer located on the dorsal side of the gastrula. Chordin generates a morphogen gradient as first proposed by mathematician Alan Turing. The rate-limiting step of this dorsal-ventral (D-V) morphogen is the degradation of Chordin by the Tolloid metalloproteinase in the ventral side. Chordin is expressed at gastrula on the dorsal side where BMP signaling is low, while at the opposite side peak levels of BMP signaling are reached. In fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds, high BMP signaling in the ventral region induces transcription of a secreted inhibitor of Tolloid called Sizzled. By depleting Sizzled exclusively in the ventral half of the embryo we were able to expand the ventro-posterior region in an otherwise normal embryo. Conversely, ventral depletion of Tolloid, which stabilizes Chordin, decreased ventral and tail structures, phenocopying the tolloid zebrafish mutation. We explain how historical constraints recorded in the language of DNA become subject to the universal laws of physics when an ancestral reaction-diffusion morphogen gradient dictates form. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Thompson revisited. Ein empirisch fundiertes Modell zur Qualität von „Quality-TV“ aus Nutzersicht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Harnischmacher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Was bedeutet das Attribut „Quality-TV“ eigentlich für das Publikum? Nach welchen Kriterien beurteilen Zuschauerinnen und Zuschauer, ob eine Serie Qualitätsfernsehen ist oder nicht? Im Bereich der rezipientenorientierten Qualitätsforschung bezüglich Fernsehserien sind bislang fast ausschließlich qualitativ erhobene Modelle bedeutsam, am bekanntesten sicherlich die bereits 1996 von Robert J. Thompson vorgeschlagenen 12 Kriterien. Die vorliegende Untersuchung widmet sich nun der Frage, ob diese Qualitätskriterien tatsächlich die „richtigen“ sind. Sind sie für die Zuschauer/innen von Serien bedeutsam für die Einschätzung, ob ein Programm „Quality-TV“ ist oder nicht? Bislang fehlt eine empirische Fundierung der einzelnen Merkmale. Ebenso ungeklärt ist bislang, ob es eine Rangfolge dieser Merkmale gibt. Welche sind bedeutsamer, welche weniger wichtig für die Wahrnehmung einer Serie als Qualitätsprodukt? Die Studie hat Thompsons Vorschlag (unter Bezugnahme auf weitere Studien zum Thema (z.B. Cardwell 2007; Feuer 2007; Dreher 2010; Blanchett 2011; Kumpf 2011 operationalisiert und in einer standardisierten Befragung der Nutzer von 13 Onlineforen zu Qualitätsserien (n=1382 getestet. Auf Basis dieser Befragung kann statistisch nachgewiesen werden, welche Merkmale von den Zuschauer/innen als besonders wichtig angesehen werden und wie diese zu Qualitätsfaktoren zusammengefasst werden können, die das Phänomen „Quality-TV“ aus Zuschauersicht tatsächlich beschreiben können.

  8. Compact Spectrometers Based on Linear Variable Filters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate a linear-variable spectrometer with an H2RG array. Linear Variable Filter (LVF) spectrometers provide attractive resource benefits – high optical...

  9. Scintillation forward spectrometer of the SPHERE setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Yu.S.; Afanas'ev, S.V.; Bondarev, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of the forward spectrometer for the 4π SPHERE setup to study multiple production of particles in nucleus-nucleus interactions is described. The measured parameters of the spectrometer detectors are presented. 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Combined raman spectrometer/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Gregory; Ahlers, Berit; Boslooper, Erik; Rull-Perez, Fernando; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-11-01

    Amongst the different instruments that have been preselected to be on-board the Pasteur payload on ExoMars is the Raman/ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities. An international team under the lead of TNO has been gathered to produce a design concept for a combined Raman Spectrometer/ LIBS Elegant Bread-Board (EBB). The instrument is based on a specifically designed extremely compact spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. Low mass, size and resources are the main drivers of the instrument's design concept. The proposed design concept, realization and testing programme for the combined Raman/ LIBS EBB is presented as well as background information on Raman and LIBS.

  11. Compact multichannel MEMS based spectrometer for FBG sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Rose, Bjarke; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel type of compact multichannel MEMS based spectrometer, where we replace the linear detector with a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). The DMD is typically cheaper and has better pixel sampling than an InGaAs detector used in the 1550 nm range, which leads to cost reduction...

  12. Design of a new focused multipassage mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, P [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Photonic and Sensors Section; Baril, M [Laval Univ., Quebec City (Canada). Dept. de Physique

    1990-12-01

    This paper descirbes a new type of multipassage mass spectrometer using tricylindrical mirrors as reflexive elements and a symmetric quadrupolar lens triplet as focusing element. We study the first order optics and then emphasize on beam transport problems as well as on conditions for maximum mass resolution. The effect of first and second order aberrations on the ultimate resolution of the spectrometer and the procedure for minimizing them by selecting proper operating conditions are discussed. The contributions of the third order aberration terms and of space charge are not considered. (orig.).

  13. Environmental radioactivity measurements Using a compton suppression spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, T.; Elnimr, T.

    1998-01-01

    The natural and artificial radioactivities of some environmental samples such as soil and vegetables have been studied through gamma-ray spectroscopy with a new constructed compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The spectrometer consists of a 10% p-type HPGe detector as a main detector, an annular NE-102 A plastic scintillator as a guard detector, and a fast-slow coincidence system employing standard electronic modules for anti-compton operation. This study shows that CSS is a powerful tool for measuring the low level activities of environmental samples

  14. The circular electrical mobility spectrometer; theory, performances and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesbah, Boualem

    1995-04-01

    A new type of electrical mobility spectrometer (S.M.E.C.) has been designed in the Service d'Etudes et de Recherches en Aerocontamination et en Confinement (CEA) laboratories. It differs from classical electrical mobility spectrometers in its plan circular geometry and its radial flow. This gives some advantages and the possibility of new applications. The theories that we derive for the different versions of this device are confirmed by experimental results obtained using aerosol particles with known electrical mobility. The S.M.E.C's performances are tested for several applications: - controlled surface contamination, - monodisperse aerosol production, - fine and ultrafine aerosol sizing. (author) [fr

  15. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  16. Acquisition of HPLC-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    31-Jan-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer The views, opinions and/or findings...published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer Report Title The acquisition of the mass spectrometer has been a

  17. Lessons learned with the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J; Greenlees, P T; Jones, P; Julin, R; Konki, J; Pakarinen, J; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Uusitalo, J; Papadakis, P; Cox, D M; Herzberg, R D

    2012-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a high-efficiency γ-ray detection system with an electron spectrometer. Some of the design features have been known to be problematic and surprises have come up during the early implementation of the spectrometer. Tests related to bismuth germanate Compton-suppression shields, electron detection efficiency and an improved cooling system are discussed in the paper. (paper)

  18. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Development of cold neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Lee, C. H.; So, J. Y.; Park, S.; Han, Y. S.; Cho, S. J.; Moon, M. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Sun, G. M.

    2012-03-01

    □ Cold Neutron Triple Axsis Spectrometer (Cold-TAS) Development Ο Fabrication and Installation of the Major Cold-TAS Components Ο Performance Test of the Cold-TAS □ Cold Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectrometer(DC-TOF) Development Ο Fabrication of the Major DC-TOF Components Ο Development DC-TOF Data Reduction Software □ Expected Contribution The two world-class inelastic neutron scattering instruments measure atomic or molecular scale dynamics of meV energy range. This unprecedented measurement capability in the country will enable domestic and international scientists to observe new phenomena in their materials research to obtain world class results. Especially those who work in the fields of magnetic properties of superconductors and multiferroics, molecular dynamics, etc. will get more benefit from these two instruments

  20. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  1. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics

  2. QQDDQ magnet spectrometer 'BIG KARL'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S A; Hardt, A; Meissburger, J; Berg, G P.A.; Hacker, U; Huerlimann, W; Roemer, J G.M.; Sagefka, T; Retz, A; Schult, O W.B.

    1983-09-01

    A magnet spectrometer consisting of two quadrupoles, two dipole magnets and another larger quadrupole in front of the detector was designed and installed at the nuclear research institute of the KFA Juelich. It has been used for charged-particle spectroscopy at the isochronous cyclotron since early 1979. Special features of the spectrometer are variable and high dispersion, coils for higher order field corrections in the dipole magnets and a focal plane perpendicular to the optical axis. A large mass-energy product of mE/q/sup 2/ < 540 u x MeV, an angular acceptance of d..cap omega..<12.5 msr, a high resolving power of p/..delta..p up to 3 x 10/sup 4/ and the possibility of kinematical corrections up to K=0.8 make the instrument a very versatile tool for many experiments in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics. 51 references.

  3. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometer with light feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubareva, A.M.; Iliev, S.; Kushniruk, V.F.; Rykhlyuk, A.V.; Subbotin, V.G.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.

    1978-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer has been designed consisting of a preamplifier with light pulse feedback, and a Si (Li) detector. The electric(FET) circuit is given of the preamplifier designed on field effect transistors. An identification is made of the types of noises of a sink current of 7.5 mA. It is established that a significant part of the total noise comes from the detector-FET system, and white noise from leakage current in the detector. The use in the spectrometer of the preamplifier with light pulse feedback enables the white noise to be reduced to 40-45 eV with a detector leakage current of 10 -13 A. A decrease in the noise of the detector-FET system is only possible owing to the improved technology in the manufacture of FET's. The energy resolution of the spectrometer for the 5.9 keV line is 168 eV

  4. Design of magnetic analysis system for magnetic proton recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianmin; Jiang Shilun; Zhou Lin; Peng Taiping

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of the neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. The design of the magnetic analysis system, which is a key part of the compact MPR-type spectrometer, has been completed through two-dimensional beam transport simulations and three-dimensional particle transport simulation. The analysis of the system's parameters and performances was performed, as well as system designs based on preferential principles of energy resolution, detection efficiency, and count rate, respectively. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system can achieve a detection efficiency of 10 -5 ∼ 10 -4 level at the resolution range of 1.5% to 3.0% and fulfill the design goals of the compact MPR spectrometer. (authors)

  5. Chirped Pulse Spectrometer Operating at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Bray, Cédric; Hickson, Kevin; Fontanari, Daniele; Mouelhi, Meriem; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin

    2018-01-01

    The combination of electronic sources operating at high frequencies and modern microwave instrumentation has enabled the recent development of chirped pulse spectrometers for the millimetre and THz bands. This type of instrument can operate at high resolution which is particularly suited to gas-phase rotational spectroscopy. The construction of a chirped pulse spectrometer operating at 200 GHz is described in detail while attention is paid to the phase stability and the data accumulation over many cycles. Validation using carbonyl sulphide has allowed the detection limit of the instrument to be established as function of the accumulation. A large number of OCS transitions were identified using a 10-GHz chirped pulse and include the six most abundant isotopologues, the weakest line corresponding to the fundamental R(17) transition of 16O13C33S with a line strength of 4.3 × 10-26 cm-1/(molecule cm-2). The linearity of the system response for different degrees of data accumulation and transition line strength was confirmed over four orders of magnitudes. A simple analysis of the time-domain data was demonstrated to provide the line-broadening coefficient without the need for conversion by a Fourier transform. Finally, the pulse duration is discussed and optimal values are given for both Doppler-limited and collisional regimes.

  6. Local tracking in the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Primor, David; Mikenberg, Giora

    2007-01-01

    The LHC, the largest hadron collider accelerator ever built, presents new challenges for scientists and engineers. With the anticipated luminosity of the LHC, it is expected to have as many as one billion total collisions per second, of which at most 10 to 100 per second might be of potential scientific interest. One of the two major, general-purpose experiments at LHC is called ATLAS. Since muons are one of the important signs of new physics, the need of their detection has lead to the construction of a stand- alone Muon Spectrometer. This system is located in a high radiation background environment (mostly neutrons and photons) which makes the muon tracking a very challenging task. The Muon Spectrometer consists of two types of precision chambers, the Monitor Drift Tube (MDT) chambers, and the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC). In order to detect the muon and estimate its track parameters, it is very important to detect and precisely estimate its local tracks within the CSC and MDT chambers. Using advanced signa...

  7. Development of a junction β - spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, A.

    1966-01-01

    A β spectrometry unit using junctions of the silicon surface barrier type has been built. The resolving power of this spectrometer has been studied as well as the influence of a certain number of parameters (temperature, polarization voltage) on its characteristics. A study with this unit of some internal conversion electron spectra ( 113 Sn, 137 Cs, 139 Ce, 195 Au, 207 Bi) has led both to a determination of its characteristics and of an energy calibration, and to the determination of certain internal conversion ratios of these radionuclides. This spectrometer was then used for a study of (5-spectra in particular that of 35 S and 14 C. The calculations and corrections required for the setting-up of Kuries representation are described. The programmes required for the carrying-out of these calculations with an I.B.M. computer are given. It has been verified that Kuries representation for 14 C above 90 keV is in fact linear. The non-linear aspect observed by certain authors is probably due to the 'quality' of the sources used. The Fierz interference term has been determined. The maximum β energies found are respectively: 167 ± 1 keV for 35 S and 155 ± 2 keV for 14 C. (author) [fr

  8. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures

  9. The HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame, but instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. (orig.)

  10. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  11. A spectrometer for submicron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourprix, M.

    1995-01-01

    The electrostatic spectrometer for aerosol particles, is composed of two coaxial parallel conductive disks between which an electric field is established; an annular slot in the first disk allows for the atmosphere air intake. Suction and injection systems, and a third intermediate conductive disk are used to carry out a dynamic confinement that allows for the separation of particles having various electronic mobility and the determination of the suspended particle size distribution. Application to aerosol size spectrum determination and air quality monitoring

  12. The fast slow TDPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Manasijevic, M.; Ivanovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.; Radisavljevic, I.; Cavor, J.; Novakovic, N.; Marjanovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-BaF 2 detector - fast slow time spectrometer for time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) experiments is described. This apparatus has been developed in the Group for Hyperfine Interactions in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences in VINCA. The excellent time resolution combined with high efficiency offered by these detectors enables one high counting rate performance and is operating in the wide temperature range 78-1200 K. (author)

  13. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, E.; Wilken, B.; Richer, K.; Umlauft, G.; Fischer, K.; Winterhoff, H.P.

    1976-10-01

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  14. The RISC-spectrometer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Gy.

    1981-01-01

    The RISC (Relativistic Ionising Streamer Chamber) spectrometer (situated at Protvino, joining the accelerator) is discussed, and the experiment carried out in international cooperation is presented. The beam monitor, the trigger system and the control and data recording system as well as the streamer spark chamber are detailed (the latter is the largest of our time). Examples of the main experiments as well as the work carried out in Budapest are discussed briefly. (Sz.J.)

  15. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  16. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka, Deborah E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Austin, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).

  17. Design of a large superconducting spectrometer magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintomi, T.; Makida, Y.; Mito, T.; Yamanoi, Y.; Hashimito, O.; Nagae, T.

    1989-04-01

    The superconducting spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments has been under construction by Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo with collaboration from KEK. The magnet has a sector type coil. The magnetic field is 3 T with the magnet gap of 50 cm and the stored energy is 11.8 MJ. The easy operation and maintenance are taken into consideration in addition to usual design concept. Three dimensional magnetic field calculation and the stress analysis have been performed. The code 'QUENCH' was applied to decide the operation current and to check the safety of the coil. As a result, the current of 500 A was selected. The heat leaks were checked and estimated less than 2 W at 4 K. A small refrigerator is to be used for thermal insulations at 80 and 20 K. (author)

  18. NQR spectrometer controlled by a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoican, Ovidiu

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is one of the sensitive methods for studying physical and chemical properties of a substance, such as chemical composition, molecular structure, molecular motion and electronic environment. The specifications of the research project require the use of a nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer. Design and performances of a pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer prototype covering the range 1-10 MHz are presented. The pulsed NQR method offers considerably higher sensitivity than either the marginal oscillator or super-regenerative methods. Strong echoes are often observed directly with an oscilloscope or a simple receiver. The method allows us to observe two signal categories: free induction decay (fid) and echoes. The block diagram of the pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer is shown. All operations performed by the spectrometer are controlled by a computer. The scanning frequency range, amplitude and width of the RF pulse, additional magnetic field and sample temperature can be controlled by the software. Also it is possible to improve the signal-to-noise ratio using digital filtering applied to the data stored. Automatic operation eliminates operator skill and uncertainty of manual operation. The NQR spectrometer control software is a stand alone executable file, runs on Windows 95/98 platform and does not require the existence of another software package. A graphical interface allows to user an easy control over the spectrometer operations. All measured parameters by the control system interface are saved in the standard data files and can be processed further. The design is readily adaptable for other applications. The sample is contained within an aluminum cylindrical case. The upper end cap of the case can be removed and it allows introducing the sample. On the upper end cap RF and main temperature sensor connector are placed. On the internal side of the bottom end cap a thermoelectric cooler (MELCOR

  19. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  20. Ion Mobility Spectrometer Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; McLain, Derek [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Steeb, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-12-20

    The Morpho Saffran Itemizer 4DX Ion Mobility Spectrometer previously used to detect uranium signatures in FY16 was used at the former New Brunswick Facility, a past uranium facility located on site at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was chosen in an attempt to detect safeguards relevant signatures and has a history of processing uranium at various enrichments, chemical forms, and purities; various chemicals such as nitric acid, uranium fluorides, phosphates and metals are present at various levels. Several laboratories were sampled for signatures of nuclear activities around the laboratory. All of the surfaces that were surveyed were below background levels of the radioanalytical instrumentation and determined to be radiologically clean.

  1. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  2. As contribuições teórico-metodológicas de E. P. Thompson: experiência e cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Aparecida Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca as contribuições teórico-metodológicas do historiador marxista Edward Palmer Thompson e que podem ser úteis para a pesquisa sociológica. A partir de pesquisa bibliográfica, apresenta-se uma breve biografia do autor e em seguida algumas categorias importantes desenvolvidas por ele, como experiência e cultura. Ressalta-se também a ênfase de Thompson em tratar as categorias teóricas considerando-se a processualidade histórica. Por fim, são levantadas algumas possibilidades de análise da juventude do campo na atualidade a partir das contribuições teórico-metodológicas desse autor.

  3. Sam Thompson, Stewart Parker, and the lineage of northern Irish dramaDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n58p179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilynn Richtarik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Irish dramatist Stewart Parker (1941-1988 wrote plays typically valued for their wit, intellectual content, and formal experimentation. Nonetheless, he was profoundly influenced as a young man by a very different sort of playwright. Sam Thompson (1916-1965, who began his working life in the Belfast shipyards, squarely confronted Northern Irish sectarianism in his plays. His sense of the political potential of drama left an enduring mark on Parker, who organized and edited Thompson's manuscripts several years after his untimely death. Although their dramatic writings bear little resemblance to each other, the two writers should be regarded as united in a common Northern Irish dramatic tradition by virtue of their shared socialist outlook, belief in the importance of individual stands against conformity, and sense of theatre's social mission.

  4. Distribution of the species of Lucifer Thompson, 1829 in the subtropical South Atlantic between parallels 20º and 30ºs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marafon-Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution of the species of Lucifer Thompson, 1829 (Decapoda: Luciferidae in the South Atlantic Subtropical Gyre was assessed by the Brazil Transatlantic Commission in November and December 2009. The samples were collected at 83 stations on two profiles between Brazil and Africa (20 º and 30 ºS. Oblique hauls were performed with a WP-2 net up to 150 meters deep. A distinct sexual relationship was noted between the two species found and L. faxoni presented a significantly higher number of females relative to males 1:0.5 (X2 = 21.77, p = 0.0001. The L. typus sex ratio had significantly more males than females 1.86:1 (X2=50.84, p = 0.0001. The distribution of L. typus occurred in both the western and the eastern portions of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge. This distribution was significantly related to salinity (R2 = 0:13; F = 3.79, p = 0.009, which was higher in the western portion of the study area. In addition, the recordings of the two species were extended to the Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Overall, Luciferidae shrimp were more common and abundant at the stations west of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and L. typus was the most frequent and abundant species.

  5. A PMBGA to Optimize the Selection of Rules for Job Shop Scheduling Based on the Giffler-Thompson Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing research on the job shop scheduling problem has been focused on the minimization of makespan (i.e., the completion time of the last job. However, in the fiercely competitive market nowadays, delivery punctuality is more important for maintaining a high service reputation. So in this paper, we aim at solving job shop scheduling problems with the total weighted tardiness objective. Several dispatching rules are adopted in the Giffler-Thompson algorithm for constructing active schedules. It is noticeable that the rule selections for scheduling consecutive operations are not mutually independent but actually interrelated. Under such circumstances, a probabilistic model-building genetic algorithm (PMBGA is proposed to optimize the sequence of selected rules. First, we use Bayesian networks to model the distribution characteristics of high-quality solutions in the population. Then, the new generation of individuals is produced by sampling the established Bayesian network. Finally, some elitist individuals are further improved by a special local search module based on parameter perturbation. The superiority of the proposed approach is verified by extensive computational experiments and comparisons.

  6. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Yan

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the U.S. JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. They are numbered consecutively from the ship`s commissioning with the first JGOFS cruise designated TN039. Table 1 lists start and end dates of each cruise with its mission. All but the first cruise have been or will be staged from Muscat, Oman. Each cruise is scheduled for a duration of between two weeks and one month. Seven of the cruises, referred to as process cruises, follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipments and towing of a SeaSoar. ADCP data are collected using an autonomous data acquisition system developed for ship-of-opportunity cruises, named the AutoADCP system. The system is an extension of RD instrument`s DAS version 2.48 using enhancements made possible with {open_quotes}user-exit{close_quotes} programs. It makes it possible to collect ADCP data without the constant monitoring usually necessary and insures constant data coverage and uniform data quality.

  7. A cost-benefit analysis of preventative management for zebra and quagga mussels in the Colorado-Big Thompson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    net benefits of preventative management strategies. This study builds a bioeconomic simulation model to predict and compare the expected economic costs of the CDOW boat inspection program ot the benefits of reduced expected control costs to water conveyance systems, hydropower generation stations, and minicipal water treatment facilities. The model is based on a case study water delivery and storage system, the Colorado-Big Thompson system. The Colorado-Big Thomspon system is an excellent example of water systems in the Rocky Mountain West. The system is nearly entirely man-made, with all of its reservoirs and delivery points connected via pipelines, tunnels, and canals. The structures and hydropower systems of the Colorado-Big Thompson system are common to other western storage and delivery systems, making the methods and insight developed from this case study transferal to other western systems. The model developed in this study contributes to the bioeconomic literature in several ways. Foremost, the model predicts the spread of dreissena mussels and associated damage costs for a connected water system in the Rocky Mountain West. Very few zebra mussel studies have focused on western water systems. Another distinguishing factor is the simultaneous consideration of spread from propagules introduced by boats and by flows. Most zebra mussel dispersal models consider boater movement patterns combined with limnological characteristics as predictors of spread. A separate set of studies have addressed mussel spread via downstream flows. To the author's knowledge, this is the first study that builds a zebra mussel spread model that specifically accounts for propagule pressure from boat introductions and from downstream flow introductions. By modeling an entire connected system, the study highlights how the spatial layout of a system, and the risk of invasion within a system affect the benefits of preventative management. This report is presented in five chapters. The first

  8. Inversion of real and complex phase shifts to potentials by the generalized Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, O; Scheid, W; Apagyi, B

    2006-01-01

    The Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy has been generalized to treat complex phase shifts derived from experiments. New formulae for relating phase shifts to shifted angular momenta are derived. The method is applied to phase shifts of known potentials in order to test its quality and stability and, further, it is used to invert experimental n-α and n- 12 C phase shifts

  9. Physical and nutrient data from bottle and CTD casts from the THOMAS THOMPSON from the equatorial Pacific Ocean from 30 January 1992 to 09 March 1992 (NODC Accession 9600091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and nutrient data were collected from bottle and CTD casts from the THOMAS THOMPSON from the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the Bigelow...

  10. Physical, chemical and biological CTD and bottle data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 in eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean from March 19 to April 20, 2012 (NODC Accession 0109846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 to the eastern tropical north pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was to...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1985-08-04 to 1985-09-07 (NCEI Accession 0143394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143394 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1985-08-04 to 1985-09-07 and...

  12. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 2013-10-25 to 2013-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0163186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163186 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 2013-10-25 to...

  13. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA Area - Pacific from 1985-06-18 to 1985-07-15 (NODC Accession 9000124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data were collected as part of El Nino watch. R/V Thomas G. Thompson was used to collect data from TOGA Area-Pacific...

  14. Nutrients data from the R/V ALPHA HELIX and T.G. THOMPSON as part of the Inner Shelf Transfer and Recycling Project from 17 April 1987 to 21 July 1988 (NODC Accession 0000296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, silicate, and other data were collected from the R/V ALPHA HELIX and THOMAS G. THOMPSON from April 17, 1987 to July 21, 1988. Data were...

  15. Physical data from CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON and the THOMAS WASHINGTON in support of the Marathon 2 Project from 05 May 1985 to 07 September 1987 (NODC Accession 9400131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profiles were collected from CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON and the THOMAS WASHINGTON. Data were collected...

  16. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA Area - Pacific, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-03-19 to 1992-09-24 (NODC Accession 9700039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrochemical, hydrophysical, and other data were collected from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from March 19, 1992 to September 24, 1992. Data were submitted by Dr. Curt...

  17. Finite-Element Investigation of the Structural Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP- Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC Decks Slabs in Thompson Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingzhu Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable development and improved whole life performance of concrete infrastructure has led to the requirement of more durable and sustainable concrete bridges alongside accurate predictive analysis tools. Using the combination of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC with industrial by-products and fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP, reinforcement is anticipated to address the concerns of high carbon footprint and corrosion in traditional steel-reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents a numerical investigation of the structural behavior of basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP-reinforced SCC deck slabs in a real bridge, named Thompson Bridge, constructed in Northern Ireland, U.K. A non-linear finite element (FE model is proposed by using ABAQUS 6.10 in this study, which is aimed at extending the previous investigation of the field test in Thompson Bridge. The results of this field test were used to validate the accuracy of the proposed finite element model. The results showed good agreement between the test results and the numerical results; more importantly, the compressive membrane action (CMA inside the slabs could be well demonstrated by this FE model. Subsequently, a series of parametric studies was conducted to investigate the influence of different parameters on the structural performance of the deck slabs in Thompson Bridge. The results of the analyses are discussed, and conclusions on the behavior of the SCC deck slabs reinforced by BFRP bars are presented.

  18. Crystal-diffraction spectrometer of increased efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukov, A.I.; Gornitsyn, G.A.; Morozov, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The geometry of the spectrometer is illustrated in this paper. An attempt is made to achieve optimal design of the spectrometer by finding the coefficient of reflection of the gamma radiation from the various Ge planes. In these experiments, the Du Mond design was used in the spectrometer. Illustrations are provided to explain dependence of the relative efficiency upon the energy of the gamma quanta

  19. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  20. Intracavity Laser Photoacoustic Spectrometer with High Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrayana; Muslim; Wasono, M.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    A photo acoustic spectrometer set-up has been upgraded from an extra cavity into an intracavity configuration using a sealed-off CO 2 laser as the spectrometer's radiation source. The detection level of the upgrade Intracavity Photoacoustic Spectrometer (IPS) reached (200 ± 50) ppt for C 2 H 4 and (20 ± 5) ppt for SF 6 with response time (6.6 ± 0.2) s. (author)

  1. Magnetic field calculations for the technical proposal of the TESLA spectrometer magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, N.A.; Schreiber, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The TESLA electron-positron linear collider is under consideration at DESY (Hamburg). The realization of the physical program at this collider requires the knowledge of the beam energy of both beams (e + and e - ) with a precision of ΔE/E ≤ 10 -4 . The magnetic spectrometer was proposed as an energy measuring device. The report describes calculations for the preliminary conceptual design of this type of the spectrometer. The 2D calculations of the magnetic field for the spectrometer magnet have been performed by POISSON SUPERFISH computer code. The basic technical parameters of the magnet have been determined. These data will serve as a basis for the technical design of the spectrometer magnet and discuss its integration in the spectrometer

  2. Functional Enhancements in Used Oil Analysis Spectrometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lukas, Malte

    1998-01-01

    Spark emission spectrometers using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique have become the workhorses and primary analytical tool of most machine condition monitoring programs based on oil analysis...

  3. Development of a Gamma Spectrometer using a Large NaI Scintillator and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chankyu; Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Yewon and others

    2014-01-01

    A typical scintillation gamma spectrometer is composed of a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal and a PM tube. From last years, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is being developed and expanding its application area as a substitute of PM tube due to its advantages like low operating voltage, small volume, and cheap production cost, MR compatibility. This approach could make gamma spectrometer smaller, cheaper, easier to use, and these advantage are quite suitable to original purpose of scintillation gamma spectrometer. Gamma spectrometry and gamma spectrometer is used to analyze gamma source in nuclear science, geochemistry, and astrophysics. In this research, gamma spectrometer which uses SiPMs instead of PM tube is proposed. The proposed gamma spectrometer has advantages of low cost, small volume, low operation voltage; but it has disadvantages of performances. To reduce this loss in performances, a light guide of effective structure is required. (Material, reflection type, tapering angle) For design of the light guide, DETECT simulation was performed. And through DETECT simulation, the characteristics of light guide could be prospected. Actual light guide was manufactured on the basis of this simulation result. Using the light guide, gamma spectrometer system was composed and tested. In the test result, gamma spectrometer using SiPM shows degraded energy resolution. The reason of this degradation is being analyzed and the test system is under modification

  4. Time-of-flight spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The flight time of an ion in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field (IOFE) is an m/e-dependent property of this field and is independent of the initial position and velocity. The d.c. component of the equation of motion for an ion in the IOFE describes a harmonic oscillation of constant period. When ions oscillate for many periods with one species overtaking another the motion may no longer be truly periodic although the resulting period or 'quasi-period' still remains independent of the initial conditions. This period or 'quasi-period' is used in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer described. The principle of operation is also described and both analytical and experimental results are reported. (B.D.)

  5. Neutron measurement by transportable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Two levels of neutron spectrometry are in regular use at nuclear power plants: some techniques used in the laboratory produce detailed spectra but require specialist operators, while simple instruments used by non-specialists to measure the neutron dose-rate to operators provide little spectral information. The standard portable instruments are therefore of no use when anomalous readings are obtained which require further investigation. AEA Technology at Winfrith has developed a Transportable Neutron Spectrometer (TNS) which is designed to produce reasonable spectra in routine use by staff with no specialist skill in spectroscopy, and high-quality spectra in the hands of skilled staff. The TNS provides a level of information intermediate between those currently available, and is also designed to solve the problem of imperfect dose response which is common in portable dosimeters. The TNS system consists of a power supply, a probe and a signal processing and data acquisition unit. (author)

  6. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  7. Fluorescence imaging spectrometer optical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiti, A.; Coppo, P.; Battistelli, E.

    2015-09-01

    The optical design of the FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) studied for the Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is discussed. FLEX is a candidate for the ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. FLORIS is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager foreseen to be embarked on board of a medium size satellite, flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe the vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 and 780 nm. Multi-frames acquisitions on matrix detectors during the satellite movement will allow the production of 2D Earth scene images in two different spectral channels, called HR and LR with spectral resolution of 0.3 and 2 nm respectively. A common fore optics is foreseen to enhance by design the spatial co-registration between the two spectral channels, which have the same ground spatial sampling (300 m) and swath (150 km). An overlapped spectral range between the two channels is also introduced to simplify the spectral coregistration. A compact opto-mechanical solution with all spherical and plane optical elements is proposed, and the most significant design rationales are described. The instrument optical architecture foresees a dual Babinet scrambler, a dioptric telescope and two grating spectrometers (HR and LR), each consisting of a modified Offner configuration. The developed design is robust, stable vs temperature, easy to align, showing very high optical quality along the whole field of view. The system gives also excellent correction for transverse chromatic aberration and distortions (keystone and smile).

  8. An approximately 4π tracking magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A tracking magnetic spectrometer based on large Time Projection Chambers (TPC) is proposed to measure the momentum of charged particles emerging from the RHIC beam pipe at angles larger than four degrees and to identify the particle type for those beyond fifteen degrees with momenta up to 700 MeV/c, which is a large fraction of the final charged particles emitted by a low rapidity quark-gluon plasma

  9. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments,

  10. Polarized epithermal neutron spectrometer at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohgi, M.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer employing a white, epithermal, polarized neutron beam is under construction at KENS. The neutron polarization is achieved by passage through a dynamically polarized proton filter (DPPF). The results of the test experiments show that the DPPF method is promising in obtaining polarized epithermal neutron beam. The basic design of the spectrometer is described

  11. Application of MSS-neutron spin echo spectrometer to pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Kawai, T.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer spin splitter (MSS) is a neutron device that gives phase difference between field-parallel and -antiparallel spin component of a superposing state. Since the phase difference is equivalent to the Larmor precession angle, MSS enables us to construct a new type of neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer. The new NSE spectrometer has its properties that 1. since the phase shift is neutron flight path length, the spectrometer can be drastically small, 2. the neutron spin echo time is proportional to the neutron wavelength. (author)

  12. Setup of Mössbauer spectrometers at RCPTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechoušek, J.; Jančík, D.; Frydrych, J.; Navařík, J.; Novák, P.

    2012-10-01

    Setup of Mössbauer spectrometers (MS) for structural, phase, and magnetic characterization of iron-or tin-containing samples is presented. This comprehensive line of 57Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer spectrometers covers transmission spectrometers (TMS) for roomtemperature (RT) measurements, temperature dependent measurements and measurements in an external magnetic field. An RT Conversion Electron/Conversion X-ray Mössbauer technique (CEMS/CXMS) is also available. The main concept of the RT MS is a table-top spectrometric bench with a control unit based on special-purpose hardware or standard PC platform. The first way offers a compact design and PC independent spectra collection system. The second setup, a PC-based system, which uses commercial devices and LabVIEW software, offers easy customization and enables advancement in spectrometer construction. The both types of control systems are able to operate special parts (velocity transducers, gamma-ray detectors) of unusual spectrometric benches. The standard velocity axis range is up to ±20 mm/s with a maximum nonlinearity of 0.1%. Applicable measuring conditions of presented TMSs cover a cryogenic temperature range from 1.5 up to 300 K and high temperature range from RT up to 1000 °C. With in-field low-temperature MS, we are able to analyze samples normally in the external magnetic fields up to 8 T (in temperature interval from 1.5 up to 300 K). In addition, special modes of measurements can be applied including backscattering gamma-ray geometry or measurement in an inert or controlled-humidity atmosphere. Technical details and construction aspects of spectrometers are presented.

  13. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR s...

  14. Superhigh-frequency circuit for the EPR spectrometer with rectifier screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizhchenko, G.A.; Tsvirko, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    The hamodyne SHF circuit of a 3-cm EPR spectrometer with a reflecting resonator is described. The optimum operating mode of SHF-rectifier at a constant phase difference is automatically assured in the circuit. The circuit employs a reflecting p-i-n- attenuator and a SHF-rectifier sereen which simplify the spectrometer tuming. The circuit is used in a miniature EPR radiospectrometer Minsk EPR-6-type

  15. Development of gamma spectrometer using silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyu

    2011-02-01

    matched with DETECT simulation results. Degrading of energy resolution due to light guide is 4∼8% at 662 keV. Photon loss during transport in the light guide is the main reason of this degrading. This degrading can be reduced by more reflective coating. When applying the light guide and the SiPM both in the third system, the best energy resolution is 25% at 662 keV. Considering resolution degrading due to light guide, degrading due to SiPM is about 10%. The main cause is the difference between pixels of SiPM array, and summing of signal from each pixel makes noise level high. It can improve through gain adjustment and preamplifier circuit for SiPM array. Developed gamma spectrometer has limited performance for special conditions, but it has possibility to be better and new type of gamma spectrometer

  16. Handheld spectrometers: the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Richard A.

    2013-05-01

    "Small" spectrometers fall into three broad classes: small versions of laboratory instruments, providing data, subsequently processed on a PC; dedicated analyzers, providing actionable information to an individual operator; and process analyzers, providing quantitative or semi-quantitative information to a process controller. The emphasis of this paper is on handheld dedicated analyzers. Many spectrometers have historically been large, possible fragile, expensive and complicated to use. The challenge over the last dozen years, as instruments have moved into the field, has been to make spectrometers smaller, affordable, rugged, easy-to-use, but most of all capable of delivering actionable results. Actionable results can dramatically improve the efficiency of a testing process and transform the way business is done. There are several keys to this handheld spectrometer revolution. Consumer electronics has given us powerful mobile platforms, compact batteries, clearly visible displays, new user interfaces, etc., while telecomm has revolutionized miniature optics, sources and detectors. While these technologies enable miniature spectrometers themselves, actionable information has demanded the development of rugged algorithms for material confirmation, unknown identification, mixture analysis and detection of suspicious materials in unknown matrices. These algorithms are far more sophisticated than the `correlation' or `dot-product' methods commonly used in benchtop instruments. Finally, continuing consumer electronics advances now enable many more technologies to be incorporated into handheld spectrometers, including Bluetooth, wireless, WiFi, GPS, cameras and bar code readers, and the continued size shrinkage of spectrometer `engines' leads to the prospect of dual technology or `hyphenated' handheld instruments.

  17. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  18. A semiconductor beta ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of energy spectra of beta particles emitted from nuclei in beta-decay processes provides information concerning the mass difference of these nuclei between initial and final state. Moreover, experimental beta spectra yield information on the feeding of the levels in the daughter nucleus. Such data are valuable in the construction and checking of the level schemes. This thesis describes the design, construction, testing and usage of a detector for the accurate measurement of the mentioned spectra. In ch. 2 the design and construction of the beta spectrometer, which uses a hyper-pure germanium crystal for energy determination, is described. A simple wire chamber is used to discriminate beta particles from gamma radiation. Disadvantages arise from the large amounts of scattered beta particles deforming the continua. A method is described to minimize the scattering. In ch. 3 some theoretical aspects of data analysis are described and the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of the summation of annihilation radiation are compared with experiments. Ch. 4 comprises the results of the measurements of the beta decay energies of 103-108 In. 87 refs.; 34 figs.; 7 tabs

  19. Evaluation of complex gonioapparent samples using a bidirectional spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Nina; Penttinen, Niko; Gunde, Marta Klanjšek

    2015-08-24

    Many applications use gonioapparent targets whose appearance depends on irradiation and viewing angles; the strongest effects are provided by light diffraction. These targets, optically variable devices (OVDs), are used in both security and authentication applications. This study introduces a bidirectional spectrometer, which enables to analyze samples with most complex angular and spectral properties. In our work, the spectrometer is evaluated with samples having very different types of reflection, concerning spectral and angular distributions. Furthermore, an OVD containing several different grating patches is evaluated. The device uses automatically adjusting exposure time to provide maximum signal dynamics and is capable of doing steps as small as 0.01°. However, even 2° steps for the detector movement showed that this device is more than capable of characterizing even the most complex reflecting surfaces. This study presents sRGB visualizations, discussion of bidirectional reflection, and accurate grating period calculations for all of the grating samples used.

  20. TFTR horizontal high-resolution Bragg x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Tavernier, M.

    1984-11-01

    A bent quartz crystal spectrometer of the Johann type with a spectral resolution of lambda/Δlambda = 10,000 to 25,000 is used on TFTR to determine central plasma parameters from the spectra of heliumlike and lithiumlike metal impurity ions (Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni). The spectra are observed along a central radial chord and are recorded by a position sensitive multiwire proportional counter with a spatial resolution of 250. Standard delay-line time-difference readout is employed. The data are histogrammed and stored in 64k of memory providing 128 time groups of 512-channel spectra. The central ion temperature and the toroidal plasma rotation are inferred from the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift of the K lines. The central electron temperature, the distribution of ionization states, and dielectronic recombination rates are obtained from satellite-to-resonance line ratios. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measurements of the Ti XXI K radiation

  1. Exploring ECD on a Benchtop Q Exactive Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Kyle L; Cramer, Christian N; Voinov, Valery G

    2018-01-01

    As the application of mass spectrometry intensifies in scope and diversity, the need for advanced instrumentation addressing a wide variety of analytical needs also increases. To this end, many modern, top-end mass spectrometers are designed or modified to include a wider range of fragmentation...... applications including middle-down proteomics, top-down proteomics, glycoproteomics, and disulfide bond mapping. We describe the modification of the popular Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer to extend its fragmentation capabilities to include ECD. We show that this modification allows ≥85% matched ion...... intensity to originate from ECD fragment ion types as well as provides high sequence coverage (≥60%) of intact proteins and high fragment identification rates with ∼70% of ion signals matched. Finally, the ECD implementation promotes selective disulfide bond dissociation, facilitating the identification...

  2. Long-term radiation damage to a spaceborne germanium spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kurczynski, P; Hull, E L; Palmer, D; Harris, M J; Seifert, H; Teegarden, B J; Gehrels, N; Cline, T L; Ramaty, R; Sheppard, D; Madden, N W; Luke, P N; Cork, C P; Landis, D A; Malone, D F; Hurley, K

    1999-01-01

    The Transient Gamma-Ray Spectrometer aboard the Wind spacecraft in deep space has observed gamma-ray bursts and solar events for four years. The germanium detector in the instrument has gradually deteriorated from exposure to the approx 10 sup 8 p/cm sup 2 /yr(>100 MeV) cosmic-ray flux. Low-energy tailing and loss of efficiency, attributed to hole trapping and conversion of the germanium from n- to p-type as a result of crystal damage, were observed. Raising the detector bias voltage ameliorated both difficulties and restored the spectrometer to working operation. Together, these observations extend our understanding of the effects of radiation damage to include the previously unsuccessfully studied regime of long-term operation in space. (author)

  3. High intensity TOF spectrometer for cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.; Abd El-Kawy, A.; Habib, N.; Adib, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1984-01-01

    This work presents a neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer developed specially for total neutron cross-section measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV and sample's temperature varying from the liquid nitrogen one and up to 500 0 K. The spectrometer is equipped by remote control unit, designed especially, in order to move the sample in and out of the beam during the experimental measurements. The spectrometer has proved to be useful for transmission measurements at neutron energies below 5 MeV. It has a reasonable energy resolution (4.4%) and high effect to background ratio (11.1) at 5 MeV

  4. RITA: The reinvented triple axis spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, T.E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Clausen, K.N.; Aeppli, G.; McMorrow, D.R.; Kjems, J.K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1995-11-01

    Risoe National Laboratory was reported to be in the process of developing a new spectrometer design, RITA, based on the triple axis design. The spectrometer will attempt to incorporate more recent innovations such as multilayer supermirrors and microstrip proportional counters into a rethinking of the triple-axis spectrometer. By optimizing the beam optics, using supermirrors and extending the analyser to map regions of (Q, {omega}) space using an array of independently controllable pyrolytic graphite crystals focussed on an area detector, it was hoped that the efficiency of single-crystal inelastic experiments could be increased by as much as a factor of 20. 7 figs., 20 refs.

  5. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.

    1977-08-01

    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  6. Kevorkian v. Thompson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Court Decision: 947 Federal Supplement 1152; 1997 Jan 6 (date of decision). The United States District Court of the Eastern District of Michigan held that a mentally competent patient who is terminally ill or intractably suffering does not have a liberty interest in assisted suicide under the due process clause of the Fourth Amendment and is not denied equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment. Plaintiff Jack Kevorkian is a physician who advocates the right to die and assisted patients to commit suicide. Plaintiff Janet Good, the former president of the Michigan Hemlock Society, suffers from terminal pancreatic cancer. The plaintiffs claimed that Michigan's statute prohibiting physician-assisted suicide is unconstitutional. The District Court held that there is no cognizable constitutional right to assisted suicide because the right to suicide or assisted suicide is not deeply rooted in the nation's history and traditions, and because the statute does not infringe on any fundamental right or liberty. The court noted a difference between the withdrawal of life support and acts to hasten death by assisted suicide. The court also held that the law against physician-assisted suicide furthered legitimate state interests in denying to physicians "the role of killers of their patients," in regulating circumstances under which life may be ended, and in protecting the vulnerable but viable from "self-interested importuning of third parties."

  7. Conocimientos y aplicación de normas de bioseguridad del servicio de Ginecoobstetricia del Hospital Alberto Leopoldo Barton Thompson, Callao 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Zegarra, Rita Maribel

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación es determinar la relación que existe entre los conocimientos de normas de bioseguridad y la aplicación de normas de bioseguridad en el servicio de Ginecoobstetricia en el Hospital Alberto Leopoldo Barton Thompson en el Callao, periodo 2016; la población conformada por los técnicos de enfermería, ginecoobstetrasy obstetras del servicio ginecoobstetricia de 75 trabajadores, la muestra consideró toda la población, en los cuales se ...

  8. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  9. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  10. Computer control in a compton scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ningzhuo; Chen Tao; Gong Zhufang; Yang Baozhong; Mo Haiding; Hua Wei; Bian Zuhe

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduced the hardware and software of computer autocontrol of calibration and data acquisition in a Compton Scattering spectrometer which consists of a HPGe detector, Amplifiers and a MCA

  11. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  12. Low Power FPGA Based Spectrometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a general purpose reconfigurable wide bandwidth spectrometer for use in NASA's passive microwave missions, deep space network and radio...

  13. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  14. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  15. The electronic system of Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1990-01-01

    Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in an experimental facility of high energy physics on Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). A brief description including the global design, the read out circuits, the performances and the recent status of its electronic system is presented

  16. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  17. Silicon spectrometer with a Peltier refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcarz, E.; Chwaszczewska, J.; Hahn, G.; Nowicki, W.; Sawicka, B.; Skoczek, K.; Slapa, M.; Szymczak, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector cooled by a Peltier refrigerator. The spectrometer is able to analyse samples of practically all most frequently encountered emitters of alpha, beta and low energy gamma radiation. The energy resolution were about 1.3-1.5 keV for 14 keV gamma radiation. The system can also operate in field conditions in the fluorescence analysis. (author)

  18. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs

  19. 1987 calibration of the TFTR neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1989-12-01

    The 3 He neutron spectrometer used for measuring ion temperatures and the NE213 proton recoil spectrometer used for triton burnup measurements were absolutely calibrated with DT and DD neutron generators placed inside the TFTR vacuum vessel. The details of the detector response and calibration are presented. Comparisons are made to the neutron source strengths measured from other calibrated systems. 23 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Fast-response personal Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskij, A.L.; Mashlan, M.; Misevich, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.A.; Lopatik, A.R.; Zhak, D.; Fedorov, A.A.; Snashel, V.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrometer design to record transmission Moessbauer spectra is described. The spectrometer consists of PC/AT computer with 1 mb memory and 40 mb hard disk, of EPSON LX 850 printer, of color monitor with VGA graphical adapter, of data accumulation system, of speed generator, of motion system with minivibrator, of scintillation detector with YA10 3 :Ce scintillator, of single-channel amplitude analyzer, of measuring bench and of 57 Co(Rh) source. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  1. The BTeV main spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a second generation B-factory experiment that will use a double-arm, forward spectrometer in the C0 experimental hall at the Fermilab Tevatron. I will describe the motivation and design of the 'main spectrometer', consisting of a ring-imaging Cherenkov system for charged particle identification, an electromagnetic calorimeter of lead-tungstate crystals, a proportional tube muon system with magnetized filtering steel, and a straw-tube and silicon strip charged particle tracking system

  2. Recent ion optics and mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of the third order approximation method for computing the orbit of the ion optical system for mass spectrometers and the completion of its computer program are reported. A feature of this orbit computation is in that the effect of the fringing field can be considered with the accuracy of third order approximation. Several new ion optical systems for mass spectrometers have been proposed by using such orbit computing programs. Brief explanation and the description on the future prospect and problems are made on the following items: the vertual image double focusing mass spectrometer, the second order double focusing mass spectrometer, the E x B superposed field mass spectrometer, and the apparatus with a cylindrical electric field and Q-lens. In the E x B superposed field with Matsuda plates, if the magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet instead of a permanent magnet, the dispersion of mass and energy can be changed at will. The Matsuda plates are known as the auxiliary electrodes positioned at the top and bottom of a cylindrical capacitor. Utilizing those characteristics, a zoom spectrometer can be made, with which only a necessary part of mass spectra can be investigated in detail, but the whole spectra are investigated roughly. In addition, the distribution of energy can be investigated simultaneously after the separation of ionic mass similarly to the parabola apparatus. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Electron spectroscopy measurements with a shifted analyzing plane setting in the KATRIN main spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyba, Stephan [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Uni Muenster (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    With the KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino) experiment the endpoint region of the tritium beta decay will be measured to determine the electron-neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2} (90% C.L.). For the high precision which is needed to achieve the sub-eV range a MAC-E filter type spectrometer is used to analyze the electron energy. To understand the various background contributions inside the spectrometer vessel different electric and magnetic field settings were investigated during the last commissioning phase. This talk will focus on the so called shifted analyzing plane measurement in which the field settings were tuned in a way to provide non standard potential barriers within the spectrometer. The different settings allowed to perform a spectroscopic measurement, determining the energy spectrum of background electrons born within the spectrometer.

  4. Wideband Spectroscopy: The Design and Implementation of a 3 GHz, 2048 Channel Digital Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    A state-of-the-art digital Fourier Transform spectrometer has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution unavailable elsewhere. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC). This 6 Gsps (giga sample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the key development described below. Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers. The implementation, results and underlying math for this spectrometer, as well as potential for future extension to even higher bandwidth, resolution and channel orthogonality, needed to support proposed future advanced atmospheric science and radioastronomy, are discussed.

  5. Wideband Spectroscopy: The Design and Implementation of a 3 GHz Bandwidth, 8192 Channel, Polyphase Digital Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution unavailable elsewhere. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters, (ADC). This 6 Gsps (giga-sample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the key development described below. Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers. the implementation, results and underlying math for this spectrometer, as well as, potential for future extension to even higher bandwidth, resolution and channel orthogonality, needed to support proposed future advanced atmospheric science and radioastronomy, are discussed.

  6. The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina; Champey, Patrick; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Golub, Leon; Ramsey, Brian; Ranganathan, Jaganathan; Marquez, Vanessa; Allured, Ryan; Parker, Theodore; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to obtain spatially resolved soft X-ray spectra of the solar atmosphere in the 6-24 Å (0.5-2.0 keV) range. The instrument consists of a single shell Wolter Type-I telescope, a slit, and a spectrometer comprising a matched pair of grazing incidence parabolic mirrors and a planar varied-line space diffraction grating. The instrument is designed to achieve a 50 mÅ spectral resolution and 5 arcsecond spatial resolution along a +/-4-arcminute long slit, and launch is planned for 2019. We report on the status and our approaches for fabrication and alignment for this novel optical system. The telescope and spectrometer mirrors are replicated nickel shells, and are currently being fabricated at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The diffraction grating is currently under development by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); because of the strong line spacing variation across the grating, it will be fabricated through e-beam lithography.

  7. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  8. Development, characterization and application of compact spectrometers based on MEMS with in-plane capacitive drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, A.; Kraft, M.; Tortschanoff, A.; Scherf, Werner; Sandner, T.; Schenk, Harald; Luettjohann, Stephan; Simon, A.

    2014-05-01

    With a trend towards the use of spectroscopic systems in various fields of science and industry, there is an increasing demand for compact spectrometers. For UV/VIS to the shortwave near-infrared spectral range, compact hand-held polychromator type devices are widely used and have replaced larger conventional instruments in many applications. Still, for longer wavelengths this type of compact spectrometers is lacking suitable and affordable detector arrays. In perennial development Carinthian Tech Research AG together with the Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems endeavor to close this gap by developing spectrometer systems based on photonic MEMS. Here, we review on two different spectrometer developments, a scanning grating spectrometer working in the NIR and a FT-spectrometer accessing the mid-IR range up to 14 μm. Both systems are using photonic MEMS devices actuated by in-plane comb drive structures. This principle allows for high mechanical amplitudes at low driving voltages but results in gratings respectively mirrors oscillating harmonically. Both systems feature special MEMS structures as well as aspects in terms of system integration which shall tease out the best possible overall performance on the basis of this technology. However, the advantages of MEMS as enabling technology for high scanning speed, miniaturization, energy efficiency, etc. are pointed out. Whereas the scanning grating spectrometer has already evolved to a product for the point of sale analysis of traditional Chinese medicine products, the purpose of the FT-spectrometer as presented is to demonstrate what is achievable in terms of performance. Current developments topics address MEMS packaging issues towards long term stability, further miniaturization and usability.

  9. The LASS [Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid] spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K + and K - interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K - p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly

  10. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  11. Application of ion mobility spectrometer for rapid drug detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuemei, Zhu; Jian, Zheng [The Third Research Inst. of Ministry of Public Security, Shanghai (China); Yongjie, Lv; Yangqin, Chen [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Optical and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, East China Normal Univ., Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-15

    A {sup 63}Ni source-based high resolution ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was developed and applied to drug detection. The drugs included opium, morphine, heroin, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine and cannabis. Their ion mobility spectra were acquired, ion types were derived and reduced mobilities were calculated, which are in good agreement with the data reported in literatures. The results indicate that the IMS can detect effectively a variety of drugs, especially for the amphetamine derivatives. And the reduced mobility standard database of drugs was established. (authors)

  12. Application of ion mobility spectrometer for rapid drug detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuemei; Zheng Jian; Lv Yongjie; Chen Yangqin

    2007-01-01

    A 63 Ni source-based high resolution ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was developed and applied to drug detection. The drugs included opium, morphine, heroin, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine and cannabis. Their ion mobility spectra were acquired, ion types were derived and reduced mobilities were calculated, which are in good agreement with the data reported in literatures. The results indicate that the IMS can detect effectively a variety of drugs, especially for the amphetamine derivatives. And the reduced mobility standard database of drugs was established. (authors)

  13. A spectrometer using one or two superconducting coaxial solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Gales, S.; Laurent, J.P.

    1979-06-01

    A set of two superconducting solenoidal coils which are presently under construction at the Orsay I.P.N. is described. Because of its optical properties, the system can be used as spectrometer: focusing properties with small geometrical aberrations allowing large solid angles to be used together with good transmission and isochronism. Various types of experiments can be envisaged with such a device: angular correlation at zero degree, study of rare events like exotic reactions, time of flight for mass identification and rapid (much less than 1 μs) and efficient collection of radioactive nuclei for subsequent spectroscopy measurements [fr

  14. Electron optics development for photo-electron spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannberg, Bjoern [VG Scienta AB, P.O. Box 15120, SE-750 15 Uppsala (Sweden); BW Particle Optics AB, P.O. Box 55, SE-822 22 Alfta (Sweden)], E-mail: bjorn@particleoptics.se

    2009-03-21

    The demand for simultaneous observation of photo-electron distributions in several dimensions has made the hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA) and the time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer the dominating spectrometer types. Some common limiting factors for resolution and sensitivity are considered. Recent developments of the HDA and its lens system which increase the energy range and angular acceptance are described. The properties of a recently developed angle-resolving TOF system (AR-TOF) are also described. The possibility to avoid integration losses in energy or angular resolution by applying non-linear mappings of the primary data is discussed.

  15. Electron optics development for photo-electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannberg, Bjoern

    2009-01-01

    The demand for simultaneous observation of photo-electron distributions in several dimensions has made the hemispherical deflection analyzer (HDA) and the time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer the dominating spectrometer types. Some common limiting factors for resolution and sensitivity are considered. Recent developments of the HDA and its lens system which increase the energy range and angular acceptance are described. The properties of a recently developed angle-resolving TOF system (AR-TOF) are also described. The possibility to avoid integration losses in energy or angular resolution by applying non-linear mappings of the primary data is discussed.

  16. Characterization of the radiation environment by liulin-type spectrometers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dachev, T.; Spurný, František; Ploc, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 144, 1-4 (2011), s. 680-683 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : instrument * dosimetry * models * Chandrayaan-1 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  17. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier

    2010-01-01

    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  18. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  19. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  20. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  1. Gas-dust-impact mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Semkin, N D; Myasnikov, S V; Pomelnikov, R A

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes design of a mass spectrometer to study element composition of micro meteorite and man-made particles in space. Paper describes a way to improve resolution of mass spectrometer based on variation of parameters of accelerating electric field in time. The advantage of the given design of mass spectrometer in comparison with similar ones is its large operating area and higher resolution at the comparable weight and dimensions. Application of a combined design both for particles and for gas enables to remove space vehicle degassing products from the spectrum and, thus, to improve reliability of the acquired information, as well as, to acquire information on a gas component of the external atmosphere of a space vehicle

  2. Miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Goldsten, John; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband

  3. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  4. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T e e > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (∼2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ∼45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  5. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  6. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  7. Upgrade of an old Raman Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of a conventional Jeol Raman spectrometer with a single channel photo multiplier detector is described. New optical components (fibres, mirror, lens and CCD detector) have been chosen to design a high quality and easy-to-use instrument. Tests have shown that with this modified...... spectrometer Raman spectra can be acquired of a quality comparable to the spectra obtained previously, but the time needed to obtain a spectrum is markedly reduced. Selected test spectra and a simple calibration procedure to obtain the wavenumber values from the band CCD pixel position are presented....

  8. A proposed neutron spectrometer system for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Hellbom, G.; Scheffel, J.; Malmskog, S.

    1979-12-01

    A neutron spectrometer system is proposed primarily for measurements of ion temperature and density and ion beam energy distribution in extended fusion plasmas like e.g. in JET. Three different spectrometers are involved: time of flight, proton recoil and 3 He. Energy resolutions of a few percent both for DD and DT neutrons are provided. Six order of magnitudes in flux ranges will be covered by the system when employing multi-target systems. A neutron collimator and shielding system will be desirable in order to obtain relevant information. Due to the entire differences in energy and fluxes for DD and DT plasmas a flexible collimator-shielding system is recommended

  9. Beam analysis spectrometer for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Subramanian, T.S.; McDonald, W.J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Sadoff, A.; Gabor, G.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile spectrometer useful for measuring the mass, charge, energy, fluence and angular distribution of primaries and fragments associated with relativistic heavy ion beams is described. The apparatus is designed to provide accurate physical data for biology experiments and medical therapy planning as a function of depth in tissue. The spectrometer can also be used to measure W, the average energy to produce an ion pair, range-energy, dE/dx, and removal cross section data of interest in nuclear physics. (orig.)

  10. Electron-ion-x-ray spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.H.; Deslattes, R.D.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a spectrometer system developed for electron, ion, and x-ray spectroscopy of gas-phase atoms and molecules following inner-shell excitation by tunable synchrotron radiation. The spectrometer has been used on beamline X-24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source for excitation-dependent studies of Ar L-shell and K-shell photoexcitation and vacancy decay processes. The instrumentation and experimental methods are discussed, and examples are given of electron spectra and coincidence spectra between electrons and fluorescent x-rays

  11. Single spectrometer station for neutrino-tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, I.P.

    1984-01-01

    A neutrino tagging station built with respect to the following scheme is proposed. A beam of muons and kaons passes through a magnetic spectrometer, where the energy of each particle is measured. There are coordinate detectors behind the spectrometer in several planes, where the direction of the trajectory of a given particle is determined. Thus, mesons enter the decay point wth the known 4-momentum. Behind the decay point the direction of μ-meson generated by the decay of parent mesons is measured. It is shown that information is sufficient for determining the kind of parent particle (pion or kaon), the energy and the direction of trajectory of the neutrino

  12. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  13. Ion transmission in a linear radiofrequency spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A linear radiofrequency spectrometer is used for the purpose of experimental determination of the absolute ionization cross sections of various ions obtained by electron impact on polyatomic molecules. The transmission of the apparatus is studied: it does not only depend on the mass resolution of the spectrometer, but also on the nature of ions. It is affected by charge transfers, especially for the parent ions. An empiric way of correction of the apparatus function is given which allows the use at 10 -6 Torr [fr

  14. Noise considerations in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, W.D.; Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1978-12-01

    An improved version of a microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 70 GHz is described. The spectrometer, which incorporates a Fabry-Perot resonator and superheterodyne detection for high sensitivity is designed for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents. The instrument is capable of detecting polar molecules with absorption coefficients as small as 2 x 10 -9 cm -1 . For sulphur dioxide diluted in air, this sensitivity corresponds to a detection limit of 1.2 ppm without preconcentration and with a time constant of 1 second. Measurements and analysis of the noise contributions limiting the sentivity are presented

  15. A driving system for Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslan, M.; Cholmeckij, A.; Evdokimov, V.; Misevic, O.; Fedorov, A.; Zak, D.

    1993-01-01

    The driving system of a Moessbauer spectrometer is described. The system comprises a minivibrator, a digital generator of the reference velocity signal, and circuits for controlling the vibrator. The reference velocity signal is stored by the control computer in an intermediate storage. The feedback in the control circuits includes correction for nonlinearity of the driving facility. A Moessbauer spectrometer which is equipped with this driving system exhibits a velocity scale nonlinearity below 0.1%. The resonance line width for sodium nitroprusside is 0.27 ± 0.01 mm/s. (author). 6 figs., 8 refs

  16. Large acceptance spectrometers for π0 mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Obenshain, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer composed of lead-oxide loaded glass blocks has been constructed for detection of neutral pi mesons emitted in low energy heavy ion reactions. The spectrometer detects the Cerenkov radiation emitted when the high energy photons (Eγ approx. 70 MeV) resulting from π 0 decay create electron-position pairs in the glass, initiating electromagnetic showers. A geometric acceptance of better than 5% of 4π is possible; the π 0 detection efficiency varies between this value at T/sub π/ = 0 MeV and 1% for T/sub π/ approx. 100 MeV

  17. Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/Δlambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects

  18. Design of a preamplifier for an alpha particles spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo O, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-09-01

    To detect radiation diverse detector types are used, when these are alpha particles proportional type detectors are used, semiconductor, of scintillation or traces. In this work the design results, the construction and the first tests of a spectrometer (preamplifier) are presented for alpha particles that was designed starting from a Pin type photodiode. The system was designed and simulated with a program for electronic circuits. With the results of the simulation phase was constructed the electronics that is coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The total of the system is evaluated analyzing its performance before a triple source of alphas and that they are produced by two smoke detectors of domestic use. Of the tests phase we find that the system allows to obtain in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  19. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabine, C.L.; Key, R.M.; Hall, M.; Kozyr, A.

    1999-01-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and radiocarbon (delta 14C), at hydrographic stations, as well as the underway partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) during the R/V Thomas G. Thompson oceanographic cruise in the Pacific Ocean (Section P10). Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Suva, Fiji, on October 5, 1993, and ended in Yokohama, Japan, on November 10, 1993. Measurements made along WOCE Section P10 included pressure, temperature, salinity[measured by conductivity temperature, and depth sensor (CTD)], bottle salinity, bottle oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO2, TALK, delta 14C, and underway pCO2

  20. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the TOGA Area - Pacific from 1985-03-30 to 1985-06-03 (NODC Accession 9100164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data Trans-Pacific Section 24 Bottle data in this accession was collected in th TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) in 1984 using ship THOMAS G. THOMPSON. The...

  1. Demonstration of an ethane spectrometer for methane source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Floerchinger, Cody; McGovern, Ryan M; Agnese, Michael; Pétron, Gabrielle; Kofler, Jonathan; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Conley, Stephen A; Kort, Eric A; Nähle, Lars; Fischer, Marc; Hildebrandt, Lars; Koeth, Johannes; McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S; Kolb, Charles E

    2014-07-15

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and tropospheric ozone precursor. Simultaneous observation of ethane with methane can help identify specific methane source types. Aerodyne Ethane-Mini spectrometers, employing recently available mid-infrared distributed feedback tunable diode lasers (DFB-TDL), provide 1 s ethane measurements with sub-ppb precision. In this work, an Ethane-Mini spectrometer has been integrated into two mobile sampling platforms, a ground vehicle and a small airplane, and used to measure ethane/methane enhancement ratios downwind of methane sources. Methane emissions with precisely known sources are shown to have ethane/methane enhancement ratios that differ greatly depending on the source type. Large differences between biogenic and thermogenic sources are observed. Variation within thermogenic sources are detected and tabulated. Methane emitters are classified by their expected ethane content. Categories include the following: biogenic (6%), pipeline grade natural gas (30%). Regional scale observations in the Dallas/Fort Worth area of Texas show two distinct ethane/methane enhancement ratios bridged by a transitional region. These results demonstrate the usefulness of continuous and fast ethane measurements in experimental studies of methane emissions, particularly in the oil and natural gas sector.

  2. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  4. A 4-PI DILEPTON SPECTROMETER - PEPSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUDA, A; BACELAR, JCS; BALANDA, A; VANKLINKEN, J; SUJKOWSKI, Z; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1993-01-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd2Fe14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 pi magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response

  5. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  6. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W; Keller, P [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. COMPASS course to future computing [CERN spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    A major new spectrometer that is being installed at CERN will be a flagship fixed-target experiment for the millennium. Its voracious appetite for data requires new computing solutions, opening the door for subsequent 2lst-century studies. (0 refs).

  8. Calibration method for ion mobility spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Valery

    2011-01-01

    The new method for the calibration of the ion mobility spectrometer has been developed. This article describes the working principle, advantages and disadvantages of the calibration method operating in the mode of explosives detection. This method is most suitable for use in portable detectors, due to the small weight, small size parameters and low power consumption.

  9. IBM-PC based data acquisition system for a laser enhanced ionisation spectrometer using a low cost GPIB card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath Kumar, R.; Ravindranath, S.V.G.

    1992-01-01

    An IBM-PC based data acquisition system has been developed for the existing laser enhanced ionisation spectrometer in the Division. Here the boxcar averager (type SR 250) which integrates the spectrometer output is interfaced to an IBM-PC, converted into a GPIB controller with the help of a locally available GPIB card, (Dynalog Micro Systems make PCL 848) through the GPIB port of the computer interface module (SR 245). The menu driven software developed in BASIC, triggers the scan in the dye laser through its control port, collects data from the spectrometer, plots, displays and stores it on the hard disc for further use. (author). 6 refs., 18 figs., 2 appendixes

  10. Portable spectrometer monitors inert gas shield in welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, E. L.

    1967-01-01

    Portable spectrometer using photosensitive readouts, monitors the amount of oxygen and hydrogen in the inert gas shield of a tungsten-inert gas welding process. A fiber optic bundle transmits the light from the welding arc to the spectrometer.

  11. Electrical interferences observed in the Cassini CIRS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheong; Albright, Shane; Gorius, Nicolas; Brasunas, John; Jennings, Don; Flasar, F. Michael; Carlson, Ronald; Guandique, Ever; Nixon, Conor

    2015-06-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) carried onboard the Cassini spacecraft has now operated successfully for 17 years, following launch in 1997. Following insertion into Saturnian orbit in July 2004, the instrument has taken data nearly continuously, returning over 100 million interferograms (spectra) to date. Although of generally high quality, and resulting in more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific articles, the spectra are afflicted with several types of instrumental electrical (non-random) noise artifacts. These noise artifacts require either mitigation strategies (prevention), removal from the observed data, or else awareness of the affected spectral areas which must be excluded from scientific analysis. The sources and nature of these varied noise types were not readily identified until after launch. The purpose of this article is to inform users of the noise in the CIRS dataset and to serve as a `lesson-learned' guide for designers of future instruments.

  12. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  13. Calibration and modelling of the SODART-OXS Bragg spectrometer onboard the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halm, Ingolf; Wiebicke, Hans-Joachim; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1998-01-01

    The SODART X-ray telescope includes an Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) providing a high energy resolving power by Bragg reflection upon crystals. To cover a wide energy range, 3 types of natural crystals (LiF, Si, RAP) and a Co/C multilayer structure upon Si are used in the ranges 5-11 keV, ...

  14. Test report: Electron-proton spectrometer qualification test unit, qualification test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Qualification tests of the electron-proton spectrometer test unit are presented. The tests conducted were: (1) functional, (2) thermal/vacuum, (3) electromagnetic interference, (4) acoustic, (5) shock, (6) vibration, and (7) humidity. Results of each type of test are presented in the form of data sheets.

  15. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments with the monochromatic imaging mode of the RITA-II spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2006-01-01

    Recently a monochromatic multiple data taking mode has been demonstrated for diffraction experiments using a RITA type cold neutron spectrometer with a multi-bladed analyser and a position-sensitive detector. Here, we show how this mode can be used in combination with a flexible radial collimator...

  16. The TRIUMF low energy pion spectrometer and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobie, R.J.; Drake, T.E.; Barnett, B.M.; Erdman, K.L.; Gyles, W.; Johnson, R.R.; Roser, H.W.; Tacik, R.; Blackmore, E.W.; Gill, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    A low energy pion spectrometer has been developed for use with the TRIUMF M13 pion channel. The combined channel and spectrometer resolution is presently 1.1 MeV at T = 50 MeV. This is limited by the amount of gas and detector material in the spectrometer in addition to the inherent resolution of the channel. Improvements to both the spectrometer and channel are discussed

  17. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which is consisted of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for filed geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  18. The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer for geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fang; Jia Wenyi; Zhou Rongsheng; Ma Yingjie; Zhou Jianbin

    1999-01-01

    The portable micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer is based on the book computer and employs the A/D integrated circuit with 12 bits. It is a 2048 channel spectrometer which consists of hardware and software. The author analyzed the hardware circuit and software construction of the micro-computerized multichannel spectrometer which is suitable for field geological application. The main technical specifications and application of the new multichannel spectrometer were also discussed

  19. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  20. RADIO-FREQUENCY MASS SPECTROMETERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Jr., A. S.

    1963-08-15

    The operation of three common radio-frequency mass spectrometers is described, and their performances are compared. Their limitations are pointed out. It is concluded that the quadrupole spectrometer has fewer limitations and is more generally useful in space probes than the other devices. Some present and proposed uses of spectrometers in space are discussed, and the problem of contamination of the atmosphere being sampled by the spectrometer is reviewed. (auth)

  1. Real-Time Food Authentication Using a Miniature Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Neese, Stephan; Penner, Alexander; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2017-10-17

    Food adulteration is a threat to public health and the economy. In order to determine food adulteration efficiently, rapid and easy-to-use on-site analytical methods are needed. In this study, a miniaturized mass spectrometer in combination with three ambient ionization methods was used for food authentication. The chemical fingerprints of three milk types, five fish species, and two coffee types were measured using electrospray ionization, desorption electrospray ionization, and low temperature plasma ionization. Minimum sample preparation was needed for the analysis of liquid and solid food samples. Mass spectrometric data was processed using the laboratory-built software MS food classifier, which allows for the definition of specific food profiles from reference data sets using multivariate statistical methods and the subsequent classification of unknown data. Applicability of the obtained mass spectrometric fingerprints for food authentication was evaluated using different data processing methods, leave-10%-out cross-validation, and real-time classification of new data. Classification accuracy of 100% was achieved for the differentiation of milk types and fish species, and a classification accuracy of 96.4% was achieved for coffee types in cross-validation experiments. Measurement of two milk mixtures yielded correct classification of >94%. For real-time classification, the accuracies were comparable. Functionality of the software program and its performance is described. Processing time for a reference data set and a newly acquired spectrum was found to be 12 s and 2 s, respectively. These proof-of-principle experiments show that the combination of a miniaturized mass spectrometer, ambient ionization, and statistical analysis is suitable for on-site real-time food authentication.

  2. Atom-probe field-ion-microscope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    The titled analyzer, called simply atom-probe, has been developed by combining a field ion microscope (FIM) and a mass spectrometer, and is divided into the time-of-flight type, magnetic sector type, and quadrupole type depending on the types of mass spectrometers. In this paper, the author first describes on the principle and construction of a high resolution, time-of-flight atom-probe developed and fabricated in his laboratory. The feature of the atom-probe lies in the analysis of atoms and molecules in hyper-fine structure region one by one utilizing the high resolution of FIM. It also has the advantages of directly determining the composition by a ratio of the numbers of respective ions because of a constant detection sensitivity regardless of mass numbers, of the resolution as high as single atom layer in depth direction, and of detecting the positional relationship among detected ions by the order of detection in a sample. To determine the composition in a hyperfine structure region, the limited small number of atoms and molecules in the region must be identified distinctly one by one. In the analyzed result of Ni-silicide formed by heating Si evaporated on a Ni tip at 1000 K for 5 minutes, each isotope was not only clearly separated, but also their abundance ratio was very close to the natural abundance ratio. The second half of the paper reports on the analysis of TiC promising for a cold cathode material, adsorption of CO and alcohol, and the composition and structure of silicides, as a few application examples. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Broadband crystal spectrometer for the non-active and active phases of JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W.; Fink, J.; Fussmann, G.; Krause, H.; Schilling, H.B.; Schumacher, U.

    1982-03-01

    The design study treats the possibilities of quantitatively measuring the Soft X-ray spectrum of JET with a double crystal spectrometer device in parallel mode. This spectrometer type is much suited for broad band soft X-ray spectroscopy, also - due to its folded optical pathway - during D-T operation of JET; the expected detector count rates are far above the background level. Methods to fulfill the important condition of parallel orientation of the two crystals, to shield the device against neutrons and gamma rays, to obtain spectral resolution sufficient for spectral line profile measurements and to upgrade the device for continuous spatial scanning of the JET plasma are presented. (orig.)

  4. A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer developed in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacso, J.; Kalinka, G.; Kovacs, P.; Lakatos, T.

    1982-01-01

    A new X-ray spectrometer developed in ATOMKI is described. The measuring head contains a p-type Si(Li) detector surrounded by an Al collimator, a charge sensitive preamplifier and a vacuum cryostat. The analog pulse processor uses filters with variable parameters. The characteristic properties of the spectrometer (energy resolution, its dependence on load, stability) are investigated. The background is measured using three different radioactive sources and the results are compared with those of other pulse forming techniques. (D.Gy.)

  5. Spectrometer for neutron inelastic scattering investigations of microsamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Kozlenko, D.P.; Platonov, S.L.; Savenko, B.N.; Glazkov, V.P.; Krasnikov, Yu.M.; Naumov, I.V.; Pukhov, A.V.; Somenkov, V.A.; Syrykh, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    A new neutron spectrometer for investigation of inelastic neutron scattering on polycrystal microsamples under high pressure in sapphire and diamond anvils cells is described. The spectrometer is operating at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in JINR. Parameters and methodical peculiarities of the spectrometer and the examples of experimental studies are given. (author)

  6. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P-barANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD-bar decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed. (paper)

  7. Sample changer for X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaestner, F.; Bisch, H.

    1977-01-01

    A sample planchette with several samples in a spectrometer is rotated so as to position each sample in succession in a counting position. To change the planchette, the cover of the spectrometer raises together with the planchette and rotates to the side into a vertical magazine. The planchette is unhooked onto a tray which rapidly moves to a position above the cover, and the next planchette in the magazine stack moves upwards on a tray and is hooked to the cover and taken to the counting station. Three chains ensure the movement of the planchette trays in the magazine, one for raising the uncounted samples up the magazine, one for shifting the counted ones to the upper stack, and one to move the counted planchettes higher up the magazine. The movement of the chains is controlled by microswitches. (ORU) [de

  8. A 4π dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, A.; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Balanda, A.; Klinken, J. van; Sujkowski, Z.; Woude, A. van der

    1993-01-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd 2 Fe 14 B permanent magnets forming a compact 4π magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient (α π ) of the 15.1 MeV M1 transition from a J π =1 + state to the ground state in 12 C. Our experimental value of α π =(3.3±0.5)x10 -3 is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. (orig.)

  9. A 4 π dilepton spectrometer: PEPSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, A.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bałanda, A.; van Klinken, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; van der Woude, A.

    1993-11-01

    A novel positron-electron pair spectroscopy instrument (PEPSI) was designed to measure transitions in the energy region 10-40 MeV. It consists of Nd 2Fe 14B permanent magnets forming a compact 4 π magnetic filter consisting of 12 positron and 20 electron mini-orange-like spectrometers. The response function of PEPSI has been measured with mono-energetic beams of electrons from 5 to 20 MeV. The PEPSI spectrometer was used for measuring the internal pair conversion coefficient ( απ) of the 15.1 MeV M1 transition from a Jπ = 1 + state to the ground state in 12C. Our experimental value of απ = (3.3 ± 0.5) × 10 -3 is in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  10. Inelastic rotor spectrometer at the Harwell Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrometer is designed to measure energy transfer from 50 MeV to 400 MeV covering a range of Q values from 1 to 15 A - 1 . Particular emphasis has been placed on the low Q counter banks where measurements at low Q reduce multiphonon contributions in vibrational spectra, diffusional broadening in liquids and allow measurements to be made on magnetic excitations. All indications are that the energy resolution is as predicted and is certainly twice as good as that of any other spectrometer presently available to the UK users at these energy transfers. Backgrounds on the high angle banks 24 0 to 94 0 are excellent but at the low angles are too high at present for anything but hydrogenous samples. Tests have shown that much of this background comes from the main beam in the area of the collimation between the chopper and the sample, and steps are being taken to improve this area

  11. The Harwell back-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, C.G.; Bunce, L.J.; Borcherds, P.H.; Cole, I.; Fitzmaurice, M.; Johnson, D.A.G.; Sinclair, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron diffraction spectra in which both high resolution (Δ Q/Q approximately equal to 0.003) and high intensity are maintained up to scattering vectors as high as 30A -1 (sin theta/lambda = 2.5) have been obtained with the back-scattering spectrometer (BSS) recently installed on the Harwell electron linac. The theory behind the spectrometer design is described, and it is shown how the above resolution requirement leads to its basic features of a 12m incident flight path, a 2m scattering flight path and a scattering angle (2theta) acceptance from 165 0 to 175 0 . Examples of the resolution, intensity and background are given. It is shown that the problem of frame overlap may be overcome by using an absorbing filter. (author)

  12. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN 2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations

  13. Alignment of the ATLAS central muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, F

    2008-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is one of the largest detectors ever built. At the LHC, new physics signs could appear through high momenta muons (1 TeV). Identification and precise momentum measurement of such muons are two of the main challenges of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. In order to get a good resolution for high energy muons (i.e. 10% at 1 TeV), the accuracy on the alignment of precision chambers must be of the order of 50 microns. Several procedures have been developed to reach such a precision. This document describes complementary techniques used to align the muon sub-detectors, and their results : the optical system, the muon cosmic rays and the straight tracks coming from collisions.

  14. The SeaQuest Spectrometer at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidala, C.A.; et al.

    2017-06-29

    The SeaQuest spectrometer at Fermilab was designed to detect oppositely-charged pairs of muons (dimuons) produced by interactions between a 120 GeV proton beam and liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium and solid nuclear targets. The primary physics program uses the Drell-Yan process to probe antiquark distributions in the target nucleon. The spectrometer consists of a target system, two dipole magnets and four detector stations. The upstream magnet is a closed-aperture solid iron magnet which also serves as the beam dump, while the second magnet is an open aperture magnet. Each of the detector stations consists of scintillator hodoscopes and a high-resolution tracking device. The FPGA-based trigger compares the hodoscope signals to a set of pre-programmed roads to determine if the event contains oppositely-signed, high-mass muon pairs.

  15. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  16. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  17. Solar maximum ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Woodgate, B. E.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Hyder, C. L.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Shine, R. A.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of the UVSP experiment are to study solar ultraviolet radiations, particularly from flares and active regions, and to measure constituents in the terrestrial atmosphere by the extinction of sunlight at satellite dawn and dusk. The instrument is designed to observe the Sun at a variety of spectral and spatial resolutions in the range from 1150 to 3600 A. A Gregorian telescope with effective focal length of 1.8 m is used to feed a 1 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometer. A polarimeter containing rotatable magnesium fluoride waveplates is included behind the spectrometer entrance slit and will allow all four Stokes parameters to be determined. Velocities on the Sun can also be measured. The instrument is controlled by a computer which can interact with the data stream to modify the observing program. The observing modes, including rasters, spectral scans, velocity measurements, and polarimetry, are also described along with plans for mission operations, data handling, and analysis of the observations.

  18. The transition-edge EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Adams, Joseph; Bandler, Simon; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory; Chervenak, James; Doriese, Randy; Eckart, Megan; Irwin, Kent; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, Carl; Smith, Stephen; Ullom, Joel

    2014-07-01

    The Transition-edge EBIT Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (TEMS) is a 1000-pixel array instrument to be delivered to the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2015. It will be the first fully operational array of its kind. The TEMS will utilize the unique capabilities of the EBIT to verify and benchmark atomic theory that is critical for the analysis of high-resolution data from microcalorimeter spectrometers aboard the next generation of x-ray observatories. We present spectra from the present instrumentation at EBIT, as well as our latest results with time-division multiplexing using the current iteration of the TEMS focal plane assembly in our test platform at NASA/GSFC.

  19. MEMS tunable grating micro-spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormen, Maurizio; Lockhart, R.; Niedermann, P.; Overstolz, T.; Hoogerwerf, A.; Mayor, J.-M.; Pierer, J.; Bosshard, C.; Ischer, R.; Voirin, G.; Stanley, R. P.

    2017-11-01

    The interest in MEMS based Micro-Spectrometers is increasing due to their potential in terms of flexibility as well as cost, low mass, small volume and power savings. This interest, especially in the Near-Infrared and Mid- Infrared, ranges from planetary exploration missions to astronomy, e.g. the search for extra solar planets, as well as to many other terrestrial fields of application such as, industrial quality and surface control, chemical analysis of soil and water, detection of chemical pollutants, exhausted gas analysis, food quality control, process control in pharmaceuticals, to name a few. A compact MEMS-based Spectrometer for Near- Infrared and Mid-InfraRed operation have been conceived, designed and demonstrated. The design based on tunable MEMS blazed grating, developed in the past at CSEM [1], achieves state of the art results in terms of spectral resolution, operational wavelength range, light throughput, overall dimensions, and power consumption.

  20. Improving detector signal processing with pulse height analysis in Moessbauer spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechousek, Jiri; Mashlan, Miroslav; Frydrych, Jiri; Jancik, Dalibor; Prochazka, Roman

    2007-01-01

    A plenty of different programming techniques and instrument solutions are used in the development of Moessbauer spectrometers. Each of them should provide a faster spectrum accumulation process, increased productivity of measurements, decreased nonlinearity of the velocity scale, etc. The well known virtual instrumentation programming method has been used to design a computer-based Moessbauer spectrometer. Hardware solution was based on two commercially-available PCI modules produced by National Instruments Co. Virtual Moessbauer spectrometer is implemented by the graphical programming language LabVIEW 7 Express. This design environment allows to emulate the multichannel analyzer on the digital oscilloscope platform. This is a novel method based on Waveform Peak Detection function which allows detailed analysis of the acquired signal. The optimal treatment of the detector signal from various detector types is achieved by mathematical processing only. As a result, the possibility of an increase of signal/noise ratio is presented.

  1. Imaging of gamma rays with the WINKLER high-resolution germanium spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, T.R.; Hamilton, T.W.; Hawley, J.D.; Kilner, J.R.; Murphy, M.J.; Nakano, G.H. (Luckheed Palo Alto Research Lab., Palo Alto, CA (US))

    1990-06-01

    The WINKLER spectrometer is a matrix of nine high-purity {ital n}-type germanium detectors developed for astrophysical observations and terrestrial radiation monitoring. The spectrometer has been fitted with a set of modulation collimator grids designed for imaging hard x-ray and gamma-ray sources by the Mertz, Nakano, and Kilner method. This technique employs a pair of gridded collimators in front of each detector with the number of grid bars varying from one to {ital N}, where {ital N} is the number of detectors. When the collimator pairs are rotated through a full 360-degree angular range, the detector signals provide the information for a two-dimensional band-limited Fourier reconstruction of order {ital N}. Tests of the spectrometer with single and multiple point sources as well as continuous source distributions are reported.

  2. Polarisation analysis on the LET time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, G. J.; Košata, J.; Devonport, M.; Galsworthy, P.; Bewley, R. I.; Voneshen, D. J.; Dalgliesh, R.; Stewart, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a design for implementing uniaxial polarisation analysis on the LET cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer, installed on the second target station at ISIS. The polarised neutron beam is to be produced by a transmission-based supermirror polariser with the polarising mirrors arranged in a “double-V” formation. This will be followed by a Mezei-type precession coil spin flipper, selected for its small spatial requirements, as well as a permanent magnet guide field to transport the beam polarisation to the sample position. The sample area will contain a set of holding field coils, whose purpose is to produce a highly homogenous magnetic field for the wide-angle 3He analyser cell. To facilitate fast cell changes and reduce the risk of cell failure, we intend to separate the cell and cryostat from the vacuum of the sample tank by installing both in a vessel at atmospheric pressure. When the instrument upgrade is complete, the performance of LET is expected to be commensurate with existing and planned polarised cold neutron spectrometers at other sources. Finally, we discuss the implications of performing uniaxial polarisation analysis only, and identify quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) on ionic conducting materials as an interesting area to apply the technique.

  3. ACCURATELY CALCULATING THE SOLAR ORIENTATION OF THE TIANGONG-2 ULTRAVIOLET FORWARD SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ultraviolet Forward Spectrometer is a new type of spectrometer for monitoring the vertical distribution of atmospheric trace gases in the global middle atmosphere. It is on the TianGong-2 space laboratory, which was launched on 15 September 2016. The spectrometer uses a solar calibration mode to modify its irradiance. Accurately calculating the solar orientation is a prerequisite of spectral calibration for the Ultraviolet Forward Spectrometer. In this paper, a method of calculating the solar orientation is proposed according to the imaging geometric characteristics of the spectrometer. Firstly, the solar orientation in the horizontal rectangular coordinate system is calculated based on the solar declination angle algorithm proposed by Bourges and the solar hour angle algorithm proposed by Lamm. Then, the solar orientation in the sensor coordinate system is achieved through several coordinate system transforms. Finally, we calculate the solar orientation in the sensor coordinate system and evaluate its calculation accuracy using actual orbital data of TianGong-2. The results show that the accuracy is close to the simulation method with STK (Satellite Tool Kit, and the error is not more than 2 %. The algorithm we present does not need a lot of astronomical knowledge, but only needs some observation parameters provided by TianGong-2.

  4. An intense transmission spectrometer for ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newport, R.J.; Howells, W.S.

    1986-07-01

    The report seeks to outline a design for an intense transmission spectrometer (ITS) suitable for installation on the pulsed neutron source ISIS. The performance of the instrument is evaluated and several examples of the areas of science made accessible are discussed. It is shown that the proposed design will represent a scientifically valuable and cost-effective addition to the present suite of ISIS instruments. (author)

  5. Contamination measurements with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohatka, S.; Berecz, I.; Langer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive quadrupole mass spectrometer of our own construction was used for different purity measurements. The analysis of gases in operating rooms showed a 1 ppm-10 5 ppm concentration of narcotics and helped to develop an effective and cheap method for regenerating narcotic filters. We regularly control the gases used in radioactive pollution measurements by internal GM counters and in radiocarbon dating technique. Combustion products and the gases of a fermenter are investigated for industrial application. (orig.) [de

  6. Single crystal spectrometer FOX at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Single crystal spectrometer FOX installed at H1 thermal neutron line on KENS has been renewed recently for the measurement of very weak scattering. We have installed a multidetector system of 36 linearly placed 3 He detectors with collimators instead of former four-circle diffractometer and scintillator detectors. Though the system is quite simple, a large two-dimensional reciprocal space is observed effectively with high S/N rate on new FOX. (author)

  7. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1969-01-01

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...... or experimentally determined probability distributions may be used. The application to the study of the dispersion relation for excitations in a crystal is outlined...

  8. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  9. Mobile environment for an emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziak, Kamil; Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; Tyburska-Staniewska, Anna; Ramsza, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes a mobile application to be used in a chemical analytical laboratory. The program running under the control of Android operating system allows for preview of measurements recorded by the emission spectrometer. Another part of the application monitors operational and configuration parameters of the device in real time. The first part of this paper includes an overview of the atomic spectrometry. The second part contains a description of the application and its further potential development direction.

  10. Calibration of a leak detection spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1958-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the possible methods for calibrating a leak detection spectrometer, and the estimation of outputs from the leaks is considered. With this in mind the question of sensitivity of leak detection is tackled on a very general level; first the sensitivity of the isolated instrument is determined, and then the sensitivity of an instrument connected to an installation where leaks may be suspected. Finally, practical solutions are proposed. (author) [fr

  11. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  12. Some characteristics of a miniature neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Oishi, K.; Hojo, K.; Hojo, T.

    1984-01-01

    Some characteristics of an NE213 miniature spherical spectrometer for in-assembly fast-neutron spectrometry were measured. As the bubbling time changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, but the n-γ discrimination characteristics changed considerably. As the count rate changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, and the change of the n-γ discrimination characteristics was acceptable. The neutron response function was measured to be almost isotropic except for the backward direction. (orig.)

  13. The VESUVIO Spectrometer Now and When?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, A G; Krzystyniak, M; Fernandez-Alonso, F

    2014-01-01

    The current layout and mechanics of the VESUVIO spectrometer are presented in light of spectroscopic measurements using electron-volt neutrons. A brief background to the theoretical framework of deep inelastic neutron scattering is presented, with focus on data collection and instrumental design. The current capabilities and research themes for VESUVIO are discussed, and possible future instrumental developments highlighted which will enhance the instrument's ability to meet scientific inquiry and expectation

  14. The VESUVIO Spectrometer Now and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, A. G.; Krzystyniak, M.; Fernandez-Alonso, F.

    2014-12-01

    The current layout and mechanics of the VESUVIO spectrometer are presented in light of spectroscopic measurements using electron-volt neutrons. A brief background to the theoretical framework of deep inelastic neutron scattering is presented, with focus on data collection and instrumental design. The current capabilities and research themes for VESUVIO are discussed, and possible future instrumental developments highlighted which will enhance the instrument's ability to meet scientific inquiry and expectation.

  15. A new thermal ionisation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, C.; Merren, T.O.; Unsworth, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Isomass 54E, a new thermal ionisation mass spectrometer for precise measurements of isotopic composition is described in detail. It combines the fruits of three development pro ects, viz. automation, energy filters and extended geometry with existing micromass expertise and experience. The hardware and software which are used for the automation as well as the energy filter used, are explained. The 'extended geometry' ion optical system adopted for better performance is discussed in detail. (K.B.)

  16. Hypernuclear physics with a neutral meson spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The (K - , π degrees) reaction, which complements the (K - , π - ) and the (π + , K + ) reactions, offers another means to study hypernuclear physics. The physics motivation for measuring the (K - , π degrees) reaction is discussed. The feasibility for detecting π degrees using the LAMPF Neutral Meson Spectrometer is studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. We conclude that the (K - , π degrees) reaction can be well measured at existing kaon beam lines

  17. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....

  18. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  19. Two-lens spectrometer for. beta. polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, D; Paul, D [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1984-06-01

    A test spectrometer has been built having four degrees of freedom which have been varied to optimize the transmission in a configuration in which the image distance is large compared to the object distance. Iron-clad magnets of 15 cm effective inside diameter were used. Within the limits of the primary magnet field, the optimized transmission T (%. of 4..pi.. sr) increases as the source is advanced through the magnet towards the polarimeter, approximately as T=5.1 exp(zsub(s)/10.5), where zsub(s) is in cm, measured from the position of peak axial field. When the source-image distance is 1.8 m the optimum separation of the peak axial fields of the magnets is 67+-1 cm and the spectrometer transmission is the same for parallel or antiparallel fields. When operating in the optimum configuration, the spectrometer accepts particles with initial trajectories from 18/sup 0/ to 42/sup 0/ relative to the axis and delivers them at the target with half-angle of convergence less than 4.1/sup 0/.

  20. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E.; Goldsten, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in situ analysis of samples including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform, that would meet the severe mass, power, and environmental constraints of missions to the outer planets. In the neutron-activation mode, a gamma-ray spectrometer will first perform a penetrating scan of soil, ice, and loose material underfoot (depths to 10 cm or more) to identify appropriate samples. Chosen samples will be analyzed in bulk in neutron-activation mode, and then the sample surfaces will be analyzed in alpha-activation mode using Rutherford backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. The instrument will provide sample composition over a wide range of elements, including rock-forming elements (such as Na, Mg, Si, Fe, and Ca), rare earths (Sm and Eu for example), radioactive elements (K, Th, and U), and light elements present in water, ices, and biological materials (mainly H, C, O, and N). The instrument is expected to have a mass of about l kg and to require less than 1 W power. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  2. Automation of a thermal ionisation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamula, A.; Leuca, M.; Albert, S.; Benta, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    A thermal ionization mass spectrometer was upgraded in order to be monitored by a PC. A PC-LMP-16 National Instruments data acquisition board was used for the ion current channel and the Hall signal channel. A dedicated interface was built to allow commands from the computer to the current supply of the analyzing magnet and to the high voltage unit of the mass spectrometer. A software application was worked out to perform the adjustment of the spectrometer, magnetic scanning and mass spectra acquisition, data processing and isotope ratio determination. The apparatus is used for isotope ratio 235 U/ 238 U determination near the natural abundance. A peak jumping technique is applied to choose between the 235 U and 238 U signal, by switching the high voltage applied to the ion source between two preset values. This avoids the delay between the acquisition of the peaks of interest, a delay that would appear in the case of a 'pure' magnetic scanning. Corrections are applied for the mass discrimination effects and a statistical treatment of the data is achieved. (authors)

  3. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  4. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, ∼ 5 m Curved Guide, ∼ 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, ∼ 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world

  5. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE (1)-(4). This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A (5), magnet 2A (6), and magnet 2B (7). Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  6. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  7. Multiplate ionization total absorption spectrometer with a compressed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskakov, V.I.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kantserov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics of a multiplate total absorption spectrometer working with the compressed xenon (up to 25 atm) containing up to 23 radiation lengths of matter are studied. The dependence of the spectrometer energy resolution on the detecting matter density, on the material and thickness of the absorber plates has been studied. The ability of the spectrometer with a tungsten absorber to select hadrons and electrons with P=6 GeV/c by total energy release and characteristics of the cascade longitudinal development has been also studied. The gas spectrometer as it is shown differs quite slightly from the similar spectrometer with liquid argon as for its time resolution it is much better

  8. Electrostatic electron spectrometer based on two cylinders without axial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, D.; Toekesi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During the last decades electrostatic analyzers were widely used in atomic and surface physics. This was due to their good focusing and dispersion properties, The cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) is one of the most advantageous electrostatic analyzers. Its second order focusing properties have been calculated by many authors. A modified, so called 'box' type, CMA (ESA-13) is described in ref. [1]. For CMA (ESA-13), the position of the electron source and focus are outside the analyzer which is desirable for practical reasons. The ends of the cylinders are closed with two coaxial discs, therefore the electrostatic field near the edge is distorted compared to the logarithmic field existing in the classical 'in-finite' cylindrical mirror analyzer. However, the 'box' type distorted field cylindrical mirror analyzer geometry contains several limitations regarding the irradiation of the sample. Therefore, the construction of these analyzers was changed by replacing the endings of the analyzer with conically shaped electrodes ensuring a better accessibility for excitation. But among the various experimental tasks many geometrical conditions arise that are different or that need different sizes compared with the previous ones. Therefore, in a practical point of view, it is extremely advantageous to have different variations of spectrometers. This allows us to choose the best solution for a given problem. In this work, we present electron-optical properties of a mirror type electrostatic electron spectrometer consisting of two cylinders with eccentricity (see Fig 1.), namely the Eccentric Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (ECMA). The designed analyzer is a possible variation of CMA for measuring the energy distribution of electrons with high energy resolution or making an electron monocromator. It has been shown that the Eccentric Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer has second-order focusing properties with remarkable dispersion (see Fig 2

  9. An off Axis Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectrometer and a Rapid Scan Spectrometer with a Room-Temperature External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Kang, Cheolhwa; Xu, Yunjie

    2009-06-01

    Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a new type of mid-infrared tunable diode lasers with superior output power and mode quality. Recent developments, such as room temperature operation, wide frequency tunability, and narrow line width, make QCLs an ideal light source for high resolution spectroscopy. Two slit jet infrared spectrometers, namely an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption (CEA) spectrometer and a rapid scan spectrometer with an astigmatic multi-pass cell assembly, have been coupled with a newly purchased room temperature tunable mod-hop-free QCL with a frequency coverage from 1592 cm^{-1} to 1698 cm^{-1} and a scan rate of 0.1 cm^{-1}/ms. Our aim is to utilize these two sensitive spectrometers, that are equipped with a molecular jet expansion, to investigate the chiral molecules-(water)_n clusters. To demonstrate the resolution and sensitivity achieved, the rovibrational transitions of the static N_2O gas and the bending rovibrational transitions of the Ar-water complex, a test system, at 1634 cm^{-1} have been measured. D. Hofstetter and J. Faist in High performance quantum cascade lasers and their applications, Vol.89 Springer-Verlag Berlin & Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 61-98. Y. Xu, X. Liu, Z. Su, R. M. Kulkarni, W. S. Tam, C. Kang, I. Leonov and L. D'Agostino, Proc. Spie, 2009, 722208 (1-11). M. J. Weida and D. J. Nesbitt, J. Chem. Phys. 1997, 106, 3078-3089.

  10. [Design of Dual-Beam Spectrometer in Spectrophotometer for Colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-xuan; Yan, Chang-xiang

    2015-07-01

    Spectrophotometers for colorimetry are usually composed of two independent and identical spectrometers. In order to reduce the volume of spectrophotometer for colorimetry, a design method of double-beam spectrometer is put forward. A traditional spectrometer is modified so that a new spectrometer can realize the function of double spectrometers, which is especially suitable for portable instruments. One slit is replaced by the double-slit, than two beams of spectrum can be detected. The working principle and design requirement of double-beam spectrometer are described. A spectrometer of portable spectrophotometer is designed by this method. A toroidal imaging mirror is used for the Czerny-Turner double-beam spectrometer in this paper, which can better correct astigmatism, and prevent the dual-beam spectral crosstalk. The results demonstrate that the double-beam spectrometer designed by this method meets the design specifications, with the spectral resolution less than 10 nm, the spectral length of 9.12 mm, and the volume of 57 mm x 54 mm x 23 mm, and without the dual-beam spectral overlap in the detector either. Comparing with a traditional spectrophotometer, the modified spectrophotometer uses a set of double-beam spectrometer instead of two sets of spectrometers, which can greatly reduce the volume. This design method can be specially applied in portable spectrophotometers, also can be widely applied in other double-beam spectrophotometers, which offers a new idea for the design of dual-beam spectrophotometers.

  11. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H- ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  12. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  13. Spectrometer requirements for (e,e'2N) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightbody, J.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    One specific experiment that may be performed with a future CW accelerator is a study of (e,e'2N) reactions through which we may learn details of the short range interaction of two nucleons within nuclear matter. It is suspected that the only mechanism which can lead to the observed high momentum components in the single nucleon momentum distribution (above approx. 400 MeV/c) inferred from (e,e'p) and (γ,p) measurements is the presence of short-range few-body correlations in the many-body nuclear wave function. It is expected that the explicit pair correlation function may be inferred from relative two-nucleon momentum distributions measured in (e,e'2N) experiments. It is therefore interesting to estimate counting rates using measured one-body momentum distributions to see what types of spectrometers are required

  14. Integrated Lloyd's mirror on planar waveguide facet as a spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Alain; Benech, Pierre; Gri, Martine

    2017-12-10

    A low-cost and simple Fourier transform spectrometer based on the Lloyd's mirror configuration is proposed in order to have a very stable interferogram. A planar waveguide coupled to a fiber injection is used to spatially disperse the optical beam. A second beam superposed to the previous one is obtained by a total reflection of the incident beam on a vertical glass face integrated in the chip by dicing with a specific circular precision saw. The interferogram at the waveguide output is imaged on a near-infrared camera with an objective lens. The contrast and the fringe period are thus dependent on the type and the fiber position and can be optimized to the pixel size and the length of the camera. Spectral resolution close to λ/Δλ=80 is reached with a camera with 320 pixels of 25 μm width in a wavelength range from O to L bands.

  15. A 4π tracking magnetic spectrometer for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A tracking magnetic spectrometer based on large Time Projection Chambers (TPC) was previously proposed to measure the momentum of charged particles emerging from the RHIC beam pipe at angles larger than four degrees and to identify the particle type for those beyond fifteen degrees with momenta up to 700 MeV/c, which is a large fraction of the final charged particles emitted by a low cm rapidity quark-gluon plasma. Experimental progress in the successful performance of a TPC developed for AGS E-810 is reported. We have also included typical results of our event generator which contains an interface of an improved HIJET and a plasma bubble model. Typical plasma signals one can expect from this model are presented. 4 refs., 9 figs

  16. Analysis of the physical simulation on Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng-yuan; Wan, Yu-xi; Zhao, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    A kind of oscillating arm type Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTS) which based on the corner cube retroreflector is presented, and its principle and properties are studied. It consists of a pair of corner cube retroreflector, beam splitter and compensator. The optical path difference(OPD) is created by oscillating reciprocating motion of the moving corner cube pair, and the OPD value is four times the physical shift value of the moving corner cube pair. Due to the basic property of corner cube retroreflector, the oscillating arm type FTS has no tilt problems. It is almost ideal for very high resolution infrared spectrometer. However, there are some factors to reduce the FTS capability. First, wavefront aberration due to the figures of these surfaces will reduce modulation of FTS system; second, corner cube retroreflector consist of three plane mirror, and orthogonal to each other. When there is a deviation from right angle, it will reduced the modulation of system; third, the apexes of corner cube retroreflector are symmetric about the surface of beam splitter, if one or both of the corner cube retroreflector is displaced laterally from its nominal position, phase of off-axis rays returning from the two arms were difference, this also contributes to loss of modulation of system. In order to solve these problems, this paper sets up a non-sequential interference model, and a small amount of oscillating arm rotation is set to realize the dynamic simulation process, the dynamic interference energy data were acquired at different times, and calculated the modulation of the FTS system. In the simulation, the influence of wedge error of beam splitter, compensator or between them were discussed; effects of oscillating arm shaft deviation from the coplanar of beam splitter was analyzed; and compensation effect of corner cube retroreflector alignment on beam splitter, oscillating arm rotary shaft alignment error is analyzed. In addition, the adjustment procedure

  17. Computer optimization of retarding lens systems for ESCA spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannberg, B.; Skoellermo, A.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of four-element electrostatic lenses as retarding systems between source and analyzer in ESCA spectrometers is calculated. The potential distribution in the lens is defined by an axial potential of the type phi(z)=V 0 +Σ(Vsub(i)-Vsub(i-1))/2 - tanh (ω/asub(i)(z-zsub(i))). For a given general shape of the lens and a given retardation ratio, the potentials of the two middle electrodes are fitted to give a paraxial image with a prescribed magnification at the exit slit of the lens system. The equipotential surfaces forming the electrodes are found by calculating the potential in an off-axis point, using the series expansion. All third-order geometrical and first-order chromatic aberrations of the lenses are calculated and used together with the second-order aberrations of the analyzer to calculate optimum dimensions of the lens elements and of the emittance-defining slits. A computer program, of which one part calculates the lens properties and one the properties of the entire system lens-analyzer, is described. Two lens systems are presented in some detail. The first one is intended for use with a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer. The angular acceptance is here defined by an aperture stop inside the lens. In this system, the image position and magnification can be kept constant for retardation ratios at least between 1:2 and 60:1, with moderate potentials on the middle electrodes. The second lens system is designed for a magnetic spectrometer of the π√2-type. Here, the central trajectory in the lens is slightly curved by the magnetic field, and the angular acceptance is defined by a baffle after the lens. This system is optimized for a constant retardation ratio of 5:1. (Auth.)

  18. Model Development to Predict Phenological scale of Table Grapes (cvs. Thompson, Crimson and Superior Seedless and Red Globe using Growing Degree Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Verdugo-Vásquez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological models have been made mainly for winegrape cultivars, despite the economic importance of table grapes. The aim of this work was to develop and validate models for predicting phenological scales of table grapes (cvs. Thompson, Crimson and Superior Seedless and Red Globe grown under semi-arid conditions. Measurements of phenology were carried out weekly from budburst to harvest during four growing seasons (2009-2013. Phenology models were developed using the Mitscherlich monomolecular equation where the dependent and independent variables were the Eichhorn and Lorenz phenological (ELP scale modified by Coombe and the growing degree days (GDD, respectively. Results indicated that there were strong non-linear correlations between the ELP scale and GDD for the four cultivars with coefficient of determinations (R2 ranging between 0.97-0.99. Also, validation indicated that the models were able to predict ELP scale with a root mean square (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE ranging between 2.1-2.4 and 1.35-1.69, respectively. The prediction variability (expressed in days was between 4.4-19.4 days, obtaining the best results for the flowering period. This study suggested that the phenological models based on GDD could be useful planning tools for farming, especially from budburst to veraison of table grape cultivars.

  19. Progress in commercial TXRF spectrometer for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihagi, K.

    2000-01-01

    In the scale down of ULSI devices, it is required to reduce contamination of metal or particle due to get higher yield. For the metallic contamination, we are trying to develop to get higher sensitivity in direct-TXRF method, however, VPD-TXRF is the most important method to get 10 7 to 10 8 atoms/cm 2 sensitivity. For the particle contamination, we have developed software to link TXRF spectrometer with particle counter because not only position or size but also composition analysis have got required. In semiconductor industries, there are two important changing for improvement on production management system as COO (Cost Of Ownership) or standardization. One is the size of wafer has changed from 200 mm to 300 mm. Against this, we have redesigned TXRF spectrometer for 300 mm wafer without down of sensitivity. The other is the production system has become completely automated. On this point, we have also redesigned to link TXRF spectrometer with SMIF (Standard Mechanical Interface) or FOUP (Front Opening Unified Pod) as mini-environment, and with SECS 2 (SEMI Equipment Communications Standard 2) or GEM 300 (Generic Equipment Model) as automatically standardization. We shall also introduce some applications about new materials using TXRF such as Ta 2 O 5 , ZrO 2 and HfO 2 for high-k materials, and also Ru, SRO and IrO 2 for electrode materials. Furthermore, we shall introduce our new equipment for thickness and composition analysis such as PZT, BST and MOCVD TiN thin films. (author)

  20. Ultra-compact MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Hassan, Khaled; Anwar, Momen; Alharon, Mohamed H.; Medhat, Mostafa; Adib, George A.; Dumont, Rich; Saadany, Bassam; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-05-01

    Portable and handheld spectrometers are being developed and commercialized in the late few years leveraging the rapidly-progressing technology and triggering new markets in the field of on-site spectroscopic analysis. Although handheld devices were commercialized for the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), their size and cost stand as an obstacle against the deployment of the spectrometer as spectral sensing components needed for the smart phone industry and the IoT applications. In this work we report a chip-sized microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based FTIR spectrometer. The core optical engine of the solution is built using a passive-alignment integration technique for a selfaligned MEMS chip; self-aligned microoptics and a single detector in a tiny package sized about 1 cm3. The MEMS chip is a monolithic, high-throughput scanning Michelson interferometer fabricated using deep reactive ion etching technology of silicon-on-insulator substrate. The micro-optical part is used for conditioning the input/output light to/from the MEMS and for further light direction to the detector. Thanks to the all-reflective design of the conditioning microoptics, the performance is free of chromatic aberration. Complemented by the excellent transmission properties of the silicon in the infrared region, the integrated solution allows very wide spectral range of operation. The reported sensor's spectral resolution is about 33 cm-1 and working in the range of 1270 nm to 2700 nm; upper limited by the extended InGaAs detector. The presented solution provides a low cost, low power, tiny size, wide wavelength range NIR spectral sensor that can be manufactured with extremely high volumes. All these features promise the compatibility of this technology with the forthcoming demand of smart portable and IoT devices.

  1. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni Lα 1 2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures

  2. Microprocessor-controlled portable neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.F.; Kaifer, R.C.; Slaughter, D.R.; Strout, R.E. II; Rueppel, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer that acquires and unfolds data in the field has been developed for use in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The system includes an NE213 organic scintillation detector, automatic gain stabilization, automatically stabilized pulseshape discrimination, an LSl-11 microprocessor for control and data reduction, and a multichannel analyzer for data acquisition. The system, with the exception of the multichannel analyzer, is mounted in a suitcase 47 by 66 by 23.5 cm. The mass is 23.5 kg

  3. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  4. SIMS device with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szigethy, D.; Riedel, M.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) has been designed and constructed. The device is applicable for dinamic and static SIMS investigations. The sputtering and ionisation can be studied simultaneously. Oil diffusion pumps and an auxiliary ion-getter pump are used. A commercial ion gun is used in the working chamber. The secondary ion optics assures the preliminary filtering of fast ions, and the collection of sputtered ions for a separate microprobe analysis. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated with examples. (R.J.)

  5. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, S F

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  6. An achromatic multipassage magnetic mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, P.; Baril, M.

    1999-01-01

    A design providing achromatic correction to a multipassage magnetic mass spectrometer previously described by the author is presented. The energy spatial dispersion caused by repeated passages in the magnetic prism is corrected by three supplementary mirrors placed in a reinjection loop. From this study one can see that we simultaneously eliminate the energy dispersion term C ΔE/E and the opening angle aberration term C α 2 and we may also eliminate the coupled aberration term C αΔE/E

  7. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlov, B.N.; Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.; Shebelin, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer containing a pulsed ion source with an electron gun and two electrodes limiting ionization range, drift space and ion acceptor, is described. To expand functional possibilities, a slot collimator of the gas stream, two quantum generators and two diaphragms for the inlet of quantum generator radiation located on both sides of the ion source, are introduced in the ion source. The above invention enables to study details of the complex interaction process of laser radiation with molecules of the gas stream, which is actual for laser isotope separation

  8. The Omega spectrometer in the West Hall.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Inside the hut which sits on top of the superconducting magnet are the TV cameras that observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet gap below. On the background the two beam lines feeding the spectrometer target, for separated hadrons up to 40 GeV, on the right, for 80 GeV electrons, on the left, respectively. The latter strikes a radiator thus sending into Omega tagged photons up to 80 GeV. On the foreground, the two sections of the large gas Cerenkov counter working at atmospheric pressure, used for trigger purpose.

  9. Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Springston, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Koontz, A [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Aiken, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-01-17

    The photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS) measures light absorption by aerosol particles. As the particles pass through a laser beam, the absorbed energy heats the particles and in turn the surrounding air, which sets off a pressure wave that can be detected by a microphone. The PASS instruments deployed by ARM can also simultaneously measure the scattered laser light at three wavelengths and therefore provide a direct measure of the single-scattering albedo. The Operator Manual for the PASS-3100 is included here with the permission of Droplet Measurement Technologies, the instrument’s manufacturer.

  10. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  11. Calibration and intercomparison of neutron moderation spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpler, A.; Hermanska, J.; Prouza, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Results have been reported of comparative measurements of neutron fields from bare PuBe and Cf sources using multisphere (Bonner) spectrometers. The experiments were carried out by the Institute of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine at Charles University in Prague and the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection in Berlin. Both sides agreed upon uniform measuring conditions and calibration factors thus rendering possible the comparability of the dosimetric parameters which have been determined and verified, respectively, to an accuracy of ± 10%. 20 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs. (author)

  12. Particulate contamination spectrometer. Volume 1: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Boyd, B. A.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A laser particulate spectrometer (LPS) system was developed to measure the size and speed distributions of particulate (dusts, aerosols, ice particles, etc.) contaminants. Detection of the particulates was achieved by means of light scattering and extinction effects using a single laser beam to cover a size range of 0.8 to 275 microns diameter and a speed range of 0.2 to 20 meter/second. The LPS system was designed to operate in the high vacuum environment of a space simulation chamber with cold shroud temperatures ranging from 77 to 300 K.

  13. Prismatic analyzer concept for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas O.; Marko, M.; Freeman, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype...... inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor...

  14. AMS, a particle spectrometer in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Ren, Z.L.; Santos, D.; Thuillier, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed for extraterrestrial study of anti-matter, matter and dark matter. A precursor flight and on the STS-91 flight of the shuttle is planned to take place on May 1998. AMS will be installed on the International Space Station in January 2002 where it will be operated next, for three to five years. The contributions of the ISN to the project on the shuttle (aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter) as well as the steps to build a RICH detector for AMS on the ISSA are explained here below. (authors)

  15. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  16. A novel spectrometer for neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqualini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The WA104-NESSiE program developed in the context of the CERN Neutrino Platform, includes an innovative spectrometer to measure the charge and the momentum of muons in 0.5-5 GeV/c range. A tracking apparatus with a spatial resolution of 1 mm was designed, to be placed in a magnetized air volume in order to achieve a charge resolution and mis-identification of better than 1% at 1 GeV/c. Preliminary results obtained by detecting cosmic ray muons are reported.

  17. Some physics highlights from the EUROBALL spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korten, W.

    2004-01-01

    The latest generation of large γ-ray spectrometers, such as EUROBALL, has boosted the explorations of nuclei under extreme conditions especially at the limits of angular momentum and at finite temperatures. But the coupling of this instrument to very selective ''ancillary'' devices allows for more and more refined investigations of the third important degree of freedom in contemporary nuclear-structure studies, the isospin. This contribution summarises some of the recent highlights from the physics at EUROBALL obtained in some of the different areas of nuclear-structure research

  18. Calibration of an electron volt neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.; Adams, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The procedure for calibrating the VESUVIO eV neutron spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source is described. VESUVIO is used primarily to measure the momentum distribution n(p) of atoms, by inelastic scattering of very high energy (5-150 eV) neutrons. The results of the calibrations show that measurements of n(p) in atoms with masses lower than 16 amu can be measured with a resolution width ∼25% of the intrinsic peak widths in the current instrument configuration. Some suggestions as to how the instrument resolution could be significantly improved are made.

  19. Bragg rotor spectrometer for tokamak diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnsley, R.; Evans, K.D.; Peacock, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses high thru'put broad band (1-24 angstrom) x-ray spectrometer having absolute calibration for wavelength and intensity and demonstrated on the DITE tokamak. This instrument has a self-contained vacuum system which allows full spatial scans of the DITE plasma. Data acquisition and drive mechanism for the rotor and filter selection are operated remotely from a SADA. Results are presented of fast spectral surveys and λ-lock time-evolution of impurity emission during neutral beam injection. Spatial scans of the absolute impurity concentrations are derived

  20. Fast neutron spectrometer with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitsky, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    A fast neutron spectrometer with a stilbene single crystal designed to operate at high pulsed count rate has been described. Making use of identification and rejection of events, accompanied by pile-up, allowed to increase permissible count rates by an order of magnitude. The results of energy dependence of signal amplitude and shape relative anisotropy in stilbene in the range 4-10 and 2-8 MeV respectively have been presented. Taking into account anisotropy of the detector-scintillation properties allowed to improve particle discrimination. (Auth.)

  1. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  2. A dilepton spectrometer project for SIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, L.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project is presented to study e + e - pairs production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at GSI. Dileptons appear to be a clean probe to investigate in medium properties of nuclear form factors, baryon excitations (Δ) and mesons (π-dispersion relation; ρ-form factor) at high nuclear matter densities. The design of the detector system will be based on the experience obtained with the DLS-spectrometer at LBL and other dilepton detector systems in operation at high energy facilities. The project includes a fast electron trigger provided by a ring imaging Cherenkov detector with a segmented photomultiplier array. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs

  3. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  4. Computerized mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of data acquisition allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  5. Mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly-swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of sweeping allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  6. MPS [Multiparticle Spectrometer] data acquisition software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    A description of the software for a FASTBUS based data acquisition system in use at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer is presented. Data reading and formatting is done by the SLAC Scanner Processors (SSP's) resident in the FASTBUS system. A multiprocess software system on VAX computers is used to communicate with the SSP's, record the data, and monitor on-line the progress of high energy and heavy ion experiments. The structure and the performance of this system are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig

  7. Recent progress in the chopper spectrometer, INC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Arai, Masatoshi; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2001-01-01

    A guide tube comprising supermirrors, of which the critical wavenumber is three times as large as that of natural nickel, was installed in the primary flight path of the chopper spectrometer, INC, at KENS. Also, the characteristics of the ambient-temperature H 2 O moderator, which INC is facing, was changed by renewal construction of the neutron source at KENS. We discuss here an improvement in the performance of INC by a comparison with the previous performance. We also report on the development on a goniometer for single-crystal experiments at low temperatures. (author)

  8. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R.C.; Imel, G.R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 1985-03-30 to 1985-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0143395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143395 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National...

  10. Physical, chemical, and other data from bottle casts from the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 1973-07-11 to 1973-07-21 (NODC Accession 7601145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected from bottle casts in the Coastal Waters of Washington/Oregon from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 11 July 1973 to 21...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-25 to 1994-02-19 (NODC Accession 0115762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115762 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-25 to...

  12. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Bismarck Sea, Coral Sea and others from 1993-10-05 to 1993-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115019 includes Surface underway, chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-07-05 to 1993-09-02 (NODC Accession 0115008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115008 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to 1997-11-11 (NODC Accession 0115176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115176 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-01 to...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2006-02-13 to 2006-03-30 (NODC Accession 0108062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108062 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the Gulf of Alaska, North...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using bottle casts from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-03-30 to 1985-06-03 (NODC Accession 8700228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data and temperature, depth, and other data were collected using meteorological sensors, secchi disks, and bottle casts from THOMAS G. THOMPSON...

  17. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the East China Sea, North Pacific Ocean and Philippine Sea from 1985-05-04 to 1985-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0156918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0156918 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the East China Sea (Tung Hai), North...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-04-24 to 2004-06-01 (NODC Accession 0115590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115590 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 2004-04-24 to 2004-06-01. These...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 2008-08-26 to 2008-09-17 (NODC Accession 0108130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108130 includes chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from...

  20. Physical, chemical, nutrient, and other data from the Gulf of California from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Coastal Upwelling Ecosystems Analysis (IDOE/CUEA) from 05 March 1972 to 09 April 1972 (NODC Accession 7400405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, nutrient, and other data were collected from the Gulf of California from the THOMAS G. THOMPSON from 05 March 1972 to 09 April 1972. Data were...

  1. Mass spectrometer with two ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, L.G.; Mit', A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Static mass spectrometer with mid-plane near which ions are moving is considered in this article. Two ion sources are used, their exit slits are perpendicular to the mid-plane. The simple method of the replacement of source is offered. Two concave two-electrode transaxial mirrors with two-plate electrodes are used for this aim. The mid-plane of these mirrors coincides with the mid-plane of the device. The exit slit of each source is located in the principal plane of the object space. The principal planes of the image space of the both mirrors coincide. The images of the exit slits of the sources are in these planes and coincide too. We used the mirrors making stigmatic images with the magnification one to one, in which the dispersion on energy and spherical aberrations of the second order are equal to zero. These images are the objects on which the ion-optical system of the mass spectrometer is tuned. When you choose one from two ion sources it is enough to switch the corresponding mirror

  2. The Calibration Home Base for Imaging Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Simon Brachmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Calibration Home Base (CHB is an optical laboratory designed for the calibration of imaging spectrometers for the VNIR/SWIR wavelength range. Radiometric, spectral and geometric calibration as well as the characterization of sensor signal dependency on polarization are realized in a precise and highly automated fashion. This allows to carry out a wide range of time consuming measurements in an ecient way. The implementation of ISO 9001 standards in all procedures ensures a traceable quality of results. Spectral measurements in the wavelength range 380–1000 nm are performed to a wavelength uncertainty of +- 0.1 nm, while an uncertainty of +-0.2 nm is reached in the wavelength range 1000 – 2500 nm. Geometric measurements are performed at increments of 1.7 µrad across track and 7.6 µrad along track. Radiometric measurements reach an absolute uncertainty of +-3% (k=1. Sensor artifacts, such as caused by stray light will be characterizable and correctable in the near future. For now, the CHB is suitable for the characterization of pushbroom sensors, spectrometers and cameras. However, it is planned to extend the CHBs capabilities in the near future such that snapshot hyperspectral imagers can be characterized as well. The calibration services of the CHB are open to third party customers from research institutes as well as industry.

  3. Performance Validation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, Katharina

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is scheduled to begin operation in the year 2007, providing experiments with proton-proton collisions. The center-of-mass energy of 14TeV and the design luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1 will allow to explore many new aspects of fundamental physics. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer aims at a momentum resolution better than 10% for transverse momentum values ranging from pT = 6 GeV to pT = 1TeV. Precision tracking will be performed by Ar-CO2-gas filled Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs), with a single wire resolution of < 100 μm. In total, about 1 200 chambers, arranged in a large structure, will allow muon track measurements over distances up to 15m in a magnetic field of 0.5 T. Given the large size of the spectrometer it is impossible to keep the shape of the muon chambers and their positions stable within the requested tracking accuracy of 50 μm. Therefore the concept of an optical alig...

  4. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  5. New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-D 2 doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The second is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic-focusing instrument in which exceptionally high ion intensities (> 1 x 10 -9 A) result in high signal to noise ratios. A containment facility with sample inlet systems and a standard distribution system was built to permit testing with tritium mixtures. The characteristics of the mass spectrometers under a variety of operating conditions will be presented. Factors to be discussed include: sample equilibration and its elimination; linearity; trimer formation; gas interference; stability; signal to noise ratio; mass discrimination; and anticipated precision and accu sublimed molybdenum collector of Converter No. 262; and (3) demonstration of tungsten CVD onto molybdenum flange using a reuseable graphite mandrel

  6. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  7. New imaging spectrometer for auroral research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rairden, R.; Swenson, G.

    1994-01-01

    A Loral 1024 x 1024 CCD array with 15-micron pixels has been incorporated as the focal plane detector in a new imaging spectrometer for auroral research. The large format low-noise CCD provides excellent dynamic range and signal to noise characteristics with image integration times on the order of 60 seconds using f/1.4 camera optics. Further signal enhancement is achieved through on-CCD pixel binning. In the nominal binned mode the instrument wavelength resolution varies from 15 to 30 angstrom across the 5000 to 8600 angstrom spectral range. Images are acquired and stored digitally on a Macintosh computer. This instrument was operated at a field site in Godhavn, Greenland during the past two winters (1993, 1994) to measure the altitude distribution of the various spectral emissions within auroral arcs. The height resolution on an auroral feature 300 km distant is ∼1 km. Examples of these measurements are presented here in snapshot and summary image formats illustrating the wealth of quantitative information provided by this new imaging spectrometer

  8. Basics of spectroscopic instruments. Hardware of NMR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    NMR is a powerful tool for structure analysis of small molecules, natural products, biological macromolecules, synthesized polymers, samples from material science and so on. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is applicable to plants and animals Because most of NMR experiments can be done by an automation mode, one can forget hardware of NMR spectrometers. It would be good to understand features and performance of NMR spectrometers. Here I present hardware of a modern NMR spectrometer which is fully equipped with digital technology. (author)

  9. High resolution 14 MeV neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.

    1986-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer, based both on the track position identification and the energy measurement of recoiling protons from a hydrogenous radiator is proposed. The expected performance limits of this spectrometer with regard to energy resolution (deltaE/E), efficiency (epsilon) and counting rate are evaluated in five different configurations. The results show the possibility of deriving an optimized spectrometer design for applications on large fusion devices such as JET and NET with an energy resolution up 1% at 14 MeV

  10. MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER DESIGN FOR ELECTRON SCATTERING ABOVE 1 Bev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopper, H.

    1963-06-15

    Design considerations are discussed for magnetic spectrometer electron scattering investigations with the higher energy (above 1 Bev) electron sources which are being developed. The spectrometers are to be used to discriminate between elastic and inelastic processes. A momentum resolution of the order of one per cent is required for these experiments. Various spectrometers are compared according to their optical properties and the number of magnets they consist of. (R.E.U.)

  11. Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)

  12. Imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrien, Thomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-09-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design. An overview of the prototype system is given along with a description of balloon experiment results. System model performance predictions are given for a future LCTF based imaging spectrometer design. System design considerations of LCTF imaging spectrometers are discussed.

  13. BIS-2 spectrometer for search and investigation of narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.N.; Aref'ev, V.A.; Balandin, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration and main characteristics of the BIS-2 spectrometer are described. The spectrometer was intended to search for and to investigate charmed particles and narrow resonances produced in neutron-nucleus interactions. It was placed on a neutron beam of the Serpukhov accelerator. The Monte-Carlo simulated and experimentally measured characteristics of individual elements and the spectrometer as a whole are described. A brief review of the principal results based on the analysis of more than 10 7 neutron-nucleus interactions registered by means of the BIS-2 spectrometer is given. 34 refs.; 8 figs.; 5 tabs

  14. Polarized neutron spectrometer for inelastic experiments at J-PARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoo Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the newly developed polarization analysis neutron chopper spectrometer (POLANO commenced in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF. The POLANO is a direct geometry chopper spectrometer with neutron polarization analysis capability. In the suite of inelastic spectrometers, six instruments are now in operation. POLANO will be the only spectrometer dedicated to polarization analysis experiments. The primary phase of the construction will be completed by 2014 with beam commissioning scheduled for 2015.

  15. A novel approach for predicting the response of the spectrometer for INTEGRAL satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, R

    2013-05-01

    A basic phenomenological approach has been presented in three recent papers (Kshetri R., 2012. JINST 7, P04008; Kshetri R., 2012. JINST 7, P07006; Kshetri R., 2012. JINST 7, P12007) for understanding the operation of encapsulated type composite detectors including the SPI spectrometer. In the present paper, we have considered the fact that the experimental two-fold events between two detectors include the three and higher fold events between the same two detectors. The formalism has been further developed and the peak-to-total ratio of a general composite detector are predicted for energy region with no direct experimental information about them. At 8MeV, the peak-to-total ratio for the SPI spectrometer and a very large detector (comprising of infinite number of single HPGe modules) are found to be 9% and 12%, respectively. The predictions for fold distribution of the SPI spectrometer are found to be in agreement with experimental data. Our formulation does not include ad-hoc fits, but expressions that are justifiable by probability flow arguments. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, we present a novel approach for calculating the peak-to-total ratio of the SPI spectrometer for high gamma energies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance and robustness of a multi-user, multi-spectrometer system for INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bode; Menno Blaauw

    2012-01-01

    The laboratory for instrumental neutron activation analysis at the Reactor Institute Delft, Delft University of Technology uses a network of 3 gamma-ray spectrometers with well-type detectors and 2 gamma-ray spectrometers with coaxial detectors, all equipped with modern sample changers, as well as 2 spectrometers with coaxial detectors at the two fast rabbit systems. A wide variety of samples is processed through the system, all at specific optimized (and thus different) analytical protocols, and using different combination of the spectrometer systems. The gamma-ray spectra are analyzed by several qualified operators. The laboratory therefore needs to anticipate on the occurrence of random and systematic inconsistencies in the results (such as bias, non-linearity or wrong assignments due to spectral interferences) resulting from differences in operator performance, selection of analytical protocol and experimental conditions. This has been accomplished by taking advantage of the systematic processing of internal quality control samples such as certified reference materials and blanks in each test run. The data from these internal quality control analyses have been stored in a databank since 1991, and are now used to assess the various method performance indicators as indicators for the method's robustness. (author)

  17. The bent crystal diffraction spectrometer at the BR2 reactor in Mol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerts, E.; Jacobs, L.; Vandenput, G.; Van Assche, P. H. M.

    1988-05-01

    The DuMond-type bent crystal diffraction spectrometer installed at the BR2 reactor in Mol is presented. The spectrometer is mainly designed to study nuclear γ-transitions following thermal neutron capture. It covers the energy interval 25 ≦ Eγ ≦ 1500 keV. Instead of the traditionally used quartz crystals, a highly perfect silicium crystal is chosen as analysing crystal. Diffraction occurs from the (220) plane. The "quasi-mosaic" width, introduced by bending the crystal, is as small as 0.2″. The integrated reflecting power R of the bent crystal stays constant up to 1.5 MeV in first, 680 keV in second and 300 keV in third diffraction order. For higher photon energies, only an E-1 energy dependence is observed in second and third diffraction order. Consequently, besides improving the energy resolution, the use of these silicium crystals substantially increases the spectrometer efficiency and extends the high energy limit of bent crystal diffraction spectrometers. The diffraction angles are measured with a symmetrical interferometer system which covers an angular range of -6° to +6° with a precision of about 0.01″. Minimum diffraction line widths of 0.9″ have been measured, corresponding to an energy resolution ΔE = 1.35 × 10 -6E2n-1 keV -1. The dominant contribution to the observed line widths arises from the finite extent of the source.

  18. Portable laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy/diffuse reflectance hybrid spectrometer for analysis of inorganic pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozos, Panagiotis; Philippidis, Aggelos; Anglos, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    A novel, portable spectrometer, combining two analytical techniques, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, was developed with the aim to provide an enhanced instrumental and methodological approach with regard to the analysis of pigments in objects of cultural heritage. Technical details about the hybrid spectrometer and its operation are presented and examples are given relevant to the analysis of paint materials. Both LIBS and diffuse reflectance spectra in the visible and part of the near infrared, corresponding to several neat mineral pigment samples, were recorded and the complementary information was used to effectively distinguish different types of pigments even if they had similar colour or elemental composition. The spectrometer was also employed in the analysis of different paints on the surface of an ancient pottery sherd demonstrating the capabilities of the proposed hybrid diagnostic approach. Despite its instrumental simplicity and compact size, the spectrometer is capable of supporting analytical campaigns relevant to archaeological, historical or art historical investigations, particularly when quick data acquisition is required in the context of surveys of large numbers of objects and samples.

  19. High-ohmic low-noise resistor for spectrometers with cooled semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, S.A.; Zhargal, Ch.; Zorin, G.N.; Laskus, T.; Osipenko, B.P.; Revenko, A.V.; Ryakhovskaya, T.I.

    1985-01-01

    BackgroUnd noise and energy resolution of a new type of resistors, designed to be used as a resistance in a feedback circuit of an X-ray spectrometer preamplifier are studied. The resistors are manufactured using the method of photolithography from high-resistance films, formed on the surface of lead-silicate glasses, as a result of redox processes during heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere. Energy resolution of the spectrometer is measured on the line 55 FeKX(Mn) with the energy 5.8 keV. The conclusion is made, that the level of background noises in the resistors studied is approximately 4 times lower the level of noises in the KVM type resistors, which are commercially produced in industry

  20. The feasibility of using a Fourier RTOF spectrometer at a low-power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Priesmeyer, H.G.; Kudryashev, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The present situation of Fourier time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry is discussed using the FSS spectrometer as example. The use of the Fourier reverse TOF spectrometry, as an efficient tool for studying condensed matter, at a 2 MW (WWR-S type) reactor is also assessed. The arrangement of the RTOF spectrometer, which could be successfully used at such type of reactor, is introduced. The suggested arrangement applies a neutron guide tube of 24 m length and allows for effective luminosity 2.4.10 6 at a flight path distance of 3.6 m. The number of neutrons scattered from a sample (5 cm 3 in volume) and incident on the detector system, as estimated for the suggested arrangement, is ∝1.6.10 3 n/sec. Such high counting rate allows to measure a diffraction spectrum within less than an hour. (orig.) With 12 figs [de

  1. Evaluation unit of X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polivka, V.

    1986-01-01

    The evaluation unit is designed as a CAMAC modular system. It processes analog signals from the detector, amplifies them, digitizes them, stores them, and displays them. The analog data collection system consists of a high voltage supply, a linear amplifier, and an analog-to-digital convertor. The digital part of the data collection system consists of a data memory and a mapping unit. The control and calculation system consisting of a controller, a memory, an expandable working memory, a floppy disk controller, a parallel input and output for the terminal, and a controller for block transfer, provides the control of the entire spectrometer and the calculations for qualitative and quantitative analyses. It also provides connection to the peripherals: the disk operating system, the graphics terminal with keyboard, and the mosaic printer. (M.D.)

  2. A summation free β+-endpoint spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, H.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E.; Schardt, D.; Simon, R.S.; Kleinheinz, P.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.

    1990-08-01

    A β + -endpoint spectrometer is described, where positrons are observed in an 11-mm thick silicon detector in coincidence with subsequent γ-rays meausred in a germanium detector, and where the summing of the positron energy with the annihilation radiation is prevented by detecting both 511-keV quanta in opposite segments of a BGO ring surrounding the silicon detector. The procedure of measuring and analyzing the data is outlined for the decay of the 11/2 - -isomer of 149 Tb; its endpoint energy is determined to be 1853(10) keV, in agreement with the literature. The accuracy and reliability of β + -endpoint measurements is discussed in comparison to the EC/β + -ratio method. (orig.)

  3. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  4. Background characterization in a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.

    1995-01-01

    An alternate procedure for background count rate estimation in a liquid scintillation spectrometer is presented, which does not require to measure a blank with similar composition, volume and quench, to the problem sample. The procedure is based on a double linear parameterization which was obtained from a systematic study of the background observed with glass vials, in three different windows, 0 - 20 KeV, 0 - 800 KeV and 0 - 2 MeV, for volume between 2 and 20 mi of three commercial scintillators, Hisafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel, and quenching degree in the interval equivalent to 50% - 3% tritium efficiency. This procedure was tested with standard samples of 3H, and led to average discrepancies less than 10% for activity ≥0,6 Bq, against conventional methods for which the discrepancies are twice on average. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Background characterization in a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los arcos, J.M.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.

    1995-01-01

    An alternate procedure for background count rate estimation in a liquid scintillation spectrometer is presented, which does not require to measure a blank with similar composition, volume and quench, to the problem sample. The procedure is based on a double linear parameterization which was obtained from a systematic study of the background observed with glass vials, in three different windows, 0-20 KeV, 0-800 KeV and 0-2 MeV, for volume between 2 and 20 ml of three commercial scintillators, Hisafe II, Ultima-gold and Instagel, and quenching degree in the interval equivalent to 50%-3% tritium efficiency. This procedure was tested with standard samples of ''3 H, and led to average discrepancies less than 10% for activity => 0,6 Bq, against conventional methods for which the discrepancies are twice on average

  6. Spectrometer system for diffuse extreme ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labov, Simon E.

    1989-01-01

    A unique grazing incidence spectrometer system has been designed to study diffuse line emission between 80 and 650 A with 10-30 A resolution. The minimum detectable emission line strength during a 5-min observation ranges from 100-2000 ph/sq cm sec str. The instrument uses mechanically ruled reflection gratings placed in front of a linear array of mirrors. These mirrors focus the spectral image on microchannel plate detectors located behind thin filters. The field of view is 40 min of arc by 15 deg, and there is no spatial imaging. This instrument has been fabricated, calibrated, and successfully flown on a sounding rocket to observe the astronomical background radiation.

  7. Borehole instrument for scintillation gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, A.Ya.; Gabitov, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Described are a schematic diagram and main specifications of a borehole instrument with autostabilization of energy scale measure by gamma bench-mark of 137 Cs, intended for the application in a logging gamma spectrometer to determine separately the concentrations of nature radioactive elements. The instrument may be connected to the KOBDFM-2 cable of 600 m length. It contains a scintillation counter for gamma quanta consisting of 30x70 mm NaI(Tl) crystal and a FEU-85 photoamplifier, an input conforming stage, a diagram of threshold pulse formation and regulating high-voltage generator. The borehole instrument has been proved under laboratory and field conditions at 10-40 deg C

  8. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzacco, D [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    1992-08-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4{pi} detector array for advanced {gamma}-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4{pi} calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs.

  9. The gamma ray spectrometer GA.SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzacco, D.

    1992-01-01

    GA.SP is a general purpose 4π detector array for advanced γ-spectroscopy and, in the same time, a suitable system for reaction mechanism studies. The detector is sited at the LNL Tandem+Linac accelerator and has been built as a joint project of INFN Padova, LNL, Milano and Firenze. The array consists of 40 Compton suppressed HPGe detectors and of a 4π calorimeter composed of 80 BGO crystals. The detector houses a reaction chamber of 34 cm diameter where a charged particles multiplicity filter composed of 40 Si detectors is going to be installed. Evaporation residues produced in the centre of GA.SP can be injected into the recoil mass spectrometer (RMS, named CAMEL) in use at LNL, without the need to remove any of the gamma detectors. The coupled operation of GA.SP, RMS and Si ball will give a unique instrument for identification and study of weak reaction channels. (author). 6 figs

  10. Commissioning of a proton-recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.C.; Faught, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of neutron fluence spectra in fields from bare and heavy-water-moderated 252 Cf were made with a commercially available proton-recoil spectrometer (PRS) that covers 50 keV to 4.5 MeV. Data obtained from these measurements were compared with data from Bonner sphere spectrometry, Monte Carlo simulation and the open literature. Alterations to the input data file used in unfolding recoil-proton pulse-height distributions were made. Understanding the reasons for these changes and considering the effects of some of the results in an appreciation of the significance of parameters used in the unfolding. An uncertainty of 10% is estimated for values of fluence and ambient dose equivalent for the energy region covered by this PRS. (author)

  11. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P; Keller, P [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  12. Geometrically weighted semiconductor Frisch grid radiation spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Rojeski, R.A. [Etec Systems, Inc., 26460 Corporate Ave., Hayward, CA 94545 (United States); He, Z. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Wehe, D.K. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2104 (United States); Driver, M. [eV Products, 375 Saxonburg Blvd., Saxonburg, PA 16056 (United States); Blakely, M. [eV Products, 375 Saxonburg Blvd., Saxonburg, PA 16056 (United States)

    1999-02-11

    A new detector geometry is described with relatively high gamma ray energy resolution at room temperature. The device uses the geometric weighting effect, the small pixel effect and the Frisch grid effect to produce high gamma ray energy resolution. The design is simple and easy to construct. The device performs as a gamma ray spectrometer without the need for pulse shape rejection or correction, and it requires only one signal output to any commercially available charge sensitive preamplifier. The device operates very well with conventional NIM electronic systems. Presently, room temperature (23 deg. C) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM at 662 keV and 2.45% FWHM at 1.332 MeV have been measured with a 1 cm{sup 3} prism shaped CdZnTe device.

  13. Miniaturisation of imaging spectrometer for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Sémery, Alain; Réess, Jean-Michel; Combes, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Future planetary exploration on telluric or giant planets will need a new kind of instrumentation combining imaging and spectroscopy at high spectral resolution to achieve new scientific measurements, in particular for atmospheric studies in nadir configuration. We present here a study of a Fourier Transform heterodyne spectrometer, which can achieve these objectives, in the visible or infrared. The system is composed of a Michelson interferometer, whose mirrors have been replaced by gratings, a configuration studied in the early days of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, but only recently reused for space instrumentation, with the availability of large infrared mosaics. A complete study of an instrument is underway, with optical and electronic tests, as well as data processing analysis. This instrument will be proposed for future planetary missions, including ESA/Bepi Colombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter or Earth orbiting platforms.

  14. J-NSE: Neutron spin echo spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Holderer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Spin-Echo (NSE spectroscopy is well known as the only neutron scattering technique that achieves energy resolution of several neV. By using the spin precession of polarized neutrons in magnetic field one can measure tiny velocity changes of the individual neutron during the scattering process. Contrary to other inelastic neutron scattering techniques, NSE measures the intermediate scattering function S(Q,t in reciprocal space and time directly. The Neutron Spin-Echo spectrometer J-NSE, operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ in Garching, covers a time range (2 ps to 200 ns on length scales accessible by small angle scattering technique. Along with conventional NSE spectroscopy that allows bulk measurements in transmission mode, J-NSE offers a new possibility - gracing incidence spin echo spectroscopy (GINSENS, developed to be used as "push-button" option in order to resolve the depth dependent near surface dynamics.

  15. Short description of BMS/BMF MDT chamber production for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashkov, A.V.; Glonti, G.L.; Gongadze, A.L.; Gongadze, I.B.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gus'kov, A.V.; Dedovich, D.V.; Demichev, M.A.; Evtukhovich, P.G.; Elagin, A.L.; Zhemchugov, A.S.; Il'yushenko, E.N.; Kotov, S.A.; Kotova, T.I.; Korolevich, Ya.V.; Kruchonok, V.G.; Krumshtejn, Z.V.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Lomidze, D.D.; Nikolaev, K.V.; Potrap, I.N.; Rudenko, T.O.; Kharchenko, D.V.; Tskhadadze, Eh.G.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Shelkov, G.A.; Shiyakova, M.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Podkladkin, S.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The method of assembly of the MDT chambers for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is described. During 2000-2004 ∼ 25000 drift tubes were produced at the DLNP, JINR. The tubes were assembled into 84 muon chambers of BMS/BMF type, one of the six main types for the barrel part of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. Particle momenta must be measured in the ATLAS spectrometer with very high precision (2% at 100 GeV/c and 10% at 1000 GeV/c), which required to produce the coordinate detectors with very high (∼80 μm) precision. We describe the method of assembly of large-scale 5-10 m 2 muon chambers with the signal wire mean deviation from the nominal position less than 20 μm

  16. LANL/Green Star spectrometer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.; Vo, D.T.; Seldiakov, Y.P.; Dorin, A.B.; Kondrashov, M.V.; Timoshin, V.I.

    1997-12-01

    The US and Russia have agreed to the joint development of a nondestructive assay system for use to support the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in Russia. This nondestructive assay system will be used to measure plutonium produced by the conversion of Russian nuclear weapons. The NDA system for Russia will be patterned after the ARIES NDA system being constructed at Los Alamos. One goal of the program is to produce an NDA system for use in Russia that maximizes the use of Russian resources to facilitate maintenance and future upgrades. The Green Star SBS50 Single Board Spectrometer system (Green Star Ltd., Moscow, Russia) has been suggested for use as the data acquisition component for gamma ray instruments in the system. Possible uses are for plutonium isotopic analysis and also segmented gamma scanning. Green Star has also developed analysis software for the SBS50. This software, both plutonium isotopic analysis and uranium enrichment analysis, was developed specifically for customs/border inspection applications (low counting rate applications and identification as opposed to quantification) and was not intended for MC and A applications. Because of the relative immaturity of the Green Star plutonium isotopic analysis software (it has been under development for only one year and is patterned after US development circa 1980), it was tentatively agreed, before the tests, that the Russian NDA system would use the Los Alamos PC/FRAM software for plutonium isotopic analysis. However, it was also decided to include the Green Star plutonium isotopic software in the testing, both to quantify its performance for MC and A applications and also to provide additional data to Green Star for further development of their software. The main purpose of the testing was to evaluate the SBS-50 spectrometer as a data acquisition device for use with LANL software

  17. Compact imaging Bragg spectrometer for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Jaegers, H.; Marchuk, O.

    2004-01-01

    A compact imaging x-ray spectrometer has been designed for tokamaks and stellarators to measure the plasma parameters at different spatial chords. It has been optimized for high spectral resolution and high sensitivity. High spectral resolution is obtained by using solid state detectors and minimizing the imaging errors of the spherical crystals. It is shown, that using spherical crystals the solid angle and hence the throughput can be increased significantly, without compromising the spectral resolution. The design is useful for the measurement of the spectra of He- and H-like ions from Si to Kr. The spectral resolution is sufficient for the measurement of plasma parameters. The temporal resolution is high enough for transport studies by gas puff and laser ablation experiments. The design is based on a modified Johann spectrometer mount, utilizing a spherically bent crystal instead of the cylindrically bent crystal in the traditional Johann mount. The astigmatism of the wavelength selective reflection on the spherical crystal is applied to obtain imaging of an extended plasma source on a two-dimensional detector. For each element, a separate crystal is required, only in few cases, a crystal can be used for the spectra of two elements. For the spectra of most of the He-like ions from Si up to Kr, suitable crystal cuts have been found on quartz, silicon and germanium crystals with Bragg angles in a small interval around the design value of 53.5 deg. All of the crystals have the same radius. They are fixed on a rotational table. The distance to the detector is adjusted by an x-y table to fit to the Rowland circle

  18. TIGRESS: TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape-suppressed spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C. E.; Amaudruz, P.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chen, A. A.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Kanungo, R.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J. P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Starinsky, N.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2005-10-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape-suppressed spectrometer (TIGRESS) is a new γ-ray detector array being developed for use at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. TIGRESS will comprise 12 32-fold segmented clover-type HPGe detectors coupled with 20-fold segmented modular Compton suppression shields and custom digital signal processing electronics. This paper provides an overview of the TIGRESS project and progress in its development to date.

  19. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.

    2017-11-01

    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  20. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groitl, Felix; Bartkowiak, Marek; Bergmann, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each...