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Sample records for thlaspi praecox wulfen

  1. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Kump, Peter; Necemer, Marijan; Regvar, Marjana

    2006-01-01

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake

  2. Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mixture induces changes in heavy metal and nutrient uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kump, Peter [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Necemer, Marijan [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: marjana.regvar@bf.uni-lj.si

    2006-01-15

    Plants of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox Wulfen (Brassicaceae) inoculated or not with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mixture were grown in a highly Cd, Zn and Pb contaminated substrate in order to evaluate the functionality of symbiosis and assess the possible impact of AM colonisation on heavy metal uptake and tolerance. The results suggest AM development in the metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox is favoured at elevated nutrient demands, e.g. during the reproductive period. AM colonisation parameters positively correlated with total soil Cd and Pb. Colonised plants showed significantly improved nutrient and a decreased Cd and Zn uptake as revealed by TRXRF, thus confirming the functionality of the symbiosis. Reduced heavy metal uptake, especially at higher soil metal contents, indicates a changed metal tolerance strategy in colonised T. praecox plants. This is to our knowledge the first report on AM colonisation of the Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator T. praecox in a greenhouse experiment. - Colonisation of a Zn, Cd and Pb hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi resulted in improved nutrient and reduced Cd and Zn uptake.

  3. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Regvar, Marjana

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg -1 Zn, 5960 mg kg -1 Cd and 3500 mg kg -1 Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

  4. Zn, Cd and Pb accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of pennycress Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) from the vicinity of a lead mine and smelter in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: katarina.vogel@uni-lj.si; Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-01-01

    Significant hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd and Pb in field samples of Thlaspi praecox Wulf. collected from a heavy metal polluted area in Slovenia was found, with maximal shoot concentrations of 14590 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 5960 mg kg{sup -1} Cd and 3500 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Shoot/root ratios of 9.6 for Zn and 5.6 for Cd show that the metals were preferentially transported to the shoots. Shoot bioaccumulation factors exceeded total soil Cd levels 75-fold and total soil Zn levels 20-fold, further supporting the hyperaccumulation of Cd and Zn. Eighty percent of Pb was retained in roots, thus indicating exclusion as a tolerance strategy for Pb. Low level colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of a Paris type was observed at the polluted site, whereas at the non-polluted site Arum type colonisation was more common. To our knowledge this is the first report of Cd hyperaccumulation and AMF colonisation in metal hyperaccumulating T. praecox. - Thlaspi praecox Wulf. (Brassicaceae) is a newly discovered Cd, Zn and Pb hyperaccumulator able to form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  5. Cd induced redistribution of elements within leaves of the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox as revealed by micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina; Vavpetic, Primoz; Tratnik, Janja; Regvar, Marjana; Simcic, Jurij; Grlj, Natasa; Pelicon, Primoz

    2010-01-01

    A detailed localisation of elements within leaf tissues of hydroponically grown Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox (Brassicaceae) was determined by micro-PIXE at Jozef Stefan Institute (Ljubljana, Slovenia) in order to study accumulation patterns of Cd and other elements in the case of a single metal (Cd) pollution. Plants were treated with increasing concentrations of Cd in the solution (0 (control), 1, 10 and 100 μM). As expected, concentration of Cd in the leaves gradually increased with Cd concentration in the solution. In order to reveal the main Cd storage compartment space within the leaves a relative element distribution (pool) was calculated based on concentrations of elements in specific leaf tissues and their weight portions. Where present at detectable levels, Cd accumulated in the epidermal tissues (at 10 μM), but the contribution of epidermal pool decreased with increasing Cd concentration in solution (at 100 μM). The opposite was observed for the mesophyll pool. In addition, in Cd treated plants, a significant decrease in mesophyll Fe pool and an increase in the epidermal Fe pool were observed. Similar effect was seen for Mn pool at 100 μM Cd treatment accompanied by increasing Zn epidermal pool with increasing Cd in nutrient solution. Altogether these results indicate repartitioning of essential mesophyll cation pools (e.g., Fe, Mn and possibly Zn) when increasing Cd contents, that are instead more intensively stored in the epidermal cells. These results confirmed micro-PIXE as effective and powerful technique providing essential information on metal localisation, repartitioning and major elemental stores in plants on the tissue levels that were not accessible using classical analytical techniques and thus complementing our current understanding of plant metal tolerance mechanisms as a whole.

  6. Endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acids levels in the Cd-hyperaccumulator Noccaea (Thlaspi) praecox exposed to fungal infection and/or mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llugany, M; Martin, S R; Barceló, J; Poschenrieder, C

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity to Erysiphe in Noccaea praecox with low metal supply is related to the failure in enhancing SA. Cadmium protects against fungal-infection by direct toxicity and/or enhanced fungal-induced JA signaling. Metal-based defense against biotic stress is an attractive hypothesis on evolutionary advantages of plant metal hyperaccumulation. Metals may compensate for a defect in biotic stress signaling in hyperaccumulators (metal-therapy) by either or both direct toxicity to pathogens and by metal-induced alternative signaling pathways. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-established components of stress signaling pathways. However, few studies evaluate the influence of metals on endogenous concentrations of these defense-related hormones. Even less data are available for metal hyperaccumulators. To further test the metal-therapy hypothesis we analyzed endogenous SA and JA concentrations in Noccaea praecox, a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Plants treated or not with Cd, were exposed to mechanical wounding, expected to enhance JA signaling, and/or to infection by biotrophic fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum for triggering SA. JA and SA were analyzed in leaf extracts using LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Plants without Cd were more susceptible to fungal attack than plants receiving Cd. Cadmium alone tended to increase leaf SA but not JA. Either or both fungal attack and mechanical wounding decreased SA levels and enhanced JA in the Cd-rich leaves of plants exposed to Cd. High leaf Cd in N. praecox seems to hamper biotic-stress-induced SA, while triggering JA signaling in response to fungal attack and wounding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the endogenous JA and SA levels in a Cd-hyperaccumulator exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Our results support the view of a defect in SA stress signaling in Cd hyperaccumulating N. praecox.

  7. Functional characterisation of three zinc transporters in Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukdar, S.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants is a poorly understood phenomenon. Transmembrane metal transporters are assumed to play a key role in this process. In the research described in this thesis, genes encoding Zn transporters of Thlaspi

  8. Voorkomen en standplaats van Veronica praecox All. en V. verna L. in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    A few years ago, Veronica praecox en V. verna were supposed to be extinct in the Netherlands, being recorded for the last time in 1935 and 1947, respectively. In 1974 both were refound, however. Formerly, V. praecox occurred on arable land in the Yssel valley in the surroundings of Deventer and at

  9. Fate of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kolwalkar, J.P.; Sawant, S.S.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J. Agardh and its spores in darkness: Implications for ballast water management Janhavi P. Kolwalkar, Subhash S. Sawant* and Vinod K. Dhargalkar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa. 403004 ? India... is controlled by natural events. However, once in the dark ballast tanks, their ambient environment is altered. The information on the fate of such organisms during extended incubation in dark and their potential to thrive in new environment is of great...

  10. Co-infection of chickens with Eimeria praecox and Eimeria maxima does not prevent development of immunity to Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2009-05-12

    Previous studies revealed an ameliorating effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection, such that weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and intestinal lesions were nearly identical to uninfected or E. praecox-infected controls. The purpose of the present study was to determine if protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection developed in chickens infected with both E. praecox and E. maxima. Day-old chickens were infected with 10(3)E. praecox, 10(3)E. maxima, or a mixture of 10(3)E. praecox and 10(3)E. maxima oocysts. Chickens were then challenged at 4 weeks of age with 5x10(4)E. praecox or 5x10(3)E. maxima oocysts and clinical signs of coccidiosis were assessed 7 days post-challenge. Relative to non-challenged controls, naïve chickens or chickens immunized with E. praecox displayed a 32-34% weight gain depression after challenge with 5x10(3)E. maxima oocysts. In contrast, chickens immunized with either E. maxima oocysts alone or a combination of E. praecox and E. maxima oocysts displayed complete protection against lower weight gain associated with E. maxima challenge. Also, protection against decreased feed conversion ratio and intestinal lesions was observed in single E. maxima- or dual E. maxima+E. praecox-immunized chickens. These findings indicate that co-infection of chickens with E. maxima and E. praecox does not prevent development of immunity against E. maxima or E. praecox challenge.

  11. Does structural parasitism by epiphytes exist? A case study between Tillandsia recurvata and Parkinsonia praecox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Palacios, A

    2016-05-01

    The effects that epiphytes have on their hosts have been poorly explored in an experimentally. Correlational evidence suggests that epiphytes may be either mutualists or structural parasites, as has been proposed for Tillandsia recurvata on Parkinsonia praecox. To test the effect of T. recurvata upon P. praecox, the epiphyte load on branches of P. praecox was measured and two 1-year experiments were performed to detect the effect of transplantation/removal of epiphytes and shade (0%, 35%. 50% and 80%) on shoot dynamics. If T. recurvata represents a selective pressure for P. praecox, then the frequency of branches carrying large epiphyte loads will be high, and host shoot survival will decrease in the presence of T. recurvata and with increased shade. A weak inverse relationship between epiphyte load and percentage of dead shoots in the host was detected. Shoot survival was independent of epiphyte presence. Shade decreased shoot survival by 35-72%. Results suggest that at the study site, T. recurvata is a commensalist of P. praecox. An alternative hypothesis to explain the correlation between high epiphyte load and branch/tree decay is that older branches carry more epiphytes, receive more shade from neighbouring branches and could be undergoing a natural decline process. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Kraepelin's 'lost biological psychiatry'? Autointoxication, organotherapy and surgery for dementia praecox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Kraepelin believed that a chronic metabolic autointoxication, perhaps arising from the sex glands, eventually caused chemical damage to the brain and led to the symptoms of dementia praecox. The evolution of Kraepelin's autointoxication theory of dementia praecox is traced through the 5th to 8th (1895 to 1913) editions of his textbook, Psychiatrie. The historical context of autointoxication theory in medicine is explored in depth to enable the understanding of Kraepelin's aetiological assumption and his application of a rational treatment based on it--organotherapy. A brief account of the North American reception of Kraepelin's concept of dementia praecox, its autotoxic basis, and the preferred American style of rational treatment--surgery--concludes the discussion.

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  14. Multivariate analysis of protein profiles of metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomainen, M.H.; Nunan, N.; Lehesranta, S.J.; Tervahauta, A.I.; Hassinen, V.H.; Schat, H.; Koistinen, K.M.; Auriola, S.; McNicol, J.; Karenlampi, S.O.

    2006-01-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens is increasingly acknowledged as one of the best models for studying metal hyperaccumulation in plants. In order to study the mechanisms underlying metal hyper-accumulation, we used proteomic profiling to identify differences in protein intensities among three T caerulescens

  15. Composition and Physical Properties of Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profile and tocopherol, and phytosterol contents of crude cress (Lepidium sativum L.) and field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oils are reported, along with yields from the corresponding seeds. The physical properties of these oils were also determined, which included oxidative stab...

  16. Expression of an antimicrobial peptide, digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine of E. praecox-infected chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis is a major intestinal disease of poultry, caused by several species of the protozoan Eimeria. The objective of this study was to examine changes in expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide following an Eimeria praecox challenge of chickens at d...

  17. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.; Gray, C.W.; Caille, N.; Dunham, S.J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil

  18. Decrease of labile Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens with time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault-Rompre, Jacynthe, E-mail: dessureaultromj@agr.gc.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Luster, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.luster@wsl.c [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow, and Landscape Research (WSL), Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Schulin, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schulin@env.ethz.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Tercier-Waeber, Mary-Lou, E-mail: marie-louise.tercier@unige.c [CABE, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Sciences II, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.nowack@empa.c [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems (ITES), ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    By using a rhizobox micro-suction cup technique we studied in-situ mobilization and complexation of Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of non-hyperaccumulating Thlaspi perfoliatum and two different Thlaspi caerulescens ecotypes, one of them hyperaccumulating Zn, the other Zn and Cd. The dynamic fraction (free metal ions and small labile complexes) of Zn and Cd decreased with time in the rhizosphere solution of the respective hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, and at the end of the experiment, it was significantly smaller than in the other treatments. Furthermore, the rhizosphere solutions of the T. caerulescens ecotypes exhibited a higher UV absorptivity than the solution of the T. perfoliatum rhizosphere and the plant-free soil. Based on our findings we suggest that mobile and labile metal-dissolved soil organic matter complexes play a key role in the rapid replenishment of available metal pools in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating T. caerulescens ecotypes, postulated earlier. - A mechanism that explains the rapid replenishment of metal pools accessible by hyperaccumulator plants for phytoextraction is proposed.

  19. Field evaluation of Cd and Zn phytoextraction potential by the hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.uk; Lombi, E. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Gray, C.W. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Caille, N. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Dunham, S.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Zhao, F.J. [Agriculture and the Environment Division, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Field trials were undertaken to investigate the effect of the application of metal mobilizing agents, different sowing strategies and length of growing season on the extraction of Cd and Zn from soils by Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri. None of the mobilizing agents used enhanced metal accumulation by T. caerulescens. Between 1998 and 2000, on average across plots where Cd or Zn exceeded allowable limits, T. caerulescens removed 1.3 and 0.3% of the total soil Cd and Zn. In one season when T. caerulescens was grown for 14 months, 21.7 and 4.4% of the total soil Cd and Zn was removed. This was larger than values found when T. caerulescens was grown for 4 months. A. halleri accumulated similar concentrations of Zn, but lower Cd concentrations than T. caerulescens. The results indicate that metal phytoextraction using T. caerulescens can be used to clean up soils moderately contaminated by Cd. - The hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (the Ganges ecotype) is more efficient at phytoextracting Cd than Zn from contaminated soil.

  20. Biochemical and molecular characterization of an atypical manganese peroxidase of the litter-decomposing fungus Agrocybe praecox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; Steffen, Kari T; Hofrichter, Martin; Hatakka, Annele; Archer, David B; Lundell, Taina K

    2014-11-01

    Agrocybe praecox is a litter-decomposing Basidiomycota species of the order Agaricales, and is frequently found in forests and open woodlands. A. praecox grows in leaf-litter and the upper soil and is able to colonize bark mulch and wood chips. It produces extracellular manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities and mineralizes synthetic lignin. In this study, the A. praecox MnP1 isozyme was purified, cloned and enzymatically characterized. The enzyme catalysed the oxidation of Mn(2+) to Mn(3+), which is the specific reaction for manganese-dependent class II heme-peroxidases, in the presence of malonate as chelator with an activity maximum at pH 4.5; detectable activity was observed even at pH 7.0. The coding sequence of the mnp1 gene demonstrates a short-type of MnP protein with a slightly modified Mn(2+) binding site. Thus, A. praecox MnP1 may represent a novel group of atypical short-MnP enzymes. In lignocellulose-containing cultures composed of cereal bran or forest litter, transcription of mnp1 gene was followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. On spruce needle litter, mnp1 expression was more abundant than on leaf litter after three weeks cultivation. However, the expression was constitutive in wheat and rye bran cultures. Our data show that the atypical MnP of A. praecox is able to catalyse Mn(2+) oxidation, which suggests its involvement in lignocellulose decay by this litter-decomposer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa or "mossy foot lesions" in lymphedema praecox: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Amy L; Husain, Jugnoo; Deheer, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa is a rare disorder that results from chronic obstructive lymphedema. It is characterized clinically by deforming, nonpitting edema; malodorous hyperkeratosis with generalized lichenification; cobblestoned papules; and verrucous changes, that often result in extreme enlargement of the involved body part. Although elephantiasis nostras verrucosa is striking in clinical appearance, biopsy reveals only moderately abnormal findings: pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with dilated lymphatic spaces in the dermis, accompanied by chronic inflammation and fibroblast proliferation. The term elephantiasis nostras (nostras means "from our region") has traditionally been used to differentiate temperate zone disease from the classic disease process, elephantiasis tropica, which is defined by chronic filarial lymphatic obstruction caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Wuchereria malayi, or Wuchereria pacifica. We present a case report of elephantiasis nostras verrucosa arising as a result of lymphedema praecox.

  2. [Effects of mulching management on biomass of Phyllostachys praecox and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wan Lu; Yang, Chuan Bao; Zhang, Xiao Ping; Gao, Gui Bin; Zhong, Zhe Ke

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of stand growth and soil nutrient availability during the degradation processes of Phyllostachys praecox plantation, taking the advantage of bamboo forest stands with different mulching ages (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 a). The results showed the aboveground and belowground biomass of bamboo forest reached the maximum value when they were covered by three years, which was significantly increased by 14.6% and 146.6% compared with the control. The soil nutrient content was affected by the mulching age and soil layer. Soil nutrients gradually accumulated in upper layer. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content were increased with the increases of coverage years. The soil total phosphorus content at different soil layers showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing. It was the lowest level in the surface layer (0-20 cm) and the bottom (40-60 cm) in 6 years, and the subsurface (20-40 cm) soil reached the lowest level in three years. The total potassium content kept increasing in 0-20 cm soil layer, but decreased during the first three years of mulching and then increased in 20-60 cm soil layer. The comprehensive index of soil fertility quality was greatly improved after nine years mulching, with fertility of subsurface soil being better than that of surface and bottom soils. There was no relationship between the soil fertility index and biomass of different organs in bamboo in the different mulching ages. In the subsurface, however, nitrogen content was negatively related to leaf biomass and potassium was negatively correlated with the biomass of leaves and whip roots. Our results indicated that excessive accumulation of soil nutrients seriously inhibited the propagation and biomass accumulation of P. praecox after long-term mulching management and a large amount of fertilizer, which further aggravated the degradation of bamboo plantation.

  3. Transport and detoxification of cadmium, copper and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens

    OpenAIRE

    Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    SummaryIn this thesis, various aspects on heavy metal accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens have been investigated. T. caerulescens belongs to the family of Brassicaceae and hyperaccumulates zinc. Its ecotype Ganges, originating from Southern France, additionally takes up cadmium actively. It is known from previous studies that hyperaccumulators have highly overexpressed metal transporters and that most of them store the metal in the vacuole of large epidermal cells....

  4. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Barberis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival. In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm² in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks

  5. Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias (1911): A Centenary Appreciation and Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    On the 100th anniversary of the publication of Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias, his teachings on schizophrenia from that seminal book are reviewed and reassessed, and implications for the current revision of the category of schizophrenia, with its emphasis on psychotic symptoms, drawn. Bleuler's methods are contrasted with Kraepelin's, and 4 myths about his concept of schizophrenia addressed. We demonstrate that (1) Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia has close ties to historical and contemporary concepts of dissociation and as such the public interpretation of schizophrenia as split personality has some historical basis; (2) Bleuler's concept of loosening of associations does not refer narrowly to a disorder of thought but broadly to a core organically based psychological deficit which underlies the other symptoms of schizophrenia; (3) the “4 A's,” for association, affect, ambivalence, and autism, do not adequately summarize Bleuler's teachings on schizophrenia and marginalize the central role of splitting in his conception; and (4) Bleuler's ideas were more powerfully influenced by Pierre Janet, particularly with regard to his diagnostic category Psychasthenia, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler's ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category. PMID:21505113

  6. Responses to Cd Stress in Two Noccaea Species (Noccaea praecox and Noccaea caerulescens) Originating from Two Contaminated Sites in Mezica, Slovenia and Redlschlag, Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Hnilička, F.; Vondráčková, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2016), s. 464-474 ISSN 0090-4341 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : HYPERACCUMULATOR THLASPI-CAERULESCENS * CADMIUM STRESS * AMINO - ACIDS Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 2.467, year: 2016

  7. A life cycle assessment of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) -derived jet fuel and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jiqing; Shonnard, David R.; Kalnes, Tom N.; Johnsen, Peter B.; Rao, Serin

    2013-01-01

    Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a member of the mustard family and may be grown as a winter crop between traditional summer crops to produce renewable biomass for renewable diesel and jet fuel. This paper estimated total annual biofuel production potential of 15 million cubic metres from rotation between corn and soybeans on 16.2 million hectares in the Midwest without impact on food production. This study also investigated the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy balance of pennycress-derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel and Renewable Diesel (RD). Both system expansion and allocation approaches were applied to distribute environmental impacts among products and co-products along the life cycle of each biofuel. The life cycle GHG emissions (excluding land use change) for RD and HRJ range from 13 to 41 g MJ −1 (CO 2 eq.) and −18 to 45 g MJ −1 (CO 2 eq.), respectively, depending on how the co-products are credited. The majority of the energy required for each biofuel product is derived from renewable biomass as opposed to non renewable fossil. The fossil energy consumptions are considerably lower than the petroleum fuels. Scenario analyses were also conducted to determine response to model assumptions, including nitrogen fertilizer application rate, nitrogen content in crop residues, and sources of H 2 . The results show that pennycress derived biofuels could qualify as advanced biofuels and as biomass-based diesel as defined by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). -- Highlights: ► Estimated total pennycress derived biofuel production potential of 15 GL y −1 ► Rotation between corn and soybeans without impact on food production. ► The GHG of RD and HRJ show over 50% of reductions compared to petroleum baseline. ► The majority of the energy required is from renewable biomass. ► The fossil energy consumptions are considerably lower than the petroleum fuels

  8. Cadmium Induced Changes of Proline in Two Ecotypes of Thlaspi Caerulescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemanová V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. PRESL was used to study the effect of cadmium on the content of free amino acids and ability accumulation of Cd in ecotypes of this plant species. In pot experiment two ecotypes T. caerulescens were used: Ganges ecotype from France and Mežica ecotype from Slovenia. The plants were grown in soil (chernozem – Suchdol spiked with NPK and three different concentration of Cd: 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg. The content of Cd was measured in the above-ground biomass and roots using ICP-OES. Accumulation of Cd was higher in the Mežica ecotype in contrast to the low Cd-accumulating the Ganges ecotype. Analyses of free amino acids contents were measured by GC-MS method. The content of free amino acids in above-ground biomass of the Mežica ecotype declined progressively with increasing concentrations of Cd. Opposite trend was observed in roots of this ecotype. The increase of free amino acids contents in above-ground biomass and roots of the Ganges ecotype were detected. The results of specific amino acids free proline showed increased content in plant biomass with increasing Cd contamination of soil. A statistically significant increase was observed between control plants (0 mg/kg Cd and variant Cd3 (90 mg/kg Cd for both ecotypes. The statistically significant decrease of free proline was observed in the Mežica ecotype roots. Opposite trend was observed in roots of Ganges ecotype - increasing trend of free proline content. These results indicate a correlation between content of Cd and content of free proline in different parts of the plant. We can speculate that the mechanism of Cd hyperaccumulation and metabolism of free proline are not identical in ecotypes of this species.

  9. Metal availability and soil toxicity after repeated croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens in metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Catherine; Hammer, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Metal phytoextraction with hyperaccumulating plants could be a useful method to decontaminate soils, but it is not fully validated yet. In order to quantify the efficiency of Cd and Zn extraction from a calcareous soil with and without Fe amendment and an acidic soil, we performed a pot experiment with three successive croppings of Thlaspi caerulescens followed by 3 months without plant and 7 weeks with lettuce. We used a combined approach to assess total extraction efficiency (2 M HNO 3 -extractable metals), changes in metal bio/availability (0.1 M NaNO 3 -extractable metals and lettuce uptake) and toxicity (lettuce biomass and the BIOMETreg] biosensor). The soil solution was monitored over the whole experiment. In the calcareous soil large Cu concentrations were probably responsible for chlorosis symptoms observed on T. caerulescens. When this soil was treated with Fe, the amount of extracted metal by T. caerulescens increased and metal availability and soil toxicity decreased when compared to the untreated soil. In the acidic soil, T. caerulescens was most efficient: Cd and Zn concentrations in plants were in the range of hyperaccumulation and HNO 3 -extractable Cd and Zn, metal bio/availability, soil toxicity, and Cd and Zn concentrations in the soil solution decreased significantly. However, a reduced Cd concentration measured in the third T. caerulescens cropping indicated a decrease in metal availability below a critical threshold, whereas the increase of dissolved Cd and Zn concentrations after the third cropping may be the early sign of soil re-equilibration. This indicates that phytoextraction efficiency must be assessed by different approaches in order not to overlook any potential hazard and that an efficient phytoextraction scheme will have to take into account the different dynamics of the soil-plant system

  10. Expression differences for genes involved in lignin, glutathione and sulphate metabolism in response to cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related Zn/Cd-hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Schat, Henk; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; van der Ent, Sjoerd; Blankestijn, Hetty; Ghandilyan, Artak; Tsiatsiani, Styliani; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread, naturally occurring element present in soil, rock, water, plants and animals. Cd is a non-essential element for plants and is toxic at higher concentrations. Transcript profiles of roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and Thlaspi caerulescens plants exposed to Cd

  11. Various extraction methods influence the adhesive properties of DDGS .... pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) and lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri A. Gary (S. Watson) in the fabrication of lignocellulosic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic composite (LC) panels were fabricated using an adhesive matrix prepared from three different agricultural by-products: dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake (PPC) or lesquerella (Lesquerella fendleri A. Gary (S. Watson) press cake (L...

  12. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from arable soils amended with sewage sludge using Thlaspi caerulescens: Development of a predictive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxted, A.P. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Biology Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Black, C.R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); West, H.M.; Crout, N.M.J. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Biology Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); McGrath, S.P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Young, S.D. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Biology Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk

    2007-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for using Thlaspi caerulescens as a phytoextraction plant and develop a user-advice model, which can predict the frequency of phytoextraction operation required under prescribed conditions. Pot and field trials were conducted using soil collected from a dedicated sewage sludge disposal facility. Soil amendments (sulphuric acid, potassium chloride and EDTA) intended to increase Cd solubility were also tested. Predictive models of Cd and Zn uptake were developed which were able to reproduce the observed pH-dependence of Cd uptake with an apparent maximum around pH 6. Chemical treatments did not significantly increase the uptake of Cd. The periodic use of phytoextraction with T. caerulescens to maintain soils below statutory metal concentration limits, when modern sewage sludges are repeatedly applied, seems very attractive given the non-intrusive and cost-effective nature of the process. The major limitations lie with the large-scale husbandry of T. caerulescens. - A predictive model of Cd and Zn uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens is presented as a management tool in the phytoextraction of arable soils receiving sewage sludge.

  13. Characterization of Ni-tolerant methylobacteria associated with the hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense and description of Methylobacterium goesingense sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Rughia; Kuffner, Melanie; Bodrossy, Levente; Puschenreiter, Markus; Monchy, Sebastien; Wenzel, Walter W; Sessitsch, Angela

    2006-12-01

    Various pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria (strains iEII3, iEIV1, iEI6, iEII1, iEIII3 iEIII4, iEIII5, iRII1, iRII2, iRIII1, iRIV1 and iRIV2) were obtained from the rhizosphere and endosphere of hyperaccumulating plant Thlaspi goesingense grown in Redschlag, Austria [R. Idris, R. Trifonova, M. Puschenreiter, W.W. Wenzel, A. Sessitsch, Bacterial communities associated with flowering plants of the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 2667-2677]. Due to their unexpected diversity, abundance and nickel tolerance they were further characterized by detailed 16S rRNA gene analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid analysis, heavy metal tolerance, screening for known Ni resistance genes and phenotypic analysis. These strains were found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal resistance characteristics to Ni, Cd, Co, Zn and Cr. On the basis of their physiological and genotypic properties, strains could be grouped with Methylobacterium extorquens and M. mesophilicum. One endophyte, strain iEII3, was found to belong to a novel species for which the name M. goesingense is proposed.

  14. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from arable soils amended with sewage sludge using Thlaspi caerulescens: Development of a predictive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxted, A.P.; Black, C.R.; West, H.M.; Crout, N.M.J.; McGrath, S.P.; Young, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for using Thlaspi caerulescens as a phytoextraction plant and develop a user-advice model, which can predict the frequency of phytoextraction operation required under prescribed conditions. Pot and field trials were conducted using soil collected from a dedicated sewage sludge disposal facility. Soil amendments (sulphuric acid, potassium chloride and EDTA) intended to increase Cd solubility were also tested. Predictive models of Cd and Zn uptake were developed which were able to reproduce the observed pH-dependence of Cd uptake with an apparent maximum around pH 6. Chemical treatments did not significantly increase the uptake of Cd. The periodic use of phytoextraction with T. caerulescens to maintain soils below statutory metal concentration limits, when modern sewage sludges are repeatedly applied, seems very attractive given the non-intrusive and cost-effective nature of the process. The major limitations lie with the large-scale husbandry of T. caerulescens. - A predictive model of Cd and Zn uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens is presented as a management tool in the phytoextraction of arable soils receiving sewage sludge

  15. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  16. Molecular cloning and expression of Chimonanthus praecox farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase gene and its possible involvement in the biosynthesis of floral volatile sesquiterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lin; Zhao, Kaige; Chen, Longqing

    2010-01-01

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase catalyzes the biosynthesis of FPP, which is the precursors of sesquiterpenoids such as floral scent volatiles, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP). cDNA encoding wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox L.) FPP synthase was isolated by the RT-PCR and RACE methods. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high identity to plant FPP synthases. Expression of the gene in Escherichia coli yielded FPPS activity that catalyzed the synthesis of FPP as a main product. Tissue-specific and developmental analyses of the mRNA levels of CpFPPS and volatile sesquiterpenoids levels in C. praecox flowers revealed that the FPPS may play a regulatory role in floral volatile sesquiterpenoids of wintersweet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. CpLEA5, the Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein Gene from Chimonanthus praecox, Possesses Low Temperature and Osmotic Resistances in Prokaryote and Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiling Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants synthesize and accumulate a series of stress-resistance proteins to protect normal physiological activities under adverse conditions. Chimonanthus praecox which blooms in freezing weather accumulates late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEAs in flowers, but C. praecox LEAs are little reported. Here, we report a group of five LEA genes of C. praecox (CpLEA5, KT727031. Prokaryotic-expressed CpLEA5 was employed in Escherichia coli to investigate bioactivities and membrane permeability at low-temperature. In comparison with the vacant strains, CpLEA5-containing strains survived in a 20% higher rate; and the degree of cell membrane damage in CpLEA5-containing strains was 55% of that of the vacant strains according to a conductivity test, revealing the low-temperature resistance of CpLEA5 in bacteria. CpLEA5 was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Interestingly, besides low-temperature resistance, CpLEA5 conferred high resistance to salt and alkali in CpLEA5 overexpressing yeast. The CpLEA5 gene was transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana to also demonstrate CpLEA5 actions in plants. As expected, the transgenic lines were more resistant against low-temperature and drought while compared with the wild type. Taken together, CpLEA5-conferred resistances to several conditions in prokaryote and eukaryotes could have great value as a genetic technology to enhance osmotic stress and low-temperature tolerance.

  18. Phylogeography of Thlaspi arvense (Brassicaceae in China Inferred from Chloroplast and Nuclear DNA Sequences and Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi arvense is a well-known annual farmland weed with worldwide distribution, which can be found from sea level to above 4000 m high on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. In this paper, a phylogeographic history of T. arvense including 19 populations from China was inferred by using three chloroplast (cp DNA segments (trnL-trnF, rpl32-trnL and rps16 and one nuclear (n DNA segment (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein, ZIP. A total of 11 chloroplast haplotypes and six nuclear alleles were identified, and haplotypes unique to the QTP were recognized (C4, C5, C7 and N4. On the basis of molecular dating, haplotypes C4, C5 and C7 have separated from others around 1.58 Ma for cpDNA, which corresponds to the QTP uplift. In addition, this article suggests that the T. arvense populations in China are a mixture of diverged subpopulations as inferred by hT/vT test (hT ≤ vT, cpDNA and positive Tajima’s D values (1.87, 0.05 < p < 0.10 for cpDNA and 3.37, p < 0.01 for nDNA. Multimodality mismatch distribution curves and a relatively large shared area of suitable environmental conditions between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as well as the present time recognized by MaxEnt software reject the sudden expansion population model.

  19. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Chimonanthus praecox Flowers by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Using a Stepwise Elution Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaizhi Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC has been successfully used for the separation of eight compounds from Chimonanthus praecox flowers. Firstly, the crude extract of Chimonanthus praecox flowers was dissolved in a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–H2O (5:5:3:7, v/v and divided into two parts: the upper phase (part I and the lower phase (part II. Then, HSCCC was applied to separate the phenolic acids from part I and part II, respectively. Considering the broad polarity range of target compounds in part I, a stepwise elution mode was established. Two optimal solvent systems of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–H2O–formic acid (FA (5:5:3:7:0.02, 5:5:4.3:5.7:0.02, v/v were employed in this separation. Five phenylpropanoids and two flavonoids were successfully separated from 280 mg of part I, including 8.7 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 95.3% purity, 10.9 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 96.8% purity, 11.3 mg of p-coumaric acid (c, 98.9% purity, 12.2 mg of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (d, 95.9% purity, 24.7 mg of quercetin (e, 97.3% purity, 33.8 mg of kaempferol (f, 96.8% purity, and 24.6 mg of 4-hydroxylcinnamic aldehyde (g, 98.0% purity. From 300 mg of part II, 65.7 mg of rutin (h, 98.2% purity, 7.5 mg of 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (a, 77.4% purity, and 4.7 mg of protocatechualdehyde (b, 81.6% purity were obtained using the solvent system EtOAc–n-butanol (n-BuOH–FA–H2O (4:1:0.5:5, v/v. The structures of the eight pure compounds were confirmed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. To the best of our knowledge, compounds a–d and f were the first separated and reported from the Chimonanthus praecox flower extract.

  20. Soil solution Zn and pH dynamics in non-rhizosphere soil and in the rhizosphere of Thlaspi caerulescens grown in a Zn/Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y M; Christie, P; Baker, A J

    2000-07-01

    Temporal changes in soil solution properties and metal speciation were studied in non-rhizosphere soil and in the rhizosphere of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. & C. Presl (population from Prayon, Belgium) grown in a Zn- and Cd-contaminated soil. This paper focuses on soil solution Zn and pH dynamics during phytoextraction. The concentration of Zn in both non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soil solutions decreased from 23 mg/l at the beginning to 2 mg/l at the end of the experiment (84 days after transplanting of seedlings), mainly due to chemical sorption. There was no significant difference in overall Zn concentration between the planted and the unplanted soil solutions (P > 0.05). Soil solution pH decreased initially and then increased slightly in both planted and unplanted soil zones. From 60 to 84 days after transplanting, the pH of the rhizosphere soil solution was higher than that of non-rhizosphere soil solution (P<0.05). Zn uptake by the hyperaccumulator plants was 8.8 mg per pot (each containing 1 kg oven-dry soil) on average. The data indicate that the potential of T. caerulescens to remove Zn from contaminated soil may not be related to acidification of the rhizosphere.

  1. Two C3H Type Zinc Finger Protein Genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, from Chimonanthus praecox Affect Stamen Development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamin Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox is a popular garden plant because of its flowering time, sweet fragrance, and ornamental value. However, research into the molecular mechanism that regulates flower development in wintersweet is still limited. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular characteristics, expression patterns, and potential functions of two C3H-type zinc finger (CZF protein genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, which were isolated from the wintersweet flowers based on the flower developmental transcriptome database. CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 were more highly expressed in flower organs than in vegetative tissues, and during the flower development, their expression profiles were associated with flower primordial differentiation, especially that of petal and stamen primordial differentiation. Overexpression of either CpCZF1 or CpCZF2 caused alterations on stamens in transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression levels of the stamen identity-related genes, such as AGAMOUS (AG, PISTILLATA (PI, SEPALLATA1 (SEP1, SEPALLATA2 (SEP2, SEPALLATA3 (SEP3, APETALA1 (AP1, APETALA2 (AP2, and boundary gene RABBIT EAR (RBE were significantly up-regulated in CpCZF1 overexpression lines. Additionally, the transcripts of AG, PI, APETALA3 SEP1-3, AP1, and RBE were markedly increased in CpCZF2 overexpressed plant inflorescences. Moreover, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 could interact with each other by using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Our results suggest that CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 may be involved in the regulation of stamen development and cause the formation of abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  2. Influência de temperatura, luz e giberelina na germinação de sementes de Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl (Brassicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Almeida Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thlaspi caerulescens é espécie hiperacumuladora de metais como Cd2+, Ni2+ e Zn2+, considerada como uma plantamodelo para estudar a acumulação e tolerância a metais pesados. No entanto, a baixa produção de sementes em nossas condições climáticas tornam necessária a determinação de condições que possam maximizar a germinação e o vigor de suas sementes. Para identificar as melhores condições para a germinação, sementes de T. caerulescens foram colocadas na presença (15 mmol.m-2.s-1, 8 h luz/16 h escuro ou ausência de luz nas temperaturas de 10, 15, 20 e 25 ºC, em papel germitest previamente umedecido com solução de ácido giberélico (GA3 a 0,05% ou água destilada. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de germinação (%G e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. Maior porcentagem de germinação (66% foi observada nos tratamentos com GA3 e temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, na presença de luz. Maiores valores do IVG foram obtidos com a utilização de GA3 nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC, tanto na presença quanto na ausência de luz. Maiores germinação e IVG de T. caerulescens foram observados com uso de GA3 na presença de luz nas temperaturas de 15 e 20 ºC.

  3. Various Extraction Methods Influence the Adhesive Properties of Dried Distiller’s Grains and Solubles, and Press Cakes of Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L. and Lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gary S. Watson], in the Fabrication of Lignocellulosic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Tisserat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic composite (LC panels were fabricated using an adhesive matrix prepared from three different agricultural by-products: dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L. press cake (PPC, or lesquerella [Lesquerella fendleri (A. Gary S. Watson] press cake (LPC reinforced with Paulownia elongata L. wood (PW particles. The goal in this study was to assess the mechanical properties of composites utilizing these low-cost matrix materials, which were subjected to various oil extraction methods. Three types of oil extraction methods were utilized: ethanol, supercritical CO2, and hexane, in order to generate matrix materials. These matrix materials were mixed with equal proportions of PW and hot pressed to generate panels. Overall, hexane extraction was the best method to enhance the mechanical properties of the matrices used to fabricate lignocellulosic composites. LPC’s produced a matrix that gave the resulting composite superior flexural properties compared to composites generated from DDGS and PPC matrices. The mechanical properties of composites generated from soy products (soybean meal flour or soy protein isolate were similar to those derived from DDGS, PPC, or LPC. The dimensional stability properties of LCs were improved when the hexane extraction method was employed, unlike with the other extraction methods that were used to generate matrices.

  4. "Towards practical cadmium phytoextraction with Thlaspi caerulescens"

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2005-2007, a series of field trials were conducted to investigate the potential of Thlapsi caerulescens ecotypes derived from southern France to phytoextract localized Cd/Zn contamination in Thailand. Soil treatments included pH variation and fertilization level. T. caerulescens ecotypes w...

  5. Oxidative stress tolerance in intertidal red seaweed Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) in relation to environmental components

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Das, P.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Pise, N.M.; Gauns, M.

    integrity. This could be in the form of enzymatic antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GPX. SOD dismutates reactive O2●– to H2O2 which is reduced to water and molecular oxygen by CAT. Similarly, GPX catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water and organic...). The homogenate was centrifuged at 10,000 ×g for 15 min at 4oC, and the supernatants were used for enzyme assays. Catalase (CAT) The activity of CAT was measured by slightly modifying the method of Aebi (1974). The assay mixture contained 2.9 mL of 15 mM H2O2...

  6. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  7. Effect of temperature, salinity and biofilm on the zoospores settlement of Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    by permanent adhesion through rapid secretion and curing of an N-linked, self-aggregating glycoprotein that anchors the spore to the substratum surface4. A variety of factors influence settlement of zoospores (biological4; topography of surface5-6; charge...

  8. Agrocybynes A–E from the culture broth of Agrocybe praecox

    OpenAIRE

    Fushimi, Keiji; Anzai, Kota; Tokuyama, Shinji; Kiriiwa, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Sekiya, Atsushi; Hashizume, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Five novel compounds (1–3, 5, and 6), and two known ones (4 and 7) were isolated from the culturebroth of Agrocybepraecox. Their structures were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1–4 inhibited hypocotyl growth of lettuce, and 1, 3, and 4 inhibited the root growth.

  9. Eugen Bleuler’s Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias (1911)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    , than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler’s ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category....

  10. [Frontal dementia or dementia praecox? A case report of a psychotic disorder with a severe decline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzeypen, F; Bier, J C; Genevrois, C; Mendlewicz, J; Lotstra, F

    2003-01-01

    Many authors have described these last years the difficulty to establish a differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and frontotemporal dementia. However treatment and prognosis of these two separate diseases are not the same. Schizophrenia is a chronic syndrome with an early onset during teenage or young adulthood period and the major features consist of delirious ideas, hallucinations and psychic dissociation. However a large variety of different symptoms describes the disease and creates a heterogeneous entity. The diagnosis, exclusively defined by clinical signs, is then difficult and has led to the research of specific symptoms. These involve multiple psychological processes, such as perception (hallucinations), reality testing (delusions), thought processes (loose associations), feeling (flatness, inappropriate affect), behaviour (catatonia, disorganization), attention, concentration, motivation (avolition), and judgement. The characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia have often been conceptualised as falling into three broad categories including positive (hallucination, delision), negative (affective flattening, alogia, avolition) and disorganised (poor attention, disorganised speech and behaviour) symptoms. No single symptom is pathogonomonic of schizophrenia. These psychological and behavioural characteristics are associated with a variety of impairments in occupational or social functioning. Cognition impairments are also associated with schizophrenia. Since the original clinical description by Kraepelin and Bleuler, abnormalities in attentional, associative and volitional cognitive processes have been considered central features of schizophrenia. Long term memory deficits, attentional and executive dysfunctions are described in the neurocognitive profile of schizophrenic patients, with a large degree of severity. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is not well known but may be better understood by neuronal dysfunctions rather than by a specific anatomical abnormality. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is one of the most common causes of cortical dementia. FTLD is associated with an anatomical atrophy that can be generalised, with a frontotemporal or focal lobar predominance. Histologically there is severe neuronal loss, gliosis and a state of spongiosis. In a minority of case Pick cells and Pick bodies are also found. The usual clinical features of FTLD are divided in three prototypic syndromes: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive non-fluent aphasia (PA) and semantic dementia (SD). FTD is the most common clinical manifestation of FTLD. FTD is first characterised by profound alteration in personality and social conduct, characterised by inertia and loss of volition or social disinhibition and distractibility. There is emotional blunting and loss of insight. Speech output is typically economical, leading ultimately to mutism, although a press of speech may be present in some overactive, disinhibited patients. Memory is relatively preserved in the early stage of the disease. Cognitive deficits occur in the domains of attention, planning and problems solving, whereas primary tools of language, perception and spatial functions are well preserved. PA is an initial disorder of expressive language, characterised by effortful speech production, phonologic and grammatical errors. Difficulties in reading and writing also occur but understanding of word meaning is relatively well preserved. In SD a severe naming and word comprehension impairment occur on the beginning in the context of fluent, effortless, and grammatical speech output. There is also an inability to recognise the meaning of visual percepts. The clinical syndromes of FTLD are associated with the brain topography of the degeneration. So considerable clinical overlap can exist between schizophrenia and FTLD and the object of the following case report is to remind the difficulty to make a differential diagnosis between these two pathologies. A 34 year old non-married man is admitted in mental health district of a general hospital for behavioural disturbances that include repeated aggressions towards his family. At initial interview visual and auditives hallucinations are described. The patient doesn't care about these abnormalities and a poverty of speech is observed. The affects, globally blunted, show some degree of sadness however. The patient's birth and early development were unremarkable. At the age of 26, the patient dismissed from his job because of poor performance and absenteeism. He spent a lot of time watching TV, showed poverty of speech and become sometimes angry and violent without an explanation. He was hospitalised for several months and a schizophrenia including predominant negative features, hallucinations and delusion was diagnosed. He was treated with bromperidol, could go back to home and was followed by a general practitioner for 8 years. The patient had a stereotyped way of life during these years with a poor communication and little activity. During the months preceding the current hospitalisation, these characteristics and avolition emphasised, urinary incontinence appeared. The patient receives risperidone 8 mg/day associated with citalopram 40 mg/day during several months of hospitalisation. No significant evolution is observed regarding apathic and stereotyped way of live. The capacity of communication remains very poor. Neurocognitive assessments reveal multiple and severe dysfunctions. Memory, executive and attentional tasks are extremely disturbed. Physical and neurological examinations reveal an isolated bilateral Babinski sign. Cerebral scanner and magnetic resonance show bifrontal atrophy and PET scan is normal. There are no significant abnormalities found on blood and urine samples and on lumbar puncture. The patient is sent to a chronic neuropsychiatric hospital and the treatment is stopped. One year later, a comparative evaluation is realised. The general clinical state shows no evolution. Neurocognitive assessments are repeated and severe dysfunctions are observed with more perseverations. A diagnosis of FTLD for this patient can be discussed regarding clinical features, neurocognitive testings and neuroradiological findings. Schizophrenia is a major differential diagnosis. Psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and age of onset are essential observations for the diagnosis of schizophrenia but can not exclude FTLD. Memory, intellectual functions, executive and attentional abilities may all be disturbed in schizophrenia and FTLD. Cerebral abnormalities well established in schizophrenia are lateral ventricles enlargements. Frontal lobar atrophy is a major argument for FTLD and is only a sporadic finding in schizophrenic populations. Schizophrenia and FTLD could be comorbid diseases by several ways. A differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and FTLD is difficult to establish. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease with a large variety of cognitive dysfunctions. Neurocognitive tools may improve our knowledge of schizophrenia.

  11. Development of SSR Markers by 454 Sequencing in the Endemic Species Gentianella praecox subsp. bohemica (Gentianaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šurinová, Mária; Brabec, J.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 1600114. ISSN 2168-0450 Grant - others:EHP,MF ČR,MŽP ČR(CZ) MGSII-18 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : genotyping * Gentianaceae * polyploidy * microsatellites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.492, year: 2016

  12. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epelde, L.; Becerril, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.N.; Garbisu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses

  13. Functional analysis of zinc hyperaccumulation related genes of Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens for phytoremediation purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals that can cause serious soil contamination when present in excess. Especially Cd exposure is a threat to human health. Plants can potentially be used to clean-up the Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated soils in a technology called “Phytoremediation”. Two major

  14. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epelde, L.; Becerril, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Garbisu, C.

    2010-01-01

    been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts

  15. Puberdade precoce causada por tumores intracranianos: relato de 4 casos Pubertas praecox due to intracranial tumors: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de puberdade precoce conseqüentes a tumores intracranianos: um teratoma adulto do ventrículo lateral, um astrocitoma protoplasmático do terceiro ventrículo e diencéfalo, um astroblastoma do ter- ceiro ventrículo e diencéfalo e um hamartoma hipotalâmico. São apresentadas teorias que tentam explicar os mecanismos hormonais envolvidos e é salientada a importância do diagnóstico neuroradiológico preciso, pela possibilidade de cura em alguns casos e de tratamento satisfatório nos demais.Four cases of precocious puberty secondary to intracranial tumors are reported. A 3 year and 11 month old boy had a teratoma in the left lateral ventricle and total surgical excision was followed by recovery. An 8 year old girl with a protoplasmic astrocytoma of the third ventricle diagnosed by biopsy, followed by shunting and cobalt therapy was discharged improved. A five year old boy with an extensive astroblastoma of the diencephalon died following biopsy and shunting of cerebrospinal fluid. A posterior hypothalamic hamartoma totally excised from a 3 year old girl was followed by remission of the precocious puberty. The theories of hormonal mechanisms leading to precocious puberty are presented. It is stressed the importance of pneumoencephalography in the diagnosis of intracranial hamartomas, for they lack neurological signs.

  16. Potencial para maricultura da carragenófita Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales - Rhodophyta na Ilha da Marambaia, Baía de Sepetiba, RJ, Brasil Mariculture potential of carragenophyta Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales - Rhodophyta on Marambaia Island, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Perpetuo Reis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A falta da prática de cultivo comercial de macroalgas no Brasil junto com a crescente demanda do mercado nacional de ficocolóides é suprida pela importação de algas e colheita em bancos naturais, principalmente na costa nordestina. Na busca de um cultivo em pequena escala para uso das comunidades litorâneas foi implantado um cultivo experimental com H. musciformis, na Ilha da Marambaia, RJ (43º59'35" W e 23º04'00" S. Ao todo foram testadas nove técnicas de fixação da alga nas unidades experimentais de maricultura (UEM. Nos experimentos realizados entre a primavera de 2003 e o outono de 2004, as taxas de crescimento geralmente foram negativas. Entre os invernos de 2004 e 2005, foram na maioria positivas. O fitobentos próximo à UEM foi analisado para verificar o crescimento dessa espécie na assembléia e no cultivo. Observou-se maior percentual de anfípodas e de matéria orgânica nas UEM e a presença de carposporófitos em épocas de baixa salinidade em ambos os locais. Atribuiu-se o baixo rendimento da taxa de crescimento aos fatores ambientais como: ressacas, aderência de matéria orgânica nas algas, herbivoria e danos as UEM por ação antrópica. Constatou-se que o tratamento fixando a muda com abraçadeira foi o de mais fácil manuseio e baixo custo e que somente com a conscientização da comunidade litorânea e remuneração salarial para esta atividade será possível exercer o cultivo de H. musciformis com sucesso.Lack of practice in commercial cultivation of macroalgae in Brazil allied with an increased demand for phycocolloids in the national market is met by importing algae and cropping from natural beds, especially on the Northeastern coast. Seeking to establish small scale cultivation for the use of coastal communities, experimental cultivation was implanted with H. musciformis on Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro (43º59'35'' W - 23º04'00'' S. Nine different techniques for fixation of algae to ropes were tested in the experimental mariculture units (EMU. Experiments carried out from spring 2003 to fall 2004 yielded generally negative growth rates while experiments conducted from winter 2004 to winter 2005 yielded positive growth rates. Phytobenthos near the EMU were analyzed to verify the growth of this species in the assemblage and in cultivation. A higher percentage of amphipods and of organic matter was observed in the EMU as well as the presence of carposporophytes during low salinity periods at both sites. This low yield was attributed to environmental factors such as rough seas, adherence of organic matter to the algae, herbivory and EMU damages caused by anthropic activities. Fixing the algae with a clamp was the easiest and cheapest technique. Successful cultivation of H. musciformis can only be achieved through consciousness raising in the coastal community and payment for this activity.

  17. Macroalgas bentônicas associadas a bancos de Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta - Gigartinales em duas praias do litoral baiano Macroalgae associated with banks of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales on two beaches on the coast of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Oliveira Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho caracteriza a estrutura e dinâmica das comunidades de macroalgas bentônicas associadas a populações de H. musciformis ocorrentes em formações recifais nas praias de Stella Maris (Salvador e Itacimirim (Camaçari. As coletas ocorreram entre agosto de 2007 e junho de 2008. As formações recifais foram divididas em compartimentos com base no hidrodinamismo. Utilizou-se três transectos em cada compartimento, onde foram dispostos cinco quadrados de 20 x 20 cm. Foram obtidos dados de riqueza, biomassa, percentual de importância (Pi%, diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J'. Na área estudada ocorreram 60 espécies: 30 Rhodophyta, 20 Chlorophyta e 10 Ochrophyta; biomassa média de 136 g.m-² (peso seco; e índices médios de H' e J' de 2,7 e 0,97, respectivamente. Houve predominância das rodofíceas, tanto em riqueza específica quanto em valores de biomassa. Foi encontrada maior contribuição do grupo morfo-funcional de algas corticadas. Dentre a flora associada, Gelidiella acerosa, Sargassum cymosum e Palisada perforata apresentaram maiores valores de biomassa. O compartimento recifal mais representativo em riqueza específica e biomassa foi a região frontal do recife. As comunidades das praias estudadas foram consideradas distintas devido à fisionomia das formações recifais.This study characterized the structure and dynamics of macroalgae communities associated with benthic populations of H. musciformis occurring in reef formations on the beaches of Stella Maris (Salvador and Itacimirim (Camaçari, Bahia. The samples were collected between August 2007 and June 2008. The reef formations were divided into compartments based on hydrodynamics. Three transects where made for each compartment, and each of these had five quadrants of 20 x 20cm. Data about the richness, biomass, percentage of importance (Pi%, diversity (H' and evenness (J' was collected. The study recorded 60 species, 30 Rhodophyta, 20 Chlorophyta and 10 Ochrophyta, which had an average biomass of 136 g.m-² (dry weight and average rates of H' and J' of 2.7 and 0.97, respectively. There was a predominance of red algae, both in values of richness and in biomass. The contribution of the morpho-functional group of the cortical algae was greater. Among the flora recorded, Gelidiella acerosa, Sargassum cymosum and Palisada perforata had higher biomasses. The reef compartment with the highest species richness and biomass was the frontal region. The communities of the beaches studied were considered distinct because of the physiognomy of the reef formations.

  18. Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 μM and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 μM availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR and light green (LG strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

  19. Effects of nitrate and phosphate availabilities on growth, photosynthesis and pigment and protein contents in colour strains of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Hypnea musciformis is the main raw material for carrageenan production and the knowledge of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in algae is critical for the success of cultivation because these elements can limit seaweed productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrate (zero to 100 μM and nitrate plus phosphate (zero to 25 μM availabilities on the growth, the contents of photosynthetic pigments (phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a and proteins, and the photosynthesis and respiration of the brown (BR and light green (LG strains of H. musciformis. The results revealed metabolic differences between the colour strains of H. musciformis for nitrogen metabolism: upon nitrate addition, the LG strain stored nitrogen mainly as proteins, while the BR strain stored it as proteins and pigments. Moreover, the respiration of the LG strain and the photosynthesis of the BR strain increased with nitrate concentrations, indicating that the BR strain fixed more photosynthetic carbon than the LG strain.

  20. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, Judith E.; Almar Villanueva, Laia; Schat, Henk; Kwekkeboom, Jeroen; Coughlan, Sean; Moerland, Perry D.; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  1. Large Expression Differences in Genes for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis, Stress Response, and Lignin Biosynthesis Distinguish Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Related Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortel, van de J.E.; Almar Villanueva, L.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; Verloren van Themaat, E.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  2. Large expression differences in genes for iron and zinc homeostasis, stress response, and lignin biosynthesis distinguish roots of Arabidoposis thaliana and the related metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mortel, J.E.; Villanueva, L.A.; Schat, H.; Kwekkeboom, J.; Coughlan, S.; Moerland, P.D.; van Themaat, E.V.L.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The micronutrient zinc has an essential role in physiological and metabolic processes in plants as a cofactor or structural element in 300 catalytic and noncatalytic proteins, but it is very toxic when available in elevated amounts. Plants tightly regulate their internal zinc concentrations in a

  3. Evolutionary and ecological differentiation in the pantropical to warm-temperate seaweed Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakker, H; Klerk, H; vanCampen, JH; Olsen, JL; Breeman, AM

    Genetic differentiation among geographic isolates of the pantropical to warm-temperate red alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, crossing studies, and temperature tolerances experiments. Eleven isolates representing

  4. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development Temjensangba Imchen* National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Goa, India Abstract The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva... factors play a role in the process of recruitment. Citation: Imchen T (2012) Recruitment Potential of a Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032651 Editor: Ross...

  5. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  6. Mechanisms of metal toxicity in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Küpper, Hendrik; Andresen, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 269-285 ISSN 1756-5901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens * Induced oxidative stress * Iron toxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.975, year: 2016

  7. Trends in literature on new oilseed crops and related species: Seeking evidence of increasing or waning interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibliographic records on eight new crop species Camelina, Crambe, Cuphea, Physaria, Limnanthes, Stokesia, Thlaspi, and Vernonia from Agricola, CAB Abstracts, Scopus, and Web of Science were analyzed for historical and recent trends in the areas of research, author distribution, and quantity and impa...

  8. Lead, zinc and cadmium accumulation from two metalliferous soils with contrasting calcium contents in hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating metallophytes: a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohtadi, A.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and background: We previously compared metallicolous (M) and non-metallicolous (NM) populations of Noccaea (=Thlaspi) caerulescens, Silene vulgaris, and Matthiola flavida for their abilities to tolerate and (hyper)-accumulate lead (Pb) in hydroponics. In the present study we aimed 1) to check

  9. Rhizosphere characteristics of indigenously growing nickel hyperaccumulator and excluder plants on serpentine soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.W.; Bunkowski, M.; Puschenreiter, M.; Horak, O.

    2003-01-01

    Field study reinforces that root exudates may contribute to nickel hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense Halacsy. - The role of rhizosphere processes in metal hyperaccumulation is largely unexplored and a matter of debate, related field data are virtually not available. We conducted a field survey of rhizosphere characteristics beneath the Ni hyperaccumulator Thlaspi goesingense Halacsy and the metal-excluder species Silene vulgaris L. and Rumex acetosella L. growing natively on the same serpentine site. Relative to bulk soil and to the rhizosphere of the excluder species, we found significantly increased DOC and Ni concentrations in water extracts of T. goesingense rhizosphere, whereas exchangeable Ni was depleted due to excessive uptake of Ni. Chemical speciation analysis using the MINTEQA2 software package revealed that enhanced Ni solubility in Thlaspi rhizosphere is driven by the formation of Ni-organic complexes. Moreover, ligand-induced dissolution of Ni-bearing minerals is likely to contribute to enhanced Ni solubility. Increased Mg and Ca concentrations and pH in Thlaspi rhizosphere are consistent with ligand-induced dissolution of orthosilicates such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ). Our field data reinforce the hypothesis that exudation of organic ligands may contribute to enhanced solubility and replenishment of metals in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating species

  10. Using fitness parameters to evaluate three oilseed Brassicaceae species as potential oil crops in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thlaspi arvense and Camelina sativa have gained considerable attention as biofuel crops. But in some areas, these species, including C. microcarpa, are becoming rare weeds because of agriculture intensification. Including them as crops could guarantee their conservation in agricultural systems. The ...

  11. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 180, MAY 15 (2015), s. 27-34 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Heavy metals stress * Thlaspi caerulescens (J. & C. Presl) * 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.971, year: 2015

  12. Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  13. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and

  14. The changes of contents of selected free amino acids associated with cadmium stress in Noccaea caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, V.; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2013), s. 417-422 ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : heavy metals * nitrogen-transport amino acids * Thlaspi caerulescens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.113, year: 2013 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/100270.pdf

  15. Cadmium toxicity induced contrasting patterns of concentrations of free sarcosine, specific amino acids and selected microelements in two Noccaea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity affects numerous metabolic processes in plants. In the presence of Cd, plants accumulate specific amino acids which may be beneficial to developing Cd tolerance. Our study aimed to characterize the changes in the metabolism of selected free amino acids that are associated with Cd tolerance, and investigate the levels of selected microelements in order to relate these changes to the adaptation strategies of two metallophytes-Noccaea caerulescens (Redlschlag, Austria) and Noccaea praecox (Mežica, Slovenia). The plants were exposed to Cd contamination (90 mg Cd/kg soil) for 120 days in a pot experiment. Our results showed higher Cd accumulation in N. praecox compared to N. caerulescens. Cadmium contamination reduced the zinc and nickel levels in both species and a mixed effect was determined for copper and manganese content. Differences in free amino acid metabolism were observed between the two metallophytes growing under Cd-free and Cd-loaded conditions. Under Cd-free conditions, aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) and branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were accumulated more in the leaves of N. praecox than in N. caerulescens. Cd stress increased the content of these amino acids in both species but this increase was significant only in N. caerulescens leaves. Marked differences in the responses of the two species to Cd stress were shown for alanine, phenylalanine, threonine and sarcosine. Cadmium contamination also induced an increase of threonine as alanine and sarcosine decrease, which was larger in N. caerulescens than in N. praecox. All these factors contribute to the higher adaptation of N. praecox to Cd stress.

  16. Aktuální zaplevelení vybraných polních plodin v provozních podmínkách

    OpenAIRE

    Vykydalová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identifily the current coverage of fields by plants on a specific farm. The chosen farm was Uniagris a.s. Observation took place in growth areas of winter rate, winter wheat and corn wheat. Evalution was carried out counting methods. The results of the weed infestation evaluation were processed with the DCA analysis. The canonical corespondence analysis showed that, in the winter rape were found Thlaspi arvense, Triticum aestivum, Euphorbia helioscopia, Lamium purpu...

  17. Regulation of odd-numbered fatty acid content plays an important part in the metabolism of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea spp. adapted to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlíková, D.; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Hlavsa, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 208, JAN (2017), s. 94-101 ISSN 0176-1617 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane lipid-composition * amino-acids * gene-expression * salinity stress * leaf senescence * spartina-patens * low-temperature * cadmium stress * plants * tolerance * Environmental stress * Heavy metals * Phylogenetic profiling of fatty acids * Phytoremediation * Senescence * Thlaspi species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  18. Sequence and Secondary Structure of the Mitochondrial Small-Subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 Domains Reveal Highly Species-Specific Variations within the Genus Agrocybe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Patrice; Labarère, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same specie...

  19. Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Brazilian red macroalgae organic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi P. Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease affects nearly 36.5 million people worldwide, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition is currently considered the main therapeutic strategy against it. Seaweed biodiversity in Brazil represents one of the most important sources of biologically active compounds for applications in phytotherapy. Accordingly, this study aimed to carry out a quantitative and qualitative assessment of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux, Ochtodes secundiramea (Montagne M.A. Howe, and Pterocladiella capillacea (S.G. Gmelin Santelices & Hommersand (Rhodophyta in order to determine the AChE effects from their extracts. As a matter of fact, the O. secundiramea extract showed 48% acetylcholinesterase inhibition at 400 μg/ml. The chemical composition of the bioactive fraction was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS; this fraction is solely composed of halogenated monoterpenes, therefore allowing assignment of acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity to them.

  20. IMPACT OF TRIBE TRITICEAE VARIETIES ON STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVENESS OF SEGETAL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z. Moskalets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of varieties of tribe Triticeae (Soft Wheat, Winter Rye and Winter Triticale on the structure and competitiveness of segetal vegetation. It is shown that in the conditions of Polissya, Forest-Steppe Polissya, and Forest-Steppe ecotopes the coenotic composition of plant communities was represented mostly by annual plants and at some extent by hemycryptophytes, cryptophytes, and geophytes. The dominant weed associations of Polissya are: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; Polissia-steppe: Viola-Capsella; Matricaria-Galium; Elytrigia-Galeopsis; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Thlaspi-Euphorbia; Forest-Steppe: Elytrigia-Viola; Matricaria-Taraxacum; Consolida-Convolvulus; Cirsium-Taraxacum; Galium-Stellaria; Thlaspi-Plantago, Linaria-Conyza. In terms of the Central Forest-Steppe and Eastern Polisya the medium-grown and medium ripe Wheat (Yuvivata 60 and Poliska 90, Rye (Borotba, Triticale (Slavetne, Slavetne Polipshene. and AD 256 is the most competitive towards segetal vegetation than other medium-grown and semi-dwarf varieties of such cultures. The introduction of Triticale and Rye in the structure of sown areas are an effective biological control towards segetal vegetation, particularly perennial weeds. We revealed that increasing doses of fertilizers on crops of the tribe Triticeae stimulates the growth of weeds, but the specific weight per unit area does not always correlate with density concerning cultural species. We registered the dominant competitive weeds associations in winter crops, regardless of grade, but their differentiation by population strategy and specific weight per unit area depends on the type and conditions of the specific ecotypes. We selected some six associations for the Polissya: Erodium-Neslia; Chenopodiu-Sonchus; Galium-Setaria; Elytrigia-Convolvulus; Apera-Polygonum and Apera-Convolvulus; five for Polissya Steppe

  1. Phytoextraction of metals from soils: How far from practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevel, Lotte van; Mertens, Jan; Oorts, Koen; Verheyen, Kris

    2007-01-01

    For most trace elements, the technique of phytoextraction needs significant improvements to become practically feasible. Calculations for Cd revealed that the amount of Cd taken up by Thlaspi caerulescens or Salix spp. needs at least to be the double of the present amount to slightly decrease the Cd concentration in the upper 0.5 m of the soil within a period of 10 years. Additionally, metals taken up by the plants might pose an important risk. Alternatives as bioavailable contaminant stripping and phytostabilization might be more appropriate. - Phytoextraction efficiency should be improved and associated risks need more attention before phytoextraction can be established as a commercial technology

  2. Phytoextraction of metals from soils: How far from practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevel, Lotte van [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Melle (Belgium)], E-mail: lotte.vannevel@ugent.be; Mertens, Jan [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Melle (Belgium); Oorts, Koen [European Center for Risk Assessment Euras, Kortrijksesteenweg 302, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Melle (Belgium)

    2007-11-15

    For most trace elements, the technique of phytoextraction needs significant improvements to become practically feasible. Calculations for Cd revealed that the amount of Cd taken up by Thlaspi caerulescens or Salix spp. needs at least to be the double of the present amount to slightly decrease the Cd concentration in the upper 0.5 m of the soil within a period of 10 years. Additionally, metals taken up by the plants might pose an important risk. Alternatives as bioavailable contaminant stripping and phytostabilization might be more appropriate. - Phytoextraction efficiency should be improved and associated risks need more attention before phytoextraction can be established as a commercial technology.

  3. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  4. Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism...... introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future...

  5. The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalzell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.

  6. [Leon Daraszkiewicz and his monograph on hebephrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Leon Daraszkiewicz (1866-1931) was a Polish psychiatrist, a pupil and co-worker of E. Kraepelin and V. Tsiz on the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), the author of highly regarded monograph on hebephrenia (1891). In his work on the basis of over 20 case histories, he described a natural history of hebephrenia and his own views on its aetiology and prognosis. Hebephrenia as described by Daraszkiewicz, served as a clinical model for the Kraepelinian concept of dementia praecox. In the article, the life and career of Daraszkiewicz is covered, with particular emphasis on the role of his doctoral dissertation on hebephrenia in the history of the concept of schizophrenia.

  7. Vegetative propagation of native species potentially useful in the restoration of México City's vegetation Propagación vegetativa de especies nativas potencialmente útiles en la restauración de la vegetación de la ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ramos-Palacios

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hardwood and softwood cuttings of Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq and Senecio praecox D.C. were tested to know their ability to form adventitious roots. Cuttings were prepared in 2 different seasons (wet and dry and treated with different microclimatic conditions and auxin concentrations (IBA and NAA. Hardwood and softwood cuttings of B. cordata rooted during the dry and wet season, whilst hardwood and softwood cuttings of D. viscosa rooted only in the wet season, cuttings of S. praecox rooted only in wet season with a higher rooting for hardwood than softwood cuttings. Low hormone concentrations (10 - 100 ppm favored the rooting percentage more than high concentrations (1000 - 10 000 ppm. However, high hormone concentrations favored number, length of roots and number of developed shoots. Natural regeneration of these species is limited and the species are difficult to propagate from seeds. Vegetative propagation of these species could be an alternative to get clonal planting stock for reforestation programs in some Mexico City areas.Se probó la habilidad de estacas lignificadas y suaves de Buddleja cordata HBK, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq y Senecio praecox D.C. para formar raíces adventicias. Las estacas se prepararon en las estaciones húmeda y seca; se trataron con diferentes concentraciones de auxinas (IBA y NAA y en diferentes condiciones microclimáticas. Las estacas de madera lignificadas y madera suave de B. cordata enraizaron durante la estación seca y húmeda, mientras que las de D. viscosa lo hicieron sólo en la época húmeda, las estacas de S. praecox sólo en la estación seca teniendo las estacas lignificadas un mayor enraizamiento que las de madera suave. Las concentraciones bajas de hormonas (10 - 100 ppm favorecieron más el porcentaje de enraizamiento que las altas concentraciones (1000 - 10 000 ppm. . Sin embargo, las concentraciones altas de hormonas favorecieron el número y la longitud de las raíces, además del

  8. PREVALENCE OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS IN FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ayaz, M. Akhtar, C.S. Hayat, M.A. Hafeez and A. Haq1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the period from October, 2000 to June, 2001 to record the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens in Faisalabad district. A total of 930 guts were collected and processed at Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seven species of Eimeria (E viz. E. tenella (50%, E. maxima (40%, E. mitis (2%, E. praecox (0.8%, E. acervulina (4%; E. necatrix (2% and E. brunetti (1.2% were recorded. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 37.95%.

  9. Morfología polínica de Veronica L. (Scrophulariaceae) en el suroeste de España

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández González, Inmaculada; Juan Rodríguez, Rocío; Pastor Díaz, Julio Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Morfología polínica de Veronica L. (Scrophulariaceae) en el suroeste de España. Se estudia la morfología polínica, al microscopio óptico y electónico de barrido, de 13 taxones de Veronica L.: V. scutellata, V. anagallis-aquatica, V. anagalloides, V. thriphyllos, V. praecox, V. arvensis, V. peregrina, V. polita, V. agrestis, V. persica, V. cymbalaria, V. hederifolia subsp. hederifolia y V. hedertfolia subsp. triloba. Los resultados confirman el carácter euripolínico del género. Se est...

  10. Concept de l'autisme bleulérien dans la logique freudienne de l'aliénation et de la séparation

    OpenAIRE

    Gailis , Janis

    2010-01-01

    "Autism is more or less the same thing Freud called auto-eroticism" - this is what Paul Eugen Bleuler writes in his fundamental work "Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias". However, if we take a closer look at other definitions of autism, offered by Bleuler, works, on which he relied in his proceedings, as well as Sigmund Freud's texts, he wrote, to answer Paul Eugen Bleuler, we can find that this remark about substituting auto-eroticism with autism, avoiding any mention of sexuali...

  11. Molecular dissection of the role of histidine in nickel hyperaccumulation in Thalspi goesingense (Halacsy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persans, M.W.; Yan, X.; Patnoe, J.M.M.L.; Kraemer, U.; Salt, D.E.

    1999-12-01

    To understand the role of free histidine (His) in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense, the authors investigated the regulation of His biosynthesis at both the molecular and biochemical levels. Three T. goesingense cDNAs encoding the following His biosynthetic enzymes, ATP phosphoribosyltransferase, imidazoleglycerol phosphate dehydratase, and histidinol dehydrogenase, were isolated by functional complementation of Escherichia coli His autotrophs. Northern analysis of THJG1, THD1, and THB1 gene expression revealed that each gene is expressed in both roots and shoots, but at the concentrations and dosage times of Ni treatment used in this study, these genes failed to show any regulation by Ni. The authors were also unable to observe any increases in the concentration of free His in root, shoot, or xylem sap of T. goesingense in response to Ni exposure. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of root and shoot tissue from T. goesingense and the non-accumulator species Thlaspi reverse revealed no major differences in the coordination of Ni by His in these tissues. They therefore conclude that the Ni hyperaccumulation phenotype in T. goesingense is not determined by the overproduction of His in response to Ni.

  12. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis.

  13. Molecular Identification of Eimeria Species in Broiler Chickens in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2–5 pens per farm across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops. qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella, but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E. necatrix was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops.

  14. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  15. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  16. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong-Ming; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

    2009-06-01

    Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup.

  18. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, G F; Römkens, P F A M; Fokkema, M J; Song, J; Luo, Y M; Japenga, J; Zhao, F J

    2008-12-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg(-1). A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha(-1) yr(-1) yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production.

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ACESSOS DE GERMOPLASMA DE QUATRO ESPÉCIES BRASILEIRAS DE AMENDOIM-SILVESTRE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GERMPLASM ACESSIONS OF FOUR BRAZILIAN SPECIES OF WILD PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO FERRAZ DE ARRUDA VEIGA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se morfologicamente os acessos de germoplasma de espécies silvestres brasileiras de amendoim do gênero Arachis L., Sect. Arachis e analisaram-se a similaridade genética entre acessos da mesma espécie e entre as espécies. Realizou-se o experimento nos anos agrícolas de 1993 a 1996, no Núcleo Experimental de Campinas, do Instituto Agronômico (IAC. Avaliaram-se os acessos disponíveis no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Espécies Silvestres de Arachis, da Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN - Brasília, DF, das espécies A. palustris Krapov., W.C. Gregory & Valls, A. decora Krapov., W.C. Gregory & Valls, A. praecox Krapov., W.C. Gregory & Valls e A. stenosperma Krapov. & W.C. Gregory, efetuando-se anotações fenotípicas quantitativas e qualitativas, conforme lista de descritores morfológicos. Observou-se que os acessos de A. stenosperma são semelhantes, apesar da sua grande distância geográfica, e diferem das demais espécies, formando um grupo mais coeso. Caracteres como o diâmetro do eixo central e o comprimento dos frutos e das sementes serviram para distingui-la das demais espécies. Arachis decora apresentou alta variação entre acessos nos vários caracteres morfológicos estudados. A. palustris apresentou alta variação morfológica entre acessos, ainda que tenham sido analisados apenas dois, para altura da planta, largura da semente, dimensões do esporão, istmo, folíolo, raque e eixo central e quanto à presença e ausência de tricomas no folíolo. Arachis praecox, representada por um único acesso, aproximou-se mais de A. decora que das demais espécies.In this work, a morphological characterization of germplasm accessions of wild Brazilian species of peanut, section Arachis was accomplished. Also, an analysis of the genetic similarity among accessions and between species was evaluated. The experiment was undertaken from 1993 to 1996, at the Campinas Experimental Station of the Instituto

  20. Taxonomic studies in the Disinae. VI. A revision of the genus Herschelia

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    H. P. Linder

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Herschelia (Disinae, Orchidaceae is revised. Sixteen species, one subspecies and one variety are recognized. Two new species from tropical Africa (H. chimanimaniensis Linder and H. praecox Linder and a new variety from the Cape Province H. lugens (H. Bol. Kraenzl. var. nigrescens Linder are described. Three new combinations are made by transferring the two species of Forficaria and  Disa sect. Microperistera (one species to Herschelia. Thirteen species are illustrated, and the nomenclature and the available information about the habitats of the taxa are discussed. The species are grouped into two subgenera, one of which is further divided into two sections and four series. This classification is based on the putative phylogeny, as determined by the method devised by Wagner (1962.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of different capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györke, Adriana; Pop, Loredana; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey in broiler farms from Romania to establish prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species using single PCR assay. We found Eimeria spp. in 21 (91%) out of 23 flocks, and in 11 (92%) out of 12 farms. Four species of Eimeria were identified: E. acervulina (21/23; 91%), E. tenella (14/23; 61%), E. maxima (5/23; 22%) and E. praecox (3/23; 13%). Infection with a single species (E. acervulina) was detected in 6 (26%) infected flocks originated from large farms. Mixed infections were found in 15 (65%) flocks and the most prevalent combination was E. acervulina + E. tenella (8/23; 35%). Four flocks (17%) harboured mixed infection with E. acervulina + E. tenella + E. maxima. E. acervulina was significantly more prevalent in flocks that received ionophores as anticoccidial feed additives. PMID:24309007

  2. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

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    Jorge Ignacio del Valle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimáticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronológicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimétricas del río Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatología en regiones tropicales.

  3. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

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    Herrera David Andrés

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimaticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronologicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimetricas del rio Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatologia en regiones tropicales.

  4. MARCADORES POLÍNICOS EN MIELES DEL NOROESTE DE LA PROVINCIA DE CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA

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    María C. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio melisopalinológico de 49 muestras de miel provenientes del noroeste de la provincia de Córdoba. Prosopis spp., Larrea divaricata , Schinopsis spp., Condalia microphylla , Sarcomphalus mistol , Cercidium praecox , Geoffroea decorticans , Capparis atamisquea , Aloysia gratissima , Mimosa spp. y Schinus spp. fueron los tipos polínicos de mayor importancia y frecuencia de aparición, todos representantes de la flora nativa. Cuatro grupos de mieles se diferenciaron por análisis discriminante: Traslasierra, Perisalina, Chaco Árido y Chaco Serrano; algunas especies permitieron diferenciarlos entre sí: Schinus areira , Maytenus vitis-idaea , Cantinoa mutabilis y Schinopsis spp., respectivamente. Los tipos polínicos con mayor índice de importancia de especie y frecuencia se proponen como marcadores útiles para la Denominación de Origen.

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12609-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp. REH8795 RNA polymera... 307 8e-82 FJ536652_1( FJ536652 |pid:none) Scleroderma areolatum voucher PBM2......530 |pid:none) Entyloma arnoseridis isolate AFTOL... 307 1e-81 FJ536659_1( FJ536659 |pid:none) Scleroderma s...1e-81 FJ536657_1( FJ536657 |pid:none) Scleroderma macalpinei voucher OSC... 307 1e-81 DQ470827_1( DQ470827 |...:none) Inocybe sp. ADP060305 RNA polymera... 305 4e-81 FJ536656_1( FJ536656 |pid:none) Scleroderma...cybe praecox isolate AFTOL-ID ... 304 9e-81 FJ536661_1( FJ536661 |pid:none) Scleroderma sp. AWW311 RNA polym

  6. Experiencias dendroclimáticas con árboles de ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ignacio del Valle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de diferentes investigaciones dendroclimaticas realizadas en tres ecosistemas contrastantes de Colombia. Se emplearon técnicas dendrocronologicas y densitogramas computarizados para obtener las cronologías de crecimiento y densidad, respectivamente. Se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre las cronologías, las variables climáticas locales y el ENSO, por ejemplo: la densidad de los anillos de crecimiento de Rhizophora mangle con la precipitación; el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Parkinsonia praecox y Capparis odoratissima con la precipitación, la temperatura del aire y la temperatura superficial del mar, y el ancho de los anillos de crecimiento de Prioria copaifera con las alturas limnimetricas del rio Atrato. Dichos resultados demuestran la aplicabilidad y el potencial de la dendroclimatologia en regiones tropicales.

  7. Hummingbirds and the plants they visit in the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, Mexico Colibríes y las plantas que visitan en la Reseva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

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    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relative abundance, plant species visited, and plant communities used by hummingbird species inhabiting the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve, a semiarid area in South-central Mexico. We recorded 14 hummingbird species and 35 plant species distributed in 4 plant communities during our study. We found 86 different hummingbird-plant interactions. Amazilia violiceps and Cynanthus latirostris were the most common hummingbirds, while C. latirostris, A. violiceps, and Cynanthus sordidus were the hummingbirds that visited more plant species. Hummingbirds were distributed differentially between plant communities inside the reserve, with 12 species being present in the arboreal plant community of the lowlands, 11 both in cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants, and 6 in perennial unarmed shrub plants. Cercidium praecox (Fabaceae was the plant species with the highest number of visiting hummingbird species (10 species. Cactus forest and perennial spine shrub plants were the plant communities with largest number of possible interactions (57 and 51, respectively. The mean connectance value of the interaction matrix was similar between plant communities (near to 22%, but lower than those reported previously in other places. In the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve the hummingbird-plant interaction system will be preserved if the hummingbirds C. latirostris, A. violiceps, C. sordidus, and L. clemenciae, and the plants C. praecox, I. arborescens, E. chiotilla, and N. glauca, are protected.Describimos la abundancia relativa, especies de plantas visitadas y tipos de vegetación utilizados por los colibríes de la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México. Durante nuestro de estudio registramos 14 especies de colibríes y 35 especies de plantas utilizadas por ellos dentro de cuatro tipos de vegetación, representando 86 diferentes interacciones colibrí-planta. Amazilia violiceps y Cynanthus latirostris fueron los

  8. Autism: a transdiagnostic, dimensional, construct of reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggernaes, Bodil

    2018-03-01

    The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future research must agree on the definitions of core concepts such as autism and psychosis. A possible redefinition of the concept of autism may be a condition in which the rationale of an individual's behaviour differs qualitatively from that of the social environment due to characteristic cognitive impairments affecting reasoning. A broad concept of psychosis could focus on deviances in the experience of reality resulting from impairments of reasoning. In this light and consistent with recent empirical evidence, it may be appropriate to redefine dementia praecox as a developmental disorder of reasoning. A future challenge of autism research may be to develop theoretical models that can account for the impact of complex processes acting at the social level in addition to complex neurobiological and psychological processes. Such models could profit from a distinction among processes related to (i) basic susceptibility, (ii) adaptive processes and (iii) decompensating factors involved in the development of manifest illness. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA EM ÁREA DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL NA REGIÃO DO ALTO URUGUAI, RS / FLORISTIC AND STRUCTURE IN AREA OF SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST IN THE REGION OF THE ALTO URUGUAI, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Lambrecht

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available           O trabalho teve como objetivos realizar a análise florística das estruturas horizontal e vertical em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual (FED na região do Alto Uruguai, em Frederico Westphalen, RS, Brasil. Foi realizado um censo em uma área amostral de 10.000 m², subdividida em 100 subparcelas de 10x10 m. Realizou-se a mensuração e a identificação de todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas com circunferência a altura do peito (CAP≥ 31,4cm. Com os dados obtidos, foram realizados cálculos de densidade (D, frequência (F, dominância (Do, índice de valor de importância (IVI, índice de valor de cobertura (IVC e a estratificação dos indivíduos. O maior número de espécies concentrou-se na família Fabaceae (10 e o maior número de indivíduos na família Meliaceae (147 ou 25,3%. Trichilia claussenii C. DC. Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng. Mez, Achatocarpus praecox Griseb. e Eugenia rostrifolia D. Legrand representaram 38,28% da densidade relativa e Holocalyx balansae Micheli, Trichilia claussenii, Nectandra megapotamica, Cordia americana (L. Gottshling & J.E.Mill., Phytolacca dioica  L., Achatocarpus praecox, e Eugenia rostrifolia representaram 50,5% da dominância relativa. Considerando a estrutura vertical, as sete espécies mais frequentes apresentaram uma maior quantidade de indivíduos no estrato médio. Conclui-se que a área florestal encontra-se em estágio intermediário de sucessão.

  10. Submerged macrophyte biomass distribution in the shallow saline lake Fuente de Piedra (Spain as function of environmental variables

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    Conde-Álvarez, Rafael M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophyte biomass, diaspore bank distribution and their relationship to spatial variability of depth, nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus as well as sediment granulometry in an athalassohaline lake have been studied during one wet hydrological year. The results indicate that species growing in the lake show different spatial distribution patterns throughout the lake. Indirect gradient analysis (canonical analysis results showed a first axis defined as a function of Ulva flexuosa Wulfen biomass which is, in turn, positively correlated with interstitial ammonium and Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (SRP. The second axis was mainly established due to Lamprothamnium papulosum (Wallr. J. Groves biomass which correlated positively to depth and negatively to interstitial ammonium and SRP. These results revealed a NESW eutrophic gradient allowing the U. Flexuosa biomass proliferation. This phenomenon could increase the shadow effect over the rest of the macrophytes inhabiting this shallow lake. Moreover, the eutrophic harmful effect on the macrophyte physiology and over the diaspore bank could have important consequences in the survival of such important populations. The results reported in this study show the need for studies as the base to select sampling points for monitoring this wetland.

    La distribución de la biomasa de los macrófitos acuáticos y de su banco de semillas y oogonios ha sido investigada en relación a la profundidad, los nutrientes (nitrito, nitrato, amonio y fósforo soluble reactivo y la granulometría del sedimento durante un año hidrológico húmedo. Los resultados muestran patrones de distribución diferentes en las distintas especies. Los resultados del análisis canónico basado en análisis de gradiente indirecto muestran un primer eje definido en función de la biomasa de U. Flexuosa, Wulfen que, a su vez, está positivamente correlacionada con el

  11. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  12. Role of the NO/K ATP pathway in the protective effect of a sulfated-polysaccharide fraction from the algae Hypnea musciformis against ethanol-induced gastric damage in mice

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    Samara R. B. Damasceno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are the most abundant source of polysaccharides such as alginates and agar, as well as carrageenans. This study aimed to investigate the gastroprotective activity and the mechanism underlying this activity of a sulfated-polysaccharide fraction extracted from the algae Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamour. (Gigartinales-Rhodophyta. Mice were treated with sulfated-polysaccharide fraction (3, 10, 30, and 90 mg/kg, p.o. and, after 30 min, they were administered 50% ethanol (0.5 mL/25 g, p.o.. After 1 h, gastric damage was measured using a planimeter. In addition, samples of the stomach tissue were obtained for histopathological examination and for assays to determine the glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. Other groups of mice were pretreated with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg, i.p., aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg, i.p., or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, i.p.. After 30 min to the aminoguanidine group and 1 h to the other groups, sulfated-polysaccharide fraction (30 mg/kg, p.o. was administered and gastric damage was induced as described above. Sulfated-polysaccharide fraction prevented ethanol-induced gastric injury in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with L-NAME or glibenclamide reversed this gastroprotective effect. Administration of aminoguanidine did not influence the effect of sulfated-polysaccharide fraction. Our results suggest that sulfated-polysaccharide fraction exerts a protective effect against ethanol-induced gastric damage via activation of the NO/K ATP pathway.

  13. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

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    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  14. Efeito de fatores bióticos no crescimento de Hypnea musciformis(Rhodophyta - Gigartinales

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    Reis Renata Perpetuo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O melhor conhecimento da ação de fatores biológicos sobre o crescimento de Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. J. V. Lamour. torna-se um aspecto premente visando a otimização do manejo e a conservação dessa espécie de interesse comercial. Uma vez que as espécies de Sargassum C. Agardh são consideradas importantes substratos para a fixação de H. musciformis, durante 18 meses, foram realizadas amostragens do tipo destrutiva, em uma população natural de H. musciformis epífita sobre Sargassum spp., em três profundidades de um costão rochoso no Rio de Janeiro. Obteve-se relação positiva entre as biomassas de ambos os gêneros, além da preferência destes pelo ambiente sublitorâneo. Visto a usual presença de mesoherbívoros (Amphipoda nos talos dessas algas, a ação da herbivoria em H. musciformis e S. cymosum var. nanum foi testada em experimento in vitro. A herbivoria foi confirmada para ambos os táxons e a maior taxa de crescimento de H. musciformis favoreceu o crescimento de S. cymosum var.nanum, diminuindo o ataque de mesoherbívoros por ser alimento disponível. Observou-se também que não houve inibição do crescimento de H. musciformis por S. cymosum var.nanum. Sendo assim, recomenda-se que a colheita de H. musciformis para fins comerciais em bancos naturais de Sargassum spp. seja manejada para não causar danos às comunidades marinhas bentônicas.

  15. Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the marine macrophytes Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta) and Macrocystis pyrifera (phaeophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, K.C. (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Inst., St. Croix, US Virgin Islands); Wheeler, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    NH/sub 4//sup +/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake were measured by continuous sampling with an autoanalyzer. For Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux, NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake followed saturable kinetics (K/sub s/ = 4.9 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/, V/sub max/ = 2.85 ..mu..g-at N-g(wet)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/). The ammonium uptake data fit a truncated hyperbola, i.e., saturation was not reached at the concentrations used, NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake was reduced one-half in the presence of NH/sub 4//sup +/, but presence of NO/sub 3//sup -/ had no effect on NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake. Darkness reduced both NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake by one-third to one-half. For Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh. NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake followed saturable kinetics; K/sub s/ = 13.1 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/, V/sub max/ = 3.05 ..mu..g-at N.g(wet)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/. NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake showed saturable kinetics at concentrations below 22 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/(K/sub s/ = 5.3 ..mu..g-at N.l/sup -1/, V/sub max/ = 2.38 ..mu..g-at N g(wet)/sup -1/.h/sup -1/); at higher concentrations uptake increased linearly with concentration. NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/ were taken up simultaneously; presence of one form did not affect uptake of the other.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants widely used in Persian folk medicine

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    A. Hamedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Commiphora habessinica (O.Berg Engl. (Burseraceae, Boswellia sacra Flueck (Burseraceae, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae, and Doronicum glaciale (Wulfen Nyman (Asteraceae are of ethnomedicinal importance in Persian folk medicine and are widely used to treat infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of these herbal medicines to prevent misadministration. Methods: Antifungal and antibacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative activities of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions obtained from oleo-gum-resin of C. habessinica and B. sacra, spathe of P. dactylifera and roots of D. glaciale were evaluated against standard species and clinical antibiotic resistant isolates using broth microdilution method. The fractions were tested at concentrations of 0.5 to 256 µg/mL.Results: The petroleum ether fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin exhibited the most anti-Candida activity with MIC50 of 0.5-16 µg/mL. The growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was inhibited by the ethanol fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin with MIC50 of 1-16 μg/mL. C. glabrata was the most susceptible species. Among the tested fractions, only the petroleum ether fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin had an inhibitory effect on Aspergillus spp. with a MIC50 of 8-32 µg/mL. None of the fractions exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at concentrations of 0.5 to 256 µg/mL. Conclusions: The sensitivity of fungi and bacteria to natural antimicrobials varies widely within species and it is essential to consider the sensitivity of the strains to prevent resistance.

  17. Crecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas de cinco especies de Acacia (Fabaceae, que coexisten en bosques secos neotropicales de Argentina, en distintas condiciones de disponibilidad de luz y agua Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae species that coexists in neotropical semiarid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Venier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la plántula es una de las etapas más riesgosas para las plantas, especialmente en zonas áridas y semiáridas donde la sequía y alta radiación solar influyen sobre su emergencia, desarrollo y supervivencia. Se evaluó en invernadero la supervivencia y variables de crecimiento en plántulas sometidas a estrés hídrico y a distintas condiciones de luz, en cinco especies de Acacia (A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii y A. praecox que coexisten en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba, Argentina. Aunque se encontraron diferencias entre las especies (F=5.66, p=0.001, todas tuvieron altos porcentajes de supervivencia en las distintas condiciones de luz y agua, sugiriendo que serían tolerantes al estrés hídrico y podrían establecerse bajo luz o sombra. Si bien todas las especies mejoraron el crecimiento con luz y sin estrés hídrico, A. aroma, A. caven y A. atramentaria mostraron una tendencia hacia un mayor crecimiento en la mayoría de las variables consideradas (F=41.9, pSeedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F=5.66, p=0.001, all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand

  18. Development of a fish test to determine endocrine effects in surface waters. Pt. 3: application of the fish test to monitoring surface waters by an environmental agency. Final report; Entwicklung eines Fischtests zur Erfassung von Stoffen mit endokrinen Wirkungen in Oberflaechengewaessern. Teilprojekt 3: Der neue Fischtest in der Gewaesserueberwachung durch eine Landesbehoerde. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allner, B.; Schaat, A.; Theimer, S.; Stahlschmidt-Allner, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the presented study was to establish a method to detect estrogen-induced effects in the aquatic environment, basing on the determination of yolk-proteins in the blood of male or juvenile fish by gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The method is suitable for the use in routine testing of sewage treatment works (STW) effluents as well as monitoring of free living fish. Effects of 1 ng/L etylestradiol or 100 ng/L estradiol are reliably detectable. In surface waters no estrogen-induced effects could be found, whereas effluents of some industrial STWs showed a weak estrogenic effect. Histology of normal gonadal development of the test fish is compared to the situation after exposure to endocrine disrupters and to the gonadal development of roach caught in the wild. A method to detect effects on the gonadotropin mediated control of reproduction was tested within a monitoring programme. At certain locations a high degree of juvenile male perch showed gonadal hypertrophy (pubertas praecox). It could be shown by chemical analysis that the effects on perch were highly correlated with the tributyl tin (TBT) burden of the sediment from the respective location. Exposing small fish species to TBT in single compound studies confirmed the finding that TBT may act as an endocrine disrupter on vertebrates. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Studie wurde ein Verfahren zum Nachweis oestrogener Effekte in der aquatischen Umwelt etabliert. Die Methode basiert auf der Identifikation von Dotterproteinen im Blut maennlicher oder juveniler Fische mittels Gelelektrophorese und ist sowohl zum Einsatz in Monitoringprogrammen freilebender Fische als auch fuer die Routine der Abwasseruntersuchung nach DIN geeignet. Effekte von 1 ng/L Ethinyloestradiol und 100 ng/L Oestradiol sind sicher nachweisbar. Oestrogene Effekte von Oberflaechengewaessern wurden nicht gefunden, im Ablauf einzelner Industrieklaeranlagen war ein geringer oestrogener Effekt nachweisbar. Der Bericht enthaelt eine

  19. Índices de oxidación en aceites de algunas leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation process of crude and refined oils from wild leguminous seeds: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta, (vinorama Olneya tesota, (palo fierro Cercidium praecox (palo de brea and Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde were evaluated during storage for 122 days, using corn and soybean oils as controls. Peroxide, Iodine, Acid and p-Anisidine values were determinated during 122 days of storage at room temperature. The wild leguminous raw oils showed results similar to those for the corn raw oil and lower than those of soybean raw oil. This behavior was similar for refinated oils. The rancid odor was detected after 5 days of storage in soybean oil and 40 days in vinorama oil, on the contrary, mezquite, palo verde and palo of brea oils presented this odor after 62 days, and for gatuña’s oil needed 135 days. Our results indicate that legume seed of Sonoran Desert could be a good alternative as source of oil.El proceso de oxidación fue evaluado durante el almacenamiento de los aceites crudos y refinados de las semillas de leguminosas silvestres: Prosopis juliflora (mezquite, Mimosa grahamii (gatuña, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Olneya tesota (palo fierro, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea y Parkinsonia aculeata (palo verde. Los aceites de maíz y soja fueron empleados como controles. Se determinó el índice de peróxido (I.P., de Yodo (I.I., de acidez (I.A, y valor de p-Anisidina (p-A durante 122 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Los aceites crudos de leguminosas silvestres mostraron valores de estos índices similares a los del aceite de maíz crudo y menores que los del aceite de soja crudo. Este comportamiento también fue observado para los aceites refinados. El olor a rancio se presentó en el aceite de soja a los 5 días de almacenamiento, en el de vinorama a los 40 días, en el de mezquite, palo verde y palo de brea a los 62 días y en el de gatuña a los 135 días. Los valores

  20. Sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA V4, V6, and V9 domains reveal highly species-specific variations within the genus Agrocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P; Labarère, J

    1998-11-01

    A comparative study of variable domains V4, V6, and V9 of the mitochondrial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA was carried out with the genus Agrocybe by PCR amplification of 42 wild isolates belonging to 10 species, Agrocybe aegerita, Agrocybe dura, Agrocybe chaxingu, Agrocybe erebia, Agrocybe firma, Agrocybe praecox, Agrocybe paludosa, Agrocybe pediades, Agrocybe alnetorum, and Agrocybe vervacti. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the three domains in the isolates belonging to the same species were the same length and had the same sequence, while variations were found among the 10 species. Alignment of the sequences showed that nucleotide motifs encountered in the smallest sequence of each variable domain were also found in the largest sequence, indicating that the sequences evolved by insertion-deletion events. Determination of the secondary structure of each domain revealed that the insertion-deletion events commonly occurred in regions not directly involved in the secondary structure (i.e., the loops). Moreover, conserved sequences ranging from 4 to 25 nucleotides long were found at the beginning and end of each domain and could constitute genus-specific sequences. Comparisons of the V4, V6, and V9 secondary structures resulted in identification of the following four groups: (i) group I, which was characterized by the presence of additional P23-1 and P23-3 helices in the V4 domain and the lack of the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. aegerita, A. chaxingu, and A. erebia; (ii) group II, which had the P23-3 helix in V4 and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. pediades; (iii) group III, which did not have additional helices in V4, had the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. paludosa, A. firma, A. alnetorum, and A. praecox; and (iv) group IV, which lacked both the V4 additional helices and the P49-1 helix in V9 and included A. vervacti and A. dura. This grouping of species was supported by the structure of a consensus tree based on the variable domain sequences. The

  1. Isolation and characterization of hemolytic bacteria Fish disc and Neon RainbowIsolamento e caracterização de bactérias hemolíticas de Acará Disco e Neon Arco-Íris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the ability of potential pathogenic bacteria hemolytic mite Disco (Symphysodon discus and Neon Rainbow (Melanotaenia praecox, and define which of the antibiotic Trimethoprim, Florfenicol, Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin, Bacitracin, Enrofloxacin, Tetracycline, and Furazolidone Clindamycin has better inhibitory effect in vitro, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin and Enrofloxacin. In an outbreak of ornamental fish deaths were isolated nine strains of Gram negative, hemolytic where 3 were identified, two as Vibrio cholerae and one as Citrobacter braakii. With these strains were performed antibiogram and was determined the minimum inhibitory concentration at two different temperatures (22 and 30 ° C. Antibiotics Enrofloxacin, Norfloxacin, florfenicol, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim showed the best results in vitro inhibition against the Vibrio cholerae, and Citrobacter braakii. The MIC increased in 30 ° C for erythromycin and enrofloxacin against pathogens, while for Florfenicol and norfloxacin the MIC was not influenced by temperature.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar, identificar e determinar a capacidade hemolítica de possíveis bactérias patogênicas do Acará Disco (Symphysodon discus e Neon Arco-íris (Melanotaenia praecox, e definir qual o antibiótico entre Trimetoprim, Florfenicol, Cloranfenicol, Norfloxacina, Eritromicina, Bacitracina, Enrofloxacina, Tetraciclina, Furazolidona e Clindamicina possui melhor efeito inibitório in vitro, e determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC para Cloranfenicol, Norfloxacina, Eritromicina e Enrofloxacina. Em um surto de mortalidade de peixes ornamentais foram isoladas nove cepas de bactérias Gram negativas, onde três hemolíticas foram identificadas, duas como Vibrio cholerae e uma como Citrobacter braakii. Com estas foram realizados antibiogramas

  2. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  3. A comparative study of salt tolerance parameters in 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Orsini, Francesco

    2010-07-01

    Salinity is an abiotic stress that limits both yield and the expansion of agricultural crops to new areas. In the last 20 years our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance and adaptation to saline environments has greatly improved owing to active development of advanced tools in molecular, genomics, and bioinformatics analyses. However, the full potential of investigative power has not been fully exploited, because the use of halophytes as model systems in plant salt tolerance research is largely neglected. The recent introduction of halophytic Arabidopsis-Relative Model Species (ARMS) has begun to compare and relate several unique genetic resources to the well-developed Arabidopsis model. In a search for candidates to begin to understand, through genetic analyses, the biological bases of salt tolerance, 11 wild relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared: Barbarea verna, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hirschfeldia incana, Lepidium densiflorum, Malcolmia triloba, Lepidium virginicum, Descurainia pinnata, Sisymbrium officinale, Thellungiella parvula, Thellungiella salsuginea (previously T. halophila), and Thlaspi arvense. Among these species, highly salt-tolerant (L. densiflorum and L. virginicum) and moderately salt-tolerant (M. triloba and H. incana) species were identified. Only T. parvula revealed a true halophytic habitus, comparable to the better studied Thellungiella salsuginea. Major differences in growth, water transport properties, and ion accumulation are observed and discussed to describe the distinctive traits and physiological responses that can now be studied genetically in salt stress research. 2010 The Author.

  4. Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilschut, M.; Theuws, P.A.W.; Duchhart, I.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. -- Highlights: ► Design can provide a link between the field of science and the field of practice. ► Design translates scientific knowledge into a specific aesthetic spatial composition. ► A landscape framework makes phytoremediation feasible in an urban context. ► Estimated time for phytoremediation conflicts with urban developments. ► Phytoremediation combined with biomass production is a feasible temporal land-use. -- A research by design method can translate scientific knowledge on phytoremediation into an aesthetic spatial composition for a specific site, thereby linking science and practice

  5. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.M.; Japenga, J.; Zhao, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg -1 . A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha -1 yr -1 yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production. - An experimental method is presented to be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a metal contaminated soil

  6. Towards practical cadmium phytoextraction with Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R W; Chaney, R L; Angle, J S; Kruatrachue, M; Klinphoklap, S; Reeves, R D; Bellamy, P

    2015-01-01

    A series of field trials were conducted to investigate the potential of Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey [syn. Thlaspi caerulescens J &C Presl. (see Koch and Al-Shehbaz 2004)] populations (genotypes) derived from southern France to phytoextract localized Cd/Zn contamination in Thailand. Soil treatments included pH variation and fertilization level and application of fungicide. N. caerulescens populations were transplanted to the field plots three months after germination and harvested in May, prior to the onset of seasonal rains. During this period growth was rapid with shoot biomass ranging from 0.93-2.2 g plant(-1) (280-650 kg ha(-1)) DW. Shoot Cd and Zn concentrations for the four populations evaluated ranged from 460-600 and 2600-2900 mg kg(-1) DW respectively. Cadmium and Zn Translocation Factors (shoot/root) for the populations tested ranged from 0.91-1.0 and 1.7-2.1 and Bioaccumulation Factors ranged from 12-15 and 1.2-1.3. We conclude that optimizing the use of fungicidal sprays, acidic soil pH, planting density and increasing the effective cropping period will increase rates of Cd and Zn removal enough to facilitate practical Cd phytoextraction from rice paddy soils in Thailand.

  7. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epelde, Lur; Becerril, Jose M.; Barrutia, Oihana; Gonzalez-Oreja, Jose A.; Garbisu, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the relationships between plant consortia, consisting of 1-4 metallicolous pseudometallophytes with different metal-tolerance strategies (Thlaspi caerulescens: hyperaccumulator; Jasione montana: accumulator; Rumex acetosa: indicator; Festuca rubra: excluder), and their rhizosphere microbial communities were studied in a mine soil polluted with high levels of Cd, Pb and Zn. Physiological response and phytoremediation potential of the studied pseudometallophytes were also investigated. The studied metallicolous populations are tolerant to metal pollution and offer potential for the development of phytoextraction and phytostabilization technologies. T. caerulescens appears very tolerant to metal stress and most suitable for metal phytoextraction; the other three species enhance soil functionality. Soil microbial properties had a stronger effect on plant biomass rather than the other way around (35.2% versus 14.9%). An ecological understanding of how contaminants, ecosystem functions and biological communities interact in the long-term is needed for proper management of these fragile metalliferous ecosystems. - Rhizosphere microbial communities in highly polluted mine soils are determinant for the growth of pseudometallophytes.

  8. Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopmans, G.F. [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre (WUR), P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: gerwin.koopmans@wur.nl; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; Fokkema, M.J. [Alterra, WUR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Song, J.; Luo, Y.M. [Soil and Environmental Bioremediation Research Centre, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Japenga, J. [Alterra, WUR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zhao, F.J. [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg{sup -1}. A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production. - An experimental method is presented to be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a metal contaminated soil.

  9. Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, H.-M. [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Section 2, Academia Road, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-H. [Department of Statistics, National Taipei University, Taiwan (China); Chiou, J.-M. [Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Yeh, K.-C., E-mail: kcyeh@gate.sinica.edu.t [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Section 2, Academia Road, Taipei, Taiwan 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2009-06-15

    Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup. - A quantitative solution enables the evaluation of Zn/Cd phytoextraction.

  10. A comparison of phytoremediation capability of selected plant species for given trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerova, Zuzana; Tlustos, Pavel; Jirina Szakova; Kornelie Sichorova

    2006-01-01

    In our experiment, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn remediation possibilities on medium contaminated soil were investigated. Seven plant species with a different trace element accumulation capacity and remediation potential were compared. We found good accumulation capabilities and remediation effectiveness of Salix dasyclados similar to studied hyperaccumulators (Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens). We have noticed better remediation capability in willow compared to poplar for most of the elements considered in this experiment. On the contrary, poplar species were able to remove a larger portion of Pb as opposed to other species. Nevertheless, the removed volume was very small. The elements found in plant biomass depend substantially on the availability of these elements in the soil. Different element concentrations were determined in natural soil solution and by inorganic salt solution extraction (0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 ). Extracted content almost exceeded the element concentration in the soil solution. Element concentrations in soil solution were not significantly affected by sampling time. - Selected accumulator trees grown on medium contaminated soil may have remediation capacity similar to hyperaccumulator species

  11. Ecological investigations on plant associations in differently disturbed heavy-metal contaminated soils of Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W

    1968-01-01

    In different areas of Great Britain comparing ecological studies have been made on disturbed and undisturbed heavy metal contaminated soils. In Grizedale (Pennine), sampling of an undisturbed transect having high levels of major nutrients showed marked differentiation within a small area, only related to the plant available levels of zinc, copper, and lead. However, studies on disturbed heavy metal soils and spoil-heaps revealed a low water capacity and a low supply of major nutrients, particularly of N and P. These suggest that here both the enrichment of heavy metals and the considerable decrease of other nutrients are important in determining the heavy metal vegetation, and in maintaining it against other species. The quantity of zinc in plants is not related to the total or plant-available amount of zinc in soil, but confirmed physiological experiments on the influence of phosphorus and different zinc compounds (complexed or inorganic) on the uptake and distribution of zinc in Thlaspi alpestre and Minnartia rerum. Also an antagonism between lead and copper was revealed. 24 references.

  12. Seed Detection and Discrimination by Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Are Associated with Olfactory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sharavari S; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Spence, John R; Willenborg, Christian J

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species.

  13. Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, H.-M.; Lin, T.-H.; Chiou, J.-M.; Yeh, K.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup. - A quantitative solution enables the evaluation of Zn/Cd phytoextraction.

  14. Crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana provides insights into its product specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Wenhe; Liu, Zihe; Xie, Yongchao; Wang, Hao; Mu, Yajuan; Huang, Yao; Feng, Yue

    2016-09-16

    Specifier proteins are important components of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, which mediate plant defense against herbivory and pathogen attacks. Upon tissue disruption, glucosinolates are hydrolyzed to instable aglucones by myrosinases, and then aglucones will rearrange to form defensive isothiocyanates. Specifier proteins can redirect this reaction to form other products, such as simple nitriles, epithionitriles and organic thiocyanates instead of isothiocyanates based on the side chain structure of glucosinolate and the type of the specifier proteins. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the different product spectrums of various specifier proteins was not fully understood. Here in this study, we solved the crystal structure of the Epithiospecifier Protein, ESP from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtESP) at 2.3 Å resolution. Structural comparisons with the previously solved structure of thiocyanate forming protein, TFP from Thlaspi arvense (TaTFP) reveal that AtESP shows a dimerization pattern different from TaTFP. Moreover, AtESP harbors a slightly larger active site pocket than TaTFP and several residues around the active site are different between the two proteins, which might account for the different product spectrums of the two proteins. Together, our structural study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of specifier proteins and shed light on the basis of their different product spectrums. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactions between plant and rhizosphere microbial communities in a metalliferous soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelde, Lur [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Department of Ecosystems, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Becerril, Jose M.; Barrutia, Oihana [Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Gonzalez-Oreja, Jose A. [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Department of Ecosystems, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos, E-mail: cgarbisu@neiker.ne [NEIKER-Tecnalia, Department of Ecosystems, c/Berreaga 1, E-48160 Derio (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work, the relationships between plant consortia, consisting of 1-4 metallicolous pseudometallophytes with different metal-tolerance strategies (Thlaspi caerulescens: hyperaccumulator; Jasione montana: accumulator; Rumex acetosa: indicator; Festuca rubra: excluder), and their rhizosphere microbial communities were studied in a mine soil polluted with high levels of Cd, Pb and Zn. Physiological response and phytoremediation potential of the studied pseudometallophytes were also investigated. The studied metallicolous populations are tolerant to metal pollution and offer potential for the development of phytoextraction and phytostabilization technologies. T. caerulescens appears very tolerant to metal stress and most suitable for metal phytoextraction; the other three species enhance soil functionality. Soil microbial properties had a stronger effect on plant biomass rather than the other way around (35.2% versus 14.9%). An ecological understanding of how contaminants, ecosystem functions and biological communities interact in the long-term is needed for proper management of these fragile metalliferous ecosystems. - Rhizosphere microbial communities in highly polluted mine soils are determinant for the growth of pseudometallophytes.

  17. Mid-aortic syndrome with renovascular hypertension and multisystem involvement in a girl with familiar neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Borivoj; Bendova, Sarka; Seeman, Tomas; Klein, Tibor; Lisy, Jiri; Zatrapa, Tomas; Marikova, Tana

    2007-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis von Recklinghausen type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder affecting one in 3 000-4 000 individuals. Mid-aortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare condition characterized by segmental narrowing of abdominal aorta and stenosis of its major branches - mainly renal arteries, including manifestation of renovascular hypertension. MAS can be caused by different diseases, including NF1. A 9 years old girl with primary diagnosis of NF1 combined with renovascular hypertension due to MAS, suffered of bilateral optic and chiasm glioma, pubertas praecox, speech disorder, light mental retardation and scoliosis. We have found a mutation in exone 34 of the NF1 gene (17q11.2). Her father has been also diagnosed with NF1 and hypertension developed at early age. He has the same mutation in exone 34 of NF1 gene. The girl is currently treated with conservative antihypertensive medication with positive effect. Bilateral optic and chiasm glioma are asymptomatic at the time and they had been without progress over period of time. Any vascular surgery, neurosurgical and oncological therapy are not indicated at the present time. This article is a summary of clinical findings in patient with NF1 due to NF1 gene mutation in exone 34. It confirms the importance of complex multidisciplinar approach to examination and taking care of NF1 patients and their families.

  18. The vascular flora of the Tepoš plateau around Pirot city (Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotić, B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the karst plateau Tepoš, which is the part of Vidlič mountain (eastern Serbia was studied. Based on the analysis of the collected material and data from the literature, it was noted that the flora of Tepoš plateau is represented by 486 species, distributed in 284 genera and 68 families of vascular plants. The biological spectra was shown. The hemicriptophytic-terophytic character was established by analyzing the presence of plant life forms. By phytogeographical analysis the presence of 25 area types was established. The euroasian florystic chorion with 258 species of eurasian area type is the most abundant, followed by mediterranean-submediterranean (58 species, central-european (47 species, cosmopolitan (27 species and pontian area type (24 species. In the flora of Tepoš plateau the 9 balkan endemic taxa were recorded, which is 3,14% of total balkan endemic taxa in flora of Serbia. A small number of endemic taxa is expected, considering the low diversity of habitats. Balkan endemic taxa recorded in this area are: Acer hyrcanum subsp. intermedium, Bupleurum flavicans, Crucianella graeca, Eryngium palmatum, Pastinaca hirsuta, Hypericum rumeliacum subsp. rumeliacum, Thymus praecox subsp. jankae, Linaria rubioides subsp. nissana and Viola tricolor subsp. macedonica.

  19. Estudio taxonómico de las especies del género macrobrachium bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decápoda: Palaemonidae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mauricio Valencia López

    2004-07-01

    a prueba ésta hipótesis. M. praecox constituye el único registro para la vertiente del Catatumbo, pero es muy probable que se encuentren representadas otras especies de la vertiente del Caribe. Se recomienda la realización de estudios moleculares interpoblacionales para las especies que se encuentran tanto en la vertiente del Orinoco como en la del Amazonas, para poder establecer con certeza si diferencias consideradas como intraespecíficas puedan tratarse de diferencias interespecíficas. El número de especies de éste género registradas para Colombia puede ser mayor al presentado en éste trabajo, esencialmente por sus características geográficas, y a la escasez de estudios de éste grupo en el país. Esto plantea la necesidad de establecer colecciones en diversas cuencas, por ejemplo las cuencas de los ríos Cauca y Atrato en la vertiente del Caribe, las cuencas de los ríos Tomo y Vichada en la vertiente del Orinoco, la cuenca del río Putumayo en la vertiente del Amazonas, y en toda la vertiente del Catatumbo.

  20. Exploring the biological activity of condensed tannins and nutritional value of tree and shrub leaves from native species of the Argentinean Dry Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elisa M; Cherry, Nicole; Lambert, Barry D; Muir, James P; Nazareno, Mónica A; Arroquy, Jose I

    2017-11-01

    Tropical tree or shrub leaves are an important source of nutrients for ruminants and a potential source of biologically active compounds that may affect ruminal metabolism of nutrients. Therefore, eight woody species from the native flora of Argentinean Dry Chaco, rich in secondary compounds such as condensed tannins (CT), were assessed for their nutritional value, CT fractions and in vitro true digestibility of dry matter, as well as biological activity (BA). Differences among species were found in contents of total phenol, protein-precipitating phenols (PPP), bound proteins to PPP (BP) and BP/PPP (P value and bioactivity among species. Those with the greatest CT were not necessarily those with the most BA. Caesalpinia paraguariensis, S. balansae and L. divaricata were the most promising species as native forage CT sources. Cercidiurm praecox (20.87% CP; 18.14% acid detergent fiber) and Prosopis nigra (19.00% CP; 27.96% acid detergent fiber) showed the best (P ≤ 0.05) nutritive values. According to their nutritive traits, these species might be complementary in grass-based ruminant diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Chicken Coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Penny Humaidah; Kristianingrum, Yuli Purwandari; Wardhana, April Hari; Prastowo, Sigit; da Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a huge problem worldwide. Heavily infected animals that show severe clinical signs and coccidiostat resistance are causing important economic losses. The present study aimed to update the recent cases of coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia, and to show the importance of the disease in the region. A total of 699 samples were obtained from different chicken breed. Different Eimeria species were detected in 175 individuals (25.04%). Three different groups of chicken breed were considered: local chicken (autochthonous chickens of Sentul and Jawa), commercial broiler, and layer. Broiler chickens showed the highest prevalence of infection (34%), followed by layer (26.26%) and local chickens (10.45%). Mild to severe clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were observed in 42% of the infected animals, while 58% of the infected animals showed no clinical signs other than low feed conversion rates. Seven different Eimeria species were identified: E. tenella was the most prevalent (43.3%), followed by E. maxima (26.3%), E. necatrix (15.7%), E. acervulina (8%), E. praecox (3.1%), E. mitis (2.2%), and E. brunetti (1.3%). Coinfections with several Eimeria species were diagnosed. With this study we found massive usage of coccidiostat in the region even though its usage cannot guarantee coccidiosis-free chicken production.

  2. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini and Its Ecological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi. However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26% belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus.

  3. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria haematodi, coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in a rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2015-06-01

    Eimeria haematodi was first described in 1977 from the rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) in Papua New Guinea. In the present study, we re-describe this coccidian species morphologically and molecularly from a rainbow lorikeet bird in Western Australia (WA). The oocysts were ovoid to slightly piriform and measured 28.5-37.8 by 25.8-33.0 µm (33.3 by 28.1 µm). Oocyst wall was approximately 1.5 µm thick and bilayered. Micropyle (5-7 µm) and oocyst residuum (8.0-10.0 µm) present; polar granule was absent. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 11.8-13.6 by 8.0-9.6 µm (12.2 by 8.3 µm), with thin convex Stieda body and granular sporocyst residuum (4.0-5.0 µm). Molecular characterization of E. haematodi was conducted at 18S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI) loci. At the 18S ribosomal RNA locus, E. haematodi shared 98.1% genetic similarity to E. alabamensis from cattle in New South Wales, Australia. At COI locus, E. haematodi was closest (92.3% similarity) to E. praecox from domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from Canada and China. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005) (Leguminosae): multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Silvestri María; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán Ariel; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Lavia, Graciela Inés

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that Arachis porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus. PMID:28919947

  5. Growth and endocrine disorders sequlae to cancer treatment in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkebaek, N.H.; Helgestad, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Growth and endocrinological disturbances are possible late side-effects of cancer treatment in childhood. These side-effects can be treated, thus their discovery is important. The side-effects particularly appear in the years following treatment with irradiation and/or alkylating chemotherapy. After irradiation of the brain or the neck the function of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands should be tested every third month the first year, and later on annually. Two years after the end of treatment, the patient should be examined for growth hormone deficiency. This examination should the be carried out annually. One should be alert to symptoms of pubertas praecox the years prior to puberty. At the age when puberty is expected and therafter one should look for signs of secondary hypogonadism. Primary hypogonadism may follow radiotherapy below the diaphragm and/or treatment with alkylating chemotherapeutics; further, reduced fertility in men and early menopause in woman may follow these treatments. The bone structure of the face and the teeth may be damaged by radiation and chemotherapy, so therefore yearly examination by a dentist with specialty in this subject is recommended. Surgery in order to improve function may be a possibility. (au) (40 refs.)

  6. Growth and endocrine disorders sequlae to cancer treatment in children. Endokrine og vaekstmaessige senfoelger efter cancerbehandling af boern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkebaek, N.H.; Helgestad, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    Growth and endocrinological disturbances are possible late side-effects of cancer treatment in childhood. These side-effects can be treated, thus their discovery is important. The side-effects particularly appear in the years following treatment with irradiation and/or alkylating chemotherapy. After irradiation of the brain or the neck the function of the thyroid and the parathyroid glands should be tested every third month the first year, and later on annually. Two years after the end of treatment, the patient should be examined for growth hormone deficiency. This examination should the be carried out annually. One should be alert to symptoms of pubertas praecox the years prior to puberty. At the age when puberty is expected and therafter one should look for signs of secondary hypogonadism. Primary hypogonadism may follow radiotherapy below the diaphragm and/or treatment with alkylating chemotherapeutics; further, reduced fertility in men and early menopause in woman may follow these treatments. The bone structure of the face and the teeth may be damaged by radiation and chemotherapy, so therefore yearly examination by a dentist with specialty in this subject is recommended. Surgery in order to improve function may be a possibility. (au) (40 refs.).

  7. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-11-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses).

  8. ETNOBOTÁNICA MÉDICA DE LOS INDÍGENAS CHOROTE Y SU COMPARACIÓN CON LA DE LOS CRIOLLOS DEL CHACO SEMIÁRIDO (ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Scarpa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se identifica la farmacopea vegetal que utilizan actualmente los indígenas Chorote del Chaco semiárido argentino. Se registraron 69 especies vegetales, 2 especies de hongos y un liquen con 194 usos medicinales. Se destaca el bajo porcentaje de este tipo de usos respecto al total de datos etnobotánicos recopilados para los Chorote (15 %. De su comparación con la farmacopea criolla se desprende que el 52 % de los datos resulta idéntico, por lo que se concluye que los Chorote habrían adquirido estas prácticas a manera de préstamo cultural. La farmacopea de este pueblo, entonces, fue muy reducida debido a que su medicina tradicional de corte chamanístico no involucraba antaño el uso de remedios de origen vegetal. Entre las plantas medicinales típicamente Chorote se pueden citar a Achatocarpus praecox, Cleistocactus baumannii, Echinopsis rhodotricha y Funastrum clausum. Los usos estrictamente Chorote quedarían así reducidos a 90 aplicaciones en total, principalmente como antiemenagogos, antidiarreicos, antitusivos y cicatrizantes.

  9. Anamorphs of the Bolbitiaceae (Basidiomycota, Agaricales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Grit; Weiss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We describe and illustrate thallic conidiogenesis in 14 species of the Bolbitiaceae sensu Singer studied in culture. Conidiogenesis of 12 species is shown for the first time. Bolbitius vitellinus and the investigated species of Conocybe (C. albipes, C. appendiculata, C. magnicapitata, C. semiglobata, C. subovalis, C. subpubescens, C. sulcatipes and C. teneroides) possessed a similar mode of conidiogenesis. Species of both genera formed mostly coiled conidiogenous hyphae arising sympodially from differentiated conidiophores. The anamorphs of the Agrocybe species were not uniform and predominantly differed from those of Conocybe and Bolbitius. The conidia of Agrocybe dura, A. firma and A. praecox developed by the simple fragmentation of normally branched hyphae. Sympodially proliferating conidiophores occurred in Agrocybe arvalis and A. aegerita. Secretory cells of different size and shape were found in Agrocybe and in Conocybe. Our results corroborate a close phylogenetic relationship between Bolbitius and Conocybe as well as the polyphyly of the Bolbitiaceae as currently treated, which is consistent with recent molecular phylogenetic studies. Consequently we emend the family concept based on anamorphic characters.

  10. Dual inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi applicable in sustainable cultivation improves the yield and nutritive value of onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtova, Jana; Latr, Ales; Nedorost, Ludovit; Pokluda, Robert; Posta, Katalin; Vosatka, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum) (M1) or the single-fungus inoculum of G. intraradices BEG140 (M2) and (2) bark chips preinoculated with saprotrophic fungi (mix of Gymnopilus sp., Agrocybe praecox, and Marasmius androsaceus) (S). The growth response of onion was the highest for the M1 mix treatment, reaching nearly 100% increase in bulb fresh weight. The effectiveness of dual inoculation was proved by more than 50% increase. We observed a strong correlation (r = 0.83) between the growth response of onion bulbs and AM colonization. All inoculation treatments but the single-fungus one enhanced significantly the total antioxidant capacity of bulb biomass, was the highest values being found for M1, S + M1, and S + M2. We observed some induced enhancement of the contents of mineral elements in bulb tissue (Mg and K contents for the M2 and M2, S, and S + M2 treatments, resp.).

  11. Mineralisation of 14C-labelled synthetic lignin and ligninolytic enzyme activities of litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K T; Hofrichter, M; Hatakka, A

    2000-12-01

    Within a screening program, 27 soil litter-decomposing basidiomycetes were tested for ligninolytic enzyme activities using agar-media containing 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate), a humic acid or Mn2+ ions as indicator substrates. Most active species were found within the family Strophariaceae (Agrocybe praecox, Stropharia coronilla, S. rugosoannulata) and used for mineralisation experiments with a 14C-ring-labelled synthetic lignin (14C-DHP). The fungi mineralised around 25% of the lignin to 14CO2 within 12 weeks of incubation in a straw environment; about 20% of the lignin was converted to water-soluble fragments. Mn-peroxidase was found to be the predominant ligninolytic enzyme of all three fungi in liquid culture and its production was strongly enhanced in the presence of Mn2+ ions. The results of this study demonstrate that certain ubiquitous litter-decomposing basidiomycetes possess ligninolytic activities similar to the wood-decaying white-rot fungi, the most efficient lignin degraders in nature.

  12. Dual Inoculation with Mycorrhizal and Saprotrophic Fungi Applicable in Sustainable Cultivation Improves the Yield and Nutritive Value of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Albrechtova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test the use of dual microbial inoculation with mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi in onion cultivation to enhance yield while maintaining or improving the nutritional quality of onion bulbs. Treatments were two-factorial: (1 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF: the mix corresponding to fungal part of commercial product Symbivit (Glomus etunicatum, G. microaggregatum, G. intraradices, G. claroideum, G. mosseae, and G. geosporum (M1 or the single-fungus inoculum of G. intraradices BEG140 (M2 and (2 bark chips preinoculated with saprotrophic fungi (mix of Gymnopilus sp., Agrocybe praecox, and Marasmius androsaceus (S. The growth response of onion was the highest for the M1 mix treatment, reaching nearly 100% increase in bulb fresh weight. The effectiveness of dual inoculation was proved by more than 50% increase. We observed a strong correlation (r=0.83 between the growth response of onion bulbs and AM colonization. All inoculation treatments but the single-fungus one enhanced significantly the total antioxidant capacity of bulb biomass, was the highest values being found for M1, S + M1, and S + M2. We observed some induced enhancement of the contents of mineral elements in bulb tissue (Mg and K contents for the M2 and M2, S, and S+M2 treatments, resp..

  13. Long-term intensive management increased carbon occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) in bamboo forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Chang, Scott X.; Song, Zhao-Liang; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Guo-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) is highly stable at millennium scale and its accumulation in soils can help increase long-term C sequestration. Here, we report that soil PhytOC storage significantly increased with increasing duration under intensive management (mulching and fertilization) in Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) plantations. The PhytOC storage in 0-40 cm soil layer in bamboo plantations increased by 217 Mg C ha-1, 20 years after being converted from paddy fields. The PhytOC accumulated at 79 kg C ha-1 yr-1, a rate far exceeding the global mean long-term soil C accumulation rate of 24 kg C ha-1 yr-1 reported in the literature. Approximately 86% of the increased PhytOC came from the large amount of mulch applied. Our data clearly demonstrate the decadal scale management effect on PhytOC accumulation, suggesting that heavy mulching is a potential method for increasing long-term organic C storage in soils for mitigating global climate change.

  14. Ernst Rüdin’s Unpublished 1922-1925 Study “Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity”: Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin’s seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin’s 1922–1925 study on the inheritance of “manic-depressive insanity” was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 “Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring” (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949

  15. Zonação de comunidade bêntica do entremarés em molhes sob diferente hidrodinamismo na costa norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Zonation of intertidal benthic communities on breakwaters of different hydrodynamics in the north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Masi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende comparar a distribuição vertical da comunidade bêntica na zona entremarés em dois locais compostos por matacões graníticos caracterizados por hidrodinâmica distinta, reflexo da diferença na orientação dos molhes nas praias do Farol de São Tomé (Píer e na Barra do Furado (Barra, norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Quadrados de 400 cm² foram sobrepostos ao longo de três perfis verticais de ambos os sítios e amostrados através do método de fotoquadrats, desde o nível 0,2 m da maré até o limite superior de Littorina spp. O limite superior dos organismos marinhos foi ampliado na Barra (3,8 m em relação ao Píer (2,2 m. Quanto à composição taxonômica, nove espécies foram comuns. Chaetomorpha sp., Chondracanthus teedii (Mertens ex Roth Fredericq e Grateloupia sp. foram exclusivas na Barra, enquanto Tetraclita stalactifera (Lamarck, 1818, Fissurella clench, Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie e Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen in Jacqu. Lamouroux ocorreram somente no Píer. Em ambos os locais, a riqueza e a diversidade de espécies foram superiores nos quadrados intermediários. Os maiores valores foram registrados na Barra. As maiores diferenças nos agrupamentos entre faixas equivalentes de locais distintos ocorreram na faixa eulitorânea superior, seguida pela faixa eulitorânea inferior e franja sublitorânea. Apenas a orla litorânea não revelou diferença significativa entre os locais, mas uma maior extensão desta franja e da faixa eulitorânea superior era bastante evidente. As demais faixas na Barra do Furado foram caracterizadas em grande parte por espécies típicas de ambientes mais expostos como Chaetomorpha sp. na faixa eulitorânea superior e Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 na eulitorânea inferior, além de C. teedii e Ulva fasciata Delile, 1813 na franja sublitorânea. No Píer, as diferentes faixas apresentavam distribuição eqüitativa, refletindo um ambiente menos

  16. Soil geochemical factors regulate Cd accumulation by metal hyperaccumulating Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F.K. Mey in field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Carla E; Chaney, Rufus L; Martínez, Carmen E

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil is a substantial global problem, and of significant concern due to high food-chain transfer. Cadmium hyperaccumulators are of particular interest because of their ability to tolerate and take up significant amounts of heavy metal pollution from soils. One particular plant, Noccaea caerulescens (formerly, Thlaspi caerulescens), has been extensively studied in terms of its capacity to accumulate heavy metals (specifically Zn and Cd), though these studies have primarily utilized hydroponic and metal-spiked model soil systems. We studied Cd and nutrient uptake by two N. caerulescens ecotypes, Prayon (Zn-only hyperaccumulator) and Ganges (Zn- and Cd-hyperaccumulator) in four long-term field-contaminated soils. Our data suggest that individual soil properties such as total soil Cd, Zn:Cd molar ratio, or soil pH do not accurately predict Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. Additionally, total Cd uptake by the hyperaccumulating Ganges ecotype was substantially less than its physiological capacity, which is likely due to Cd-containing solid phases (primarily iron oxides) and pH that play an important role in regulating and limiting Cd solubility. Increased P accumulation in the Ganges leaves, and greater plant Fe accumulation from Cd-containing soils suggests that rhizosphere alterations via proton, and potentially organic acid, secretion may also play a role in nutrient and Cd acquisition by the plant roots. The current study highlights the role that soil geochemical factors play in influencing Cd uptake by hyperaccumulating plants. While these plants may have high physiological potential to accumulate metals from contaminated soils, individual soil geochemical factors and the plant-soil interactions in that soil will dictate the actual amount of phytoextractable metal. This underlines the need for site-specific understanding of metal-containing solid phases and geochemical properties of soils before undertaking phytoextraction efforts

  17. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato cv. Rutgers was also included as a susceptible host and had the highest Pf/Pi value of 13.7. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Erysimum cheiranthoides, Eupatorium maculatum, Matricaria matricarioides, Polygonum scabrum, Thalictrum pubescens, Veronica agrestis, and Sium suave are new host records for M. hapla. Bidens cernua, B. frondosa, B. wulgata, D. carota, M. matricarioides, Pasticana sativa, P. scabrum, S. suave, and Thlaspi arvense sustained moderate to high galling by M. hapla and supported high M. hapla production (12.4 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 2.9). Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Gnaphalium uliginosum, Stellaria media, and Veronica agrestis sustained moderate galling and supported moderate M. hapla reproduction (2.8 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.5). Chenopodium album, C. glaucum, E. cheiranthoides, P. convolvulus, Portulaca oleracea, and Rorippa islandica supported low reproduction (0.25 ≤ Pf/Pi ≥ 0.02) and sustained low galling. Galling was observed on Senecio vulgaris but no eggs or juveniles; thus, S. vulgaris may be useful as a trap plant. Eupatorium maculatum, and T. pubescens harbored no distinct galling but supported low to moderate M. hapla reproduction, respectively. Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Echinochloa crusgalli, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera parviflora, Panicum capillare, Setaria glauca, S. viridis, and Solidago canadensis were nonhosts. Our results demonstrate the importance of adequate weed control in an integrated program

  18. Chelant-assisted phytoextraction and accumulation of Zn by Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheju, M; Stelescu, I

    2013-10-15

    Zea mays plants were exposed to soils with concentrations of Zn ranging from 64 to 1800 mg kg(-1) dw, and the efficiency of three selected chelating agents (trisodium citrate (CI), disodium oxalate (OX) and disodium dihydrogen ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate (EDTA)) in enhancing metal phytoextraction was compared. Zn concentration in plant tissues increased in conjunction with the metal concentration of the soil. EDTA was found to be the most efficient chelating amendment, increasing concentrations of Zn in shoots from 88 mg kg(-1) dw, at 64 mg kg(-1) dw soil, to 8026 mg kg(-1) dw at 1800 mg kg(-1) dw soil. The overall orders of BCFs and TFs which resulted from this study are: EDTA > H2O > OX > CI, and EDTANa2 > OX > CI > H2O, respectively. The more effective uptake of Zn by plants for the control treatment (distilled water only) than for CI and OX was attributed to the neutral or slightly alkaline pH of the two chelant irrigation solutions. Instead, EDTA had a favorable effect on Zn uptake from soil due to its additive chelating and acidifying properties. Among the three chelants, only EDTA significantly increased the Zn phytoextraction potential of Z. mays, while CI and OX induced a low metal uptake from soil by plants. Although Z. mays has a lower Zn accumulation capacity than the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, it could be considered as a potential phytoremediator of soils with elevated Zn concentrations, especially when metal pollution extends to depths greater than 20 cm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of phyto-available cadmium in soils using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Emilie

    2000-01-01

    The quantification of phyto-available Cd in soils is necessary to determine the transfer risk of this toxic element to plants. Isotopic methods (isotopic exchange kinetics (IEK), isotopic dilution) were used to characterize the phyto-available Cd and, practically, to select chemical methods for determining available Cd to plants. Rye grass (Lolium perenne L.), lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) and the Cd hyper-accumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl. and C. Presl. were selected as test plants because of their wide range of Cd uptake ability. The chosen soils had different pH and displayed a Cd-contamination gradient due the atmospheric deposition of industrial particles. In the acidic soil, plants had access to the same metal pool, the one that was isotopically exchangeable with Cd 2+ . This was also the case for rye grass on the calcareous Soils but there, lettuce and T. caerulescens accessed a bigger and non-isotopically exchangeable pool that accounted for 16 to 52 % of the plant available Cd. Most of the Cd was isotopically exchangeable in a short time in the acidic soil (87 % within 21 days). In the calcareous soils two pools were identified, one pool was isotopically exchangeable in a very short time, and the other one Was not exchangeable after 21 days (21 to 10 % of the total Cd). Actually, the quantities of labile cd in the industrial particles which had contaminated these soils were very small. IEK methods and the measurement of the isotopic composition of Cd 2+ in soil solutions allowed for the estimation of the phyto-available Cd in soils, but cannot he commonly used. Most of the chemical extractants studied such as CaCl 2 or DTP A are suitable to assess the phyto-available Cd. However, on calcareous soils, the choice of extractant needs to sometimes be modified in relation to the rate of Cd plant absorption. (author) [fr

  20. Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Teresa E.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Chin, Mel; Charvat, Iris

    2000-01-01

    Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments. PMID:10831433

  1. Sustainable commercialization of new crops for the agricultural bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diversification of agroecological systems to enhance agrobiodiversity is likely to be critical to advancing environmental, economic, and social sustainability of agriculture. Temperate-zone agroecological systems that are currently organized for production of summer-annual crops can be diversified by integration of fallow-season and perennial crops. Integration of such crops can improve sustainability of these agroecological systems, with minimal interference with current agricultural production. Importantly, these crops can provide feedstocks for a wide range of new bio-products that are forming a new agricultural bioeconomy, potentially providing greatly increased economic incentives for diversification. However, while there are many fallow-season and perennial crops that might be used in such a “bioeconomic” strategy for diversification, most are not yet well adapted and highly-marketable. Efforts are underway to enhance adaptation and marketability of many such crops. Critically, these efforts require a strategic approach that addresses the inherent complexity of these projects. We outline a suitable approach, which we term “sustainable commercialization”: a coordinated innovation process that integrates a new crop into the agriculture of a region, while intentionally addressing economic, environmental and social sustainability challenges via multi-stakeholder governance. This approach centers on a concerted effort to coordinate and govern innovation in three critical areas: germplasm development, multifunctional agroecosystem design and management, and development of end uses, supply chains, and markets. To exemplify the approach, we describe an ongoing effort to commercialize a new fallow-season crop, field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L..

  2. Effects of long-term reduced tillage on weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated weed infestation of pea (Pisum sativum L. cultivated under conditions of conventional (CT, reduced (RT and herbicide tillage (HT. It demonstrated the highest weed density per m2 in plots with the herbicide (HT and reduced (RT systems and significantly lower weed infestation in plots cultivated in the conventional system (CT. In addition, more weeds occurred at the third leaf stage (13/14 in BBCH scale than at the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH of pea. The highest biomass was produced by weeds in the herbicide system (HT, a lower one – in the reduced system (RT, and the lowest one – in the conventional system (CT. The air-dry weight of weeds depended also on pea development stage. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the air-dry weight of weeds was significantly higher than at the third leaf stage (13/14 BBCH. The tillage system was also observed to influence the species composition of weeds. This trait was also affected by the period of weed infestation assessment. At the third leaf stage of pea (13/14 BBCH, there occurred 26 weed species, including 24 annual ones. The most abundant species included: Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L. Med., Matricaria inodora L., Thlaspi arvense L., and Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve. At the pod development stage (73/74 BBCH, the pea crop was colonized by 24 weed species, including 3 perennial ones. At this stage the predominant species included: Avena fatua L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Papaver rhoeas L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P.B., Matricaria inodora L., and Galeopsis tetrahit L.

  3. Weed species diversity in organic and integrated farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological data were collected in 1994–1996 in plots (relevés at the Research Station for Organic Farming and Conservation Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno included in a large-area experiment conducted according to the concept and method proposed by Prof. S. Nawrocki. In a four-field crop rotation (root crops – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses – red clover/grass mixture – winter triticale, each field was divided into two management units, organic and integrated. Data were collected in relevés by the Braun-Blanquet method, each year at the peak of the growing season. Weed abundance (% cover in cultivated fields and the number of weed species (species richness in crops were determined, which provided a basis for calculating the Shannon-Wiener indices of species diversity and evenness, and the Rényi profiles. The qualitative (species and quantitative structure of weed communities was compared using the Sørensen index. A total of 115 weed taxa (species, subspecies and varieties were identified in the examined agro-phytocenoses. Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense and Stellaria media were the most abundant. Weed infestation was slightly higher in the organic farming system than in the integrated system. Organic farming contributed to higher weed species diversity in root crops, red clover/grass mixtures and winter triticale. Weed species richness was reduced in red clover/grass stands, while root crops and – to a lesser degree – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses decreased weed species diversity. The species composition and in particular the quantitative structure of weeds were affected by crop species and cultivation regime rather than by the farming system. Weed communities of crops grown under organic and integrated farming systems were more similar with regard to species composition

  4. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  5. The genealogy of major depression: symptoms and signs of melancholia from 1880 to 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2017-11-01

    How deep are the historical roots of our concept of major depression (MD)? I showed previously that psychiatric textbooks published in 1900-1960 commonly described 18 characteristic depressive symptoms/signs that substantially but incompletely overlapped with the current DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) MD criteria. I here expand that inquiry to the key years of 1880-1900 during which our major diagnostic categories of manic-depressive illness (MDI) and dementia praecox were developed. I review the symptoms of depression/melancholia in 28 psychiatric textbooks and 8 other relevant documents from this period including monographs, reviews and the first portrayal of melancholia Kraepelin in 1883. Descriptions of melancholia in the late nineteenth and twentieth century textbooks closely resembled each other, both reporting a mean of 12.4 characteristic symptoms, and emphasizing core features of mood change and alterations in cognitive content and psychomotor behavior. The detailed monographs, reviews and the early description of Kraepelin were more thorough, reporting a mean of 16.6 of these characteristic symptoms. These nineteenth century texts often contained phenomenologically rich descriptions of changes in mood and cognition, loss of interest and anhedonia and emphasized several features not in DSM including changes in volition/motivation, posture/facial expression and derealization/depersonalization. In the early nineteenth century, melancholia was often defined primarily by delusions or as the initial phase of a unitary psychosis transitioning to mania and then dementia. By 1880, the concept of depression as an independent mood disorder with characteristic symptoms/signs and a good prognosis had stabilized. Kraepelin incorporated this syndrome into his diagnostic concept of MDI, changing its name to 'Depressive States', but did not alter its underlying nature or clinical description.

  6. Validation of a quantitative Eimeria spp. PCR for fresh droppings of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Ter Veen, C; Dijkman, R; Landman, W J M

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the seven chicken Eimeria spp. was modified and validated for direct use on fresh droppings. The analytical specificity of the qPCR on droppings was 100%. Its analytical sensitivity (non-sporulated oocysts/g droppings) was 41 for E. acervulina, ≤2900 for E. brunetti, 710 for E. praecox, 1500 for E. necatrix, 190 for E. tenella, 640 for E. maxima, and 1100 for E. mitis. Field validation of the qPCR was done using droppings with non-sporulated oocysts from 19 broiler flocks. To reduce the number of qPCR tests five grams of each pooled sample (consisting of ten fresh droppings) per time point were blended into one mixed sample. Comparison of the oocysts per gram (OPG)-counting method with the qPCR using pooled samples (n = 1180) yielded a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76-0.80) and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.81) using mixed samples (n = 236). Comparison of the average of the OPG-counts of the five pooled samples with the mixed sample per time point (n = 236) showed a Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95) for the OPG-counting method and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84-0.90) for the qPCR. This indicates that mixed samples are practically equivalent to the mean of five pooled samples. The good correlation between the OPG-counting method and the qPCR was further confirmed by the visual agreement between the total oocyst/g shedding patterns measured with both techniques in the 19 broiler flocks using the mixed samples.

  7. Cryptic Eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Thenmozhi, V; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Ayoade, Simeon; Fornace, Kimberly M; Jatau, Isa Danladi; Moftah, Abdalgader; Nolan, Matthew J; Sudhakar, N R; Adebambo, A O; Lawal, I A; Álvarez Zapata, Ramón; Awuni, Joseph A; Chapman, H David; Karimuribo, Esron; Mugasa, Claire M; Namangala, Boniface; Rushton, Jonathan; Suo, Xun; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Tewari, Anup K; Banerjee, Partha S; Dhinakar Raj, G; Raman, M; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2016-08-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. Understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. Eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. Despite having significant negative impacts on the efficiency of food production, many fundamental questions relating to the global distribution and genetic variation of Eimeria spp. remain largely unanswered. Here, we provide the broadest map yet of Eimeria occurrence for domestic chickens, confirming that all the known species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria tenella) are present in all six continents where chickens are found (including 21 countries). Analysis of 248 internal transcribed spacer sequences derived from 17 countries provided evidence of possible allopatric diversity for species such as E. tenella (FST values ⩽0.34) but not E. acervulina and E. mitis, and highlighted a trend towards widespread genetic variance. We found that three genetic variants described previously only in Australia and southern Africa (operational taxonomic units x, y and z) have a wide distribution across the southern, but not the northern hemisphere. While the drivers for such a polarised distribution of these operational taxonomic unit genotypes remains unclear, the occurrence of genetically variant Eimeria may pose a risk to food security and animal welfare in Europe and North America should these parasites spread to the northern hemisphere. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Nosological status and definition of schizophrenia: Some considerations for DSM-V and ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Maj, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Although dementia praecox or schizophrenia has been considered a unique disease entity for the past century, its definitions and boundaries have varied over this period. In this article, we examine the changing conceptualization of schizophrenia over the past 100 years and make some recommendations with regards to its definition in DSM-V and ICD-11. We summarize clinical features of schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology, course, and outcome. We examine factors that lead to changing definitions of a disorder such as schizophrenia, with specific reference to the evolution of its definition from DSM-1 (American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 1952) to the current DSM-IV-TR. Efforts to elucidate the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia have been hampered by its imprecise definition and continuing transformations in its conceptualization. The definition of schizophrenia, at any given time, has been influenced by available diagnostic tools and treatments, other clinical considerations, extant knowledge and scientific paradigms. It is now clear that schizophrenia does not represent a single disease with a unitary etiology or pathogenetic process. Despite limitations in the concept, however, alternative approaches thus far have been unsuccessful in better defining the syndrome of schizophrenia or its component entities. Whereas changing definitions of schizophrenia might impede research into its nature and development of more effective treatments, only a better understanding of schizophrenia can lead to its more precise definition. We consider the implications of our observations for DSM-V and ICD-11 definitions of schizophrenia and summarize some emerging preliminary recommendations. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrolytic and ligninolytic enzyme activities in the Pb contaminated soil inoculated with litter-decomposing fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Mika A; Lankinen, Pauliina; Hatakka, Annele

    2008-06-01

    The impact of Pb contamination was tested to five hydrolytic (beta-glucosidase, beta-xylosidase, beta-cellobiosidase, alpha-glucosidase and sulphatase) and two ligninolytic (manganese peroxidase, MnP and laccase) enzyme activities in the humus layer in the forest soil. The ability of eight selected litter-degrading fungi to grow and produce extracellular enzymes in the heavily Pb (40 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) contaminated and non-contaminated soil in the non-sterile conditions was also studied. The Pb content in the test soil was close to that of the shooting range at Hälvälä (37 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) in Southern Finland. The fungi were Agaricus bisporus, Agrocybe praecox, Gymnopus peronatus, Gymnopilus sapineus, Mycena galericulata, Gymnopilus luteofolius, Stropharia aeruginosa and Stropharia rugosoannulata. The Pb contamination (40 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) was deleterious to all five studied hydrolytic enzyme activities after five weeks of incubation. All five hydrolytic enzyme activities were significantly higher in the soil than in the extract of the soil indicating that a considerable part of enzymes were particle bound in the soils. Hydrolytic enzyme activities were higher in the non-contaminated soil than in the Pb contaminated soil. Fungal inocula increased the hydrolytic enzyme activities beta-cellobiosidase and beta-glucosidase in non-contaminated soils. All five hydrolytic enzyme activities were similar with fungi and without fungi in the Pb contaminated soil. This was in line that Pb contamination (40 g Pb of kg ww soil(-1)) depressed the growth of all fungi compared to those grown without Pb in the soil. Laccase and MnP activities were low in both Pb contaminated and non-contaminated soil cultures. MnP activities were higher in soil cultures containing Pb than without Pb. Our results showed that Pb in the shooting ranges decreased fungal growth and microbial functioning in the soil.

  10. Removal and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, K T; Hatakka, A [Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Hofrichter, M [Unit of Environmental Biotechnology, International Graduate School Zittau, Zittau (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Nine strains of litter-decomposing fungi, representing eight species of agaric basidiomycetes, were tested for their ability to remove a mixture of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (total 60 mg l{sup -1}) comprising anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in liquid culture. All strains were able to convert this mixture to some extent, but considerable differences in degradative activity were observed depending on the species, the Mn(II) concentration, and the particular PAH. Stropharia rugosoannulata was the most efficient degrader, removing or transforming BaP almost completely and about 95% of anthracene and 85% of pyrene, in cultures supplemented with 200 {mu}M Mn(II), within 6 weeks. In contrast less than 40, 18, and 50% BaP, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, were degraded in the absence of supplemental Mn(II). In the case of Stropharia coronilla, the presence of Mn(II) led to a 20-fold increase of anthracene conversion. The effect of manganese could be attributed to the stimulation of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The maximum activity of MnP increased in S. rugosoannulata cultures from 10 U l{sup -1} in the absence of Mn(II) to 320 U l{sup -1} in Mn(II)-supplemented cultures. The latter degraded about 6% of a {sup 14}C-labeled BaP into {sup 14}CO{sub 2} whereas only 0.7% was mineralized in the absence of Mn(II). In solid-state straw cultures, S. rugosoannulata, S. coronilla and Agrocybe praecox mineralized between 4 and 6% of {sup 14}C-labeled BaP within 12 weeks. (orig.)

  11. Microbial competition, lack in macronutrients, and acidity as main obstacles to the transfer of basidiomycetous ground fungi into (organically or heavy-metal contaminated) soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramss, Gerhard; Bergmann, Hans

    2007-08-01

    Non-symbiotic soil microorganisms which have been expensively engineered or selected to support plant nutrition, control root diseases, degrade xenobiotic hydrocarbons, and repress or stimulate heavy metal uptake of plants fail to survive in target soils. This prompted studies into the role of chemistry and microbial pre-colonization of 23 top soils in long-term growth of basidiomycetes. Fungi are seen as auxiliary agents in soil remediation. Untreated soils (1.5 L) were colonized by lignocellulose preferring ground fungi such as Agaricus aestivalis, A. bisporus, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrocarpus, A. porphyrizon, Agrocybe dura, A. praecox, Clitocybe sp., Coprinus comatus, Lepista nuda, L. sordida, Macrolepiota excoriata, M. procera, Stropharia coronilla, and S. rugoso-annulata. Spawn mycelia of fairy-ring-type fungi such as Agaricus arvensis, A. fissuratus, A. langei, A. lanipes, A. pilatianus, Lyophyllum sp., and Marasmius oreades died back in contact with non-sterile soils. Fungal growth correlated positively with the soils' Ct Ca K Mg content and negatively with microbial CO2 evolution. Pasteurization and autoclaving increased mycelial growth and life span in soils pH 6.6-8.2. Growth of pH-sensitive but not of pH-tolerant fungi was inhibited on the Ca-deficient soils pH 4-4.4 (-5.6) and was not improved by autoclaving. The pretended fungistasis of acid soils to pH-sensitive fungi was controlled by N P K mineral (pH not altering) or organic (pH increasing) fertilizing as well as by neutralization with NaOH or CaCO3. Although microbial competition was mortal to 33% of the fungal mycelia inserted into natural unplanted soils, further seriously antifungal effects beyond those pretended by low pH conditions and shortage in mineral macronutrients were not identified.

  12. Removal and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by litter-decomposing basidiomycetous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K T; Hatakka, A; Hofrichter, M

    2002-10-01

    Nine strains of litter-decomposing fungi, representing eight species of agaric basidiomycetes, were tested for their ability to remove a mixture of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (total 60 mg l(-1)) comprising anthracene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in liquid culture. All strains were able to convert this mixture to some extent, but considerable differences in degradative activity were observed depending on the species, the Mn(II) concentration, and the particular PAH. Stropharia rugosoannulata was the most efficient degrader, removing or transforming BaP almost completely and about 95% of anthracene and 85% of pyrene, in cultures supplemented with 200 micro M Mn(II), within 6 weeks. In contrast less than 40, 18, and 50% BaP, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, were degraded in the absence of supplemental Mn(II). In the case of Stropharia coronilla, the presence of Mn(II) led to a 20-fold increase of anthracene conversion. The effect of manganese could be attributed to the stimulation of manganese peroxidase (MnP). The maximum activity of MnP increased in S. rugosoannulata cultures from 10 U l(-1) in the absence of Mn(II) to 320 U l(-1) in Mn(II)-supplemented cultures. The latter degraded about 6% of a (14)C-labeled BaP into (14)CO(2) whereas only 0.7% was mineralized in the absence of Mn(II). In solid-state straw cultures, S. rugosoannulata, S. coronilla and Agrocybe praecox mineralized between 4 and 6% of (14)C-labeled BaP within 12 weeks.

  13. Crecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas de cinco especies de Acacia (Fabaceae, que coexisten en bosques secos neotropicales de Argentina, en distintas condiciones de disponibilidad de luz y agua

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    Paula Venier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la plántula es una de las etapas más riesgosas para las plantas, especialmente en zonas áridas y semiáridas donde la sequía y alta radiación solar influyen sobre su emergencia, desarrollo y supervivencia. Se evaluó en invernadero la supervivencia y variables de crecimiento en plántulas sometidas a estrés hídrico y a distintas condiciones de luz, en cinco especies de Acacia (A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii y A. praecox que coexisten en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba, Argentina. Aunque se encontraron diferencias entre las especies (F=5.66, p=0.001, todas tuvieron altos porcentajes de supervivencia en las distintas condiciones de luz y agua, sugiriendo que serían tolerantes al estrés hídrico y podrían establecerse bajo luz o sombra. Si bien todas las especies mejoraron el crecimiento con luz y sin estrés hídrico, A. aroma, A. caven y A. atramentaria mostraron una tendencia hacia un mayor crecimiento en la mayoría de las variables consideradas (F=41.9, p<0.0001; F=7.06, p<0.0001; F=53.59, p<0.0001. Estos resultados sumados a otros ya reportados indicarían una diferenciación de nichos regenerativos favoreciendo la coexistencia regional de estas especies en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba.

  14. [Long-term follow-up of patients with suprasellar germinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauditz, Juergen; Lochs, Herbert; Ventz, Manfred

    2007-10-15

    Suprasellar germinomas are rare intracranial neoplasms, which mainly occur in children and adolescents and manifest with endocrine symptoms and/or compression syndromes. The clinical, hormonal and morphological findings as well as treatment and complications were investigated in seven patients (six male, one female) with germinomas. Mean age at diagnosis was 19.7 years (range 15-32 years). First disease-related symptoms were diabetes insipidus (three patients), loss of libido (two patients), pseudopubertas praecox (one patient), and dwarfism (one patient). However, decisive symptoms leading to final diagnosis were visual disturbances (five patients), pubertas tarda (one patient), and hypogonadism (one patient). All patients were treated by transcranial radiation with a dose of 40-54 Gy. One patient received additional chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (PEI). Patients were followed up for 14.6 years (range 7-27 years). Intracranial and pulmonary relapses were observed in two patients. Panhypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus were seen in all patients after treatment. Two patients suffered from loss of vision, two further patients from unilateral amaurosis. One patient developed epilepsy and persistent cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up shows that two patients died from recurrent disease and decompensated liver cirrhosis, respectively. The other patients are long-term survivors. Full social integration with employment was possible in one case. Suprasellar germinomas cause endocrine symptoms during early tumor stages, however, diagnosis is generally established when ocular symptoms related to tumor compression are already present. Long-term survival is characterized by panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and, partly, ocular or cerebral defects.

  15. Wild food plants used by the Tibetans of Gongba Valley (Zhouqu county, Gansu, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethnobotany of Tibetans is a seriously under-studied topic. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in a valley inhabited by Tibetans in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region. Methods The field research was carried out in a wooded mountain valley in 9 neighbouring villages the Zhouqu (Brugchu) county, and comprised 17 interviews with single informants and 14 group interviews, involving 122 people altogether. Results We recorded the use of 81 species of vascular plants from 41 families. Fruits formed the largest category, with 42 species, larger than the wild greens category, with 36 species. We also recorded the culinary use of 5 species of edible flowers, 7 species with underground edible organs and 5 taxa of fungi. On average, 16.2 edible taxa were listed per interview (median – 16). Green vegetables formed the largest category of wild foods (mean – 8.7 species, median – 9 species), but fruits were listed nearly as frequently (mean – 6.9, median – 6). Other categories were rarely mentioned: flowers (mean – 0.2, median – 0), underground edible parts (mean – 0.3, median – 0) and mushrooms (mean – 1.5, – median 1). Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes (cai). They are often lacto-fermented. Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild vegetables are: Eleuterococcus spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Helwingia japonica, Aralia chinensis, Allium victorialis, Pteridium aquilinum, Ixeris chinensis, Thlaspi arvense and Chenopodium album. The culinary use of Caltha palustris as a green vegetable is very interesting. In its raw state, marsh marigold is a toxic plant, due to the presence of protoanemonin. In this area it is dried or lactofermented before use. The most commonly eaten fruits are: Pyrus xerophila, Prunus salicina, Berchemia sinica, Rubus spp. and Eleagnus umbellata. Conclusions The

  16. Impact of different soil cultivation on weed species in winter rape (oilseed

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    Jan Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A community of weeds and crops is affected by a number of factors, including, among other things, also tillage. In the years 2000–2002, the composition of weed species in rape stands was evaluated on the fields with the total area of 551 hectares (1 hectar equals to some 2.47 acres. The evaluation was carried out with the application of methodology developed by Kühn (1982. On the fields located in the cadastral area of Olomouc – Holice, which had been cultivated in a traditional manner, 115 relevés were recorded. On the fields in the cadastral area of Bohuňovice, which had been cultivated with the application of reduced tillage, 97 relevés were recorded and evaluated. All of the above fields were subjected to the application of chemical agents reducing the occurrence of weeds. The data thus received were processed by means of multidimensional analysis of ecological data with the application of a RDA method (Redundancy Analysis. In the course of three years, 75 weed species were found on the fields under conventional tillage, on the average, 8.2 species per a relevé, while 66 weed species were found during the same period of time on the fields cultivated by means of reduced tillage, on the average, 8.6 species per a relevé. The application of RDA analysis enabled us to sort out the selected species of weeds (i.e. those the frequency of occurrence of which exceeded 15 % into three groups. The conditions provided by the conventional tillage appeared to be more satisfactory for the weed species included in the first group (Arctium tomentosum, Elytrigia repens, Helianthus tuberosus, Chenopodium album, Lolium perenne and Papaver rhoeas. The species included in the second group, i.e. Alsinula media, Apera spica-venti, Atriplex patula, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Equisetum arvense, Fallopia convolvulus, Myosotis arvensis and Thlaspi arvense., responded to reduced tillage by the increase in cover or by increased frequency of

  17. Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Hermann; Słomka, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current

  18. Nutrient cycling potential of camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz.) as a cover crop in the US Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Marisol; Samarappuli, Dulan

    2017-04-01

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize-soybean-wheat cropping systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the agronomic performance and nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina in comparison with other common cover crops. Experiments were conducted in Fargo, ND in 2015 and 2016, and in Prosper, ND in 2015. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. The main plot was the sowing date and the subplot were camelina cultivars as well as other common cover crops in the area. Sowing dates were targeted to 15 August and September 1, although the final dates varied slightly each year. Biomass yield, N content of the biomass N uptake and P uptake was evaluated. Winter camelina N and P uptake ranged between 21 and 30.5 kg N ha-1 and 3.4 to 5.3 kg P ha-1. The nutrient scavenging potential of winter camelina was similar to other cover crops although slightly lower than turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars which had significantly higher P uptake than winter camelina and the other cover crops in the study. An evaluation of spring regrowth and cover indicated that only rye, winter camelina, and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) survived the winter, although a few plants of triticale (x Trticosecale Witt.) and rape were found on a few plots. Because of the high variability on the plots there were no significant differences among the surviving cover crops on soil coverage. The soil coverage for rye cultivars was 25 and 35% and for camelina cv. Bison was 27%.In 2016, biomass yield was not significant for sowing date, cultivars, or their interaction. Winter camelina cultivars biomass yield fluctuated between 1.15 and 2.33 Mg dry matter ha-1 on the first sowing

  19. Eimeria Oocyst Concentrations and Species Composition in Litter from Commercial Broiler Farms During Anticoccidial Drug or Live Eimeria Oocyst Vaccine Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Ritter, Donald

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs and if there was a correlation between Eimeria oocyst levels and broiler performance. Litter samples were collected from a total of 15 different broiler farms encompassing a total of 45 individual houses during at least one complete grow-out cycle over a 21-mo period. Of these 15 broiler farms, three were followed for the entire 21-mo period spanning three ACD and four VAC cycles. Samples were collected at 2, 4, and 7-8 wk of grow-out corresponding to starter, grower, and withdraw periods of the ACD cycle. On a number of occasions, litter samples were obtained just prior to chick placement. Eimeria oocysts were isolated from all samples, counted by microscopy, and extracted for DNA to identify Eimeria species by ITS1 PCR. In general, Eimeria oocyst concentration in litter reached peak levels at 2-4 wk of grow-out regardless of coccidiosis control measure being used. However, peak oocyst numbers were sometimes delayed until 7-8 wk, indicating some level of Eimeria spp. drug resistance or incomplete vaccine coverage. Eimeria maxima , Eimeria acervulina , Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella were generally present in all samples, and no difference in the species composition was noted between houses on a particular farm. While Eimeria species composition was similar among houses, Eimeria spp. oocyst levels exhibited sporadic peaks in one house of a given location's houses. Of particular interest was the observed correlation between E. maxima oocyst abundance and chick mortality. However, no correlation was observed in E. maxima oocyst levels, and the performance parameters adjusted feed conversion ratio and average daily weight gain. This study showed that understanding the dynamics of Eimeria spp. oocyst levels and species

  20. Polyphenolic compounds and essential oil analysis of selected species of the genus Thymus / Analýza fenolových zložiek a analýza silice vybraných druhov rodu Thymus

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    Kameníková M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Predložena praca bola zamerana na stanovenie obsahu vybranych fenolovych zlučenin (celkove fenoly, triesloviny, flavonoidy a antokyany troch roznych druhov rodu Thymus (T. pulegioides, T. pannonicus, T. praecox s rozdielnym povodom (Českomoravska vrchovina, Křivoklat a Považsky Inovec. Na stanovenie tychto zložiek boli využite spektrofotometricke metody Europskeho liekopisu, 8. vydanie. Zaroveň bol stanoveny aj obsah silice a bola vykonana analyza jej zložiek. Obsah celkovych polyfenolov bol stanoveny spektrofotometrickou metodou s využitim Folin-Ciocalteovho činidla. Obsah kolisal od 3.87 % do 8,86 %. Obsah trieslovin bol realizovany na zaklade predošleho stanovenia obsahu celkovych fenolov, a to adsorpciou trieslovin na kožny prašok. Ich obsah sa pohyboval v rozmedzi 1,96 % do 5,65 %. Na stanovenie obsahu flavonoidov bola využita spektrofotometricka metoda s chloridom hlinitym. Obsah flavonoidov vyjadrenych ako luteolin-7-O-glukozid (λ = 392 nm kolisal od 0,59 % do 1,52 % a obsah flavonoidov vyjadrenych ako rutin (λ = 420 nm sa pohyboval v rozmedzi od 0,41 % do 1,12 %. Antokyany zaberaju v ramci fenolovych zložiek rodu Thymus len minimalny podiel. V našich vzorkach bol obsah antokyanov vyjadreny ako cyanidin-3- O-glukozid a kolisal od 0,02 % do 0,1 %. Na stanovenie obsahu silice bola využita metoda Europskeho liekopisu, 8.vydanie. Obsah silice sa pohyboval v rozmedzi od 0,2 % do 0,75 %. Na analyzu silice bola nasledne využita metoda plynovej chromatografie s hmotnostnou spektrometriou. Na zaklade tejto analyzy bola zistena pritomnosť troch chemotypov silice, a to tymoloveho, karvakroloveho a linalooloveho chemotypu. Vďaka variaciami chemickeho zloženia silice, bolo možne pozorovať vzťah medzi pritomnosťou určiteho chemotypu a povodom vzorky. Rozdiely v stanoveni obsahu flavonoidov nepreukazali žiadny vyrazny vzťah k lokalite povodu.

  1. Phenomenology of Schizophrenia and the Representativeness of Modern Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-10-01

    This article aims to determine the degree to which modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect the main clinical features of the disorder as described historically by diagnostic experts. Amazon.com, the National Library of Medicine, and Forgottenbooks.com were searched for articles written or translated into English from 1900 to 1960. Clinical descriptions of schizophrenia or dementia praecox appearing in 16 textbooks or review articles published between 1899 and 1956 were reviewed and compared with the criteria for schizophrenia from 6 modern US operationalized diagnostic systems. Twenty prominent symptoms and signs were reported by 5 or more authors. A strong association was seen between the frequency with which the symptoms/signs were reported and the likelihood of their presence in modern diagnostic systems. Of these 20 symptoms/signs, 3 (thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) were included in all diagnostic systems and were among the 4 most frequently reported. Three symptoms/signs were added then kept in subsequent criteria: emotional blunting, changes in volition, and changes in social life. Three symptoms/signs were added but then dropped: bizarre delusions, passivity symptoms, and mood incongruity. Eleven symptoms/signs were never included in any diagnostic system. Compared with historical authors, modern criteria favored symptoms over signs. Odd movements and postures, noted by 16 of 18 historical authors, were absent from all modern criteria. DSM-5 criteria contain 6 of the 20 historically noted symptoms/signs. Although modern operationalized criteria for schizophrenia reflect symptoms and signs commonly reported by historical experts, many clinical features emphasized by these experts are absent from modern criteria. This is not necessarily problematic as diagnostic criteria are meant to index rather than thoroughly describe syndromes. However, the lack of correspondence in schizophrenia between historically important

  2. Coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R B; Thebo, P; Marshall, R N; Marshall, J A

    2010-05-01

    Preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa N.D. Levine, 1970) as type-specimens of newly described species has long been problematical. Conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. As an alternative, chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to prevent putrefaction of temporary preparations of live oöcysts) has been tested as a long-term preservative of sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria brunetti P.P. Levine, 1942, E. maxima Tyzzer, 1929, E. mitis Tyzzer, 1929, E. necatrix Johnson, 1930, E. praecox Johnson, 1930 and E. tenella (Railliet & Lucet, 1891) (suborder Eimeriorina Léger, 1911; family Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903). Oöcysts from faeces of chickens Gallus gallus (Linnaeus) were placed in 2.5% w/v aqueous potassium dichromate solution (PDS) and stored in the dark at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. After 23 years in storage, oöcysts of each species were administered orally to chickens and failed to initiate infections, indicating that the oöcysts were dead. Nevertheless, after about 24 years, DNA was still recoverable from the oöcysts, and the original species identifications made by classic parasitological methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assays. Furthermore, after almost 25 years, microscopical examination revealed that the walls and internal structures remained well preserved in 83-98% of the oöcysts of the six species investigated. Hence, PDS is potentially suitable for the long-term preservation of sporulated coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens for taxonomic purposes. The samples used in this study are now in the care of the Natural History Museum, London, UK. It is recommended that they be monitored in like manner, by suitably qualified scientists, at intervals of about 5 years to assess their state of preservation and the recoverability of DNA

  3. Seyle’s biological stressors influence dramatically skin physiology: our experiences with electrical admittance magnitude measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2014-04-01

    we have disclosed the eventuality that these phenomena may reveal devastative effects onto skin to drive even to a praecox skin senescence and degradation.

  4. Revegetación de áreas degradadas con especies nativas Revegetation of degraded areas with native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Daniel Dalmasso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El área de trabajo se localiza al sur de Malargue-Mendoza; es un clima árido, con una precipitación media anual de 134 mm y una temperatra media anual de 13,3°C. Se evalúan los resultados de la revegetación con especies nativas en áreas degradadas por la actividad petrolera propendiendo que los ecosistemas alterados alcancen una mayor estabilidad, en lo posible similar a la situación previa al impacto. Se realizó un inventario geomorfológico y de vegetación estableciéndose hipótesis dinámicas de vegetación. A través del enfoque geosinfitosociológico, y en función de la dinámica vegetal, se seleccionaron un total de 10 especies que fueron reproducidas en vivero y establecidas en tres plataformas petroleras del área, tanto en otoño como en primavera. El diseño experimenal fue de bloques al azar con 10 especies y 20 repeticiones dentro de cada plataforma. En todas ellas se roturó el suelo y se establecieron las plantas y luego de cuatro años de registros, se realizó el análisis estadístico de la evolución temporal de las variables altura, diámetro de copa y porcentaje de supervivencia por especie. Para las mismas variables se comparó el comportamiento medio de las distintas especies mediante ANAVA y prueba de LSD de Fisher (a= 5%. Las poblaciones de plantas del ensayo se ajustaron a una distribución normal con varianzas no homogéneas (Kolmogorov- Smirnov y Bartlett. Al cuarto año de establecidas las plantas se evaluó el grado de recubrimiento de las plataformas asistidas respecto del Monte Natural. Los análisis mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las especies plantadas; destacándose por su alto poder de recubrimiento, en todas las plataformas, Atriplex lampa, Prosopis flexuosa var. depressa y Cercidium praecox ssp. glaucum. En una plataforma, la diversidad vegetal a los cuatro años de implantación representó el 61% de la diversidad del monte, mientras que en las otras se alcanzó un

  5. Evaluación oxidativa de las mezclas de aceites de leguminosas del Desierto de Sonora con aceites de maíz y soja durante su almacenamiento

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    Vázquez-Moreno, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available During storage, oils from seeds of wild legumes of the Sonoran Desert have shown greater stability than oils derived from conventional sources. In this work, oxidation process was evaluated during the storage (122 day of mixtures of oils: Mezquite Prosopis juliflora, Gatuña Mimosa grahamii, Palo fierro Olneya tesota, Vino rama Acacia constricta, Palo de brea Cercidium praecox and Palo verde Parkinsonia aculeata with oils from soy and maize. Ratios were 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. Evaluated parameters included: Peroxides (P.V., Iodine (I.V., Acid (A.V., p-Anisidine (p-A values. Results showed that mixtures containing wild and maize oil showed 2-4 meq/Kg as initial values of iodine, while after 122 days of storage the value was 4-7 meq/Kg. Mixtures containing soy oil presented 3-6 meq-Kg initially, and 8-15 meq-Kg were detected at the end experiment. No differences were observed in I.V. and A.V. values in maize mixtures. On the contrary, mixtures containing soy oil presented increments in I.V. Also, A.V. presented a slight increment in 1:1 mixtures. p-Anisidine values presented and small increment in maize mixtures (3:1 ratio while this increment was larger in mixtures containing soy oils and Gatuña or Palo fierro oil. These latter oils when were mixed with maize oils presented the lowest increments in all evaluated indexes.The oils of palo fierro and blended gatuña with oil of corn didn’t present changes in their concentration in the palmitic and araquidic acid during the storage. The concentration of the oleic acid in the mezquite oils (3:1, gatuña (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, vinorama (3:1, as well as the linoleic and erucic acids in gatuña in their three mixtures didn’t present changes neither alteration during the storage, for what you are considered the oils of palo fierro, gatuña and vinorama the most stable in the present study.Los aceites de semillas de leguminosas silvestres han mostrado mayor estabilidad que algunos aceites convencionales

  6. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  7. [Emil Kraepelin: a pioneer of modern psychiatry. On the occasion of the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of his birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géraud, M

    2007-09-01

    Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) whose hundred and fiftieth birth anniversary we are celebrating this year, is one of the most renowned figures of psychiatry. His Memoirs published in 1983 provide insight on the individual. In his early career he lived in Würzburg, Munich, Leipzig, Leubus, Dresden, and then in Dorpat in 1886 (as visiting professor) where he stayed for five years, in Heidelberg (as regular professor) from 1891 to 1904, and lastly in Munich. Kraepelin ranks among the great clinical medicine forerunners who followed in Kahlbaum's footsteps. For him, the foremost task of scientific psychiatry was to circumscribe pathological entities. At the foundation of Kraepelin-inspired scientific psychiatry lies the notion of the of disease, as opposed to the approach (5th edition of the Treatise), whereby it is no longer concerned with the study of mental disorder in terms of symptoms but rather in terms of conditions of occurrence, evolution and outcome thereof. This method produced two well-known results: the unification and recognition of , and the definition of (dementia praecox). These results are described in the Treatise of Psychiatry which has had eight editions during the author's lifetime (from 1883 to 1915), and which presents Kraepelin's systematic nosography covering the entire field of mental illness. Such an innovative method required special tools capable of exploring not only the symptoms, as had been done previously, but the pathological process per se: therefore, Kreapelin created a systematic method to conduct psychiatric research and founded a Research Establishment divided into different sections (histopathology, topographic histology, serology, genealogy). Alois Alzheimer and Franz Nissl, among others, were closely associated with his work. Kreapelin's thought was not set, however, and by the end of his career it took a turn toward a more comprehensive type of psychiatry (1920) taking into account the social aspects (). From the therapeutic and

  8. What is a psychosis and where is it located?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2008-06-01

    Kraepelin's dichotomy, manic-depressive insanity and dementia praecox, are contrasting and true endogenous disease entities which affect excitability, the fundamental property of the CNS. Kraepelin wanted to establish a valid classification and hit the extremes in brain structure and function at a time when we had no knowledge of brain dysfunction in "functional" psychoses. The aetiology is now known: the psychoses are part of human growth and maturation and might be classified according to their brain dysfunction, which is exactly what Kraepelin wanted. However, presumably to reduce the stigma attached to the word "psychosis", there is currently a strong initiative to eliminate the concept. But knowledge of what is happening in the brain in a psychosis might be more helpful in reducing stigma. It is suggested that psychosis is due to an affection of the supplementary motor area (SMA), located at the centre of the Medial Frontal Lobe network. The SMA is one of the rare universally connected areas of the brain, as should be the case for such a key structure that makes decisions as to the right moment for action. This important network, which partly has continuous neurogenesis, has sufficiently widespread connections. The SMA, a premotor area located on the medial side of the frontal lobes, is one of the last regions to reach a concurrence of synaptogenesis. An affection of the SMA, a deficient or abolished Delayed Response Task, seriously disturbs our relation and adaptation to the surroundings. We usually master the Delayed Response Task around the age of 7 months, a time at which the second CNS regressive event takes place, which proceeds from the posterior to the anterior of the brain. In very late maturation, a persistent affection of the SMA might occur. We experience a chronic psychosis: infantile autism (IA), a chronic inability to act consciously, which contrasts with the episodic SMA affection post-puberty, when excitation is reduced due to excessive

  9. [Catatonia: resurgence of a concept. A review of the international literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommepuy, N; Januel, D

    2002-01-01

    Catatonia was first described in 1874 by Kahlbaum as being a cyclic disease mixing motor features and mood variations. Because most cases ended in dementia, Kraepelin recognized catatonia as a form of dementia praecox and Bleuler included it within his wide group of schizophrenias. This view influenced the psychiatric practice for more than 70 years. But catatonia was recently reconsidered and this because of the definition of more precise diagnosis criteria, the discovery of a striking association with mood disorders, and the emphasis on effective therapeutics. Peralta et al empirically developed a performant diagnostic instrument with the 11 most discriminant signs among catatonic features. Diagnostic threshold is three or more signs with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 99%. These signs are: immobility/stupor (extreme passivity, marked hypokinesia); mutism (includes inaudible whisper); negativism (resistance to instructions, contrary comportment to whose asked); oppositionism, other called gegenhalten (resistance to passive movement which increases with the force exerted); posturing (patient adopts spontaneously odd postures); catalepsy (patient retains limb positions passively imposed during examination; waxy flexibility); automatic obedience (exaggerated co-operation to instructed movements); echo phenomena (movements, mimic and speech of the examiner are copied with modification and amplifications); rigidity (increased muscular tone); verbigeration (continuous and directionless repetition of single words or phrases); withdrawal/refusal to eat or drink (turning away from examiner, no eye contact, refusal to take food or drink when offered). Using this diagnostic tool, prevalence of catatonic syndrome appears to be close to 8% of psychiatric admissions. Other signs are also common but less specific: staring, ambitendance, iterations, stereotypes, mannerism, overactivity/excitement, impulsivity, combativeness. Some authors complete this description by

  10. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    A. sylvestris, 28. A. pusilla, 29. A. Dardani nov. Section VI. CAULORRHIZAE nov.: 30. A. repens, 31. A. Pintoi nov. Section VII. PROCUMBENTES nov.: 32. A. lignosa nov. comb., 33. A. Kretschmeri nov., 34. A. Rigonii, 35. A. chiquitana nov., 36. A. matiensis nov., 37. A. appressipila nov., 38. A. Vallsii nov., 39. A. subcoriacea nov. Section VIII. RHIZOMATOSAE nov., Series PRORHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 40. A. Burkartii. Series RHIZOMATOSAE nov.: 41. A. pseudovillosa nov. comb., 42a. A. glabrata var. glabrata, 42b. A. glabrata var.Hagenbeckii. Section IX. ARACHIS: 43. A. glandulifera, 44. A. cruziana nov., 45. A. monticola, 46. A. magna nov., 47. A. ipaënsis nov., 48. A. valida nov., 49. A. Williamsii nov., 50. A. Batizocoi, 51. A. duranensis nov., 52. A. Hoehnei nov., 53. A. stenosperma nov., 54. A. praecox nov., 55. A. palustris nov., 56. A. benensis nov., 57. A. trinitensis nov., 58. A. decora nov., 59. A. Herzogii nov., 60. A. microsperma nov., 61. A. villosa, 62. A. helodes, 63. A. correntina nov. comb., 64. A. Simpsonii nov., 65. A. Cardenasii nov., 66. A. Kempff-Mercadoi nov., 67. A. Diogoi, 68. A. Kuhlmanii nov., 69a. A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea var. 1. hypogaea, var. 2.hirsuta, 69b. A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata var. 1. fastigiata, var. 2. peruviana nov., var. 3. aequatoriana nov., var. 4. vulgaris. The autogamous reproductive systems, agametic reproduction, underground fruiting habit and the limited means of seed dispersal are shown to be logically tied to the drift in chromosomal organization which gives rise to noticeable increases in infertility in crosses between different collections of the same species, to a variably higher infertility in crosses between species within sections, to a near total infertility in crosses between species from different sections. The evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between the different sections are discussed and are further shown in a sequence of diagrams illustrating