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Sample records for thistab philip glassi

  1. Philip Glass tuleb Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    26. nov. Tallinnas Sakala keskuses toimuvast muusikafestivali NYYD ja Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali ühisprojektist, mis kujutab endast Godfrey Reggio ja Philip Glassi kultusfilmi "Koyaanisqatsi" kontsert-linastust

  2. Muusikamaailm : Ozawa festival Matsumotos. Pidustused Utrechtis ülehomseni. Philip Glassi uusteos Salzburgis. Alexandre Lagoya surnud. Frangiz Ali-Zade asutamine Luzernis. Wolfgang Wagner 80 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    H.Saito mälestusfestivalist "Saito Kinen" 29.08-12.09 Jaapanis. Utrechti varajase muusika pidustustest 27.08-5.09. P.Glassi teose "Requiem, Bardo and Nimanakaya" maailmaesiettekandest Salzburgi suvefestivalil 28.08. A. Lagoya elust ja tegevusest. Luzerni festivali resideerivaks heliloojaks oli F.Ali-Zade. W. Wagneri tegevusest impressaariona

  3. Philips Pavilion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konig dos Santos, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Philips company street name meant Light and Sound and they wished to show what Man can do. Therefore for the Expo'58 in Brussels they contracted Le Corbusier to create a pavilion that would transmit their message as well as show what Philips is. After all, the main aim of the 1958 exhibition was

  4. Philip Kurian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Philip Kurian. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 24 Issue 6 December 2001 pp 623-631 Magnetic Materials. Tailoring magnetic and dielectric properties of rubber ferrite composites containing mixed ferrites · M R Anantharaman K A Malini S Sindhu E M ...

  5. Loovkirjutamist õpetab Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    T.S. Elioti luulepreemia laureaat Philip Gross on Tallinna Ülikooli talvekooli rahvusvahelise kursuse "Poetry: A Conversation between Words and Silence" läbiviija. Oma seminarides keskendub ta lisaks loovkirjutamisele ka loova lugemise vajadusele

  6. The predictability of Philips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    Philips will be centralizing electric power purchasing for its European branches. The purchasing department needs to have up-to-date and comparable figures on energy consumption within each branch to be able to secure the most profitable contracts. With Energy ICT's real-time multisite on energy registration they are bound to succeed

  7. Glassy Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik J.; Sibani, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The term glassy dynamics is often used to refer to the extremely slow relaxation observed in several types of many component systems. The time span needed to reach a steady, time independent, state will typically be far beyond experimentally accessible time scales. When melted alloys are cooled...... down they typically do not enter a crystalline ordered state. Instead the atoms retain the amorphous arrangement characteristic of the liquid high temperature phase while the mobility of the molecules decreases very many orders of magnitude. This colossal change in the characteristic dynamical time...

  8. A Fan Solution for the Philips Airfryer

    OpenAIRE

    Gibernau Torres, Octavi

    2012-01-01

    The thesis on hand has been carried out at Philips Consumer Lifestyle Drachten that, together with Delft University of Technology, aims to develop a computed tool that determines the performance and efficiency curve of any centrifugal fan operating in the Philips Airfryer. The Airfryer is a Philips kitchen appliance that, thanks to the use of Rapid Air Technology, enables to fry food with a reduction of unhealthy fat up to 80%. Philips aims at reducing the total cost of the cooking fan an...

  9. Philips LTC 2009/51

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    It was part of a range of high-performance monitors (computers screens) that were associated with other units such as Philip's video surveillance systems, cameras or transmission and control equipment. Included in this range of Philips monitors are LTC 2009 (like this one), LTC 2012, LTC 2017 and LTC 2020 Series monochrome monitors. They offer high-performance images with a resolution of 900 TVL (TV-Lines), or in the case of the LTC 2017 monitor, 700 TVL, making them ideal for remote viewing and video applications. The monitor housing consists of a robust rectangular metal case which minimizes interference from external signals and allows “stacking” of monitors when used in large numbers.

  10. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  11. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  12. Altria means tobacco: Philip Morris's identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2003-04-01

    Philip Morris Companies, the world's largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris's plans pose to industry focused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them.

  13. "Clockwork": Philip Pullman's Posthuman Fairy Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the connections between posthumanism and narrative form in Philip Pullman's "Clockwork." Beginning with an account of Pullman's materialism, it argues that the novel represents consciousness and agency as emergent properties of matter, a position that manifests itself first in the tale's figurative language and later in the…

  14. A. Philip Randolph: Integration in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of A. Philip Randolph, the civil rights activist who organized the labor union for Pullman car porters, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement in the United States while documenting the part Randolph played as advocate for African…

  15. Philip Glass : "Koyaanisqatsi" muutub üha aktuaalsemaks / Philip Glass ; interv. Romi Erlach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glass, Philip, 1937-

    2003-01-01

    Philip Glass ja tema ansambel esitavad 2. detsembril PÖFFil oma filmimuusika Godfrey Reggio filmile "Koyaanisqatsi" selle linastusel Tallinna linnahallis. Helilooja räägib oma muusikast, ka Arvo Pärdist

  16. PHILIP GlASS: SCREEN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neretina Maina S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research is devoted to the music of contemporary composer Philip Glass, which he wrote specifically for the movies including feature and documentary films by American, British and Australian directors (M.Scorsese, E.Morris, S.Daldry, P.Weir etc.. It makes a connection of the composition technologies between his filmmusic and his artmusic written in the aesthetics of minimalism (the repetition and additive processes. The works in collaboration with director G.Reggio highlights as top Glass’ creative at the film industry. It also covers the principles of compilation the composer’s music for a variety of screen opuses, movies and commercials.

  17. Philip Morris changes its name, but not its harmful practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L

    2002-09-01

    After spending more than $250 million on an advertising campaign to improve its name and reputation, Philip Morris has abruptly shifted course and decided instead to change its corporate name-to The Altria Group, Inc.

  18. Glassy carbon based supercapacitor stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Koetz, R; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Considerable effort is being made to develop electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) that store relatively large quantities of electrical energy and possess at the same time a high power density. Our previous work has shown that glassy carbon is suitable as a material for capacitor electrodes concerning low resistance and high capacity requirements. We present the development of bipolar electrochemical glassy carbon capacitor stacks of up to 3 V. Bipolar stacks are an efficient way to meet the high voltage and high power density requirements for traction applications. Impedance and cyclic voltammogram measurements are reported here and show the frequency response of a 1, 2, and 3 V stack. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref..

  19. Obituary: Philip Morrison, 1915-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2005-12-01

    Philip Morrison, who died 22 April 2005 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was born in Somerville, New Jersey on 7 November 1915 to Moses and Tilly (née Rosenbloom) Morrison. Early childhood polio confined him for extended periods, during which he apparently developed his remarkable skill at speed reading. Speed writing (leading to a bibliography of more than 600 items) came later, and his memory must always have been exceedingly retentive. Morrison went on from the public and private schools of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to receive a BS in physics from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon) in 1936. At the University of California, Berkeley, he joined the Young Communist League and later the Communist Party, letting his membership lapse in the early 1940s when work and war came to seem more important. He was officially the student of J. Robert Oppenheimer and worked also with postdocs Robert Serber and Leonard Schiff and with a number of his fellow Oppenheimer students (a spectacular crew, which included Robert Christy, Sidney Dancoff, Bernard Peters [born Pietrkowski], Hartland Snyder, Joseph Weinberg, Dale Corson, Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz, David Bohm, and Eugene Cooper). Following his 1940 PhD, Phil (his preferred signature) taught for a year at San Francisco State and then at University of Illinois (where he replaced Dancoff, who had gone on to a year at Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton). From Illinois, Morrison was recruited to the Metallurgy Lab (uranium project) at the University of Chicago by Christy in 1942. There he worked on the design for the Hanford Reactor, the main source of plutonium for the Trinity and Nagasaki bombs. He seems to have been sensitive to human relationships even in that context and was the author of a "Dear Opje" letter to Oppenheimer pointing out that the lack of cooperation between management and the scientists was getting in the way of the project. Morrison's early research was largely in theoretical nuclear physics

  20. Thermodynamic picture of the glassy state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A picture for the thermodynamics of the glassy state is introduced. It assumes that one extra parameter, the effective temperature, is needed to describe the glassy state. This explains the classical paradoxes concerning the Ehrenfest relations and the Prigogine-Defay ratio. As a second feature, the

  1. Low temperature thermal conductivities of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of glassy carbon in the temperature range 0.1 to 100 0 K appears to depend only on the temperature at which the material was pyrolyzed. The thermal conductivity can be related to the microscopic structure of glassy carbon. The reticulated structure is especially useful for thermal isolation at cryogenic temperatures

  2. Electron beam characteristics on a Philips SL25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Daftari, I.K.; Ayyangar, K.M.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1990-01-01

    Dosimetry measurements at nominal electron energies of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 20, and 22 MeV were made for different sized, open-sided applicators on two Philips SL25 linear accelerators. Measurements include beam flatness, percentage depth dose, surface dose, isodose curves, field size dependence, output at extended distances, virtual source position, and required low melting point alloy thickness for field shaping. These measurements are presented to document the characteristics of electron beams with a new type of applicator design on this series of Philips accelerators

  3. Altria Means Tobacco: Philip Morris’s Identity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2003-01-01

    Philip Morris Companies, the world’s largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris’s plans pose to industryfocused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them. PMID:12660196

  4. Obituary: Philip M. Solomon, 1939-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Philip Solomon, one of the pioneers and leading researchers in molecular astrophysics, died on 30 April 2008 at his apartment on the upper west side of Manhattan after a battle with cancer. His pioneering research included both theoretical and very extensive observational studies of stellar atmospheres, interstellar molecules, high redshift galaxies, and the Earth's stratosphere. Phil was Distinguished Professor at The State University of New York [SUNY], Stony Brook, where he had been since 1974. Phil was born on 29 March 1939 in Manhattan, New York City, to Nat and Betty Solomon. Nat Solomon was a labor organizer and a printer. Phil attended the University of Wisconsin, where he received his BS in 1959 and where he met his future wife Sheila who was studying art. His Ph.D., "On the Role of Light Molecules in Astrophysics," was also from the University of Wisconsin under the guidance of Art Code and Bob Bless. After postdoctoral positions at Princeton and lectureships at Columbia and the University of California, San Diego, Phil spent two years as a Professor at the University of Minnesota. After two years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he came to SUNY, Stony Brook, as Professor of Astronomy in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences. In 1988 Phil was selected as a Humboldt Senior Distinguished Scientist, and, in 1999, he was honored with the rank of Distinguished Professor at SUNY. Phil took sabbatical and other leaves at Churchill College and the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge; the Institute for Advanced Study; l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris; Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris; and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique [IRAM], France. Phil published more than 160 papers and supervised seven Ph.D. students. He served on numerous review, visiting, and advisory panels. Phil's first theoretical research focused on opacity and abundance of light molecules such as H2, CO, and CN in stellar atmospheres, but then shifted quickly to the

  5. Kotler : teiste inimeste arvamust usutakse enam kui meediat / Philip Kotler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotler, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Philip Kotler vastab küsimustele, millised faktorid mõjutasid tänapäevase turunduse kujundamist, millised vahendid on kasulikud tarbijate leidmiseks, meelitamiseks ja hoidmiseks ning milline on tema arvamus selle kohta, et internetti ja sotsiaalseid võrgustikke nähakse kui tuleviku turundusvahendeid

  6. The Philips QL-lamp : modelling and comparison with experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoij, D.A.; Heuvel, van den J.; Jonkers, J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. The Philips QL lightsource is a low pressure inductively coupled RF discharge. The main advantage of this system is the fact that it contains no electrodes so that the lifetime is longer. A characteristic feature is that the induction coil with a ferrite core is located at

  7. Thinking the "unthinkable": why Philip Morris considered quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the genesis and development of tobacco company Philip Morris's recent image enhancement strategies and analyse their significance. Internal Philip Morris documents, made available by the terms of the Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco companies and the attorneys general of 46 states, and secondary newspaper sources. Searches of the Philip Morris documents website (www.pmdocs.com) beginning with terms such as "image management" and "identity" and expanding as relevant new terms (consultant names, project names, and dates), were identified, using a "snowball" sampling strategy. In the early 1990s, Philip Morris, faced with increasing pressures generated both externally, from the non-smokers' rights and public health communities, and internally, from the conflicts among its varied operating companies, seriously considered leaving the tobacco business. Discussions of this option, which occurred at the highest levels of management, focused on the changing social climate regarding tobacco and smoking that the tobacco control movement had effected. However, this option was rejected in favour of the image enhancement strategy that culminated with the recent "Altria" name change. This analysis suggests that advocacy efforts have the potential to significantly denormalise tobacco as a corporate enterprise.

  8. Barn music at St Donat's castle / Philip Gross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gross, Philip, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Vale of Glamorgan", mis oli 2010. a. pühendatud Arvo Pärdile. Eesti kammermuusikaansambli Resonabilis kavas oli ka festivali tellimusel valminud uelsi helilooja Gareth Peredur Churchilli "Vocable", mille teksti kirjutas Philip Gross. Festivalikontsertide muljeid leiab Grossi luuletsüklis "Barn music" (avaldatud samas ajakirjanumbris, lk. 42-43)

  9. Philip Atsu Afeadie (2016). Workplace Anguish and Pleasure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Philip Atsu Afeadie's book, Workplace Anguish and Pleasure in Northern Nigeria: Exactions of Colonial ... the author reveals in six chapters the oft-neglected issues involving the power of emotions and sentiments on ... In all, the author, considering the sources at his disposal, does creditably well by drawing attention to.

  10. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  11. Glassy carbon coated graphite for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpeux S; Cacciaguerra T; Duclaux L

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account the problems caused by the treatment of nuclear wastes, the molten salts breeder reactors are expected to a great development. They use a molten fluorinated salt (mixture of LiF, BeF 2 , ThF 4 , and UF 4 ) as fuel and coolant. The reactor core, made of graphite, is used as a neutrons moderator. Despite of its compatibility with nuclear environment, it appears crucial to improve the stability and inertness of graphite against the diffusion of chemicals species leading to its corrosion. One way is to cover the graphite surface by a protective impermeable deposit made of glassy carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin or polyvinyl chloride precursors. The main difficulty in the synthesis of glassy carbon is to create exclusively, in the primary pyrolysis product, a micro-porosity of about twenty Angstroms which closes later at higher temperature. Therefore, the evacuation of the volatile products occurring mainly between 330 and 600 C, must progress slowly to avoid the material to crack. In this study, the optimal parameters for the synthesis of glassy carbon as well as glassy carbon deposits on nuclear-type graphite pieces are discussed. Both thermal treatment of phenolic and PVC resins have been performed. The structure and micro-texture of glassy carbon have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and helium pycno-metry. Glassy carbon samples (obtained at 1200 C) show densities ranging from 1.3 to 1.55 g/cm 3 and closed pores with nano-metric size (∼ 5 to 10 nm) appear clearly on the TEM micrographs. Then, a thermal treatment to 2700 C leads to the shrinkage of the entangled graphene ribbons, in good agreement with the proposed texture model for glassy carbon. Glassy carbon deposits on nuclear graphite have been developed by an impregnation method. The uniformity of the deposit depends clearly on the surface texture and the chemistry of the graphite substrate. The deposit regions where

  12. Glassy carbon coated graphite for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpeux, S.; Cacciaguerra, T.; Duclaux, L. [Orleans Univ., CRMD, CNRS, 45 (France)

    2005-07-01

    Taking into account the problems caused by the treatment of nuclear wastes, the molten salts breeder reactors are expected to a great development. They use a molten fluorinated salt (mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2}, ThF{sub 4}, and UF{sub 4}) as fuel and coolant. The reactor core, made of graphite, is used as a neutrons moderator. Despite of its compatibility with nuclear environment, it appears crucial to improve the stability and inertness of graphite against the diffusion of chemicals species leading to its corrosion. One way is to cover the graphite surface by a protective impermeable deposit made of glassy carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of phenolic resin [1,2] or polyvinyl chloride [3] precursors. The main difficulty in the synthesis of glassy carbon is to create exclusively, in the primary pyrolysis product, a micro-porosity of about twenty Angstroms which closes later at higher temperature. Therefore, the evacuation of the volatile products occurring mainly between 330 and 600 C, must progress slowly to avoid the material to crack. In this study, the optimal parameters for the synthesis of glassy carbon as well as glassy carbon deposits on nuclear-type graphite pieces are discussed. Both thermal treatment of phenolic and PVC resins have been performed. The structure and micro-texture of glassy carbon have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and helium pycno-metry. Glassy carbon samples (obtained at 1200 C) show densities ranging from 1.3 to 1.55 g/cm{sup 3} and closed pores with nano-metric size ({approx} 5 to 10 nm) appear clearly on the TEM micrographs. Then, a thermal treatment to 2700 C leads to the shrinkage of the entangled graphene ribbons (Fig 1), in good agreement with the proposed texture model for glassy carbon (Fig 2) [4]. Glassy carbon deposits on nuclear graphite have been developed by an impregnation method. The uniformity of the deposit depends clearly on the surface texture and the chemistry

  13. Characteristics of photon beams from Philips SL25 linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Ayyangar, K.; Daftari, I.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1990-01-01

    The Philips SL25 accelerator is a multimodality machine offering asymmetric collimator jaws and a new type of beam bending and transport system. It produces photon beams, nominally at 6 and 25 MV, and a scattered electron beam with nine selectable energies between 4 and 22 MeV. Dosimetric characteristics for the 6- and 25-MV photon beams are presented with respect to field flatness, surface and depth dose characteristics, isodose distribution, field size factors for both open and wedged fields, and narrow beam transmission data in different materials

  14. Valores Epistêmicos no Naturalismo Normativo de Philip Kitcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salles O. Barra

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing Philip Kitcher's naturalistic epistemology, particularly its normative features, which are viewed as a sort of response to negative assessments made by radical naturalists on the plurality of epistemic values. According to them such values are ineffective for normative ends, e.g. theory choice. Differently from that quite excessive evaluation, Kitcher argues rather for explanatory unity as the most important and universal epistemic value. Even though Kitcher's arguments are sound, there remains some serious gaps as regards his attempts; there are also serious doubts about the desirability of achieving such a value.

  15. Dialéctica material Donald Judd y Philip Johnson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este escrito es examinar cómo se plantea una cierta dialéctica material en el conjunto llamado la Mansana de Chinati, construido por el escultor Donald Judd en la ciudad de Marfa, Texas, a partir del año 1974, comparándolo con las dos viviendas que realiza el arquitecto Philip Johnson en su propiedad de New Canaan, Connecticut, en torno al año 1950. Tanto en New Canaan como en la Mansana de Chinati existe una  oposición, una dialéctica, entre una arquitectura industrial y otra artesana, tanto Philip Johnson como Donald Judd consideran que existe una arquitectura principal, la realizada con materiales y técnicas industriales, y otra subalterna o de servicio, la construida con piezas de arcilla y técnicas artesanales. Esta segunda arquitectura encarnará las cualidades asociadas con la pobreza, la abundancia material y la clausura espacial. Sin  embargo, esta exhibición de pobreza no tiene como fin los propios edificios domésticos construidos artesanalmente, ya sea con adobe o con ladrillo, sino que estará al servicio de esa otra arquitectura, construida con técnicas industriales, a la que se exige renunciar a la comodidad y el confort o cuando menos ocultarlos bajo la forma de una radical austeridad.

  16. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  17. Philanthropy, politics and promotion: Philip Morris' "charitable contributions" in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-08-01

    The efforts of members of the tobacco industry to portray themselves as responsible corporations via ostensible commitment to improved labour practices and public philanthropy have attracted growing criticism. This is particularly true of corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes undertaken in emerging nations that are designed to rehabilitate the tobacco industry's image among public, government and market opinions in North America and western Europe. In the case of Thailand, sponsorship of arts events and community groups has been one avenue of promoting the industry in a regulatory environment that severely curtails promotion and advertising. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Art Award, sponsored by Philip Morris (PM) has provided one such outlet for 10 years. Analysis of PM funding announcements since the end of the ASEAN art programme in Thailand reveals that recent donations to tobacco-related community organisations reinforces the extent to which seemingly generous acts are driven by corporate self-interest rather than social responsibility.

  18. Integrating Philips' extreme UV source in the alpha-tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankert, Joseph; Apetz, Rolf; Bergmann, Klaus; Derra, Guenther; Janssen, Maurice; Jonkers, Jeroen; Klein, Jurgen; Kruecken, Thomas; List, Andreas; Loeken, Michael; Metzmacher, Christof; Neff, Willi; Probst, Sven; Prummer, Ralph; Rosier, Oliver; Seiwert, Stefan; Siemons, Guido; Vaudrevange, Dominik; Wagemann, Dirk; Weber, Achim; Zink, Peter; Zitzen, Oliver

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes recent progress in the development of the Philips's EUV source. Progress has been realized at many frontiers: Integration studies of the source into a scanner have primarily been studied on the Xe source because it has a high degree of maturity. We report on integration with a collector, associated collector lifetime and optical characteristics. Collector lifetime in excess of 1 bln shots could be demonstrated. Next, an active dose control system was developed and tested on the Xe lamp. Resulting dose stability data are less than 0.2% for an exposure window of 100 pulses. The second part of the paper reports on progress in the development of the Philips' Sn source. First, the details of the concept are described. It is based on a Laser triggered vacuum arc, which is an extension with respect to previous designs. The source is furbished with rotating electrodes that are covered with a Sn film that is constantly regenerated. Hence by the very design of the source, it is scalable to very high power levels, and moreover has fundamentally solved the notorious problem of electrode erosion. Power values of 260 W in 2p sr are reported, along with a stable, long life operation of the lamp. The paper also addresses the problem of debris generation and mitigation of the Sn-source. The problem is attacked by a combined strategy of protection of the collector by traditional means (e.g. fields, foiltraps... ), and by designing the gas atmosphere according to the principles of the well known halogen cycles in incandescent lamps. These principles have been studied in the Lighting industry for decades and rely on the excessively high vapor pressures of metal halides. Transferred to the Sn source, it allows pumping away tin residues that would otherwise irreversibly deposit on the collector.

  19. Usability laboratories at Philips : supporting research, development, and design for consumer and professional products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de G.; Gelderen, van T.; Brigham, F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two of the usability laboratories at Philips, discusses practical issues arising from our experience using the facilities, gives an example of a typical usability evaluation, and briefly outlines our vision for the future of the laboratories. Usability tests at Philips can

  20. Tensions within an industrial research laboratory: the Philips laboratory's x-ray department between the wars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.

    2003-01-01

    Tensions arose in the X-ray department of the Philips research laboratory during the interwar period, caused by the interplay among technological development, organizational culture, and individual behavior. This article traces the efforts of Philips researchers to find a balance between their

  1. Thermonuclear reactor materials composed of glassy carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumata, Yukio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability to plasma radiation by the use of glassy carbon as the structural materials for the first wall and the blanket in thermonuclear devices. Constitution: The glassy carbon (glass-like carbon) is obtained by forming specific organic substances into a predetermined configuration and carbonizing them by heat decomposition under special conditions. They are impermeable carbon material of 1.40 - 1.70 specific gravity, less graphitizable and being almost in isotropic crystal forms in which isotropic structure such as in graphite is scarcely observed. They have an extremely high hardness, are less likely to be damaged when exposed to radiation and have great strength and corrosion resistance. Accordingly, the service life of the reactor walls and the likes can remarkably be increased by using the materials. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Solvated electron structure in glassy matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, L.

    1981-01-01

    Current knowledge of the detailed geometrical structure of solvated electrons in aqueous and organic media is summarized. The geometry of solvated electrons in glassy methanol, ethanol, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran is discussed. Advanced electron magnetic resonance methods and development of new methods of analysis of electron spin echo modulation patterns, second moment line shapes, and forbidden photon spin-flip transitions for paramagnetic species in these disordered systems are discussed. 66 references are cited

  3. Philips Gemini TF64 PET/CT Acceptance Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Gonzalez, Joaquín J.; Calderón Marin, Carlos F.; Varela Corona, Consuelo; Machado Tejeda, Adalberto; González Correa, Héctor J.

    2016-01-01

    The Philips Gemini TF64 is the first PET/CT scanner installed in Cuba at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology in 2014. It is a third generation fully tridimensional whole body PET scanner with time-of-flight (TOF) technology combined with a 64-slice Brilliance CT scanner. The CT detector module contains 672x64 solid state detector, incorporating GOS scintillators, optical diodes and electronic signal channels arranged in 64 side by side arcs, with 672 detectors in each arc. There are sixteen 0.75 mm individual detector elements around the center and four 1.5 mm elements at each end, resulting in a 24 mm total detection length. The PET detector consists of 28 pixelar modules of a 23x44 array of 4x4x22 mm3 of LYSO crystals arranged in an Anger-logic detector design. The hardware coincidence-timing window for this scanner is set at 4 ns and delayed coincidence window technique is used to estimate the random coincidences in collected data. In this study the performance characteristics of PET/CT scanner were measured as part of the program tests of acceptance for clinical use.Methodology. The performance characteristics of CT scanner were evaluated by manufacturer protocol using Philips system performance phantom. Some additional geometrical tests were performed by the user. The intrinsic measurements of energy resolution as well as timing resolution, which define the TOF performance of PET scanner, were performed following the recommendations of manufacturer using 18 F. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, counting rate performance, image quality and accuracy were measured according to the NEMA NU-2 2007 procedures. Additionally, to characterize the effect of TOF reconstruction on lesion contrast and noise, the standard NEMA torso phantom was reconstructed with and without TOF capability. The accuracy of PET/CT image registration was tested according to the manufacturer protocol using an image alignment calibration holder with 6 point sources of 22

  4. Evaluation of the penumbras of a Philips multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafay, F.; Malet, C.; Mombard, C.; Ginestet, C.; Blondel, E.; Desfarges, Y.; Dupin, G.

    1995-01-01

    Since January 1995, a Philips SL20 linear accelerator which is connected to a multileaf collimator has been used. Computer-controlled multileaf collimators open up the opportunity to practice conformal radiotherapy. Its aim is to adjust as well as possible the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the effective treated volume with an homogeneous dose distribution in the PTV, and to protect healthy tissues and delicate organs. This is possible by means of a multileaf collimator by increasing the number of complex fields with different incidences during a same session. Moreover, the Beam's Eye View function of the three-dimensional treatment planning system allows to define the shape of complex fields. For rectangular fields, the penumbra is defined by the distance between the 80% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis. In addition, the distances between, respectively, the 95% and 50% isodoses, the 90% and 50% isodoses, the 50% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis have been analysed. Different penumbras were evaluated. The result of this work will enable to adjust the reference isodose to the PTV either by integrating this result into dosimetry software, or by taking it into account for drawing the PTV

  5. Evaluation of the penumbras of a Philips multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafay, F; Malet, C; Mombard, C; Ginestet, C [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Blondel, E [Isotec, Saint-Quentin (France); Desfarges, Y; Dupin, G [Philips Medical System, Lyon (France)

    1995-12-01

    Since January 1995, a Philips SL20 linear accelerator which is connected to a multileaf collimator has been used. Computer-controlled multileaf collimators open up the opportunity to practice conformal radiotherapy. Its aim is to adjust as well as possible the Planning Target Volume (PTV) to the effective treated volume with an homogeneous dose distribution in the PTV, and to protect healthy tissues and delicate organs. This is possible by means of a multileaf collimator by increasing the number of complex fields with different incidences during a same session. Moreover, the Beam`s Eye View function of the three-dimensional treatment planning system allows to define the shape of complex fields. For rectangular fields, the penumbra is defined by the distance between the 80% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis. In addition, the distances between, respectively, the 95% and 50% isodoses, the 90% and 50% isodoses, the 50% and 20% isodoses relative to the beam axis have been analysed. Different penumbras were evaluated. The result of this work will enable to adjust the reference isodose to the PTV either by integrating this result into dosimetry software, or by taking it into account for drawing the PTV.

  6. "What Is Our Story?" Philip Morris's Changing Corporate Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2015-10-01

    We sought to learn how employees reacted to changes in the corporate narrative of Philip Morris Companies (PMC) in the late 1990s and early 2000s. We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents about PMC's creation of a new corporate story. In response to litigation and public opprobrium, PMC replaced its market success-oriented corporate narrative with a new one centered on responsibility. Although management sought to downplay inconsistencies between the old and new narratives, some employees reportedly had difficulty reconciling them, concerned that the responsibility focus might affect company profitability. However, others embraced the new narrative, suggesting radical ideas to prevent youth smoking. These ideas were not adopted. PMC's new narrative was unconvincing to many of its employees, who perceived it either as a threat to the company's continued profits or as incongruous with what they had previously been told. As it had done with the public, PMC misled its employees in explaining a narrative repositioning that would help the company continue business as usual. Moving toward a tobacco endgame will require ongoing discursive and symbolic efforts to disrupt this narrative.

  7. Spatially heterogeneous ages in glassy dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Horacio E.; Chamon, Claudio Chamon; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Iguain, Jose Luis; Kennett, Malcolm P.

    2003-09-01

    We construct a framework for the study of fluctuations in the nonequilibrium relaxation of glassy systems with and without quenched disorder. We study two types of two-time local correlators with the aim of characterizing the heterogeneous evolution in these systems: in one case we average the local correlators over histories of the thermal noise, in the other case we simply coarse-grain the local correlators obtained for a given noise realization. We explain why the noise-averaged correlators describe the fingerprint of quenched disorder when it exists, while the coarse-grained correlators are linked to noise-induced mesoscopic fluctuations. We predict constraints on the distribution of the fluctuations of the coarse-grained quantities. In particular, we show that locally defined correlations and responses are connected by a generalized local out-of-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation. We argue that large size heterogeneities in the age of the system survive in the long-time limit. A symmetry of the underlying theory, namely invariance under reparametrizations of the time coordinates, underlies these results. We establish a connection between the probabilities of spatial distributions of local coarse-grained quantities and the theory of dynamic random manifolds. We define, and discuss the behavior of, a two-time dependent correlation length from the spatial decay of the fluctuations in the two-time local functions. We characterize the fluctuations in the system in terms of their fractal properties. For concreteness, we present numerical tests performed on disordered spin models in finite and infinite dimensions. Finally, we explain how these ideas can be applied to the analysis of the dynamics of other glassy systems that can be either spin models without disorder or atomic and molecular glassy systems. (author)

  8. André-Philip Lemke näitus Tallinnas / Mari Laaniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laaniste, Mari, 1977-

    1998-01-01

    Saksa kunstniku André-Philip Lemke (1970) näitus "Üks-üks armsa Jumala kasuks" 17. augustist Saksa Kultuuriinstituudis. Tööd on valgele paberile tavalise sinise pastapliiatsiga kirjutatud-joonistatud

  9. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN LAMPU PHILIPS (STUDI KASUS PADA MAHASISWA TELKOM UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2016-03-01

      Abstrak - Berubahnya pasar menjadi 3.0. ini memacu para produsen untuk tetap melakukan inovasi, agar tetap konsisten ditengah persaingan pasar yang semakin ketat. Produsen Lampu Philips, juga mengalami pergeseran menuju persaingan pasar yang semakin ketat Jenis penelitian ini ialah Deskriptif bersifat kausal, dengan tujuan untuk melihat pengaruh kepuasan konsumen terhadap keputusan pembelian lampu Philips . Subjek penelitian adalah pada mahasiswa Telkom University. Jumlah responden sebesar 100 orang mahasiswa Telkom University. Analisa menggunakan Regresi Sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya pengaruh kepuasan konsumen terhadap keputusan pembelian lampu Philips pada mahasiswa Telkom University dengan nilai p = .000, koefisien korelasi sebesar 0.791 (R=0.791, dan koefisien determinan (R Square / R2 sebesar 62,6%.   Kata Kunci : Keputusan Pembelian , Kepuasan Konsumen, Lampu Philips

  10. Muusika ilma kuulajata pole palju väärt / Philip Glass ; interv. Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glass, Philip, 1937-

    2003-01-01

    Philip Glass ja tema ansambel esitavad 2. detsembril PÖFFil oma filmimuusika Godfrey Reggio filmile "Koyaanisqatsi" selle linastusel Tallinna linnahallis. Helilooja räägib oma muusika missioonist, oma lava- ja filmimuusikast

  11. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  12. The sorption induced glass transition in amorphous glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.; Briels, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    Sorption of CO2 in both the glassy and the rubbery state of an amorphous polyethylenelike polymer was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature was chosen such that the system was in its glassy state at low solute concentrations and its rubbery state at large solute

  13. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of glassy carbon for adhesion improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Stenum, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    density increased with the plasma treatments. Adhesion test of the treated glassy carbon covered with cured epoxy showed cohesive failure, indicating strong bonding after the treatments. This is in contrast to the adhesion tests of untreated samples where the epoxy readily peeled off the glassy carbon....

  14. Interview with Dr. Philip Stone, executive director of the Institute for Dark Tourism Research

    OpenAIRE

    BAILLARGEON, Taïka

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Philip Stone is the executive director of the Institute for Dark Tourism Research. Founded in 2012 and based at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan), England, the iDTR largely contributes to scientific research on Dark Tourism while offering guidance to industry practitioners and collaborating with the media. In 2009, along with his colleague Richard Sharpley, Philip Stone published The Darker Side of Travel: The Theory and Practice of Dark Tourism. This book has become one of the...

  15. From adversary to target market: the ACT-UP boycott of Philip Morris

    OpenAIRE

    Offen, N; Smith, E; Malone, R

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1990, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT-UP) sparked a year long boycott of Philip Morris's Marlboro cigarettes and Miller beer. The boycott protested the company's support of Senator Jesse Helms (R-North Carolina), a leading opponent of AIDS funding and civil rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. ACT-UP demanded that Philip Morris sever its ties with Helms and acknowledge its responsibility to the LGBT community and to people with AIDS. OBJECTI...

  16. Philip Glass muusika kirjutamisest filmile ja teistele kunstiliikidele : "Koyaanisqatsi" lugu / Philip Glass ; interv. Charles Merrell Berg, tõlk. Kaia Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Glass, Philip, 1937-

    2004-01-01

    Philip Glass ja tema ansambel esitasid 2. detsembril 2003 PÖFFil oma filmimuusika Godfrey Reggio filmile "Koyaanisqatsi" selle linastusel Tallinna linnahallis. Intervjuu on tõlgitud seda sündmust silmas pidades. Järgneb apr. 2004, lk. 74-82

  17. Glassy slag from rotary hearth vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbach, R.C.; Simpson, M.D.; Paulson, W.S.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    Use of a Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) system for treating mixed wastes containing significant quantities of soil results in formation of a glassy slag which melts at significantly higher temperatures than the borosilicate glasses. The slag typically contains mostly crystalline material, frequently in an amorphous matrix, thus the appellation open-quotes glassy slag.close quotes Details of the PACT process are given. The process will be used for treating buried wastes from Pit 9 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and low-level mixed wastes from nuclear power plants in Switzerland. Properties of the slag after cooling to room temperature are reported, in particular the Product Consistency Test, for a number of different feedstocks. In almost all cases, the results compare favorably with conventional borosilicate glasses. In the PACT system, a transferred arc carries current from the plasma torch to a rotating molten bed of slag, which is the material being heated. Thus this transferred arc adds energy where it is needed - at and near the surface of the molten bath. Material is fed into the furnace through a sealed feeder, and falls into a rotating tub which is heated by the arc. Any organic material is quickly vaporized into the space above the slag bed and burned by the oxygen in the furnace. Metal oxides in the charge are melted into the slag. Metal in the feed tends to melt and collect as a separate phase underneath the slag, but can be oxidized if desired. When oxidized, it unites with other constituents forming a homogeneous slag

  18. Public versus internal conceptions of addiction: An analysis of internal Philip Morris documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Elias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco addiction is a complex, multicomponent phenomenon stemming from nicotine's pharmacology and the user's biology, psychology, sociology, and environment. After decades of public denial, the tobacco industry now agrees with public health authorities that nicotine is addictive. In 2000, Philip Morris became the first major tobacco company to admit nicotine's addictiveness. Evolving definitions of addiction have historically affected subsequent policymaking. This article examines how Philip Morris internally conceptualized addiction immediately before and after this announcement.We analyzed previously secret, internal Philip Morris documents made available as a result of litigation against the tobacco industry. We compared these documents to public company statements and found that Philip Morris's move from public denial to public affirmation of nicotine's addictiveness coincided with pressure on the industry from poor public approval ratings, the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA, the United States government's filing of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO suit, and the Institute of Medicine's (IoM's endorsement of potentially reduced risk products. Philip Morris continued to research the causes of addiction through the 2000s in order to create successful potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs. While Philip Morris's public statements reinforce the idea that nicotine's pharmacology principally drives smoking addiction, company scientists framed addiction as the result of interconnected biological, social, psychological, and environmental determinants, with nicotine as but one component. Due to the fragmentary nature of the industry document database, we may have missed relevant information that could have affected our analysis.Philip Morris's research suggests that tobacco industry activity influences addiction treatment outcomes. Beyond nicotine's pharmacology, the industry's continued aggressive advertising

  19. New model system in radiation cryochemistry:. hyperquenched glassy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Janusz; Plonka, Andrzej; Hallbrucker, Andreas; Mayer, Erwin

    1999-08-01

    Radicals generated by high-energy irradiation of liquid water, short-lived at ambient temperature, can be studied at cryogenic temperatures after irradiating water and dilute aqueous solutions in their glassy states which can be obtained by so-called hyperquenching of the liquids at cooling rates of ˜10 6-10 7 K s -1. In the glassy states of hyperquenched dilute aqueous solutions there is no problem with phase separation and radiolysis of glassy water is quite distinct from radiolysis of polycrystalline ice obtained from liquid water on slow-cooling in liquid nitrogen.

  20. Formation of a glassy phase in ceramic-like coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonova, M.V.; Gorbatova, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the synthesis directly in coatings of a borosilicate melt that could fill the role of glassy matrix, thereby avoiding fusion and processing of the glassy material. The effect of added boron on the formation of coatings based on molybdenum disilicide and tungsten disilicide in air at 900 degrees C is presented. Without an additive no coating forms; there is no adhesion to the graphite and a continuous film does not form. As a result of boron oxidation an easily fused glassy matrix forms, which bonds the molybdenum disilicide or tungsten disilicide particles together and ensures adhesion to the graphite

  1. From adversary to target market: the ACT-UP boycott of Philip Morris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offen, N; Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2003-06-01

    In 1990, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT-UP) sparked a year long boycott of Philip Morris's Marlboro cigarettes and Miller beer. The boycott protested the company's support of Senator Jesse Helms (R-North Carolina), a leading opponent of AIDS funding and civil rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. ACT-UP demanded that Philip Morris sever its ties with Helms and acknowledge its responsibility to the LGBT community and to people with AIDS. To assess the impact of the boycott on the LGBT community, the tobacco industry, and the tobacco control movement; and to determine what lessons tobacco control advocates can extract from this case. Internal tobacco industry documents and newspaper archives. Search of tobacco industry documents websites using "boycott", "ACT-UP", "gay", and other terms. Philip Morris used the boycott to its own advantage. It exploited differences within the community and settled the boycott by pledging large donations to combat AIDS. Through corporate philanthropy, Philip Morris gained entrée to the LGBT market without appearing gay friendly. Many LGBT organisations, thirsty for recognition and funding from mainstream corporations, welcomed Philip Morris's overtures without considering the health hazards of tobacco. Unless the goal of a boycott is to convince the tobacco industry to abandon tobacco altogether, such actions invite the industry to expand its marketing under the guise of philanthropy. Tobacco control advocates should be clear about goals and acceptable settlement terms before participating in a boycott of a tobacco company.

  2. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustuendag, Zafer; Solak, Ali Osman

    2009-01-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb 2+ ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  3. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stress cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production versions

  4. Creating the "desired mindset": Philip Morris's efforts to improve its corporate image among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2009-01-01

    Through analysis of tobacco company documents, we explored how and why Philip Morris sought to enhance its corporate image among American women. Philip Morris regarded women as an influential political group. To improve its image among women, while keeping tobacco off their organizational agendas, the company sponsored women's groups and programs. It also sought to appeal to women it defined as "active moms" by advertising its commitment to domestic violence victims. It was more successful in securing women's organizations as allies than active moms. Increasing tobacco's visibility as a global women's health issue may require addressing industry influence.

  5. Treatment of early glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Choi, Tae Jin

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with glassy cell carcinoma of cervix. We reviewed all cases of glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix confirmed and treated at the Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, between January 1993 and December 2005. There were 7 cases with histopathologically confirmed gassy cell carcinoma. A tumor was diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma if over 50% of the tumor cell type displayed glassy cell features. Six patients with stage IB had radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic node dissection, and 2 of them received adjuvant external pelvic irradiation with concurrent chemotherapy. Remaining one patient with stage IIA had curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy with external pelvic irradiation and brachytherapy. There were 7 patients diagnosed as glassy cell carcinoma among the 3,745 (0.2%) patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix. The mean age of 7 patients was 44 years with range of 35 to 53 years of age. The most frequent symptom was vaginal bleeding (86%). By the punch biopsy undertaken before treatment of 7 cases, 2 only cases could diagnose as glassy cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, but remaining of them confirmed by surgical pathological examination. The mean follow up duration was 73 months with range of 13 to 150 months. All 7 patients were alive without disease after treatment. Glassy cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that demonstrates an aggressive biologic behavior. However for early-stage disease, we may have more favorable clinical outcome with radical surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy

  6. "The Big WHY": Philip Morris's failed search for corporate social value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-10-01

    We examined Philip Morris USA's exploration of corporate social responsibility practices and principles and its outcome. We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents, generated in 2000 to 2002, related to discussions of corporate social responsibility among a Corporate Responsibility Taskforce and senior management at Philip Morris. In exploring corporate social responsibility, Philip Morris executives sought to identify the company's social value-its positive contribution to society. Struggling to find an answer, they considered dramatically changing the way the company marketed its products, apologizing for past actions, and committing the company to providing benefits for future generations. These ideas were eventually abandoned. Despite an initial call to distinguish between social and economic value, Philip Morris ultimately equated social value with providing shareholder returns. When even tobacco executives struggle to define their company's social value, it signals an opening to advocate for endgame scenarios that would encourage supply-side changes appropriate to the scale of the tobacco disease epidemic and consistent with authentic social value.

  7. Campaign to counter a deteriorating consumer market: Philip Morris's Project Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, M

    2013-02-01

    From 1997 to 2000, Philip Morris implemented Project Sunrise. This paper discusses the impact of this project on national and Philip Morris's cigarette unit sales, public opinion about smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use. A qualitative archival content analysis of Project Sunrise from 1997 to 2000, and a descriptive statistical analysis of cigarette unit sales and operating profits, acceptability of smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use from 1996 to 2006. Qualitative data sources related to Project Sunrise found on WebCat, Pubmed.com, LexisNexis Academic and Philip Morris's website, and archived tobacco industry documents were analysed using NVivo Version 9.0. A descriptive statistical analysis of cigarette unit sales, public opinion about smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke, and national prevalence trends for tobacco use was undertaken. Project Sunrise was a high-level strategic corporate plan to maintain profits that included four possible scenarios resulting in seven interwoven strategies. However, national prevalence rates for tobacco use declined, sales of national and Philip Morris cigarettes declined, operating profits remained at substantially lower levels after 2000 from 2001 to 2006, and a large majority of Americans agreed that there were significant health dangers associated with smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke. The impact of Project Sunrise, including countering the anti-tobacco movement, was less than successful in the USA. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Working to make an image: an analysis of three Philip Morris corporate image media campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie A; Emery, Sherry; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Flay, Brian R; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    To describe the nature and timing of, and population exposure to, Philip Morris USA's three explicit corporate image television advertising campaigns and explore the motivations behind each campaign. Analysis of television ratings from the largest 75 media markets in the United States, which measure the reach and frequency of population exposure to advertising; copies of all televised commercials produced by Philip Morris; and tobacco industry documents, which provide insights into the specific goals of each campaign. Household exposure to the "Working to Make a Difference: the People of Philip Morris" averaged 5.37 ads/month for 27 months from 1999-2001; the "Tobacco Settlement" campaign averaged 10.05 ads/month for three months in 2000; and "PMUSA" averaged 3.11 ads/month for the last six months in 2003. The percentage of advertising exposure that was purchased in news programming in order to reach opinion leaders increased over the three campaigns from 20%, 39% and 60%, respectively. These public relations campaigns were designed to counter negative images, increase brand recognition, and improve the financial viability of the company. Only one early media campaign focused on issues other than tobacco, whereas subsequent campaigns have been specifically concerned with tobacco issues, and more targeted to opinion leaders. The size and timing of the advertising buys appeared to be strategically crafted to maximise advertising exposure for these population subgroups during critical threats to Philip Morris's public image.

  9. Leadership style and entrepreneurial change: the Centurion operation at Philips Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Keulen, S.; Kroeze, R.; Peters, R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to look at the role of the top and middle management of the Philips organization during the transition from one type of organizational change to another in the 1990s and the role the history of the organisation played in this process. Design/methodology/approach - The paper

  10. Leadership style and entrepreneurial change : The Centurion operation at Philips Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Luchien; Keulen, Sjoerd; Kroeze, Ronald; Peters, Rik

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to look at the role of the top and middle management of the Philips organization during the transition from one type of organizational change to another in the 1990s and the role the history of the organisation played in this process. Design/methodology/approach - The paper

  11. “The Big WHY”: Philip Morris’s Failed Search for Corporate Social Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined Philip Morris USA’s exploration of corporate social responsibility practices and principles and its outcome. Methods. We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents, generated in 2000 to 2002, related to discussions of corporate social responsibility among a Corporate Responsibility Taskforce and senior management at Philip Morris. Results. In exploring corporate social responsibility, Philip Morris executives sought to identify the company’s social value—its positive contribution to society. Struggling to find an answer, they considered dramatically changing the way the company marketed its products, apologizing for past actions, and committing the company to providing benefits for future generations. These ideas were eventually abandoned. Despite an initial call to distinguish between social and economic value, Philip Morris ultimately equated social value with providing shareholder returns. Conclusions. When even tobacco executives struggle to define their company’s social value, it signals an opening to advocate for endgame scenarios that would encourage supply-side changes appropriate to the scale of the tobacco disease epidemic and consistent with authentic social value. PMID:22897536

  12. Enhancing the IT Infrastructure at Saint Philip's Hospital: Point-of-Care Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Iva; White, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare has become a rapidly changing field. With the introduction of value-based purchasing to determine reimbursement of Medicare providers based on the quality of care in addition to outcomes in treatment, the environment is becoming ever more competitive. Saint Philip's Hospital is among the largest non-profit hospitals in the nation…

  13. Managing between science and industrie: An historical analysis of the Philips Research and Development Department's management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This paper seeks to deal with the history of Research and Development (R&D) management. It takes the history of the R&D Department of the Royal Philips Electronics of The Netherlands as an example to unravel the dynamics behind industrial R&D management. Designomethodologyoapproach This

  14. A. Philip Randolph's Attempt at Equal Economic Opportunity: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A. Philip Randolph, the national president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was one of the driving forces behind the March on Washington Movement in 1941. In frustration over the federal government's lack of support for opportunities in the booming war industries and equality in the military, Randolph had begun to organize the March…

  15. An Information Model for Product Development : A Case Study at PHILIPS Shavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the development of an information model to support the Product Development Process (PDP) of shaving devices at PHILIPS. Firstly, challenges of the PDP were identified by carrying out interviews with several systems engineers and product architects. It was

  16. Paradise Lost and Found: Obedience, Disobedience, and Storytelling in C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Considers how in the fantasy series "The Chronicles of Narnia" and "His Dark Materials," by C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman respectively, the authors use symbols and themes from "Paradise Lost." Notes that each author's narrative choice uses his view of cosmic order to persuade readers that obedience should be…

  17. Instrumental parameters' determination in a fluorescences X-ray Philips PW 1400 equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.M.; Fasio, I.; Baronio, N.; Viola, M.

    1987-01-01

    The instrumental parameters of a Philips PW 1400 equipment wavelengths dispersive are determined; fundamentally, those related to the equipment's accuracy (stability at a very short, short and long term drift) as well as to those related to the detection system (dead time, detector's cleaning and detection limit). (S.M.) [es

  18. 76 FR 71048 - Sixth Annual Philip S. Chen, Jr. Distinguished Lecture on Innovation and Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... present ``Treatment of Cancer with Recombinant Immunotoxins: From Technology Transfer to the Patient.'' Dr. Pastan is an NIH Distinguished Investigator and Chief, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute Center for Cancer Research. This annual series honors Dr. Philip S. Chen, Jr. for his almost 50...

  19. Leadership style and entrepreneurial change: The Centurion operation at Philips Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, D.B.R.; Karsten, L.; Keulen, S.J.; Peters, R.G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to look at the role of the top and middle management of the Philips organization during the transition from one type of organizational change to another in the 1990s and the role the history of the organisation played in this process. Design/methodology/approach - The paper

  20. Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Glassy Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Julie Marie

    Engineering of alloys has for years allowed aircraft turbine engines to become more efficient and operate at higher temperatures. As advancements in these alloy systems have become more difficult, ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), often yttria (7 wt %) stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), have been utilized for thermal protection. TBCs have allowed for higher engine operating temperatures and better fuel efficiency but have also created new engineering problems. Specifically, silica based particles such as sand and volcanic ash that enter the engine during operation form glassy deposits on the TBCs. These deposits can cause the current industrial 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings to fail since the glass formed penetrates and chemically interacts with the TBC. When this occurs, coating failure may occur due to a loss of strain tolerance, which can lead to fracture, and phase changes of the TBC material. There have been several approaches used to stop calcium-magnesium aluminio-silcate (CMAS) glasses (molten sand) from destroying the entire TBC, but overall there is still limited knowledge. In this thesis, 7YSZ and new TBC materials will be examined for thermochemical and thermomechanical performance in the presence of molten CMAS and volcanic ash. Two air plasma sprayed TBCs will be shown to be resistant to volcanic ash and CMAS. The first type of coating is a modified 7YSZ coating with 20 mol% Al2O3 and 5 mol% TiO2 in solid solution (YSZ+20Al+5Ti). The second TBC is made of gadolinium zirconate. These novel TBCs impede CMAS and ash penetration by interacting with the molten CMAS or ash and drastically changing the chemistry. The chemically modified CMAS or ash will crystallize into an apatite or anorthite phase, blocking the CMAS or ash from further destroying the coating. A presented mechanism study will show these coatings are effective due to the large amount of solute (Gd, Al) in the zirconia structure, which is the key to creating the crystalline apatite or

  1. Thermodynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    1998-03-01

    The behavior of metastable water at low temperatures is unusual. The isothermal compressibility, the isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient increase sharply upon supercooling, and structural relaxation becomes extremely sluggish at temperatures far above the glass transition(Angell, C.A., Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem., 34, 593, 1983)(Debenedetti, P.G., Metastable Liquids. Concepts and Principles, Princeton University Press, 1996). Water has two distinct glassy phases, low- and high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA). The transition between LDA and HDA is accompanied by sharp volume and enthalpy changes, and appears to be first-order(Mishima, O., L.D.Calvert, and E. Whalley, Nature, 314, 76, 1985)(Mishima, O., J. Chem. Phys., 100, 5910, 1994). The understanding of these observations in terms of an underlying global phase behavior remains incomplete(Speedy, R.J., J. Phys. Chem., 86, 982, 1982)(Poole, P.H., F. Sciortino, U. Essman, and H.E. Stanley, Nature, 360, 324, 1992)(Sastry, S., P.G. Debenedetti, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. E, 53, 6144, 1996)(Tanaka, H., Nature, 380, 328, 1996)(Xie, Y., K.F. Ludwig, G. Morales, D.E. Hare, and C.M. Sorensen, Phys. Rev. Lett., 71, 2050, 1993). Microscopic theories and computer simulations suggest several scenarios that can reproduce some experimental observations. Interesting and novel ideas have resulted from this body of theoretical work, such as the possibility of liquid-liquid immiscibility in a pure substance(Poole, P.H., F.Sciortino, T.Grande, H.E. Stanley, and C.A. Angell, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73, 1632, 1994)(Roberts, C.J., and P.G. Debenedetti, J. Chem. Phys., 105, 658, 1996)(Roberts, C.J., P.G. Debenedetti, and A.Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 4386, 1996)(Harrington, S., R. Zhang, P.H. Poole, F. Sciortino, and H.E. Stanley, Phys. Rev. Lett., 78, 2409, 1997). In this talk I will review the experimental facts, discuss their theoretical interpretation, and identify key

  2. Grain-boundary, glassy-phase identification and possible artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Y.K.; Carter, C.B.; Sklad, P.; Bentley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Specimen artifacts such as grain boundary grooving, surface damage of the specimen, and Si contamination are shown experimentally to arise from the ion milling used in the preparation of transmission electron microscopy specimens. These artifacts in polycrystalline, ceramic specimens can cause clean grain boundaries to appear to contain a glassy phase when the dark-field diffuse scattering technique, the Fresnel fringe technique, and analytical electron microscopy (energy dispersive spectroscopy) are used to identify glassy phases at a grain boundary. The ambiguity in interpreting each of these techniques due to the ion milling artifacts will be discussed from a theoretical view point and compared to experimental results obtained for alumina

  3. PWA90 Workshop : Marking the Scientific Accomplishments of Philip W. Anderson

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, PIers; Kotliar, Gabi; Ong, Phuan; Stein, Daniel L; Yu, Clare; PWA90 : a lifetime of emergence

    2016-01-01

    In a remarkable career spanning more than six decades, Philip W Anderson has made many fundamental contributions to physics. As codified in his oft-quoted phrase "More is Different", Anderson has been the most forceful and persuasive proponent of the radical, but now ubiquitous, viewpoint of emergent phenomena: truly fundamental concepts that can and do emerge from studies of Nature at each layer of complexity or energy scale. Anderson's ideas have also extended deeply into other areas of physics, including the Anderson–Higgs mechanism and the dynamics of pulsars. PWA90: A Lifetime of Emergence is a volume of original scientific essays and personal reminiscences of Philip W Anderson by experts in the field, that were presented as part of "PWA90: Emergent Frontiers of Condensed Matter" meeting held at Princeton in December 2013 to highlight Anderson's contributions to physics.

  4. Three Experts on Quality Management: Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M. Juran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Department of the Navy Office of the Under Secretary of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Omce THREE EXPERTS ON QUALITY MANAGEMENT : PHILIP B. CROSBY W...research, as the "price of nonconformance." To aid managers in statistical theory , statistical thinking, and the application tracking the cost of doing...Quality Management emphasizes that the process must become a way of life in Theory of Systems. "A system is a series of the organization. Continuance is

  5. Soil physical properties influencing the fitting parameters in Philip and Kostiakov infiltration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Among the many models developed for monitoring the infiltration process those of Philip and Kostiakov have been studied in detail because of their simplicity and the ease of estimating their fitting parameters. The important soil physical factors influencing the fitting parameters in these infiltration models are reported in this study. The results of the study show that the single most important soil property affecting the fitting parameters in these models is the effective porosity. 36 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Application of isotopic information for estimating parameters in Philip infiltration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing parameter uncertainty is crucial in the application of hydrologic models. Isotopic information in various hydrologic components of the water cycle can expand our knowledge of the dynamics of water flow in the system, provide additional information for parameter estimation, and improve parameter identifiability. This study combined the Philip infiltration model with an isotopic mixing model using an isotopic mass balance approach for estimating parameters in the Philip infiltration model. Two approaches to parameter estimation were compared: (a using isotopic information to determine the soil water transmission and then hydrologic information to estimate the soil sorptivity, and (b using hydrologic information to determine the soil water transmission and the soil sorptivity. Results of parameter estimation were verified through a rainfall infiltration experiment in a laboratory under rainfall with constant isotopic compositions and uniform initial soil water content conditions. Experimental results showed that approach (a, using isotopic and hydrologic information, estimated the soil water transmission in the Philip infiltration model in a manner that matched measured values well. The results of parameter estimation of approach (a were better than those of approach (b. It was also found that the analytical precision of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes had a significant effect on parameter estimation using isotopic information.

  7. In-depth study of single photon time resolution for the Philips digital silicon photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Pizzichemi, M.; Ghezzi, A.; Paganoni, M.; Gundacker, S.; Auffray, E.; Lecoq, P.

    2016-01-01

    The digital silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) has been commercialised by Philips as an innovative technology compared to analog silicon photomultiplier devices. The Philips digital SiPM, has a pair of time to digital converters (TDCs) connected to 12800 single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs). Detailed measurements were performed to understand the low photon time response of the Philips digital SiPM. The single photon time resolution (SPTR) of every single SPAD in a pixel consisting of 3200 SPADs was measured and an average value of 85 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) was observed. Each SPAD sends the signal to the TDC with different signal propagation time, resulting in a so called trigger network skew. This distribution of the trigger network skew for a pixel (3200 SPADs) has been measured and a variation of 50 ps FWHM was extracted. The SPTR of the whole pixel is the combination of SPAD jitter, trigger network skew, and the SPAD non-uniformity. The SPTR of a complete pixel was 103 ps FWHM at 3.3 V above breakdown voltage. Further, the effect of the crosstalk at a low photon level has been studied, with the two photon time resolution degrading if the events are a combination of detected (true) photons and crosstalk events. Finally, the time response to multiple photons was investigated.

  8. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  9. EDTA modified glassy carbon electrode: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Degol Street, Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    EDTA-phenoxyamide modified glassy carbon electrode (EDTA-GC) was prepared at a glassy carbon electrode by surface synthesis. In the first step, nitrophenyl was grafted to the glassy carbon (GC) surface via the electrochemical reduction of its tetraflouroborate diazonium salt. In the second step, nitrophenyl-modified electrode (NP-GC) was subjected to the cathodic potential scan to reduce the nitro to amine group. p-Aminophenyl modified glassy carbon electrode (AP-GC) was dipped into a EDTA solution containing 1-ethyl-3(3-(dimethlyamino)propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) as an activating agent. Thus formed ((2-anilino-2-oxoethyl){l_brace}2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-ethyl{r_brace}amino)acetic acid modified GC electrode was denoted as EDTA-GC and characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Complexation of the EDTA-GC surface with Pb{sup 2+} ions was investigated if this electrode could be used as a metal sensor.

  10. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  11. Glassy carbon supercapacitor: 100,000 cycles demonstrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertsch, M; Braun, A; Schnyder, B; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A 5 V glassy carbon capacitor stack was built consisting of four bipolar and two end-plate electrodes. More than 100,000 charging/discharging cycles were applied to test the stability of the double-layer capacitor. Low and high frequency resistances were measured as a function of the number of cycles. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  12. Playback interference of glassy-winged sharp shooter communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal communication is vital to reproduction, particularly for securing a mate. Insects commonly communicate by exchanging vibrational signals that are transmitted through host plants. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important vector of Xylella fastidiosa, a pl...

  13. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-03-14

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  14. Electrochemical and microstructural characterization of platinum supported on glassy carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the electrochemical oxidation of glassy carbon on the deposition of platinum particles and the electrocatalytic activity of platinum supported on oxidized glassy carbon were studied for methanol oxidation in H2SO4 solution. Platinum was potentiostatically deposited from H2SO4 + 6mM H2PtCl6 solution. Glassy carbon was anodically polarized in 1 M NaOH at 1.41 V (SCE for 35 and 95 s and in 0.5 M H2SO4 at 2V (SCE for 35; 95 s and 2.25 V for 35 and 95 s. Electrochemical treatment of the GC support leads to a better distribution of platinum on the substrate and has remarkable effect on the activity. The activity of the Pt/GCox electrode for methanol oxidation is larger than that of polycrystalline Pt and by more than one order of magnitude larger than that of a Pt/GC electrode. This increase in activity indicates the pronounced role of the organic residues of the GC support on the properties of Pt particles deposited on glassy carbon.

  15. A study of nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nanostructured gold modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano/GCE) was employed for the determination of trace chromium(VI). To prepare Aunano/GCE, the GCE was immersed into KAuCl4 solution and electrodeposition was conducted at the potential of -0.4 V (vs Ag/AgCl) for 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy ...

  16. Electrochemical oxidation of niclosamide at a glassy carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclic voltammetry, square-wave voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis have been used to study the electrochemical oxidation behaviour of niclosamide at a glassy carbon electrode. The number of electrons transferred, the wave characteristics, the diffusion coefficient and reversibility of the reactions have been ...

  17. Permeation of Mixed Penetrants through Glassy Polymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-15

    and LOPE. Also, ESCA was used in conjunction with plasma etching to determine the effects of the gas phase fluorine concentration and fluorination...at 35 3C. ARD-AISS5 65 PERMEATION OF MIXED PENETRANTS THROUGH GLASSY POLYMER 213 MENBRANES (U) NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV AT RALEIGH R T CHERN ET AL. 15

  18. Equation-free dynamic renormalization in a glassy compaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Kevrekidis, I. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    Combining dynamic renormalization with equation-free computational tools, we study the apparently asymptotically self-similar evolution of void distribution dynamics in the diffusion-deposition problem proposed by Stinchcombe and Depken [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 125701 (2002)]. We illustrate fixed point and dynamic approaches, forward as well as backward in time; these can be used to accelerate simulators of glassy dynamic phenomena

  19. Equation-free dynamic renormalization in a glassy compaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Kevrekidis, I. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2006-07-01

    Combining dynamic renormalization with equation-free computational tools, we study the apparently asymptotically self-similar evolution of void distribution dynamics in the diffusion-deposition problem proposed by Stinchcombe and Depken [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 125701 (2002)]. We illustrate fixed point and dynamic approaches, forward as well as backward in time; these can be used to accelerate simulators of glassy dynamic phenomena.

  20. Relook on fitting of viscosity with undercooling of glassy liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur ... The present approach is on the modification of viscosity fitting of undercooled liquid as a function of ... behaviour of glassy alloys and organic and ionic compounds ...... the present method is applied to calculate the analytical solu-.

  1. Pressure-induced transformations in computer simulations of glassy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Janet; Starr, Francis W.; Giovambattista, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Glassy water occurs in at least two broad categories: low-density amorphous (LDA) and high-density amorphous (HDA) solid water. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study the transformations of glassy water using the ST2 model. Specifically, we study the known (i) compression-induced LDA-to-HDA, (ii) decompression-induced HDA-to-LDA, and (iii) compression-induced hexagonal ice-to-HDA transformations. We study each transformation for a broad range of compression/decompression temperatures, enabling us to construct a "P-T phase diagram" for glassy water. The resulting phase diagram shows the same qualitative features reported from experiments. While many simulations have probed the liquid-state phase behavior, comparatively little work has examined the transitions of glassy water. We examine how the glass transformations relate to the (first-order) liquid-liquid phase transition previously reported for this model. Specifically, our results support the hypothesis that the liquid-liquid spinodal lines, between a low-density and high-density liquid, are extensions of the LDA-HDA transformation lines in the limit of slow compression. Extending decompression runs to negative pressures, we locate the sublimation lines for both LDA and hyperquenched glassy water (HGW), and find that HGW is relatively more stable to the vapor. Additionally, we observe spontaneous crystallization of HDA at high pressure to ice VII. Experiments have also seen crystallization of HDA, but to ice XII. Finally, we contrast the structure of LDA and HDA for the ST2 model with experiments. We find that while the radial distribution functions (RDFs) of LDA are similar to those observed in experiments, considerable differences exist between the HDA RDFs of ST2 water and experiment. The differences in HDA structure, as well as the formation of ice VII (a tetrahedral crystal), are a consequence of ST2 overemphasizing the tetrahedral character of water.

  2. Philip Morris Asia Ltd. v. Australia – abuse of rights in investor-state arbitration / Ulf Linderfalk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linderfalk, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Kohtulahendist Philip Morris Asia Ltd. vs Australia. Õiguste kuritarvitamise doktriinist rahvusvahelises õiguses. Austraalia tubakaseadusest, seadusest tulenevatest piirangutest tubakatoodete pakendamisele, kaubamärgi kasutamise piiramisest tubakatoodete pakendil

  3. Voltammetric quantitation of nitazoxanide by glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports voltammetric reduction of nitazoxanide in Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer by cyclic and square-wave voltammetry at glassy carbon electrode. A versatile fully validated voltammetric method for quantitative determination of nitazoxanide in pharmaceutical formulation has been proposed. A squrewave peak current was linear over the nitazoxanide concentration in the range of 20–140 µg/mL. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ was calculated to be 5.23 μg/mL and 17.45 μg/mL, respectively. Keywords: Nitazoxanide, Squarewave voltammetry, Glassy carbon electrode, Pharmaceutical formulation

  4. Implications of Reverse Innovation for Socio-Economic Sustainability: A Case Study of Philips China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Shan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of reverse innovation, local innovation happening in emerging markets for the global market, has gained much academic and managerial attention in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand how reverse innovation has successfully diffused into the product and market development strategies at Philips Inc., a prominent multinational company (MNC of the modern era. Furthermore, the study presents the success achieved by these innovations at both the domestic and global levels, along with their implications regarding socio-economic sustainability in emerging markets. In order to investigate the research questions, a case study of Philips China was conducted involving three product innovations that were found to be suitable examples of reverse innovation. After the study of extant literature on the topic, drawing from research databases, newspaper articles, and company press releases, five semi-structuredinterviews were conducted with key managers and a market practitioner to gain sufficient understanding for this exploratory study. Subsequent case analysis concludes that these innovations are examples of reverse innovation representing a new paradigm change in innovation flow. This flow of innovation from emerging markets to developed markets as confirmed by Corsi’s framework could potentially disrupt developed markets as well as contribute to ensure healthy living conditions for the population living in developing countries. If so, this represents a sustainable socio-economic change in-line with the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goal (SDG of “ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages.” This is relevant as Philips aspires to be a prominent private sector player in achieving the above-stated goal by defeating non-communicable disease and strengthening local healthcare systems.

  5. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  6. Characteristics of Philips SL-20 linear accelerator used for stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Harold; Ganesh, T.; Joshi, R.C.; Julka, P.K.; Rath, G.K.; Chander, Subhash; Pant, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning of a stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) facility on a modified linear accelerator requires validation of mechanical parameters and establishment of parameters, such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), relative output factors (OF), and off axis ratios (OAR). The mechanical and beam characteristics of Philips SL-20 linear accelerator modified for SRS/SRT were evaluated and presented. The SRS/SRT procedure carried on Philips SL-20 linear accelerator with Brown-Robert-Wells (BRW) and relocatable Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) head frames along with the Radionics planning system was evaluated. The tertiary collimator consists of the actual treatment cones and their sizes vary from 12.5 mm to 40 mm diameter. The alignment of the auxillary collimator axis with mechanical axes and stability of the isocenter of Philips SL-20 machine was evaluated using Iso-Align device and mechanical isocenter standard (MIS). All the mechanical errors of the linear accelerator were within 1 mm, except the stability of the isocenter while rotating the couch. Alignment of auxiliary collimator axis with the central axis, gantry and couch axes were achieved. The TMR, OF and OAR for 6 MV x-rays from Philips SL-20 linear accelerator for different cone sizes were deduced using a Multidata water phantom with 0.015 cc ion chamber. The difference between 50% width of profiles in two major axes (x and y) were within ± 0.4 mm. The cone dimensions were accurate up to 0.7 mm. The penumbra width for different cones varies from 3.1 mm to 3.5 mm. Dose linearity of the monitoring system was ≤ 1% above 5 MU. The mechanical and beam characteristics including dose linearity of the SL-20 machine are presented. The beam characteristics of this machine are comparable with the other modified linear accelerators for SRS/SRT. The shift of isocenter during rotation of couch can be nullified by fine adjusting laser target localizing frame to the laser position using micrometer screws

  7. Philip Roth's The human stain and the destruction of the American dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Vrčko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dissects the notion of the American Dream in Philip Roth's The Human Stain. It looks at how individual tenets of the Dream are carved into the protagonist Coleman Silk, a black man who goes through life pretending to be white. The analysis shows how these same principles are questioned through various incidents in Silk's life and ultimately by his violent death. The result of Roth's scrutinizing is that, as all the underminings come together, the whole concept of the American Dream is symbolically crushed.

  8. The full automation of a Philips 1220 x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austen, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A Philips 1220 X-ray spectrometer (semi-automatic) was fully automated by the addition of a custom-built automatic sample-loader constructed at the National Institute for Metallurgy and a Texas 980 A mini-computer. The mini-computer was interfaced to the existing control circuits of the X-ray spectrometer through a custom-built logic-circuit unit that controls the automatic sample-loader and X-ray spectrometer on instructions received from the mini-computer. The controlling software is written in BASIC

  9. Thermodynamic Modeling of Gas Transport in Glassy Polymeric Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Matteo; Sarti, Giulio Cesare

    2017-08-19

    Solubility and permeability of gases in glassy polymers have been considered with the aim of illustrating the applicability of thermodynamically-based models for their description and prediction. The solubility isotherms are described by using the nonequilibrium lattice fluid (NELF) (model, already known to be appropriate for nonequilibrium glassy polymers, while the permeability isotherms are described through a general transport model in which diffusivity is the product of a purely kinetic factor, the mobility coefficient, and a thermodynamic factor. The latter is calculated from the NELF model and mobility is considered concentration-dependent through an exponential relationship containing two parameters only. The models are tested explicitly considering solubility and permeability data of various penetrants in three glassy polymers, PSf, PPh and 6FDA-6FpDA, selected as the reference for different behaviors. It is shown that the models are able to calculate the different behaviors observed, and in particular the permeability dependence on upstream pressure, both when it is decreasing as well as when it is increasing, with no need to invoke the onset of additional plasticization phenomena. The correlations found between polymer and penetrant properties with the two parameters of the mobility coefficient also lead to the predictive ability of the transport model.

  10. Quasi-equilibrium in glassy dynamics: an algebraic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    We study a chain of identical glassy systems in a constrained equilibrium, where each bond of the chain is forced to remain at a preassigned distance to the previous one. We apply this description to mean-field glassy systems in the limit of a long chain where each bond is close to the previous one. We show that this construction defines a pseudo-dynamic process that in specific conditions can formally describe real relaxational dynamics for long times. In particular, in mean-field spin glass models we can recover in this way the equations of Langevin dynamics in the long time limit at the dynamical transition temperature and below. We interpret the formal identity as evidence that in these situations the configuration space is explored in a quasi-equilibrium fashion. Our general formalism, which relates dynamics to equilibrium, puts slow dynamics in a new perspective and opens the way to the computation of new dynamical quantities in glassy systems. (paper)

  11. Philip Morris's website and television commercials use new language to mislead the public into believing it has changed its stance on smoking and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyses Philip Morris's evolving website and the legal strategies employed in its creation and dissemination. Internal tobacco documents were searched and examined and their substance verified and triangulated using media accounts, legal and public health research papers, and visits to Philip Morris's website. Various drafts of website language, as well as informal discussion of the website's creation, were located in internal Philip Morris documents. I compared website statements pertaining to Philip Morris's stance on cigarette smoking and disease with statements made in tobacco trials. Philip Morris created and disseminated its website's message that it agreed that smoking causes disease and is addictive in an effort to sway public opinion, while maintaining in a litigation setting its former position that it cannot be proved that smoking causes disease or is addictive. Philip Morris has not changed its position on smoking and health or addiction in the one arena where it has the most to lose-in the courtroom, under oath.

  12. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2004-12-01

    To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities.

  13. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Philips fluoroscopy systems DoseWise: perfect image, perfect sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueve, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Although image quality (IQ) is the ultimate goal for accurate diagnosis and treatment, minimizing radiation dose is equally important. This is especially true when pediatric patients are examined, because their sensitivity to radiation-induced cancer is two to three times greater than that of adults. DoseWise is an ALARA-based philosophy within Philips Medical Systems that is active at every level of product design. It encompasses a set of techniques, programs and practices that ensures optimal IQ while protecting people in the X-ray environments. DoseWise methods include management of the X-ray beam, less radiation-on time and more dose information for the operator. Smart beam management provides automatic customization of the X-ray beam spectrum, shape, and pulse frequency. The Philips-patented grid-controlled fluoroscopy (GCF) provides grid switching of the X-ray beam in the X-ray tube instead of the traditional generator switching method. In the examination of pediatric patients, DoseWise technology has been scientifically documented to reduce radiation dose to <10% of the dose of traditional continuous fluoroscopy systems. The result is improved IQ at a significantly lower effective dose, which contributes to the safety of patients and staff. (orig.)

  14. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J D; Glantz, S A; Ling, P M

    2004-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Analysis of internal company documents. Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market.

  15. Validity of automated measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction and volume using the Philips EPIQ system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovnanians, Ninel; Win, Theresa; Makkiya, Mohammed; Zheng, Qi; Taub, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    To assess the efficiency and reproducibility of automated measurements of left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) in comparison to manually traced biplane Simpson's method. This is a single-center prospective study. Apical four- and two-chamber views were acquired in patients in sinus rhythm. Two operators independently measured LV volumes and LVEF using biplane Simpson's method. In addition, the image analysis software a2DQ on the Philips EPIQ system was applied to automatically assess the LV volumes and LVEF. Time spent on each analysis, using both methods, was documented. Concordance of echocardiographic measures was evaluated using intraclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Manual tracing and automated measurement of LV volumes and LVEF were performed in 184 patients with a mean age of 67.3 ± 17.3 years and BMI 28.0 ± 6.8 kg/m 2 . ICC and Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreements between manual and automated methods measuring LVEF, end-systolic, and end-diastolic volumes. The average analysis time was significantly less using the automated method than manual tracing (116 vs 217 seconds/patient, P Automated measurement using the novel image analysis software a2DQ on the Philips EPIQ system produced accurate, efficient, and reproducible assessment of LV volumes and LVEF compared with manual measurement. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Some Recent Developments in Structure and Glassy Behavior of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-02-01

    We have used ARVO developed by us to find that the ratio of volume and surface area of proteins in Protein Data Bank distributed in a very narrow region [1]. Such result is useful for the determination of protein 3D structures. It has been widely known that a spin glass model can be used to understand the slow relaxation behavior of a glass at low temperatures [2]. We have used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that polymer chains with neighboring monomers connected by rigid bonds can relax very slowly and show glassy behavior [3]. We have also found that native collagen fibrils show glassy behavior at room temperatures [4]. The results of [3] and [4] about the glassy behavior of polymers or proteins are useful for understanding the mechanism for a biological system to maintain in a non-equilibrium state, including the ancient seed [5], which can maintain in a non-equilibrium state for a very long time. (1) M.-C. Wu, M. S. Li, W.-J. Ma, M. Kouza, and C.-K. Hu, EPL, in press (2011); (2) C. Dasgupta, S.-K. Ma, and C.-K. Hu. Phys. Rev. B 20, 3837-3849 (1979); (3) W.-J. Ma and C.-K. Hu, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 79, 024005, 024006, 054001, and 104002 (2010), C.-K. Hu and W.-J. Ma, Prog. Theor. Phys. Supp. 184, 369 (2010); S. G. Gevorkian, A. E. Allahverdyan, D. S. Gevorgyan and C.-K. Hu, EPL 95, 23001 (2011); S. Sallon, et al. Science 320, 1464 (2008).

  17. Shear-transformation-zone theory of linear glassy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchbinder, Eran; Langer, J S

    2011-06-01

    We present a linearized shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of glassy dynamics in which the internal STZ transition rates are characterized by a broad distribution of activation barriers. For slowly aging or fully aged systems, the main features of the barrier-height distribution are determined by the effective temperature and other near-equilibrium properties of the configurational degrees of freedom. Our theory accounts for the wide range of relaxation rates observed in both metallic glasses and soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions. We find that the frequency-dependent loss modulus is not just a superposition of Maxwell modes. Rather, it exhibits an α peak that rises near the viscous relaxation rate and, for nearly jammed, glassy systems, extends to much higher frequencies in accord with experimental observations. We also use this theory to compute strain recovery following a period of large, persistent deformation and then abrupt unloading. We find that strain recovery is determined in part by the initial barrier-height distribution, but that true structural aging also occurs during this process and determines the system's response to subsequent perturbations. In particular, we find by comparison with experimental data that the initial deformation produces a highly disordered state with a large population of low activation barriers, and that this state relaxes quickly toward one in which the distribution is dominated by the high barriers predicted by the near-equilibrium analysis. The nonequilibrium dynamics of the barrier-height distribution is the most important of the issues raised and left unresolved in this paper.

  18. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kozyukhin, S. A.; Shpotyuk, M.; Ingram, A.; Szatanik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using As 2 S 3 and AsS 2 glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models

  19. Positronics of radiation-induced effects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Scientific Research Company “Carat” (Ukraine); Kozyukhin, S. A., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Shpotyuk, M. [Scientific Research Company “Carat” (Ukraine); Ingram, A. [Opole Technical University (Poland); Szatanik, R. [Opole University (Poland)

    2015-03-15

    Using As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsS{sub 2} glasses as an example, the principal possibility of using positron annihilation spectroscopy methods for studying the evolution of the free volume of hollow nanoobjects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors exposed to radiation is shown. The results obtained by measurements of the positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in reverse chronological order are in full agreement with the optical spectroscopy data in the region of the fundamental absorption edge, being adequately described within coordination defect-formation and physical-aging models.

  20. Dynamical singularities of glassy systems in a quantum quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2012-11-01

    We present a prototype of behavior of glassy systems driven by quantum dynamics in a quenching protocol by analyzing the random energy model in a transverse field. We calculate several types of dynamical quantum amplitude and find a freezing transition at some critical time. The behavior is understood by the partition-function zeros in the complex temperature plane. We discuss the properties of the freezing phase as a dynamical chaotic phase, which are contrasted to those of the spin-glass phase in the static system.

  1. Crystal-like nature of acoustic excitations in glassy ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matic, A.; Engberg, D.; Boerjesson, L.; Masciovecchio, C.; Santucci, S.C.; Monaco, G.; Verbeni, R.

    2004-01-01

    We report on inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on crystalline and glassy phases of ethanol in order to directly compare the influence of disorder on high frequency acoustic excitations. We find that both the dispersion and the line-width of the longitudinal acoustic excitations in the glass are the same as in the polycrystal in the reciprocal space portion covering the 1st and 2nd Brillouin zones. The structural disorder is found to play little role apart from an intrinsic angular averaging, and the nature of these excitations must essentially be the same in both glass and poly crystal

  2. Avian Diseases: The Creation and Evolution of P. Philip Levine's Enduring Gift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnek, Bruce W

    2015-03-01

    This account has two aims. The first is to provide a tribute to Dr. Pincus Philip Levine, the founder of Avian Diseases. It addresses several facets of the life and times of this remarkable and interesting personality, giving some insight into the why and how he came to establish the journal. It touches on his background; his character; his astute and searching mind; his ability to interact with others; his influence on veterinary, and especially avian, medicine; and his teaching genius and reveals the positive force he was in his interactions with others. Then, it turns to a celebration of the first half-century of the journal that he created, essentially single-handedly, and reviews some of the history regarding the stimulus, birthing pains, and gradual evolution of the journal through a succession of editors, business managers, and supporting casts to the publication that we see today, nearly 50 yr later.

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Results of a hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Philip Smith Mountains NTMS quadrangle, Alaska are presented. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. In this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subsetted by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs into groups of stream sediment and lake sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report.

  5. When Harry met Zuckerman: self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Creus

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation.

  6. Fantasmes et fantômes dans Sabbath’s Theater, de Philip Roth (1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine CHOUARD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available “We are dealing here with death, fuck the flowers!” (120 S’il fallait, dans la littérature américaine, mettre un nom en face du mot fantasme, ce serait celui de Philip Roth, dont l’œuvre se place sous le signe d’une formidable libido. Suivraient ensuite sans doute ceux de Nabokov, Miller, Bukowski, ou Updike qui ont tour à tour fait leur miel des fantasmes les plus divers. Regroupés autour de cette thématique, ces écrivains portent la fiction américaine à un taux de testostérone pour le moin...

  7. The New Secular Humanists: Ronald Dworkin and Philip Kitcher on Life without God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Taliaferro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ronald Dworkin and Philip Kitcher recognize that traditional, religious faith—especially in Christian theistic tradition—has virtues that seem to be missing in a secular worldview. To remedy this apparent deficit, they both propose that a secular worldview can provide a satisfying foundation for a flourishing, meaningful life. Moreover, Kitcher argues that secular humanism is far more justified than a religious worldview because it does not face the problem of diversity that arises in the case of religion. I argue that secular humanism faces the same problem of diversity that Kitcher proposes undermines religious belief. I further argue that Dworkin’s and Kitcher’s secular alternative to a religious worldview is problematic.

  8. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  9. New model system in radiation cryochemistry. Hyperquenched glassy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plonka, A.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Since the radical generated by high-energy irradiation of liquid water are short-lived at ambient temperature, they are often studied at cryogenic temperatures after irradiating either crystalline ice or highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte solution glasses. While these studies provided a wealth of information, they also bear disadvantages in that further reactions of these radicals may not be those occurring in liquid water because of formation of other radicals from the solute in the case of the electrolyte solution glass and/or perturbation of the water structure by the solute. Furthermore, in slow-cooled aqueous solutions where ice is formed and phase separation of the solute occurs, the radicals trapped in the ice compartments are unable to interact with solutes because these are dissolved in the 'freeze-concentration' regions. These problems can in principle be overcome by investigating water and dilute aqueous solutions in their glassy states which can be obtained by rapid quenching of the liquids. Glassy water can now routinely be made in gram-quantities by so-called 'hyperquenching' of micrometer-sized water droplets on a solid cryoplate. The cooling rates are of the order of 10 6 - 10 7 K s -1 . Our results show that indeed in the hyperquenched dilute aqueous solutions there is no problem with phase separation and radiolysis of hyperquenched water is quite distinct from radiolysis of polycrystalline ice obtained from liquid water quenched in the liquid nitrogen

  10. Absorptive capacity in solid-state technology and international knowledge transfer : the case of Philips comparative technology transfer and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, M.; Verbong, G.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    After World War II, the market for vacuum tubes was threatened by the development, first, of transistors and, later, integrated circuits. It was essential for European electronic companies, including the Dutch company Philips Electronics, to adopt American technology to gain a position in the

  11. A group find of the bronze coins struck under Philip II and Alexander III from Svoboda near Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Militký, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2013), s. 147-160 ISSN 0546-9414 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24707S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Macedonia * Bulgaria * Philip II * hoard Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, N; Ling, P M

    2005-08-01

    To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci: lifestyle/psychographic research, brand studies, and advertising/communication effectiveness. Philip Morris identified core similarities in the lifestyles and needs of young consumers worldwide, such as independence, hedonism, freedom, and comfort. In the early 1990s Philip Morris adopted standardised global marketing efforts, creating a central advertising production bank and guidelines for brand images and promotions, but allowing regional managers to create regionally appropriate individual advertisements. Values and lifestyles play a central role in the global marketing of tobacco to young adults. Worldwide counter marketing initiatives, coupled with strong, coherent global marketing policies such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed to break associations between young adult values and tobacco brands. As globalisation promotes the homogenisation of values and lifestyles, tobacco control messages that resonate with young adults in one part of the world may appeal to young adults in other countries. Successful tobacco control messages that appeal to young people, such as industry denormalisation, may be expanded globally with appropriate tailoring to appeal to regional values.

  13. Philip II’s Quest. The Appointment of Governors-General during the Dutch Revolt (1559-1598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Soen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Philip II’s Quest: The Appointment of Governors-General during the Dutch Revolt (1559-1598Recent historiographical studies have presented the Habsburg appointment of governors-general during the Dutch Revolt as the outcome of factional infighting at the Spanish Court. While this so-called ‘faction model’ has yielded new insights, it also raises a number of problems. Firstly, in the new model, the role of the dynasty is unduly relegated to the background – even though Philip II’s appointment decisions were mainly driven by dynastic considerations. Secondly, the power struggle at the Spanish Court was not only a conflict between court factions, but also between noble houses vying for prestige and trying to secure positions for their offspring. Thirdly, there is an excessive focus on the Spanish Court, while the feuds between noble houses in the Low Countries also played a role in the interim appointments made during the Revolt. Finally, Philip II always looked for the most suitable candidate in terms of administration and warfare during the Dutch Revolt, in accordance with the constraints of the composite Spanish monarchy. Only the combination of these four (frequently contradictory motives reveals how Philip II’s appointment of governors can be seen as a quest for the right man or woman in the right place.

  14. Bedrijfsmatige bemiddeling. Philips en Unilever en de marketing van radio's, televisies en snacks in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Onno; Albert de la Bruheze, Adri A.

    2002-01-01

    Mediation practices show a wide variety. This article focuses upon mediation processes initiated by corporations. Within the context of two multinational companies, Philips and Unilever, the development, introduction and diffusion of radio and television sets and snacks in the Netherlands is

  15. How mechanical behavior of glassy polymers enables us to characterize melt deformation: elastic yielding in glassy state after melt stretching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Qing; Zhao, Zhichen; Tsige, Mesfin; Zheng, Yexin

    Fast melt deformation well above the glass transition temperature Tg is known to produce elastic stress in an entangled polymer due to the chain entropy loss at the length scale of the network mesh size. Here chains of high molecular weight are assumed to form an entanglement network so that such a polymer behaves transiently like vulcanized rubber capable of affine deformation. We consider quenching a melt-deformed glassy polymer to well below Tg to preserve the elastic stress. Upon heating such a sample to Tg, the sample can return to the shape it took before melt deformation. This is the basic principle behind the design of all polymer-based shape-memory materials. This work presents intriguing evidence based on both experiment and computer simulation that the chain network, deformed well above Tg, can drive the glassy polymer to undergo elastic yielding. Our experimental systems include polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and polycarbonate; the molecular dynamics simulation is based on Kremer-Grest bead-spring model. National Science Foundation (DMR-1444859 and DMR-1609977).

  16. A consequence of local equilibration and heterogeneity in glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem observed in simulations and experiments performed in various glassy materials is related to the concepts of local equilibration and heterogeneity in space. Assuming the existence of a dynamic coherence length scale up to which the system is locally equilibrated, we extend previous generalizations of the FDT relating static to dynamic quantities to the physically relevant domain where asymptotic limits of large times and sizes are not reached. The formulation relies on a simple scaling argument and thus does not have the character of a theorem. Extensive numerical simulations support this proposition. Our results quite generally apply to systems with slow dynamics, independently of the space dimensionality, the chosen dynamics or the presence of disorder

  17. Evidence for a glassy state in strongly driven carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.D.; Gericke, D.O.; Wunsch, K.; Cammarata, M.; Fritz, D.; Glenzer, S.H.; Heimann, P.; Lee, H.J.; Lemke, H.; Nagler, B.; Zhu, D.; Galtier, E.; Moinard, A.; Rosmej, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid. (authors)

  18. Mechanical Properties for Reliability Analysis of Structures in Glassy Carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Despite its good physical properties, the glassy carbon material is not widely used, especially for structural applications. Nevertheless, its transparency to particles and temperature resistance are interesting properties for the applications to vacuum chambers and components in high energy physics. For example, it has been proposed for fast shutter valve in particle accelerator [1] [2]. The mechanical properties have to be carefully determined to assess the reliability of structures in such a material. In this paper, mechanical tests have been carried out to determine the elastic parameters, the strength and toughness on commercial grades. A statistical approach, based on the Weibull’s distribution, is used to characterize the material both in tension and compression. The results are compared to the literature and the difference of properties for these two loading cases is shown. Based on a Finite Element analysis, a statistical approach is applied to define the reliability of a structural component in gl...

  19. In situ nanocalorimetry of thin glassy organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gutierrez, E.; Garcia, G.; Lopeandía, A. F.; Fraxedas, J.; Clavaguera-Mora, M. T.; Rodríguez-Viejo, J.

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we describe the design and first experimental results of a new setup that combines evaporation of liquids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions with in situ high sensitivity thermal characterization of thin films. Organic compounds are deposited from the vapor directly onto a liquid nitrogen cooled substrate, permitting the preparation and characterization of glassy films. The substrate consists of a microfabricated, membrane-based nanocalorimeter that permits in situ measurements of heat capacity under ultrafast heating rates (up to 105 K/s) in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Three glass forming liquids—toluene, methanol, and acetic acid—are characterized. The spikes in heat capacity related to the glass-transition temperature, the fictive temperature and, in some cases, the onset temperature of crystallization are determined for several heating rates.

  20. Topological structure and mechanics of glassy polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Robert M; Sirk, Timothy W

    2017-11-22

    The influence of chain-level network architecture (i.e., topology) on mechanics was explored for unentangled polymer networks using a blend of coarse-grained molecular simulations and graph-theoretic concepts. A simple extension of the Watts-Strogatz model is proposed to control the graph properties of the network such that the corresponding physical properties can be studied with simulations. The architecture of polymer networks assembled with a dynamic curing approach were compared with the extended Watts-Strogatz model, and found to agree surprisingly well. The final cured structures of the dynamically-assembled networks were nearly an intermediate between lattice and random connections due to restrictions imposed by the finite length of the chains. Further, the uni-axial stress response, character of the bond breaking, and non-affine displacements of fully-cured glassy networks were analyzed as a function of the degree of disorder in the network architecture. It is shown that the architecture strongly affects the network stability, flow stress, onset of bond breaking, and ultimate stress while leaving the modulus and yield point nearly unchanged. The results show that internal restrictions imposed by the network architecture alter the chain-level response through changes to the crosslink dynamics in the flow regime and through the degree of coordinated chain failure at the ultimate stress. The properties considered here are shown to be sensitive to even incremental changes to the architecture and, therefore, the overall network architecture, beyond simple defects, is predicted to be a meaningful physical parameter in the mechanics of glassy polymer networks.

  1. Boron ion irradiation induced structural and surface modification of glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalijadis, Ana; Jovanović, Zoran; Cvijović-Alagić, Ivana; Laušević, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of boron into glassy carbon was achieved by irradiating two different types of targets: glassy carbon polymer precursor and carbonized glassy carbon. Targets were irradiated with a 45 keV B 3+ ion beam in the fluence range of 5 × 10 15 –5 × 10 16 ions cm −2 . For both types of targets, the implanted boron was located in a narrow region under the surface. Following irradiation, the polymer was carbonized under the same condition as the glassy carbon samples (at 1273 K) and examined by Raman spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, hardness and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Structural analysis showed that during the carbonization process of the irradiated polymers, boron is substitutionally incorporated into the glassy carbon structure, while for irradiated carbonized glassy carbon samples, boron irradiation caused an increase of the sp 3 carbon fraction, which is most pronounced for the highest fluence irradiation. Further analyses showed that different nature of boron incorporation, and thus changed structural parameters, are crucial for obtaining glassy carbon samples with modified mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties over a wide range

  2. Interpreting the Dæmonomicon: A Decade of Teaching Philip Pullman’s Northern Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Allen Hanssen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials trilogy reinvigorated the high fantasy genre, not least by his invention of the dæmon. In this article I argue that the dæmon concept, when applied as a drawing exercise in the teacher education context, provides important insight into the vast diversity of interests, feelings, and values of ELT student teachers as they prepare to enter their chosen profession. From the years 2007-2017, approximately 200 university students were invited to draw a representation of their ‘dæmon’. The drawings, assembled and analysed as a data set based on markers such as the student teachers’ gender, as well as by content, size, and relative creativity, allow certain patterns and tendencies to become visible, and individual drawings also serve as important reflection points on the novel and the nature of teaching literature. Northern Lights, the first book of His Dark Materials trilogy, makes for excellent reading, and is also a helpful book to use in the teacher education context, to help student teachers learn the conventions of the fantasy genre and understand how knowledge of the genre can enhance their teaching practice. This article therefore presents a long-term learning activity connected to teaching Northern Lights, as a way into working with genre conventions, and also as a point of departure on the subject of the importance of self-reflection in the literature classroom’s interpretative community.

  3. 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship: Drug Discovery Targeting Allosteric Sites†

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The identification of sites on receptors topographically distinct from the orthosteric sites, so-called allosteric sites, has heralded novel approaches and modes of pharmacology for target modulation. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of allosteric modulation has grown significantly, and numerous advantages, as well as caveats (e.g., flat structure–activity relationships, species differences, “molecular switches”), have been identified. For multiple receptors and proteins, numerous examples have been described where unprecedented levels of selectivity are achieved along with improved physiochemical properties. While not a panacea, these novel approaches represent exciting opportunities for tool compound development to probe the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of discrete molecular targets, as well as new medicines. In this Perspective, in commemoration of the 2013 Philip S. Portoghese Medicinal Chemistry Lectureship (LindsleyC. W.Adventures in allosteric drug discovery. Presented at the 246th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Indianapolis, IN, September 10, 2013; The 2013 Portoghese Lectureship), several vignettes of drug discovery campaigns targeting novel allosteric mechanisms will be recounted, along with lessons learned and guidelines that have emerged for successful lead optimization. PMID:25180768

  4. Proposal for a heavy ion ECR-source at the PSI-Philips cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.

    1989-10-01

    It is proposed by a large community of PSI- and external scientists to install an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source for highly charged heavy ions at the PHILIPS (injector I) cyclotron. Such a facility would then allow to produce high intensity ion beams with energies up to 30 MeV/u. A workshop hold in June 1989 clearly showed that with such a machine a large variety of interesting heavy ion experiments could be performed. While at foreign heavy ion centres the main focus is given to basic research in the field of nuclear physics we propose to concentrate the scientific effort at a PSI heavy ion facility mainly onto applications in the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, accelerator mass spectrometry, radiation biology and solid state physics. This is adequate, in view of the broad infrastructure available at PSI together with the existing know-how in many different fields. The proposed machine will thus be of great potential use for a large community. (author) 19 figs., 3 tabs., 82 refs

  5. “What Is Our Story?” Philip Morris’s Changing Corporate Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to learn how employees reacted to changes in the corporate narrative of Philip Morris Companies (PMC) in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Methods. We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents about PMC’s creation of a new corporate story. Results. In response to litigation and public opprobrium, PMC replaced its market success–oriented corporate narrative with a new one centered on responsibility. Although management sought to downplay inconsistencies between the old and new narratives, some employees reportedly had difficulty reconciling them, concerned that the responsibility focus might affect company profitability. However, others embraced the new narrative, suggesting radical ideas to prevent youth smoking. These ideas were not adopted. Conclusions. PMC’s new narrative was unconvincing to many of its employees, who perceived it either as a threat to the company’s continued profits or as incongruous with what they had previously been told. As it had done with the public, PMC misled its employees in explaining a narrative repositioning that would help the company continue business as usual. Moving toward a tobacco endgame will require ongoing discursive and symbolic efforts to disrupt this narrative. PMID:26270280

  6. The skills of erect full-spine radiograph with Philips DR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guangqi; Yang Xufeng; Wu Tengfang; Wen Xingwei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the image stitching methods and skills of erect full-spine P-A radiograph with Philips DR. Methods: Proper spinal projecting position and exposure factors were selected to get the radiogragh of full-spine. Three methods were used to stitch images. The image deviation was evaluated with photoshop to judge the quality of the stitching full-spine images. Results: Among ninety-eight patients, the full-spine images were stitched successfully by automatic method in 78 patients. Other stiching images were justified with manual stitching method and were good enough for diagnosis. The border of vertebral body, pedicle of vertebral arch and spinous process were revealed clearly in 96 patients. The shift of vertebral body at stitching point was within 1 mm in 83 patients, 2mm in 11 patients, 3mm in 2 patients. Conclusion: Full spine radiography with DDR can provide clinical diagnosis information with reliable images. High quality and reliable full-spine images can be got with proper spinal projecting position, appropriate image postprocess software and suitable stitching method. (authors)

  7. Philip Meyer, o outsider que criou o Jornalismo de Precisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gehrke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A importância da trajetória de Philip Meyer para os estudos de jornalismo é o ponto principal desta entrevista. Ele é o criador do Jornalismo de Precisão, conceito que aproxima o jornalismo da ciência por meio de métodos científicos sociais, e que, também, dá nome a um de seus livros, publicado pela primeira vez em 1973. Ainda que o Jornalismo de Precisão não demande, necessariamente, o uso de computadores, Meyer começou a trabalhar com as máquinas antes de sua popularização, nos protestos de Detroit, em 1967, depois de passar nove meses na Universidade de Harvard. Utilizando amostra na narrativa jornalística, Meyer e a equipe do jornal Detroit Free Press receberam um Prêmio Pulitzer um ano depois. O Jornalismo de Precisão ainda é um conceito utilizado, mas hoje mais associado ao jornalismo de dados. Nessa entrevista, respondida por email, Meyer não só relembra aspectos de sua carreira e fala sobre a prática jornalística, como o uso de dados, transparência e hipótese, bem como revela suas percepções sobre o futuro do jornalismo.

  8. Fiscal versus social responsibility: how Philip Morris shaped the public funds divestment debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, N; Malone, R E

    2006-01-01

    Calls for institutional investors to divest (sell off) tobacco stocks threaten the industry's share values, publicise its bad behaviour, and label it as a politically unacceptable ally. US tobacco control advocates began urging government investment and pension funds to divest as a matter of responsible social policy in 1990. Following the initiation of Medicaid recovery lawsuits in 1994, advocates highlighted the contradictions between state justice departments suing the industry, and state health departments expanding tobacco control programmes, while state treasurers invested in tobacco companies. Philip Morris (PM), the most exposed US company, led the divestment opposition, consistently framing the issue as one of responsible fiscal policy. It insisted that funds had to be managed for the exclusive interest of beneficiaries, not the public at large, and for high share returns above all. This paper uses tobacco industry documents to show how PM sought to frame both the rhetorical contents and the legal contexts of the divestment debate. While tobacco stock divestment was eventually limited to only seven (but highly visible) states, US advocates focused public attention on the issue in at least 18 others plus various local jurisdictions. This added to ongoing, effective campaigns to denormalise and delegitimise the tobacco industry, dividing it from key allies. Divestment as a delegitimisation tool could have both advantages and disadvantages as a tobacco control strategy in other countries. PMID:16728755

  9. Commentary on Adele Tutter's "Design as dream and self-representation: Philip Johnson and the Glass House of Atreus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danze, Elizabeth A; Sonnenberg, Stephen M

    2012-06-01

    In this discussion of Adele Tutter's "Design as Dream and Self-Representation: Philip Johnson and the Glass House of Atreus" (JAPA 59/3), the architect Elizabeth Danze and the psychoanalyst Stephen Sonnenberg highlight what they see as the most important of Tutter's contributions as regards an understanding of Johnson's work. They then discuss those contributions as they illuminate the study of the relationship of architecture and design, on the one hand, and psychoanalysis on the other.

  10. The Philip Morris Genome Project: a guide to tracking alliances of the world´s largest cigarette company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Blum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Beginning in the 1980s, tobacco control efforts shifted from school-based and clinic-based education about the dangers of smoking to direct confrontation of the tobacco industry. But the industry also evolved by developing innovative promotional campaigns, adopting new corporate identities, and forging alliances with other industries and charitable organizations. Methods To document the extent of the commercial, civic, political, academic, military,and cultural ties cultivated by the world´s largest cigarette manufacturer, Philip Morris, a continuous, 35-year ethnographic analysis was conducted, involving daily monitoring of the global business press; monthly review of tobacco industry trade publications; scrutiny of annual company reports; and attendance at 20 shareholders´ meetings, four international tobacco industry trade expositions, and over 200 sports, arts, and ethnic minority events sponsored by the company. Results 48 Philip Morris manufacturing facilities in 32 countries produce more than 800 billion cigarettes a year for 180 markets..A pioneer in sponsoring popular programs on the new medium of television in the 1950s; the company circumvented the 1971 ban on TV cigarette advertising by creating sporting events that were internationally televised. By acquiring beer and food companies In the 1980s, Philip Morris retained influence over the mass media covetous of advertising revenue. In 2002 the company changed its name to Altria to diminish the tobacco stigma. It makes the world´s top cigarette brand, Marlboro, and holds 28% of the global market excluding China. The company has forged an extensive network of alliances with agricultural, marketing, chemical, pharmaceutical, financial, packaging, entertainment, shipping, and technology companies, as well as ties to hundreds of museums, arts organizations, universities, libraries, and charities combating problems such as domestic violence, hunger, pollution, illiteracy, and

  11. Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Borda, R.; Waluschka, E.; Pellicori, S.; Martins, J. V.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Cieslak, J. D.; Thompson, P.

    2009-08-01

    The design and construction of wide FOV imaging polarimeters for use in atmospheric remote sensing requires significant attention to the prevention of artificial polarization induced by the optical elements. Surface, coatings, and angles of incidence throughout the system must be carefully designed in order to minimize these artifacts because the remaining instrumental bias polarization is the main factor which drives the final polarimetric accuracy of the system. In this work, we present a detailed evaluation and analysis to explore the possibility of retrieving the initial polarization state of the light traveling through a generic system that has inherent instrumental polarization. Our case is a wide FOV lens and a splitter device. In particular, we chose as splitter device a Philips-type prism, because it is able to divide the signal in 3 independent channels that could be simultaneously analyze to retrieve the three first elements of the Stoke vector (in atmospheric applications the elliptical polarization can be neglected [1]). The Philips-type configuration is a versatile, compact and robust prism device that is typically used in three color camera systems. It has been used in some commercial polarimetric cameras which do not claim high accuracy polarization measurements [2]. With this work, we address the accuracy of our polarization inversion and measurements made with the Philips-type beam divider.

  12. Calix[6]arene mono-diazonium salt synthesis and covalent immobilization onto glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannizzo, Caroline; Jasmin, Jean-Philippe; Vautrin-Ul, Christine; Chausse, Annie; Wagner, Mathieu; Doizi, Denis; Lamouroux, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This Letter describes the fast synthesis of a mono-aminated calix[6]arene. The immobilization of this macrocycle onto glassy carbon electrodes via diazonium salt chemistry and the electrochemical characterization of the grafted organic layer are also reported. (authors)

  13. Determination of Volatility and Element Fractionation in Glassy Fallout Debris by SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Todd L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tenner, Travis Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bonamici, Chloe Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollington, Anthony Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The purpose of this report is to characterize glassy fallout debris using the Trinity Test and then characterize the U-isotopes of U3O8 reference materials that contain weaponized debris.

  14. Performance characteristics of 3D GSO PET/CT scanner (Philips GEMINI PET/CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    Philips GEMINI is a newly introduced whole-body GSO PET/CT scanner. In this study, performance of the scanner including spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, noise equivalent count ratio (NECR) was measured utilizing NEMA NU2-2001 standard protocol and compared with performance of LSO, BGO crystal scanner. GEMINI is composed of the Philips ALLEGRO PET and MX8000 D multi-slice CT scanners. The PET scanner has 28 detector segments which have an array of 29 by 22 GSO crystals (4*6*20 mm), covering axial FOV of 18 cm. PET data to measure spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and NECR were acquired in 3D mode according to the NEMA NU2 protocols (coincidence window: 8 ns, energy window : 409∼664 keV). For the measurement of spatial resolution, images were reconstructed with FBP using ramp filter and an iterative reconstruction algorithm, 3D RAMLA. Data for sensitivity measurement were acquired using NEMA sensitivity phantom filled with F-18 solution and surrounded by 1∼5 aluminum sleeves after we confirmed that dead time loss did not exceed 1%. To measure NECR and scatter fraction, 1110 MBq of F-18 solution was injected into a NEMA scatter phantom with a length of 70 cm and dynamic scan with 20-min frame duration was acquired for 7 half-lives. Oblique sinograms were collapsed into transaxial slices using single slice rebinning method, and true to background (scatter + random) ratio for each slice and frame was estimated. Scatter fraction was determined by averaging the true to background ratio of last 3 frames in which the dead time loss was below 1%. Transverse and axial resolutions at 1 cm radius were (1) 5.3 and 6.5 mm (FBP), (2) 5.1 and 5.9 mm (3D RAMLA). Transverse radial, transverse tangential, and axial resolution at 10 cm were (1) 5.7, 5.7, and 7.0 mm (FBP), (2) 5.4, 5.4, and 6.4 mm (3D RAMLA). Attenuation free values of sensitivity were 3,620 counts/sec/MBq at the center of transaxial FOV and 4,324 counts/sec/MBq at 10 cm offset

  15. Aggregating territories, integrating elites. The Southern Netherlands and the Monarchy of Philip III (1598-1621

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia ESTEBAN ESTRÍNGANA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article studies how Philip III managed his royal patronage in the years before the return of the Southern Netherlands into the Spanish sovereignty in 1621 (honours, grants, court offices, military habits. The king tried to assure the success of this return stimulating and satisfying the profits expectancies of the Flemish elites, who could see this return as a positive decision for their interests. The details of the elites integration politics designed and implemented by the Crown to bring back this former patrimonial territory to the Spanish Monarchy demonstrate the practical values of some forms of belonging and some goals of identity adherence, as a service at the Royal Houses or the Catholicism’s defence.

  16. "A good personal scientific relationship": Philip Morris scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-12-23

    This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM), the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI). A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre in December 2005. This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships. The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is raised by the CRI's recently awarded status

  17. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  18. Electrical properties of carbon nanotubes modified GaSe glassy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hana; Khan, Zubair M. S. H.; Islam, Shama; Rahman, Raja Saifu; Husain, M.; Zulfequar, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of the effect of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) addition on the electrical properties of GaSe Glassy system. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss of GaSe glassy system are found to increase on CNT addition. The conductivity of GaSe glasy systems is also found to increase on CNT addition. This behavior is attributed to the excellent conduction properties of Carbon Nanotube.

  19. Dielectric relaxation in glassy Se75In25− xPbx alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we report the effect of Pb incorporation in the dielectric properties of a-Se75In25 glassy alloy. The temperature and frequency dependence of the dielectric constants and the dielectric losses in glassy Se75In25−Pb ( = 0, 5, 10 and 15) alloys in the frequency range (1 kHz–5 MHz) and temperature range ...

  20. Positron annihilation study of graphite, glassy carbon and C60/C70 fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Masayuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Sadae; Iwata, Tadao; Kuramoto, Eiichi; Takenaka, Minoru.

    1992-01-01

    ACAR (Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) and positron lifetime measurements have been made on, HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite), isotropic fine-grained graphite, glassy carbons and C 60 /C 70 powder. HOPG showed marked bimodality along the c-axis and anisotropy in ACAR momentum distribution, which stem from characteristic annihilation between 'interlayer' positrons and π-electrons in graphite. ACAR curves of the isotropic graphite and glassy carbons are even narrower than that of HOPG perpendicular to the c-axis. Positron lifetime of 420 and 390 - 480 psec, much longer than that of 221 psec in HOPG, were observed for the isotropic graphite and glassy carbons respectively, which are due to positron trapping in structural voids in them. Positron lifetime and ACAR width (FWHM) can be well correlated to void sizes (1.7 to 5.0 nm) of glassy carbons which have been determined by small angle neutron (SAN) scattering measurements. ACAR curves and positron lifetime of C 60 /C 70 powder agree well with those of glassy carbons. This shows that positron wave functions extend, as in the voids of glassy carbons, much wider than open spaces of the octahedral interstices of the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of C 60 crystal and strongly suggests positron trapping in the 'soccer ball' vacancy. Possible positron states in the carbon materials are discussed with a simple model of void volume-trapping. Preliminary results on neutron irradiation damage in HOPG are also presented. (author)

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of glassy water in nanoscale confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Thomas G; Giovambattista, Nicolás; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the structure and mechanical properties of glassy water confined between silica-based surfaces with continuously tunable hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity by computing and analyzing minimum energy, mechanically stable configurations (inherent structures). The structured silica substrate imposes long-range order on the first layer of water molecules under hydrophobic confinement at high density (p > or = 1.0 g cm(-3)). This proximal layer is also structured in hydrophilic confinement at very low density (p approximately 0.4 g cm(-3)). The ordering of water next to the hydrophobic surface greatly enhances the mechanical strength of thin films (0.8 nm). This leads to a substantial stress anisotropy; the transverse strength of the film exceeds the normal strength by 500 MPa. The large transverse strength results in a minimum in the equation of state of the energy landscape that does not correspond to a mechanical instability, but represents disruption of the ordered layer of water next to the wall. In addition, we find that the mode of mechanical failure is dependent on the type of confinement. Under large lateral strain, water confined by hydrophilic surfaces preferentially forms voids in the middle of the film and fails cohesively. In contrast, water under hydrophobic confinement tends to form voids near the walls and fails by loss of adhesion.

  2. Time evolution of quenched state and correlation to glassy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, K.; Kilic, A.; Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Cetin, O.; Durust, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, dynamic changes generated by the driving current were studied in superconducting bulk polycrystalline YBCO sample via transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves). The evolution of nonlinear V-t curves was interpreted in terms of the formation of resistive and nonresistive flow channels and the spatial reorganization of the transport current in a multiply connected network of weak-link structure. The dynamic re-organization of driving current could cause an enhancement or suppression in the superconducting order parameter due to the magnitude of the driving current and coupling strength of weak-link structure along with the chemical and anisotropic states of the sample as the time proceeds. A nonzero voltage decaying with time, correlated to the quenched state, was recorded when the magnitude of initial driving current is reduced to a finite value. It was found that, after sufficiently long waiting time, the evolution of the quenched state could result in a superconducting state, depending on the magnitude of the driving current and temperature. We showed that the decays in voltage over time are consistent with an exponential time dependence which is related to the glassy state. Further, the effect of doping of organic material Bis dimethyl-glyoximato Copper (II) to YBCO could be monitored apparently via the comparison of the V-t curves corresponding to doped and undoped YBCO samples

  3. Network approach towards understanding the crazing in glassy amorphous polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Sudarkodi; Vivek-Ananth, R. P.; Sreejith, R. P.; Mangalapandi, Pattulingam; Hassanali, Ali A.; Samal, Areejit

    2018-04-01

    We have used molecular dynamics to simulate an amorphous glassy polymer with long chains to study the deformation mechanism of crazing and associated void statistics. The Van der Waals interactions and the entanglements between chains constituting the polymer play a crucial role in crazing. Thus, we have reconstructed two underlying weighted networks, namely, the Van der Waals network and the entanglement network from polymer configurations extracted from the molecular dynamics simulation. Subsequently, we have performed graph-theoretic analysis of the two reconstructed networks to reveal the role played by them in the crazing of polymers. Our analysis captured various stages of crazing through specific trends in the network measures for Van der Waals networks and entanglement networks. To further corroborate the effectiveness of network analysis in unraveling the underlying physics of crazing in polymers, we have contrasted the trends in network measures for Van der Waals networks and entanglement networks in the light of stress-strain behaviour and voids statistics during deformation. We find that the Van der Waals network plays a crucial role in craze initiation and growth. Although, the entanglement network was found to maintain its structure during craze initiation stage, it was found to progressively weaken and undergo dynamic changes during the hardening and failure stages of crazing phenomena. Our work demonstrates the utility of network theory in quantifying the underlying physics of polymer crazing and widens the scope of applications of network science to characterization of deformation mechanisms in diverse polymers.

  4. Dielectric studies of molecular motions in glassy and liquid nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ngai, K L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2006-06-21

    The dielectric permittivity and loss spectra of glassy and liquid states of nicotine have been measured over the frequency range 10{sup -2}-10{sup 9} Hz. The relaxation spectra are similar to common small molecular glass-forming substances, showing the structural {alpha}-relaxation and its precursor, the Johari-Goldstein {beta}-relaxation. The {alpha}-relaxation is well described by the Fourier transform of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential function with an approximately constant stretch exponent that is equal to 0.70 as the glass transition temperature is approached. The dielectric {alpha}-relaxation time measured over 11 orders of magnitude cannot be described by a single Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman-Hesse equation. The most probable Johari-Goldstein {beta}-relaxation time determined from the dielectric spectra is in good agreement with the primitive relaxation time of the coupling model calculated from parameters of the structural {alpha}-relaxation. The shape of the dielectric spectra of nicotine is compared with that of other glass-formers having about the same stretch exponent, and they are shown to be nearly isomorphic. The results indicate that the molecular dynamics of nicotine conform to the general pattern found in other glass-formers, and the presence of the universal Johari-Goldstein secondary relaxation, which plays a role in the crystallization of amorphous pharmaceuticals.

  5. Electrochemical determination of mesotrione at organoclay modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga Wagheu, Josephine; Forano, Claude; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Tonle, Ignas K; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Mousty, Christine

    2013-01-15

    A natural Cameroonian smectite-type clay (SaNa) was exchanged with cationic surfactants, namely cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) and didodecyldimethyl ammonium (DDA) modifying its physico-chemical properties. The resulting organoclays that have higher adsorption capacity for mesotrione than the pristine SaNa clay, have been used as modifiers of glassy carbon electrode for the electrochemical detection of this herbicide by square wave voltammetry. The stripping performances of SaNa, SaCTA and SaDDA modified electrodes were therefore evaluated and the experimental parameters were optimized. SaDDA gives the best results in deoxygenated acetate buffer solution (pH 6.0) after 2 min accumulation under open circuit conditions. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current is proportional to mesotrione concentration in the range from 0.25 to 2.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.26 μM. The fabricated electrode was also applied for the commercial formulation CALLISTO, used in European maize market. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phonon activity and intermediate glassy phase of YVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, Nestor E.; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Tolentino, Helio C.N.; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Martinez-Lope, Maria Jesus; Casais, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    We show that in YVO 3 additional hard phonons gradually become zone center infrared active below ∼210 K, verifying that a lattice phase transition takes place at about that temperature. Their gradual increment in intensity between ∼210 and ∼77 K is associated with a 'glassy' behavior found in the temperature-dependent V K edge pseudoradial distribution. This translates into an increase in the Debye-Waller factors ascribed to the appearance of V local structural disorder below ∼150 K. Conflicts between various ordering mechanisms in YVO 3 bring up similarities of the intermediate phase to known results in dielectric incommensurate systems, suggesting the formation of commensurate domains below 116 K, the onset temperature of G-type antiferromagnetism. We propose that ∼210 and ∼77 K be understood as the temperatures where the commensurate-incommensurate and incommensurate-commensurate 'lock-in' phase transitions take place. We found support for this interpretation in the inverted λ shapes of the measured heat capacity and in the overall temperature dependence of the hard phonons

  7. Dissociative electron attachment to methylhalides in 3-methylhexane glassy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, K.; Irie, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1976-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment reaction to CH 3 I, CH 3 Cl and CH 3 F in a 3-methylhexane glassy matrix was studied by determining the yield of trapped electrons and that of methyl radicals immediately after γ irradiation at 77 K as a function of the scavenger concentration. The efficiency of conversion from the trapped electrons to the methyl radicals was also studied by photobleaching the trapped electrons. The results obtained are (1) the dissociative electron attachment occurs to CH 3 F, for which the gas phase data indicate that the reaction is endothermic by 1.2 eV, during either the γ irradiation or the photobleaching, and (2) CH 3 F is relatively less efficient in scavenging photo-liberated electrons than in scavenging the electrons during the γ irradiation, whereas CH 3 I and CH 3 Cl are efficient scavengers for both the electrons. The dependence of the yields of the trapped electrons and the methyl radicals is discussed in terms of the electron-tunnelling mechanism and the epithermal electron-scavenging mechanism. (author)

  8. Activation of glassy carbon electrodes by photocatalytic pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumanli, Onur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey); Onar, A. Nur [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)], E-mail: nonar@omu.edu.tr

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid photocatalytic pretreatment procedure that removes contaminants from glassy carbon (GC) surfaces. The effectiveness of TiO{sub 2} mediated photocatalytic pretreatment procedure was compared to commonly used alumina polishing procedure. Cyclic voltammetric and chronocoulometric measurements were carried out to assess the changes in electrode reactivity by using four redox systems. Electrochemical measurements obtained on photocatalytically treated GC electrodes showed a more active surface relative to polished GC. In cyclic voltammograms of epinephrine, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene redox systems, higher oxidation and reduction currents were observed. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sup o}) were calculated for Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-} and ferrocene which were greater for photocatalytic pretreatment. Chronocoulometry was performed in order to find the amount of adsorbed methylene blue onto the electrode and was calculated as 0.34 pmol cm{sup -2} for photocatalytically pretreated GC. The proposed photocatalytic GC electrode cleansing and activating pretreatment procedure was more effective than classical alumina polishing.

  9. Philip McLaren and the Indigenous-Australian Crime Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis Martin Renes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper locates the postcolonial crime novel as a space for disenfranchised groups to write back to the marginalisation inherent in the process of colonisation, and explores the example of Australia. From its inception in the mid-19th century, Australian crime fiction reflected upon the challenging harshness and otherness of the Australian experience for the free and convict settler, expelled from the metropole. It created a series of popular subgenres derived from the convict narrative proper, while more ‘standard’ modes of crime fiction, popularised in and through British and American crime fiction, were late to develop. Whereas Australian crime fiction has given expression to the white experience of the continent in manifold ways, up until recently it made no room for Indigenous voices – with the exception of the classic Inspector Napoleon Bonaparte series written by the prolific Arthur Upfield in the first half of the 20th century. For the longest time, this absence reflected the dispossession, dispersal and disenfranchisement of the colonised Indigenous peoples at large; there were neither Aboriginal voices nor Aboriginal authors, which made the textual space of the Australian crime novel a discursive terra nullius. This paper will look at the only Indigenous-Australian author to date with a substantial body of work in crime fiction, Philip McLaren, and elucidate how his four crime novels break new ground in Australian crime fiction by embedding themselves within a political framework of Aboriginal resilience and resistance to neo/colonialism. Written as of the 1990s, McLaren’s oeuvre is eclectic in that it does not respond to traditional formats of Australian crime fiction, shifts between generic subtypes and makes incursions into other genres. The paper concludes that McLaren’s oeuvre has not been conceived of as the work of a crime writer per se, but rather that its form and content are deeply informed by the racist violence

  10. "A good personal scientific relationship": Philip Morris scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Mackenzie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the efforts of consultants affiliated with Philip Morris (PM, the world's leading transnational tobacco corporation, to influence scientific research and training in Thailand via the Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI. A leading Southeast Asian institute for environmental health science, the CRI is headed by Professor Dr. Her Royal Highness Princess Chulabhorn, the daughter of the King of Thailand, and it has assumed international significance via its designation as a World Health Organization (WHO Collaborating Centre in December 2005.This paper analyses previously confidential tobacco industry documents that were made publicly available following litigation in the United States. PM documents reveal that ostensibly independent overseas scientists, now identified as industry consultants, were able to gain access to the Thai scientific community. Most significantly, PM scientist Roger Walk has established close connections with the CRI. Documents indicate that Walk was able to use such links to influence the study and teaching of environmental toxicology in the institute and to develop relations with key officials and local scientists so as to advance the interests of PM within Thailand and across Asia. While sensitivities surrounding royal patronage of the CRI make public criticism extremely difficult, indications of ongoing involvement by tobacco industry consultants suggest the need for detailed scrutiny of such relationships.The establishment of close links with the CRI advances industry strategies to influence scientific research and debate around tobacco and health, particularly regarding secondhand smoke, to link with academic institutions, and to build relationships with national elites. Such strategies assume particular significance in the national and regional contexts presented here amid the globalisation of the tobacco pandemic. From an international perspective, particular concern is raised by the CRI's recently

  11. Glassy aerosols with a range of compositions nucleate ice heterogeneously at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Wilson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA is likely to exist in a semi-solid or glassy state, particularly at low temperatures and humidities. Previously, it has been shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol is able to nucleate ice heterogeneously under conditions relevant to cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. In this study we test if glassy aerosol distributions with a range of chemical compositions heterogeneously nucleate ice under cirrus conditions. Three single component aqueous solution aerosols (raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA and levoglucosan and one multi component aqueous solution aerosol (raffinose mixed with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate were studied in both the liquid and glassy states at a large cloud simulation chamber. The investigated organic compounds have similar functionality to oxidised organic material found in atmospheric aerosol and have estimated temperature/humidity induced glass transition thresholds that fall within the range predicted for atmospheric SOA. A small fraction of aerosol particles of all compositions were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously in the deposition mode at temperatures relevant to the TTL (<200 K. Raffinose and HMMA, which form glasses at higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at temperatures as high as 214.6 and 218.5 K respectively. We present the calculated ice active surface site density, ns, of the aerosols tested here and also of glassy citric acid aerosol as a function of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi. We also propose a parameterisation which can be used to estimate heterogeneous ice nucleation by glassy aerosol for use in cirrus cloud models up to ~220 K. Finally, we show that heterogeneous nucleation by glassy aerosol may compete with ice nucleation on mineral dust particles in mid-latitudes cirrus.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation of butein at glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesio, Alvaro Yamil; Robledo, Sebastián Noel; Fernández, Héctor; Zon, María Alicia

    2013-06-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of flavonoid butein is studied at glassy carbon electrodes in phosphate and citrate buffer solutions of different pH values, and 1M perchloric acid aqueous solutions by cyclic and square wave voltammetries. The oxidation peak corresponds to the 2e(-), 2H(+) oxidation of the 3,4-dihydroxy group in B ring of butein, given the corresponding quinone species. The overall electrode process shows a quasi-reversible behavior and an adsorption/diffusion mixed control at high butein bulk concentrations. At low butein concentrations, the electrode process shows mainly an adsorption control. Butein surface concentration values were obtained from the charge associated with the adsorbed butein oxidation peaks, which are in agreement with those values expected for the formation of a monolayer of adsorbate in the concentration range from 1 to 5μM. Square wave voltammetry was used to perform a full thermodynamic and kinetics characterization of the butein surface redox couple. Therefore, from the combination of the "quasi-reversible maximum" and the "splitting of the net square wave voltammetric peak" methods, values of (0.386±0.003) V, (0.46±0.04), and 2.7×10(2)s(-1) were calculated for the formal potential, the anodic transfer coefficient, and the formal rate constant, respectively, of the butein overall surface redox process in pH4.00 citrate buffer solutions. These results will be then used to study the interaction of butein, and other flavonoids with the deoxyribonucleic acid, in order to better understand the potential therapeutic applications of these compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of a Piezoelectric Sensor Array-Based Device for Measurement of Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity: The Philips Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shao-Kun; Hong, Xiang-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Bang; Liu, Chang-Yuan; Li, Yan; Yin, Bin; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2018-03-01

    Multiple piezoelectric pressure mechanotransducers topologized into an array might improve efficiency and accuracy in collecting arterial pressure waveforms for measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV). In the present study, we validated a piezoelectric sensor array-based prototype (Philips) against the validated and clinically widely used Complior device (Alam Medical). We recruited 33 subjects with a wide distribution of PWV. For the validation, PWV was measured sequentially with the Complior device (four times) and the Philips prototype (three times). With the 99 paired PWV values, we investigated the agreement between the Philips prototype and the Complior device using Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plot. We also performed analysis on the determinants and reproducibility of PWV measured with both devices. The correlation coefficient for PWV measured with the two devices was 0.92 ( p prototype slightly overestimated PWV by 0.24 (± 2 standard deviations, ± 1.91) m/s, especially when PWV was high. The correlation coefficient between the difference and the average of the Philips and Complior measurements was 0.21 ( p = 0.035). Nonetheless, they had similar determinants. Age, mean arterial pressure, and sex altogether explained 81.6 and 83.9% of the variance of PWV values measured with the Philips prototype and Complior device, respectively. When the two extremes of the three PWV values measured with the Philips prototype and the Complior device were investigated, the coefficients of variation were 8.26 and 3.26%, respectively. Compared with the Complior device, the Philips prototype had similar accuracy, determinants, and reproducibility in measuring PWV.

  14. Philip Finkelpearl. Court and Country in the Plays of Fletcher and Beaumont Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990 Philip Finkelpearl. Court and Country in the Plays of Fletcher and Beaumont Princeton: Princeton UP, 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bernthal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este livro apresenta as mais recentes e talvez definitivo sobre uma parcela Philip Finkelpearl argumento foi fazendo desde 1971: que as peças de Beaumont e Flecher "não são sinais de Jacobean a decadência do teatro ", mas sim "tem que comentar as decadência da idade ". Finkelpearl produto lucidamente em uma forma empírica para provar seu ponto, apresentando-se como muitos "Teimosa factos", como ele pode mestre em apoio do seu argumento, que analisa: "os colaboradores família origens, o seu posicionamento social, seus amigos ligações, as influências das suas peças e, acima de todas as provas dos jogos propriamente ditos. Este livro apresenta as mais recentes e talvez definitivo sobre uma parcela Philip Finkelpearl argumento foi fazendo desde 1971: que as peças de Beaumont e Flecher "não são sinais de Jacobean a decadência do teatro ", mas sim "tem que comentar as decadência da idade ". Finkelpearl produto lucidamente em uma forma empírica para provar seu ponto, apresentando-se como muitos "Teimosa factos", como ele pode mestre em apoio do seu argumento, que analisa: "os colaboradores família origens, o seu posicionamento social, seus amigos ligações, as influências das suas peças e, acima de todas as provas dos jogos propriamente ditos.

  15. When Harry met Zuckerman: self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen When Harry met Zuckerman:self-reflexivity and metafiction in Philip Roth and Woody Allen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Creus

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation. The objective of this essay is to compare the works of novelist Philip Roth and film-maker Woody Allen in what regards their treatment of the highly complex theme of the interrelations between fiction and reality. A comparative analysis of selected Roth’s novels and Allen’s films evinces their recurrent preoccupation with the creation of art and its implications, be it through the choice of writers or artists as main characters, be it through plots that mix real facts with invented ones and imaginary characters with real ones, be it through the use of autobiographical elements in a fictional discourse—all metafictional devices that call attention to the artist’s own process of creation.

  16. Fabrication and nano-imprintabilities of Zr-, Pd- and Cu-based glassy alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of investigating nano-imprintability of glassy alloys in a film form, Zr 49 Al 11 Ni 8 Cu 32 , Pd 39 Cu 29 Ni 13 P 19 and Cu 38 Zr 47 Al 9 Ag 6 glassy alloy thin films were fabricated on Si substrate by a magnetron sputtering method. These films exhibit a very smooth surface, a distinct glass transition phenomenon and a large supercooled liquid region of about 80 K, which are suitable for imprinting materials. Moreover, thermal nano-imprintability of these obtained films is demonstrated by using a dot array mold with a dot diameter of 90 nm. Surface observations revealed that periodic nano-hole arrays with a hole diameter of 90 nm were successfully imprinted on the surface of these films. Among them, Pd-based glassy alloy thin film indicated more precise pattern imprintability, namely, flatter residual surface plane and sharper hole edge. It is said that these glassy alloy thin films, especially Pd-based glassy alloy thin film, are one of the promising materials for fabricating micro-machines and nano-devices by thermal imprinting.

  17. Diffusion coefficients of tracers in glassy polymer systems prepared by gamma radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonge, M.P.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion-controlled reactions are common in free radical polymerisation reactions, especially in glassy polymer matrices. Such reactions commonly have an important influence on the polymerisation process and final polymer properties. For example, the dominant growth-stopping event (bimolecular termination) is generally diffusion-controlled. In glassy polymer systems, where molecular mobility is very low, the chain growth mechanism (propagation) may become diffusion-controlled. At present, the mechanism for propagation in glassy polymers is poorly understood, but it is expected by the Smoluchowski expression applied to propagation to depend strongly on the diffusion coefficient of monomer. The objective of this study is to measure reliable diffusion coefficients of small tracer molecules in glassy polymers, and compare these with propagation rate coefficients in similar systems, by the prediction above. Samples were initially prepared in a sealed sampled cell containing monomer, inert diluent, and tracer dye. After irradiation for several days, complete conversion of monomer to polymer can be obtained. The diffusion coefficients for two tracer dyes have been measured as a function of weight fraction polymer glassy poly(methyl methacrylate) samples

  18. Katherine Philips, Aphra Behn, and Sylvia Plath: “a passionate journey” towards “a revolution in female manners”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Cacciavilni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Philips, Aphra Behn, and Sylvia Plath were artists who struggled during their lives to express their thoughts and ideas. In addition to this, being women, they found it hard to be recognised as writers and their fight against social conventions and norms is now considered of huge importance since they managed to open doors for women that came after them. Katherine Philips started a feminine revolution which was taken over by Aphra Behn, and by Sylvia Plath about three centuries later. The three authors rebelled against the feminine mystique of their time and the subsequent domestification of women. In addition to this, they refused to be men’s shadows and raised a new awareness of women as active subjects that could finally use their voices to express themselves. The aim of this essay is to explore and interpret the ways in which these three women managed to subvert the prescribed role that society had in store for them by touching on different topics related to gender and the relationship between men and women. I will focus on their outlook on marriage and on women’s roles in society.

  19. A comparison between Philips and Tomtec for left ventricular deformation and volume measurements in neonatal intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Koert; Phad, Nilkant

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography is an emerging technique for analyzing cardiac function in newborns. Strain is a highly reliable and reproducible parameter, and reference values have been established for term and preterm newborns. Its implementation into clinical practice has been slow, partly due to lack of inter-vendor consistency. Our aim was to compare recent versions of Philips and Tomtec speckle tracking software for deformation and semiautomated volume and area measurements in neonatal intensive care patients. Longitudinal and circumferential deformation and cavity dimensions (volume, area) were determined off line from apical and short-axis images in 50 consecutive newborns with a median birthweight of 760 g (range 460-3200 g). Absolute mean endocardial global longitudinal strain measurements were similar between vendors, but with wide limits of agreement (Philips -18.9 [2.1]%, Tomtec -18.6 [2.5]%, bias -0.3 [1.7]%, and limits of agreement -3.6%-3.1%). Longitudinal strain rate and circumferential measurements showed poor correlation. All volume and area measurements correlated well between the vendors, but with significant bias. Global longitudinal strain measurements compared well between vendors but wide limits of agreement, suggesting that longitudinal measurements are preferred using similar hardware and software. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Relation between time-temperature transformation and continuous heating transformation diagrams of metallic glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    The time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the Ge-Ni-La and Cu-Hf-Ti glassy alloys were calculated from the isothermal differential calorimetry data using an Arrhenius equation. The continuous heating transformation (CHT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the glassy alloys were subsequently recalculated from TTT diagrams. The recalculation method used for conversion of the TTT into CHT diagrams produces reasonable results and is not sensitive to the type of the devitrification reaction (polymorphous or primary transformation). The diagrams allow to perform a comparison of the stabilities of glassy alloys on a long-term scale. The relationship between these diagrams is discussed

  1. Electrochemical functionalization of glassy carbon electrode by reduction of diazonium cations in protic ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul, Galyna; Ruiz, Carlos Alberto Castro; Rochefort, Dominic; Brooksby, Paula A.; Bélanger, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Protic ionic liquid based on 2-methoxypyridine and trifluoroacetic acid was used as electrolyte for the functionalization of a glassy carbon electrode surface by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated 4-chlorobenzene diazonium and 4-nitrobenzene diazonium cations. The diazonium cations were synthesized in an electrochemical cell by reaction of the corresponding amines with NaNO 2 dissolved in protic ionic liquid. The resulting electrografted organic layers exhibit similar properties to those layers obtained by the derivatization from isolated diazonium salts dissolved in protic ionic liquid. Functionalized glassy carbon electrode surfaces were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Atomic force microscopy thickness measurements revealed that, in our experimental conditions, the use of protic ionic liquid led to the formation of film with a thickness of about 1.5 nm. It is also demonstrated that the nitrobenzene chemisorbed on glassy carbon electrode or dissolved in protic ionic liquid undergoes electrochemical conversion to hydroxyaminobenzene

  2. Temporal disconnectivity of the energy landscape in glassy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempesis, Nikolaos; Boulougouris, Georgios C.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    2013-03-01

    An alternative graphical representation of the potential energy landscape (PEL) has been developed and applied to a binary Lennard-Jones glassy system, providing insight into the unique topology of the system's potential energy hypersurface. With the help of this representation one is able to monitor the different explored basins of the PEL, as well as how - and mainly when - subsets of basins communicate with each other via transitions in such a way that details of the prior temporal history have been erased, i.e., local equilibration between the basins in each subset has been achieved. In this way, apart from detailed information about the structure of the PEL, the system's temporal evolution on the PEL is described. In order to gather all necessary information about the identities of two or more basins that are connected with each other, we consider two different approaches. The first one is based on consideration of the time needed for two basins to mutually equilibrate their populations according to the transition rate between them, in the absence of any effect induced by the rest of the landscape. The second approach is based on an analytical solution of the master equation that explicitly takes into account the entire explored landscape. It is shown that both approaches lead to the same result concerning the topology of the PEL and dynamical evolution on it. Moreover, a "temporal disconnectivity graph" is introduced to represent a lumped system stemming from the initial one. The lumped system is obtained via a specially designed algorithm [N. Lempesis, D. G. Tsalikis, G. C. Boulougouris, and D. N. Theodorou, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 204507 (2011), 10.1063/1.3663207]. The temporal disconnectivity graph provides useful information about both the lumped and the initial systems, including the definition of "metabasins" as collections of basins that communicate with each other via transitions that are fast relative to the observation time. Finally, the two examined

  3. Immobilization of DNA at Glassy Ccarbon Electrodes: A Critical Study of Adsorbed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Rivas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a critical study of the nucleic acid layer immobilized atglassy carbon electrodes. Different studies were performed in order to assess the nature of theinteraction between DNA and the electrode surface. The adsorption and electrooxidation of DNAdemonstrated to be highly dependent on the surface and nature of the glassy carbon electrode. TheDNA layer immobilized at a freshly polished glassy carbon electrode was very stable even afterapplying highly negative potentials. The electron transfer of potassium ferricyanide, catechol anddopamine at glassy carbon surfaces modified with thin (obtained by adsorption under controlledpotential conditions and thick (obtained by casting the glassy carbon surface with highly concentratedDNA solutions DNA layers was slower than that at the bare glassy carbon electrode, although thiseffect was dependent on the thickness of the layer and was not charge selective. Raman experimentsshowed an important decrease of the vibrational modes assigned to the nucleobases residues,suggesting a strong interaction of these residues with the electrode surface. The hybridization ofoligo(dG21 and oligo(dC21 was evaluated from the guanine oxidation signal and the reduction of theredox indicator Co(phen33+ . In both cases the chronopotentiometric response indicated that thecompromise of the bases in the interaction of DNA with the electrode surface is too strong, preventingfurther hybridization. In summary, glassy carbon is a useful electrode material to detect DNA in adirect and very sensitive way, but not to be used for the preparation of biorecognition layers by directadsorption of the probe sequence on the electrode surface for detecting the hybridization event.

  4. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  5. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 ? 10?6 to 100 ? 10?6?mol?L?1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3?s/slope) of 0....

  6. SUPERNOVA SHOCK-WAVE-INDUCED CO-FORMATION OF GLASSY CARBON AND NANODIAMOND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Rhonda [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Heck, Phillipp [The Field Museum, Chicago, IL; Alexander, Conel [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Nittler, Larry [Carnegie Institution of Washington

    2011-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was the first extrasolar dust phase to be identified in meteorites. However, the 2 nm average size of the NDs precludes isotopic analysis of individual particles, and thus their origin(s) remains controversial. Using electron microscopy with subnanometer resolution, we show that ND separates from the Allende and Murchison meteorites are actually a two-phase mixture of ND and glassy carbon. This phase mixture is likely the product of supernova shock-wave transformation of pre-formed organics in the interstellar medium (ISM). The glassy carbon ND mixture is also a plausible contributor to the 2175 extinction feature in the diffuse ISM.

  7. SUPERNOVA SHOCK-WAVE-INDUCED CO-FORMATION OF GLASSY CARBON AND NANODIAMOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Rhonda M.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Heck, Philipp R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) was the first extrasolar dust phase to be identified in meteorites. However, the 2 nm average size of the NDs precludes isotopic analysis of individual particles, and thus their origin(s) remains controversial. Using electron microscopy with subnanometer resolution, we show that ND separates from the Allende and Murchison meteorites are actually a two-phase mixture of ND and glassy carbon. This phase mixture is likely the product of supernova shock-wave transformation of pre-formed organics in the interstellar medium (ISM). The glassy carbon-ND mixture is also a plausible contributor to the 2175 A extinction feature in the diffuse ISM.

  8. Effects of nymphal diet and adult feeding on allocation of resources to glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter is an invasive insect capable of transmitting the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Pre-oviposition periods of laboratory reared glassy-winged sharpshooters are variable. Here, two questions were addressed: does nymphal diet affect pre-oviposition period and how d...

  9. The Living Tomorrow Project: how Philip Morris has used a Belgian tourist attraction to promote ventilation approaches to the control of second hand smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, P; Gilmore, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To examine the involvement of Philip Morris in Living Tomorrow 2 and determine the rationale behind its involvement. Design: Research was conducted through a web based search of internal tobacco industry documents made publicly available through litigation. Main results: For approximately €1 000 000 Philip Morris (now Altria) became a co-initiator of Living Tomorrow 2, a tourist complex in Belgium that aims to demonstrate how we will be living in the future. In addition to promoting the company and its grocery products, Philip Morris is using the complex and its website to promote ventilation as a means of accommodating smokers and non-smokers in the indoor environment. Particular emphasis was placed on the bar and restaurant areas. Despite the rationale for its involvement, Philip Morris fails to acknowledge its role as a cigarette manufacturer. As a form of corporate sponsorship Philip Morris thought its involvement could evade any European tobacco advertising ban. Conclusions: Philip Morris is using a tourist attraction to promote its views on control of second hand smoke (SHS) and accommodation of smokers and non-smokers in the indoor environment. However, ventilation does not deal with the health effects of SHS. Policymakers must be cognisant of the devious tactics the industry employs to promote its own agenda, especially in relation to indoor air quality and smoking in public places. Tobacco control legislation should be continually modified and strengthened in response to the changing activities of the tobacco industry as it strives to evade existing legislation and deter the advent of new legislation. PMID:15564621

  10. Dielectric relaxation in glassy Se75In25−xPbx alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to their atomic percentages and were sealed in quartz ampoules (length ~5 cm and internal dia. ~8 mm) in vacuum ... samples were taken out by breaking the quartz ampoules. The glassy nature of the ... measured with the help of a calibrated copper–constantan thermocouple mounted very near to the sample, which could ...

  11. Statistics of energy levels and zero temperature dynamics for deterministic spin models with glassy behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degli Esposti, M.; Giardinà, C.; Graffi, S.; Isola, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the zero-temperature dynamics for the infinite-range, non translation invariant one-dimensional spin model introduced by Marinari, Parisi and Ritort to generate glassy behaviour out of a deterministic interaction. It is argued that there can be a large number of metastable (i.e.,

  12. Egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae); a vector of Xylella fastidiosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rates of spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens are a function of vector abundance. Despite this, factors affecting population growth rates of insects that transmit plant pathogens have received limited attention. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) feeds on xylem-sap and ...

  13. Modification of glassy carbon surfaces by atmospheric pressure cold plasma torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik Junge; Kusano, Yukihiro; Leipold, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The effect of plasma treatment on glassy carbon (GC) surfaces was studied with adhesion improvement in mind. A newly constructed remote plasma source was used to treat GC plates. Pure He and a dilute NH3/He mixture were used as feed gases. Optical emission spectroscopy was performed for plasma to...

  14. Physical ageing in the above-bandgap photoexposured glassy arsenic selenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozdras, A [Faculty of Physics of Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole, PL-45370 (Poland); Golovchak, R [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, O [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202, Stryjska str., Lviv, UA-79031 (Ukraine)

    2007-08-15

    Physical ageing induced by above-bandgap light illumination is studied in glassy As-Se using differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that measurable effect like to known short-term physical ageing is observed only in Se-rich glasses. The kinetics of this effect is compared with that caused by natural storage in a dark.

  15. Physical ageing in the above-bandgap photoexposured glassy arsenic selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozdras, A; Golovchak, R; Shpotyuk, O

    2007-01-01

    Physical ageing induced by above-bandgap light illumination is studied in glassy As-Se using differential scanning calorimetry. It is shown that measurable effect like to known short-term physical ageing is observed only in Se-rich glasses. The kinetics of this effect is compared with that caused by natural storage in a dark

  16. Co-based soft magnetic bulk glassy alloys optimized for glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diameter of 5 mm by conventional copper mould casting method. It reveals ... For example, Co43Fe20Ta5.5B31.5 glassy alloy with a ... coercive force (Hc) of 0.25 A m. −1 ..... [7] Lu Z P, Liu C T, Thompson J R and Porter W D 2004 Phys. Rev.

  17. Voltammetric pH sensing using carbon electrodes: glassy carbon behaves similarly to EPPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Compton, Richard G

    2014-09-21

    Developing and building on recent work based on a simple sensor for pH determination using unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG) electrodes, we present a voltammetric method for pH determination using a bare unmodified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. By exploiting the pH sensitive nature of quinones present on carbon edge-plane like sites within the GC, we show how GC electrodes can be used to measure pH. The electro-reduction of surface quinone groups on the glassy carbon electrode was characterised using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and optimised with square-wave voltammetry (SWV) at 298 K and 310 K. At both temperatures, a linear correlation was observed, corresponding to a 2 electron, 2 proton Nernstian response over the aqueous pH range 1.0 to 13.1. As such, unmodified glassy carbon electrodes are seen to be pH dependent, and the Nernstian response suggests its facile use for pH sensing. Given the widespread use of glassy carbon electrodes in electroanalysis, the approach offers a method for the near-simultaneous measurement and monitoring of pH during such analyses.

  18. Playback of natural vibrational signals in vineyard trellis for mating disruption of glassy-winged sharpshooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, an important bacterial pathogen of several crops in the Americas and Europe. Mating communication of this and many other cicadellid pests involves the exchange of substrate-...

  19. Cytochrome C Dynamics at Gold and Glassy Carbon Surfaces Monitored by in Situ Scanning Tunnel Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne Vind

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat...

  20. Study of electrical properties of glassy Se100–xTex alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    can be successfully explained by correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. ... The results show that bipolaron hopping dominates over single-polaron hopping in this glassy system. This .... where ∆E is the activation energy and σ0 is called the.

  1. Formulation of thermodynamics for the glassy state : Configurational energy as a modest source of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Glass is an under-cooled liquid that very slowly relaxes towards the equilibrium crystalline state. Its energy balance is ill understood, since it is widely believed that the glassy state cannot be described thermodynamically. However, the classical paradoxes involving the Ehrenfest relations and

  2. Gas Permeation Related to the Moisture Sorption in Films of Glassy Hydrophilic Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F. L.; Kok, P. J. A. Hartman; Frijlink, H. W.; Vromans, H.; Maarschalk, K. Van Der Voort

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the effect of integral sorption of moisture on gas permeation in glassy hydrophilic polymers. The oxygen and the simultaneous moisture sorption into various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films were measured under a wide range of relative humidities

  3. Fast and slow neutrons in an 18-MV photon beam from a Philips SL/75-20 linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, D.; Rosen, J.C.; Bukovitz, A.G.; Gill, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fast- and slow-neutron contamination in an 18-MV photon beam from a Philips SL/75-20 linear accelerator has been measured. Aluminum and indium foils were activated to determine fast- and slow-neutron fluence, which were largely independent of field sizes. Measured fast-neutron fluences were typically 13.9 x 10 4 and 4.4 x 10 4 neutrons/cm 2 /rad of x ray inside and 5 cm outside the field, respectively. Slow-neutron fluences, 1.3 x 10 4 neutrons/cm 2 /rad of x ray, remained relatively constant inside and outside the field. The reported results are about three times higher than neutron fluences recently reported with a betatron operated at the same energy

  4. O PROJETO NATURALISTA DE DAVID HUME À LUZ DA EPISTEMOLOGIA CONTEMPORÂNEA: WILLARD QUINE E PHILIP KITCHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiney José de Sousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de comparações entre a epistemologia de Hume e os trabalhos de naturalistas contemporâneos, como Willard O. Quine e Philip Kitcher, procuraremos destacar, neste artigo, em que sentido seria possível identificar a revolução epistemológica empreendida por Hume, em seu estudo da natureza humana, como uma espécie de naturalismo, que anteciparia as discussões recentes do tema. A partir dessas discussões, acreditamos poder apresentar mais claramente a sugestão de que, embora Hume não defenda explicitamente este modo de conceber a empresa filosófica, seu projeto filosófico pode, em alguma medida, ser encarado como um programa naturalista, que antecede e inspira o que hoje conhecemos como naturalismo epistemológico.

  5. System upgrade on Philips Allura FD20 angiography systems: effects on patient skin dose and static image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryckx, Nick; Sans-Merce, Marta; Meuli, Reto; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Verdun, Francis R.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroscopically guided procedures might be highly irradiating for patients, possibly leading to skin injuries. In such a context, every effort should be done to lower patient exposure as much as possible. Moreover, patient dose reduction does not only benefit to the patient but also allows reducing staff exposure. In this framework, Philips Healthcare recently introduced a system upgrade for their angiography units, called 'AlluraClarity'. The authors performed air kerma rate measurements for all available fluoroscopy modes and air kerma per frame measurements for the digital subtraction angiography protocols, along with subjective spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability assessments using a standard QA phantom. Air kerma reductions ranging from 25.5 to 84.4 % were found, with no significant change in image quality when switching from a standard operating mode to an upgraded version. These results are confirmed by the comparison of actual patient exposures for similar procedures. (authors)

  6. Ice cloud processing of ultra-viscous/glassy aerosol particles leads to enhanced ice nucleation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA, levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30% with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosol particles that have re

  7. SU-F-T-94: Plan2pdf - a Software Tool for Automatic Plan Report for Philips Pinnacle TPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C [Sutter Medical Foundation, Roseville, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement an automatic electronic PDF plan reporting tool for Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An electronic treatment plan reporting software is developed by us to enable fully automatic PDF report from Pinnacle TPS to external EMR programs such as MOSAIQ. The tool is named “plan2pdf”. plan2pdf is implemented using Pinnacle scripts, Java and UNIX shell scripts, without any external program needed. plan2pdf supports full auto-mode and manual mode reporting. In full auto-mode, with a single mouse click, plan2pdf will generate a detailed Pinnacle plan report in PDF format, which includes customizable cover page, Pinnacle plan summary, orthogonal views through each plan POI and maximum dose point, DRR for each beam, serial transverse views captured throughout the dose grid at a user specified interval, DVH and scorecard windows. The final PDF report is also automatically bookmarked for each section above for convenient plan review. The final PDF report can either be saved on a user specified folder on Pinnacle, or it can be automatically exported to an EMR import folder via a user configured FTP service. In manual capture mode, plan2pdf allows users to capture any Pinnacle plan by full screen, individual window or rectangular ROI drawn on screen. Furthermore, to avoid possible patients’ plan mix-up during auto-mode reporting, a user conflict check feature is included in plan2pdf: it prompts user to wait if another patient is being exported by plan2pdf by another user. Results: plan2pdf is tested extensively and successfully at our institution consists of 5 centers, 15 dosimetrists and 10 physicists, running Pinnacle version 9.10 on Enterprise servers. Conclusion: plan2pdf provides a highly efficient, user friendly and clinical proven platform for all Philips Pinnacle users, to generate a detailed plan report in PDF format for external EMR systems.

  8. SU-F-T-94: Plan2pdf - a Software Tool for Automatic Plan Report for Philips Pinnacle TPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To implement an automatic electronic PDF plan reporting tool for Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An electronic treatment plan reporting software is developed by us to enable fully automatic PDF report from Pinnacle TPS to external EMR programs such as MOSAIQ. The tool is named “plan2pdf”. plan2pdf is implemented using Pinnacle scripts, Java and UNIX shell scripts, without any external program needed. plan2pdf supports full auto-mode and manual mode reporting. In full auto-mode, with a single mouse click, plan2pdf will generate a detailed Pinnacle plan report in PDF format, which includes customizable cover page, Pinnacle plan summary, orthogonal views through each plan POI and maximum dose point, DRR for each beam, serial transverse views captured throughout the dose grid at a user specified interval, DVH and scorecard windows. The final PDF report is also automatically bookmarked for each section above for convenient plan review. The final PDF report can either be saved on a user specified folder on Pinnacle, or it can be automatically exported to an EMR import folder via a user configured FTP service. In manual capture mode, plan2pdf allows users to capture any Pinnacle plan by full screen, individual window or rectangular ROI drawn on screen. Furthermore, to avoid possible patients’ plan mix-up during auto-mode reporting, a user conflict check feature is included in plan2pdf: it prompts user to wait if another patient is being exported by plan2pdf by another user. Results: plan2pdf is tested extensively and successfully at our institution consists of 5 centers, 15 dosimetrists and 10 physicists, running Pinnacle version 9.10 on Enterprise servers. Conclusion: plan2pdf provides a highly efficient, user friendly and clinical proven platform for all Philips Pinnacle users, to generate a detailed plan report in PDF format for external EMR systems.

  9. Annealing effects on the migration of ion-implanted cadmium in glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlatshwayo, T.T., E-mail: thulani.hlatshwayo@up.ac.za [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sebitla, L.D. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Physics Department, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Njoroge, E.G.; Mlambo, M.; Malherbe, J.B. [Physics Department, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2017-03-15

    The migration behaviour of cadmium (Cd) implanted into glassy carbon and the effects of annealing on radiation damage introduced by ion implantation were investigated. The glassy carbon substrates were implanted with Cd at a dose of 2 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} and energy of 360 keV. The implantation was performed at room temperature (RT), 430 °C and 600 °C. The RT implanted samples were isochronally annealed in vacuum at 350, 500 and 600 °C for 1 h and isothermally annealed at 350 °C up to 4 h. The as-implanted and annealed samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Raman results revealed that implantation at room temperature amorphized the glassy carbon structure while high temperature implantations resulted in slightly less radiation damage. Isochronal annealing of the RT implanted samples resulted in some recrystallization as a function of increasing temperature. The original glassy carbon structure was not achieved at the highest annealing temperature of 600 °C. Diffusion of Cd in glassy carbon was already taking place during implantation at 430 °C. This diffusion of Cd was accompanied by significant loss from the surface during implantation at 600 °C. Isochronal annealing of the room temperature implanted samples at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while isothermal annealing at 500 and 600 °C resulted in the migration of implanted Cd toward the surface accompanied by a loss of Cd from the surface. Isothermal annealing at 350 °C for 1 h caused Cd to diffuse towards the bulk while for annealing time >1 h Cd diffused towards the surface. These results were interpreted in terms of trapping and de-trapping of implanted Cd by radiation damage.

  10. Electrochemical investigations of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction using graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes and a comparison to the performance of SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, Jayashree; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kamat, J.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of aqueous electrochemistry of Plutonium on graphene modified electrode. • Graphene is best electrocatalytic material for Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple among the reported modifiers viz. reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SWCNT’s. • The electrochemical reversibility of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox couple improves significantly on graphene modified electrode compared to previously reported rGO & SWCNTs modified electrodes • Donnan interaction between plutonium species and graphene surface offers a possibility for designing a highly sensitive sensor for plutonium • Graphene modified electrode shows higher sensitivity for the determination of plutonium compared to glassy carbon and single walled carbon nanotube modified electrode - Abstract: The work reported in this paper demonstrates for the first time that graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Gr/GC) show remarkable electrocatalysis towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction and the results were compared with that of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified GC (SWCNTs/GC) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Graphene catalyzes the exchange of current of the Pu(IV)/Pu(III) couple by reducing both the anodic and cathodic overpotentials. The Gr/GC electrode shows higher peak currents (i p ) and smaller peak potential separation (ΔE p ) values than the SWCNTs/GC and GC electrodes. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k s ), charge transfer coefficients (α) and the diffusion coefficients (D) involved in the electrocatalytic redox reaction were determined. Our observations show that graphene is best electrocatalytic material among both the SWCNTs and GC to study Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction.

  11. The Character as Text in Philip Massinger’s A New Way to Pay Old Debts Le Personnage comme texte dans A New Way to Pay Old Debts de Philip Massinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Ribeyrol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans A New Way to Pay Old Debts de Philip Massinger la réputation est perçue comme une feuille blanche sur laquelle le personnage doit écrire le récit de sa vie. L’idée de la vie d’un homme comme livre ou comme feuille de papier est fort ancienne, elle figure aussi bien dans la Bible que dans les livres d’emblèmes des XVIe et XVIIe siècles. Au moment de la mort, l’homme laisse ainsi à la postérité un texte édifiant dont il aura été l’auteur (auctor. Cet article démontre  qu’il faut néanmoins faire une distinction entre l’homme, qui prend plume et rédige son propre texte, et la femme qui doit attendre passivement qu’un autre compose le sien.

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine at overoxidized polypyrrole film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Mir Reza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouyban, Abolghasem [Faculty of Pharmacy and Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: asadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2007-06-20

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine (HZ) was studied on an overoxidized polypyrrole (OPPy) modified glassy carbon electrode using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The OPPy-modified glassy carbon electrode has very high catalytic ability for electrooxidation of HZ, which appeared as a reduced overpotential in a wide operational pH range of 5-10. The overall numbers of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of HZ, the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining and diffusion coefficient of HZ were estimated using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It has been shown that using the OPPy-modified electrode, HZ can be determined by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with limit of detection 36 and 3.7 {mu}M, respectively. The results of the analysis suggest that the proposed method promises accurate results and could be employed for the routine determination of HZ.

  13. Connection between NMR and electrical conductivity in glassy chalcogenide fast ionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The work documented in this thesis follows the traditional order. In this chapter a general discussion of ionic conduction and of glassy materials are followed by a brief outline of the experimental techniques for the investigation of fast ionic conduction in glassy materials, including NMR and impedance spectroscopy techniques. A summary of the previous and present studies is presented in the last section of this introductory chapter. The details of the background theory and models are found in the Chapter II, followed by the description of the experimental details in Chapter III. Chapter IV of the thesis describes the experimental results and the analysis of the experimental observations followed by the conclusions in chapter V

  14. Orbital physics in sulfur spinels: ordered, liquid and glassy ground states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettgen, N; Hemberger, J; Fritsch, V; Krimmel, A; Muecksch, M; Nidda, H-A Krug von; Lunkenheimer, P; Fichtl, R; Tsurkan, V; Loidl, A

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of magnetization M(T, H), heat capacity C(T), NMR lineshift K(T) and linewidth Δ(T), neutron scattering S(Q, ω, T) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy ε(ω, T) provide experimental evidence of the different orbital ground states in the cubic sulfur spinels under investigation. In all compounds, the tetrahedrally coordinated Jahn-Teller ions Fe 2+ are characterized by a degeneracy of the orbital degrees of freedom. Particularly, we found a long-range orbital ordering in polycrystalline (PC) FeCr 2 S 4 , and a glassy freezing of the orbital degrees of freedom in FeCr 2 S 4 (single crystals) (SCs). In contrast, FeSc 2 S 4 belongs to the rare class of spin-orbital liquids, where quantum fluctuations accompanying the glassy freezing of the orbitals suppress long-range magnetic order

  15. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Keywords: Midazolam, Voltammetry, Surfactant, Glassy carbon electrode, Parenteral dosage form

  16. Similar and dissimilar friction welding of Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyung-Seop; Park, Jung-Soo; Jung, Yoon-Chul; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The friction welding of three kinds of Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) which show eutectic or hypoeutectic compositions to similar and dissimilar BGAs and crystalline metals has been tried. The shape and volume of the protrusion formed at the weld interface were investigated. In order to characterize the friction welded interface, micrographic observation and X-ray diffraction analysis on the weld cross-section were carried out. A successful joining of Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys to similar and dissimilar BGAs was achieved without occurrence of crystallizations at the weld interface through the precise control of friction conditions. In addition, the joining of Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 BGA to crystalline alloys was tried, but it was only successful for specific material combinations. The residual strength after welding of dissimilar BGAs was evaluated by the four-point bending test.

  17. Formation of glassy carbon structure and its change under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurolenkin, E.I.; Lopato, Yu.S.; Virgil' ev, Yu.S.; Khakimova, D.K.; Aksenov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The changes of glassy carbon structure, which is prepared of phenol-formaldehyde and furfurol-phenol-formaldehyde resins in the process of irradiation with 5.3x10/sup 20/ cm/sup -2/ neutron fluence with the energy E>0.18 MeV in the temperature range of 90-540 deg C are studied. It is established the irradiation results in the shrinkage of the samples. The compression of the samples increases with the irradiation temperature and neutron fluence. The thermal annealing does not result in the restoration of the volume of samples. The sample shrinkage, caused by more compact package of globular structures and the destruction of film structures, decrease gas permeability of glassy carbon.

  18. Studies on Photodarkening Effect in Glassy As2S3 Using High Field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Parameswar; Su, Tining; Taylor, Craig; Reyes, Arneil; Kuhns, Phil; Moulton, William; Sullivan, N. S.

    2001-03-01

    Photodarkening, or the shift of the optical absorption edge to smaller energies after excitation with light whose energy is near that of the optical band edge, has been studied in many chalcogenide glasses for many years. Recently we have conducted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 75As in glassy As2S3 at 17T . We compared the 75As NMR lineshape in glassy As2S3 before and after irradiation at 77K. After irradiation at 514.5 nm for 230 hours with 170 mW/cm2 there is a subtle change in the NMR lineshape. This change is reversible on annealing at 200 C for 1.75 hours. We will discuss the implications of this result based on NMR lineshape analysis using an exact solution of the spin 3/2 Hamiltonian

  19. A TPD-MS study of glassy carbon surfaces oxidized by CO2 and O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA D. LAUSEVIC

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-programmed desorption (TPD method combined with mass spectrometric (MS analysis has been applied to investigate the surface properties of carbon materials. The apparatus consisting of a temperature-programmed furnace and a quadrupole mass spectrometer was constructed in order to characterize the surface of differently treated glassy carbon samples. In this work, samples of glassy carbon exposed to air, CO2 and O2 were examined. The desorption of H2O, CO and CO2, as major products, indicated the presence of different oxide groups. The amount of these groups for all samples was calculated. It is concluded that oxidation affects the nature and the amount of the surface oxide groups and contributes to their increased stability.

  20. Different glassy states, as indicated by a violation of the generalized Cauchy relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, J K [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Britz, T [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Coutre, A le [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Baller, J [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Possart, W [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Pharmazie und Werkstoffwissenschaften 8.15, Gebaeude 22, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Alnot, P [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland-Lorraine (LERUSL), Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Elektrotechnik 7.2, Gebaeude 38, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sanctuary, R [Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg, Departement des Sciences, Laboratoire 1.19, 162a Avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2003-07-01

    Using Brillouin spectroscopy as a probe for high-frequency clamped acoustic properties, a shear modulus c{sub 44}{sup {infinity}} can be measured in addition to the longitudinal modulus c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}} already well above the thermal glass transition. On slow cooling of the liquid through the thermal glass transition temperature T{sub g}, both moduli show a kink-like behaviour and the function c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}} = c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}}(c{sub 44}{sup {infinity}}) follows a generalized Cauchy relation (gCR) defined by the linear relation c{sub 11}{sup {infinity}} = 3c{sub 44}{sup {infinity}} + constant, which completely hides the glass transition. In this work we show experimentally that on fast cooling this linear transformation becomes violated within the glassy state, but that thermal ageing drives the elastic coefficients towards the gCR, i.e. towards a unique glassy state.

  1. Pseudobinary glassy compositions (AsSex)1-y(AsTex)y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mously, M.K.; El Dem, M.B.

    1987-09-01

    The ternery glassy composition of the general formula (AsSe x ) 1-y (AsTe x ) y can be considered as a pseudobinary system at x=1, 3/2 and 5/2 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. The results of DTA, electrical conductivity measurements, density of such glasses as well as the X-ray diffraction of the crystallized samples have been used to confirm this point of view and to explain the presence of new phases not shown in the simple binary systems As-Se and As-Te. The possibility of transformation of the glassy network from partially polymerized state MCN (molecular cluster network) to completely polymerized state CRN (continuous random network) by mixing two structural units was also discussed. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Free volume and elastic properties changes in Cu-Zr-Ti-Pd bulk glassy alloy on heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Yavari, Alain Reza; Fukuhara, Mikio; Ota, Katsumi; Xie, Guoqiang; Vaughan, Gavin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The variation of free volume and elastic properties of the Cu 55 Zr 30 Ti 10 Pd 5 glassy alloy on heating was studied. The structure changes on heating were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. The studied glassy alloy shows a rather high Poisson's ratio exceeding 0.42 which is maintained after the structure relaxation and primary devitrification. Young's and Shear modules decrease upon primary devitrification while Bulk modulus exhibits a maximum after structural relaxation

  3. Definition and preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes to confine radioactive wastes and industrial toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement by vitrification of high-level radioactive wastes is studied in the CEA for fifteen years. These studies have lead to the preparation of glassy matrices by innovating processes. These processes can be applied to non-radioactive toxic materials treatment too. In this work are more particularly described the glassy matrix long-dated behaviour and the different vitrification processes used (by direct induction in cold crucible, by transferred arc plasma). (O.L.). 1 tab

  4. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As10Se90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitska, V.; Golovchak, R.; Kozdras, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2014-01-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As 10 Se 90 reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network

  5. Modified positron annihilation model for glassy-like As2Se3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozdras, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kovalskiy, A.; Filipecki, J.

    2005-01-01

    An approach to structural characterization of chalcogenide glasses based on the study of void distribution is discussed. The results of positron annihilation lifetime spectra measurements for glassy As 2 Se 3 are compared with nano-void distribution data obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. In this consideration perspectives to involve the parameters of nano-voids calculated from the first sharp diffraction peak in the frame work of known Elliott's model are analyzed. (author)

  6. Solute induced relaxation in glassy polymers: Experimental measurements and nonequilibrium thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minelli, Matteo; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Data for kinetics of mass uptake from vapor sorption experiments in thin glassy polymer samples are here interpreted in terms of relaxation times for volume dilation. To this result, both models from non-equilibrium thermodynamics and from mechanics of volume relaxation contribute. Different kind of sorption experiments have been considered in order to facilitate the direct comparison between kinetics of solute induced volume dilation and corresponding data from process driven by pressure or temperature jumps

  7. A neutron-X-ray, NMR and calorimetric study of glassy Probucol synthesized using containerless techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.K.R.; Benmore, C.J.; Tailor, A.N.; Tumber, S.K.; Neuefeind, J.; Cherry, B.; Yarger, J.L.; Mou, Q.; Weber, W.; Byrn, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Acoustic levitation was used to make phase-pure glassy forms of pharmaceutical compounds. • Neutrons, X-rays and NMR were used to characterize the glasses. • The glass comprised of slightly distorted molecules packed in a random network. • Potential for new drug synthesis routes is discussed. - Abstract: Acoustic levitation was used to trap 1–3 mm diameter drops of Probucol and other pharmaceutical materials in containerless conditions. Samples were studied in situ using X-ray diffraction and ex situ using neutron diffraction, NMR and DSC techniques. The materials were brought into non-equilibrium states by supersaturating solutions or by supercooling melts. The glass transition and crystallization temperatures of glassy Probucol were 29 ± 1 and 71 ± 1 °C respectively. The glassy form was stable with a shelf life of at least 8 months. A neutron/X-ray difference function of the glass showed that while molecular sub-groups remain rigid, many of the hydrogen correlations observed in the crystal become smeared out in the disordered material. The glass is principally comprised of slightly distorted Form I Probucol molecules with disordered packing rather than large changes in the individual molecular structure. Avoiding surface contact-induced nucleation provided access to highly non-equilibrium phases and enabled synthesis of phase-pure glasses

  8. Generation of fine hydromagmatic ash by growth and disintegration of glassy rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    The deposits of mafic hydromagmatic eruptions are more fine grained and variable in vesicularity than dry magmatic deposits. Blocky, equant shapes of many hydromagmatic clasts also contrast with droplet, thread, and bubble wall morphology of dry magmatic fragments. Small (disintegration of glassy rinds on pyroclast surfaces as they deform within turbulent flows. This process, termed "turbulent shedding", may occur during the expansion phase of vapor explosions or during turbulent but nonexplosive mixing of magma with water, steam, or water sprays. The occurrence of turbulent shedding and the resulting fragment sizes depend on the timescale for rind growth and the timescale between disturbances that remove or disintegrate glassy rinds. Turbulent shedding is directly observable in some small littoral jets at Kilauea. Calculations suggest that, in the presence of liquid water or water sprays, glassy rinds having a thickness of microns to millimeters should form in milliseconds to seconds. This is similar to the timescale between turbulent velocity fluctuations that can shred lava globules and remove such rinds. The fraction of a deposit consisting of fine ash should increase with the duration of this process: Large-scale Surtseyan jets generate hundreds or thousands of shedding events; bubble bursts or tephra jets at Kilauea's coast may produce only a few.

  9. Electrochemically modified sulfisoxazole nanofilm on glassy carbon for determination of cadmium(II) in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Atar, Necip; Solak, Ali Osman; Uzun, Lokman; Üstündağ, Zafer

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfisoxazole was grafted onto glassy carbon electrode. • The electrode was characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. • It has been used for the determination of Cd(II) ions in real samples in very low concentrations. -- Abstract: Sulfisoxazole (SO) was grafted to glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via the electrochemical oxidation of SO in acetonitrile solution containing 0.1 M tetrabutylammoniumtetra-fluoroborate (TBATFB). The prepared electrode was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ellipsometric thickness of SO nanofilm at the glassy carbon surface was obtained as 14.48 ± 0.11 nm. The stability of the SO modified GCE was studied. The SO modified GCE was also utilized for the determination of Cd(II) ions in water samples in the presence of Pb(II) and Fe(II) by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The linearity range and the detection limit of Cd(II) ions were 1.0 × 10 −10 to 5.0 × 10 −8 M and 3.3 × 10 −11 M (S/N = 3), respectively

  10. Graphene oxide-mediated electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Valetti, Francesca; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2016-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) as a model system for the interaction between GO and biological molecules. Lyotropic properties of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) were used to stabilize the enzymatic layer on the electrode surface resulting in a markedly improved electrochemical response of the immobilized GOD. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GO with DDAB confirmed the distribution of the GO in a two-dimensional manner as a foil-like material. Although it is known that glassy carbon surfaces are not ideal for hydrogen peroxide detection, successful chronoamperometric titrations of the GOD in the presence of GO with β-d-glucose were performed on glassy carbon electrodes, whereas no current response was detected upon β-d-glucose addition in the absence of GO. The GOD-DDAB-GO system displayed a high turnover efficiency and substrate affinity as a glucose biosensor. The simplicity and ease of the electrode preparation procedure of this GO/DDAB system make it a good candidate for immobilizing other biomolecules for fabrication of amperometric biosensors. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Behzad; Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. → A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. → The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s -1 . → A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (E o ') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (k s ) was calculated to be 5.27 s -1 . The dependence of E o ' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

  12. Direct electron transfer from glucose oxidase immobilized on a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizi, Mahmoud Amouzadeh [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > A direct electron transfer reaction of glucose oxidase was observed on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode. > A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed at the formal potential of approximately -0.439 V. > The apparent electron transfer rate constant was measured to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. > A mechanism for the observed direct electron transfer reaction was proposed, which consists of a two-electron and a two-proton transfer. - Abstract: A pair of well-defined and reversible redox peaks was observed for the direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of an immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) on the surface of a nano-porous glassy carbon electrode at the formal potential (E{sup o}') of -0.439 V versus Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl. The electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) was calculated to be 5.27 s{sup -1}. The dependence of E{sup o}' on pH indicated that the direct electron transfer of the GOx was a two-electron transfer process, coupled with two-proton transfer. The results clearly demonstrate that the nano-porous glassy carbon electrode is a cost-effective and ready-to-use scaffold for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor.

  13. Protection of nuclear graphite toward fluoride molten salt by glassy carbon deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardet, V.; Gomes, S.; Delpeux, S.; Dubois, M.; Guerin, K.; Avignant, D.; Renaudin, G.; Duclaux, L.

    2009-01-01

    Molten salt reactor represents one of the promising future Generation IV nuclear reactors families where the fuel, a liquid molten fluoride salt, is circulating through the graphite reactor core. The interactions between nuclear graphite and fluoride molten salt and also the graphite surface protection were investigated in this paper by powder X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray microanalysis. Nuclear graphite discs were covered by two kinds of protection deposit: a glassy carbon coating and a double coating of pyrolitic carbon/glassy carbon. Different behaviours have been highlighted according to the presence and the nature of the coated protection film. Intercalation of molten salt between the graphite layers did not occur. Nevertheless the molten salt adhered more or less to the surface of the graphite disc, filled more or less the graphite surface porosity and perturbed more or less the graphite stacking order at the disc surface. The behaviour of unprotected graphite was far to be satisfactory after two days of immersion of graphite in molten salt at 500 deg. C. The best protection of the graphite disc surface, with the maximum of inertness towards molten salt, has been obtained with the double coating of pyrolitic carbon/glassy carbon

  14. Potentiometric application of boron- and phosphorus-doped glassy carbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN V. LAUSEVIC

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acomparative study was carried out of the potentiometric application of boronand phosphorus-doped and undoped glassy carbon samples prepared at the same heat treatment temperature (HTT 1000°C. The electrochemical activities of the obtained electrode materials were investigated on the example of argentometric titrations. It was found that the electrochemical behaviour of the doped glassy carbon samples are very similar to a Sigri (undoped glassy carbon sample (HTT 2400°C. The experiments showed that the potentiometric response depends on the polarization mode, the nature of the sample, the pretreatment of the electrode surface, and the nature of the supporting electrolyte. The amounts of iodide, bromide, and of chloridewere determined to be 1.27 mg, 0.80 mg and 0.54 mg, respectively, with a maximum relative standard deviation of less than 1.1%. The obtained results are in good agreement with the results of comparative potentiometric titrations using a silver indicator electrode. The titrationmethod was applied to the indirect determination of pyridoxine hydrochloride, i.e., vitamin B6.

  15. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms

  16. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Liu, Xiong [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China); He, Yunbin, E-mail: ybhe@hubu.edu.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, No. 368 Youyi Avenue, Wuchang, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  17. A neutron-X-ray, NMR and calorimetric study of glassy Probucol synthesized using containerless techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.K.R., E-mail: rweber@anl.gov [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL 60004 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Benmore, C.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Tailor, A.N.; Tumber, S.K. [Materials Development, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL 60004 (United States); Neuefeind, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Cherry, B. [Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Yarger, J.L. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Mou, Q. [Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Weber, W. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, AZ 85287 (United States); Byrn, S.R. [Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-10-16

    Highlights: • Acoustic levitation was used to make phase-pure glassy forms of pharmaceutical compounds. • Neutrons, X-rays and NMR were used to characterize the glasses. • The glass comprised of slightly distorted molecules packed in a random network. • Potential for new drug synthesis routes is discussed. - Abstract: Acoustic levitation was used to trap 1–3 mm diameter drops of Probucol and other pharmaceutical materials in containerless conditions. Samples were studied in situ using X-ray diffraction and ex situ using neutron diffraction, NMR and DSC techniques. The materials were brought into non-equilibrium states by supersaturating solutions or by supercooling melts. The glass transition and crystallization temperatures of glassy Probucol were 29 ± 1 and 71 ± 1 °C respectively. The glassy form was stable with a shelf life of at least 8 months. A neutron/X-ray difference function of the glass showed that while molecular sub-groups remain rigid, many of the hydrogen correlations observed in the crystal become smeared out in the disordered material. The glass is principally comprised of slightly distorted Form I Probucol molecules with disordered packing rather than large changes in the individual molecular structure. Avoiding surface contact-induced nucleation provided access to highly non-equilibrium phases and enabled synthesis of phase-pure glasses.

  18. Violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in glassy systems: basic notions and the numerical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisanti, A; Ritort, F

    2003-01-01

    This review reports on the research done during past years on violations of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) in glassy systems. It is focused on the existence of a quasi-fluctuation-dissipation theorem (QFDT) in glassy systems and the current supporting knowledge gained from numerical simulation studies. It covers a broad range of non-stationary aging and stationary driven systems such as structural glasses, spin glasses, coarsening systems, ferromagnetic models at criticality, trap models, models with entropy barriers, kinetically constrained models, sheared systems and granular media. The review is divided into four main parts: (1) an introductory section explaining basic notions related to the existence of the FDT in equilibrium and its possible extension to the glassy regime (QFDT), (2) a description of the basic analytical tools and results derived in the framework of some exactly solvable models, (3) a detailed report of the current evidence in favour of the QFDT and (4) a brief digression on the experimental evidence in its favour. This review is intended for inexpert readers who want to learn about the basic notions and concepts related to the existence of the QFDT as well as for the more expert readers who may be interested in more specific results. (topical review)

  19. Occurrence of particle debris field during focused Ga ion beam milling of glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Qin [Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Alan Reece Building, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); O' Neill, William, E-mail: wo207@eng.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Alan Reece Building, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    To explore the machining characteristics of glassy carbon by focused ion beam (FIB), particles induced by FIB milling on glassy carbon have been studied in the current work. Nano-sized particles in the range of tens of nanometers up to 400 nm can often be found around the area subject to FIB milling. Two ion beam scanning modes - slow single scan and fast repetitive scan - have been tested. Fewer particles are found in single patterns milled in fast repetitive scan mode. For a group of test patterns milled in a sequence, it was found that a greater number of particles were deposited around sites machined early in the sequence. In situ EDX analysis of the particles showed that they were composed of C and Ga. The formation of particles is related to the debris generated at the surrounding areas, the low melting point of gallium used as FIB ion source and the high contact angle of gallium on glassy carbon induces de-wetting of Ga and the subsequent formation of Ga particles. Ultrasonic cleaning can remove over 98% of visible particles. The surface roughness (R{sub a}) of FIB milled areas after cleaning is less than 2 nm.

  20. Occurrence of particle debris field during focused Ga ion beam milling of glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qin; O'Neill, William

    2010-01-01

    To explore the machining characteristics of glassy carbon by focused ion beam (FIB), particles induced by FIB milling on glassy carbon have been studied in the current work. Nano-sized particles in the range of tens of nanometers up to 400 nm can often be found around the area subject to FIB milling. Two ion beam scanning modes - slow single scan and fast repetitive scan - have been tested. Fewer particles are found in single patterns milled in fast repetitive scan mode. For a group of test patterns milled in a sequence, it was found that a greater number of particles were deposited around sites machined early in the sequence. In situ EDX analysis of the particles showed that they were composed of C and Ga. The formation of particles is related to the debris generated at the surrounding areas, the low melting point of gallium used as FIB ion source and the high contact angle of gallium on glassy carbon induces de-wetting of Ga and the subsequent formation of Ga particles. Ultrasonic cleaning can remove over 98% of visible particles. The surface roughness (R a ) of FIB milled areas after cleaning is less than 2 nm.

  1. Irradiation-induced defects in graphite and glassy carbon studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, M.; Kajino, M.; Kuwahara, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kuramoto, E.; Takenaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    ACAR and positron lifetime measurements have been made on, HOPG, isotropic fine-grained graphites, glassy carbons and C 60 /C 70 . HOPG showed a marked bimodal ACAR distribution along the c-axis. By irradiation of 1.0 X 10 19 fast neutrons/cm 2 remarkable narrowing in the ACAR curves and disappearance of the bimodal distribution were observed. Lifetime in HOPG increased from 225 psec to 289 psec (positron-lifetime in vacancies and their small clusters) by the irradiation. The irradiation on isotropic graphites and glassy carbons, however, gave slight narrowing in ACAR curves and decrease in lifetimes (360 psec → 300psec). This suggests irradiation-induced vacancy trapping in crystallites. In C 60 /C 70 powder two lifetime components were detected: τ 1 =177psec, τ 2 =403psec (I 2 =58%). The former is less than the bulk lifetime of HOPG, while the latter being very close to lifetimes in the isotropic graphites and glassy carbons. This and recent 2D-ACAR study of HOPG surface [15] strongly suggest free and defect surface states around ''soccer ball'' cages

  2. Electrochemical pre anodization of glassy carbon electrode and application to determine chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, Nguyen Minh; Mortensen, John; Anh, Nguyen Ba Hoai

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggested a method to enhance the performance of carbon electrodes for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The sensitivity and the reproducibility of the carbon electrodes could be enhanced easily by electrochemical pretreatment. Some kinds of carbon material were studied including glassy carbon, graphite carbon and pyrolytic carbon. Numerous kinds of supporting electrolyte have been tried. For glassy carbon electrode, the acidic solution, H 2 SO 4 5 mM, resulted in best performance at pretreated voltage of +2.1V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 250 second. However, for graphite and pyrolytic carbon electrodes, the phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0 gave the best performance at +1.7V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 20 seconds. The detection limit could be at very low concentration of CAP: 0.8 ng/ ml for glassy carbon electrode, 3.5 ng/ ml for graphite carbon electrode. The method was successful applied to aqua-agriculture water sample and milk sample with simple extraction as well as direct ointment sample analysis. (author)

  3. Dynamics and Geometry of Icosahedral Order in Liquid and Glassy Phases of Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Shimono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical properties of the icosahedral ordered structure formed in liquid and glassy phases of metallic glasses are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate the Zr-Cu alloy system as well as a simple model for binary alloys, in which we can change the atomic size ratio between alloying components. In both cases, we found the same nature of icosahedral order in liquid and glassy phases. The icosahedral clusters are observed in liquid phases as well as in glassy phases. As the temperature approaches to the glass transition point Tg, the density of the clusters rapidly grows and the icosahedral clusters begin to connect to each other and form a medium-range network structure. By investigating the geometry of connection between clusters in the icosahedral network, we found that the dominant connecting pattern is the one sharing seven atoms which forms a pentagonal bicap with five-fold symmetry. From a geometrical point of view, we can understand the mechanism of the formation and growth of the icosahedral order by using the Regge calculus, which is originally employed to formulate a theory of gravity. The Regge calculus tells us that the distortion energy of the pentagonal bicap could be decreased by introducing an atomic size difference between alloying elements and that the icosahedral network would be stabilized by a considerably large atomic size difference.

  4. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  5. Corporate Image and Public Health: An Analysis of the Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, ELIZABETH

    2012-01-01

    Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit’s typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change. PMID:22420639

  6. The utility of the Philips SRI-100 real time portal imaging device in a case of postoperative irradiation for prevention of heterotopic bone formation following total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffer, J.D.; Quong, G.; Lawlor, M.; Schumer, W.; Aitken, L.; Wallace, A.

    1994-01-01

    The new Radiation Oncology Department at the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital in Melbourne, Australia commenced operation in June 1992. As part of quality control the Philips SL-15 linear accelerator was fitted with the Philips SRI-100 Real Time Portal Imaging Device (RTPID), the first such apparatus in Australia. One of its major advantages over older systems is its ability to provide a permanent hard copy of the image of the field treated. The computer image can be immediately manipulated and enhanced on the screen (with respect to such qualities as brightness and contrast) prior to the printing of the hard copy. This is a significant improvement over the more cumbersome older port films that required developing time, without any pre-assessment of the image quality. The utility of the Philips SRI-100 RTPID is demonstrated in the case of a patient irradiated soon after total hip replacement, as prophylaxis against heterotopic bone formation (HBF). The rapidity and quality of image production is a major advantage in these patients where post operative pain may result in positional change between film exposure and image production. Extremely accurate shielding block position is essential to shield the prosthesis(and allow bone ingrowth for fixation) whilst avoiding inadvertent shielding of the areas at risk for HBF. A review of the literature on this topic is provided. 14 refs., 4 figs

  7. Observation of glassy state relaxation during annealing of frozen sugar solutions by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kyuya; Tamiya, Shinri; Do, Gabsoo; Kono, Shinji; Ochiai, Takaaki

    2018-06-01

    Glassy phase formation in a frozen product determines various properties of the freeze-dried products. When an aqueous solution is subjected to freezing, a glassy phase forms as a consequence of freeze-concentration. During post-freezing annealing, the relaxation of the glassy phase and the ripening of ice crystals (i.e. Ostwald ripening) spontaneously occur, where the kinetics are controlled by the annealing and glass transition temperatures. This study was motivated to observe the progress of glassy state relaxation separate from ice coarsening during annealing. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe a frozen and post-freezing annealed solutions by using monochromatized X-ray from the synchrotron radiation. CT images were successfully obtained, and the frozen matrix were analyzed based on the gray level values that were equivalent to the linear X-ray attenuation coefficients of the observed matters. The CT images obtained from rapidly frozen sucrose and dextrin solutions with different concentrations gave clear linear relationships between the linear X-ray attenuation coefficients values and the solute concentrations. It was confirmed that the glassy state relaxation progressed as increasing annealing time, and this trend was larger in the order of the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated phase. The sucrose-water system required nearly 20 h of annealing time at -5 °C for the completion of the glassy phase relaxation, whereas dextrin-water systems required much longer periods because of their higher glass transition temperatures. The trends of ice coarsening, however, did not perfectly correspond to the trends of the relaxation, suggesting that the glassy phase relaxation and Ostwald ripening would jointly control the ice crystal growth/ripening kinetics, and the dominant mechanism differed by the annealing stage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco’s perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. Results PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT’s Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. Conclusions PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level. PMID:21636611

  9. A practical method to standardise and optimise the Philips DoseRight 2.0 CT automatic exposure control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T J; Moore, C S; Stephens, A; Saunderson, J R; Beavis, A W

    2015-09-01

    Given the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in the UK over the last 30 years, it is essential to ensure that all imaging protocols are optimised to keep radiation doses as low as reasonably practicable, consistent with the intended clinical task. However, the complexity of modern CT equipment can make this task difficult to achieve in practice. Recent results of local patient dose audits have shown discrepancies between two Philips CT scanners that use the DoseRight 2.0 automatic exposure control (AEC) system in the 'automatic' mode of operation. The use of this system can result in drifting dose and image quality performance over time as it is designed to evolve based on operator technique. The purpose of this study was to develop a practical technique for configuring examination protocols on four CT scanners that use the DoseRight 2.0 AEC system in the 'manual' mode of operation. This method used a uniform phantom to generate reference images which form the basis for how the AEC system calculates exposure factors for any given patient. The results of this study have demonstrated excellent agreement in the configuration of the CT scanners in terms of average patient dose and image quality when using this technique. This work highlights the importance of CT protocol harmonisation in a modern Radiology department to ensure both consistent image quality and radiation dose. Following this study, the average radiation dose for a range of CT examinations has been reduced without any negative impact on clinical image quality.

  10. Turning free speech into corporate speech: Philip Morris' efforts to influence U.S. and European journalists regarding the U.S. EPA report on secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Hurt, Richard D; Becker, Lee B

    2004-09-01

    Previously secret internal tobacco company documents show that the tobacco industry launched an extensive multifaceted effort to influence the scientific debate about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke. Integral to the industry's campaign was an effort to derail the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) risk assessment on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by recruiting a network of journalists to generate news articles supporting the industry's position and pushing its public relations messages regarding the ETS issue. Searches of previously secret internal tobacco industry records were conducted online and at the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository. In addition, searches on the World Wide Web were conducted for each National Journalism Center alumnus. Lexis-Nexis was used to locate news stories written by the journalists cited in this paper. Philip Morris turned to its public relations firm Burson Marsteller to "build considerable reasonable doubt em leader particularly among consumers" about the "scientific weaknesses" of the EPA report. A Washington, DC, media and political consultant Richard Hines was a key player in carrying out Burson Marsteller's media recommendations of "EPA bashing" for Philip Morris. In March 1993, Philip Morris' vice president of corporate affairs policy and administration reported to Steve Parrish, vice president and general counsel of Philip Morris, that their consultant was "responsible for a number of articles that have appeared in em leader major news publications regarding EPA and ETS." In addition to placing favorable stories in the press through its consultant, Philip Morris sought to expand its journalist network by financially supporting a U.S. school of journalism; the National Journalism Center (NJC). Philip Morris gleaned "about 15 years worth of journalists at print and visual media throughout the country em leader to get across [its] side of the story" resulting in "numerous pieces consistent with our point of

  11. Effect of glassy carbon properties on the electrochemical deposition of platinum nano-catalyst and its activity for methanol oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA TERZIC

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the properties of glassy carbon on the deposition of platinum particles and the electrocatalytic activity of platinum supported on glassy carbon (GC/Pt for methanol oxidation in alkaline and acidic solutions were studied. Platinum was potentiostatically deposited on two glassy carbon samples, thermally treated at different temperatures, which were either polished or anodicaly polarised in acid (GCOX-AC/Pt and in alkali (GCOX-AL/Pt. Anodic polarisation of glassy carbon, either in alkaline or acidic solution, enhances the activity of both types of GC/Pt electrodes for methanol oxidation. The activity of the catalysts follows the change in the properties of the glassy carbon support upon anodic treatment. The specific activity of the GCOX-AL/Pt electrode for this reaction in alkali is increased only a few times in comparison with the activity of the GC/Pt one. On the other hand, the specific activity of the GCOX-AC/Pt electrode for methanol oxidation in acid is about one order of magnitude higher than that of the GC/Pt electrode. The role of the substrate on the properties of catalyst is discussed in detail.

  12. Philip A. Parilla | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    materials," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122, 1-18 (2016), DOI: 10.1007/s00339-016-9654-1. K.E ), DOI: 10.1007/s00339-015-9537-x. B.R. Ortiz, C.M. Crawford, R.W. McKinney, P.A. Parilla, and E.S

  13. Norepinephrine-modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, H.R.; Memarzadeh, F.; Ardakani, M. Mazloum; Namazian, M.; Golabi, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of norepinephrine (NE) on a preactivated glassy carbon electrode leads to the formation of a deposited layer of about 4.2 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 at the surface of the electrode. The electron transfer rate constant, k s , and charge transfer coefficient, α, for electron transfer between the electrode and immobilized NE film were calculated as 44 s -1 and 0.46, respectively. The NE-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) with an overpotential of about 475 mV lower than that of the bare electrode. The electrocatalytic response was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, amperometry and rotating disk voltammetry. The overall number of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of AA and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining step are 2 and 1, respectively. The rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of AA was evaluated by RDE voltammetry and an average value of k h was found to be 8.42 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 . Amperometric determination of AA in stirred solution exhibits a linear range of 2.0-1300.0 μM (correlation coefficient 0.9999) and a detection limit of 0.076 μM. The precision of amperometry was found to be 1.9% for replicate determination of a 49.0 μM solution of AA (n = 6). In differential pulse voltammetric measurements, the NE-modified glassy carbon electrode can separate the AA and uric acid (UA) signals. Ascorbic acid oxidizes at more negative potential than UA. Also, the simultaneous determination of UA and AA is achieved at the NE-modified electrode

  14. The electrocatalytical reduction of m-nitrophenol on palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qiaofang; Diao Guowang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The deposition of palladium on a GC electrode was performed by cyclic voltammetry. ► SEM images showed palladium nanoparticles deposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. ► The Pd/GC electrode can effectively catalyze m-nitrophenol in aqueous media. ► The reduction of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode depended on potential and pH. ► XPS spectra of the Pd/GC electrodes demonstrated the presence of palladium. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (Pd/GC) were prepared via the electrodeposition of palladium on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode using cyclic voltammetry in different sweeping potential ranges. The scanning electron microscope images of palladium particles on the GC electrodes indicate that palladium particles with diameters of 20–50 nm were homogeneously dispersed on the GC electrode at the optimal deposition conditions, which can effectively catalyze the reduction of m-nitrophenol in aqueous solutions, but their catalytic activities are strongly related to the deposition conditions of Pd. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the Pd/GC electrode confirmed that 37.1% Pd was contained in the surface composition of the Pd/GC electrode. The cyclic voltammograms of the Pd/GC electrode in the solution of m-nitrophenol show that the reduction peak of m-nitrophenol shifts towards the more positive potentials, accompanied with an increase in the peak current compared to the bare GC electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of the Pd/GC electrode is affected by pH values of the solution. In addition, the electrolysis of m-nitrophenol under a constant potential indicates that the reduction current of m-nitrophenol on the Pd/GC electrode is approximately 20 times larger than that on the bare GC electrode.

  15. Non-Gaussian nature of glassy dynamics by cage to cage motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorselaars, Bart; Lyulin, Alexey V.; Michels, M. A. J.; Karatasos, K.

    2007-01-01

    A model based on a single Brownian particle moving in a periodic effective field is used to understand the non-Gaussian dynamics in glassy systems of cage escape and subsequent recaging, often thought to be caused by a heterogeneous glass structure. The results are compared to molecular-dynamics simulations of systems with varying complexity: quasi-two-dimensional colloidlike particles, atactic polystyrene, and a dendritic glass. The model nicely describes generic features of all three topologically different systems, in particular around the maximum of the non-Gaussian parameter. This maximum is a measure for the average distance between cages

  16. Fine kinetics of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, V. [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv State University of Vital Activity Safety, 35, Kleparivska Str., Lviv 79007 (Ukraine); Golovchak, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Kozdras, A. [Faculty of Physics of Opole Technical University, 75, Ozimska Str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland)

    2014-02-01

    Sigmoid behavior of natural physical ageing in glassy As{sub 10}Se{sub 90} reveals multi-step-wise growing kinetics of enthalpy losses. Phenomenological description of this kinetics can be adequately developed in terms of first-order relaxation processes, tending atomic structure from initial towards more thermodynamically equilibrium state. This kinetics is shown to obey characteristic stretched exponential behavior originated from a number of growing steps, attributed to the interconnected processes of chalcogen chain alignment and cooperative shrinkage of glass network.

  17. Electronic Transport Behaviors due to Charge Density Waves in Ni-Nb-Zr-H Glassy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Umemori, Yoshimasa

    2013-11-01

    The amorphous Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy containing subnanometer-sized icosahedral Zr5 Nb5Ni3 clusters exhibited four types of electronic phenomena: a metal/insulator transition, an electric current-induced voltage oscillation (Coulomb oscillation), giant capacitor behavior and an electron avalanche with superior resistivity. These findings could be excluded by charge density waves that the low-dimensional component of clusters, in which the atoms are lined up in chains along the [130] direction, plays important roles in various electron transport phenomena.

  18. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H E; Schober, H; Gonzalez, M A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Bermejo, F J; Fayos, R; Dawidowski, J [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M A; Vieira, S [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The nearly universal transport and dynamical properties of amorphous materials or glasses are investigated. Reasonably successful phenomenological models have been developed to account for these properties as well as the behaviour near the glass-transition, but quantitative microscopic models have had limited success. One hindrance to these investigations has been the lack of a material which exhibits glass-like properties in more than one phase at a given temperature. This report presents results of neutron-scattering experiments for one such material ordinary ethyl alcohol, which promises to be a model system for future investigations of glassy behaviour. (author). 8 refs.

  19. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, BrittonâRobinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  20. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  1. Electrocatalytic performance of Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction at graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ruma; Gamare, J.S.; Kamat, J.V.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the analytical perspectives of graphene modified electrode utilising commercially available graphene, which is well characterised, completely free from surfactants and has not been purposely oxidised or treated. We compare and critically contrast the electro-analytical performance of graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes (Gr/GC) with that of unmodified GC electrode towards Pu(IV)/Pu(III) redox reaction, monitoring of which has considerable importance in a plethora of areas where electrochemistry is conveniently and beneficially utilised for determination of nuclear fuels

  2. Encoding Gaussian Curvature in Glassy and Elastomeric Liquid Crystal Solids (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    attention to director fields of the form n = cosψ(x2) ê1 + sinψ(x2) ê2, whose alignment angle field varies only with respect to one of the...λ−2 − λ2ν)/L2 < 0. (Online version in colour .) For a fixed two-dimensional metric, the problem of identifying equilibrium configurations that...length of 10 mm. (b) Positive (left) and negative (right) Gaussian curvature in 15µm thick glassy LC solid film at 175◦C. (Online version in colour .) (b

  3. Electrical resistivity in Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24 glassy and crystallized alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, H. Y.; Tong, C. Z.; Zheng, P.

    2004-02-01

    The electrical resistivity of Zr48Nb8Cu12Fe8Be24 bulk metallic glassy and crystallized alloys in the temperature range of 4.2-293 K is investigated. It is found that the resistivity in glassy and crystallized states shows opposite temperature coefficients. For the metallic glass, the resistivity shows a negative logarithmic dependence at temperatures below 16 K, whereas it has more normal behavior for the crystallized alloy. At higher temperatures, the resistivity in both glassy and crystallized alloys shows dependence upon both T and T2, but the signs of the T and T2 terms are opposite. The results are interpreted in terms of scattering from two-level tunneling states in glasses and the generalized Ziman diffraction model.

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Benchettara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.

  6. Glassy metals

    CERN Document Server

    Russew, Krassimir

    2016-01-01

    The topics discussed in this book focus on fundamental problems concerning the structural relaxation of amorphous metallic alloys, above all the possibility of studying it on the basis of viscous flow behavior and its relation to rheological anomalies, such as bend stress relaxation, thermal expansion, specific heat, density changes, and crystallization. Most relaxation studies deal with the relaxation changes of a single definite material property, and not with a wider spectrum of physical properties integrated into a common framework. This book shows that it is possible to describe these property changes on the basis of a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of their mechanism.

  7. Structural characterization and aging of glassy pharmaceuticals made using acoustic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmore, Chris J; Weber, J K R; Tailor, Amit N; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Mou, Qiushi; Weber, Warner; Neuefeind, Joerg; Byrn, Stephen R

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report the structural characterization of several amorphous drugs made using the method of quenching molten droplets suspended in an acoustic levitator. (13) C NMR, X-ray, and neutron diffraction results are discussed for glassy cinnarizine, carbamazepine, miconazole nitrate, probucol, and clotrimazole. The (13) C NMR results did not find any change in chemical bonding induced by the amorphization process. High-energy X-ray diffraction results were used to characterize the ratio of crystalline to amorphous material present in the glasses over a period of 8 months. All the glasses were stable for at least 6 months except carbamazepine, which has a strong tendency to crystallize within a few months. Neutron and X-ray pair distribution function analyses were applied to the glassy materials, and the results were compared with their crystalline counterparts. The two diffraction techniques yielded similar results in most cases and identified distinct intramolecular and intermolecular correlations. The intramolecular scattering was calculated based on the crystal structure and fit to the measured X-ray structure factor. The resulting intermolecular pair distribution functions revealed broad-nearest and next-nearest neighbor molecule-molecule correlations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1290-1300, 2013. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings.

  9. Diazonium Chemistry for the Bio-Functionalization of Glassy Nanostring Resonator Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Du, Rongbing; Cao, Yong; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Dew, Steven K; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane

    2015-07-30

    Resonant glassy nanostrings have been employed for the detection of biomolecules. These devices offer high sensitivity and amenability to large array integration and multiplexed assays. Such a concept has however been impaired by the lack of stable and biocompatible linker chemistries. Diazonium salt reduction-induced aryl grafting is an aqueous-based process providing strong chemical adhesion. In this work, diazonium-based linker chemistry was performed for the first time on glassy nanostrings, which enabled the bio-functionalization of such devices. Large arrays of nanostrings with ultra-narrow widths down to 10 nm were fabricated employing electron beam lithography. Diazonium modification was first developed on SiCN surfaces and validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Similarly modified nanostrings were then covalently functionalized with anti-rabbit IgG as a molecular probe. Specific enumeration of rabbit IgG was successfully performed through observation of downshifts of resonant frequencies. The specificity of this enumeration was confirmed through proper negative control experiments. Helium ion microscopy further verified the successful functionalization of nanostrings.

  10. Resistivity and Passivity Characterization of Ni-Base Glassy Alloys in NaOH Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah M. Emran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistivity and passivation behavior of two Ni-base bulk metallic glasses, with the nominal composition of Ni70Cr21Si0.5B0.5P8C ≤ 0.1Co ≤ 1Fe ≤ 1 (VZ1 and Ni72.65Cr7.3-Si6.7B2.15C ≤ 0.06Fe8.2Mo3 (VZ2, in various concentrations of NaOH solutions were studied. The investigations involved cyclic polarization (CP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM methods. Cyclic polarization measurements showed spontaneous passivation for both Ni-base glassy alloys at all alkaline concentrations, due to the presence of chromium as an alloying element that formed an oxide film on the alloy surface. The EIS analysis showed that the passive layers grown on the two Ni-base glassy alloy surfaces are formed by a double oxide layer structure. Scanning electron microscope (SEM examinations of the electrode surface showed Cr, Ni, Fe, and O rich corrosion products that reduced the extent of corrosion damage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging technique was used to evaluate the topographic and morphologic features of surface layers formed on the surface of the alloys.

  11. Novel electroanalysis of hydroxyurea at glassy carbon and gold electrode surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti M. Naik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and a novel electroanalysis of hydroxyurea (HU drug at glassy carbon and gold electrode was investigated for the first time using cyclic, linear sweep and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The oxidation of HU was irreversible and exhibited a diffusion controlled process on both electrodes. The oxidation mechanism was proposed. The dependence of the current on pH, the concentration, nature of buffer, and scan rate was investigated to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of HU. It was found that the optimum buffer pH was 7.0, a physiological pH. In the range of 0.01 to 1.0 mM, the current measured by differential pulse voltammetry showed a linear relationship with HU concentration with limit of detection of 0.46 µM for glassy carbon electrode and 0.92 µM for gold electrode. In addition, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the method were checked as well. The developed method was successfully applied to HU determination in pharmaceutical formulation and human biological fluids. The method finds its applications in quality control laboratories and pharmacokinetics.

  12. New Scenario of Dynamical Heterogeneity in Supercooled Liquid and Glassy States of 2D Monatomic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoang, Vo; Teboul, Victor; Odagaki, Takashi

    2015-12-24

    Via analysis of spatiotemporal arrangements of atoms based on their dynamics in supercooled liquid and glassy states of a 2D monatomic system with a double-well Lennard-Jones-Gauss (LJG) interaction potential, we find a new scenario of dynamical heterogeneity. Atoms with the same or very close mobility have a tendency to aggregate into clusters. The number of atoms with high mobility (and size of their clusters) increases with decreasing temperature passing over a maximum before decreasing down to zero. Position of the peak moves toward a lower temperature if mobility of atoms in clusters is lower together with an enhancement of height of the peak. In contrast, the number of atoms with very low mobility or solidlike atoms (and size of their clusters) has a tendency to increase with decreasing temperature and then it suddenly increases in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature leading to the formation of a glassy state. A sudden increase in the number of strongly correlated solidlike atoms in the vicinity of a glass transition temperature (Tg) may be an origin of a drastical increase in viscosity of the glass-forming systems approaching the glass transition. In fact, we find that the diffusion coefficient decays exponentially with a fraction of solidlike atoms exhibiting a sudden decrease in the vicinity of the glass transition region.

  13. Comparing the mechanism of water condensation and evaporation in glassy aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, David L; Reid, Jonathan P; Lienhard, Daniel M; Krieger, Ulrich K

    2012-07-17

    Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from  10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.

  14. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH was investigated. The poly (EBT-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak current depends on the concentration of INH and solution pH. The number of electrons involved in the rate determining step was found 1. The diffusion coefficient of isoniazid was also estimated using chronoamperometry technique. The experimental results showed that the mediated oxidation peak current of isoniazid is linearly dependent on the concentration of isoniazid in the ranges of 8.0 × 10-6 – 1.18 × 10-3 M and 2.90 × 10-5 M – 1.67× 10-3 M with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3 were found to be 6.0 μM and 16.4 μM by DPV and amperometry methods, respectively. This developed method was applied to the determination of isoniazid in tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  15. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meareg Amare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6×10-6 to 100×10-6 mol L−1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope of 0.99925 and 8.37×10-7 mol L−1, respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79–102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w% of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users’ highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  16. Electrochemical Determination of Caffeine Content in Ethiopian Coffee Samples Using Lignin Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Meareg; Aklog, Senait

    2017-01-01

    Lignin film was deposited at the surface of glassy carbon electrode potentiostatically. In contrast to the unmodified glassy carbon electrode, an oxidative peak with an improved current and overpotential for caffeine at modified electrode showed catalytic activity of the modifier towards oxidation of caffeine. Linear dependence of peak current on caffeine concentration in the range 6 × 10 -6 to 100 × 10 -6  mol L -1 with determination coefficient and method detection limit (LoD = 3 s/slope) of 0.99925 and 8.37 × 10 -7  mol L -1 , respectively, supplemented by recovery results of 93.79-102.17% validated the developed method. An attempt was made to determine the caffeine content of aqueous coffee extracts of Ethiopian coffees grown in four coffee cultivating localities (Wonbera, Wolega, Finoteselam, and Zegie) and hence to evaluate the correlation between users preference and caffeine content. In agreement with reported works, caffeine contents (w/w%) of 0.164 in Wonbera coffee; 0.134 in Wolega coffee; 0.097 in Finoteselam coffee; and 0.089 in Zegie coffee were detected confirming the applicability of the developed method for determination of caffeine in a complex matrix environment. The result indicated that users' highest preference for Wonbera and least preference for Zegie cultivated coffees are in agreement with the caffeine content.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of cysteine at a CuGeO3 nanowires modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yongping; Pei Lizhai; Chu Xiangfeng; Zhang Wangbing; Zhang Qianfeng

    2010-01-01

    A CuGeO 3 nanowire modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reveal that electron transfer through nanowire film is facile compared with that of bare glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode exhibited a novel electrocatalytic behavior to the electrochemical reactions of L-cysteine in neutral solution, which was not reported previously. Two pairs of semi-reversible electrochemical peaks were observed and assigned to the processes of oxidation/reduction and adsorption/desorption of cysteine at the modified electrode, respectively. The electrochemical response of cysteine is poor in alkaline condition and is enhanced greatly in acidic solution, suggesting that hydrogen ions participate in the electrochemical oxidation process of cysteine. The intensities of two anodic peaks varied linearly with the concentration of cysteine in the range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -3 mol L -1 , which make it possible to sensitive detection of cysteine with the CuGeO 3 nanowire modified electrode. Furthermore, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and stability.

  18. On the spherical nanoindentation creep of metallic glassy thin films at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.H.; Ye, J.H. [Institution of Micro/Nano-Mechanical Testing Technology & Application, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Feng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics (LNM), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ma, Y., E-mail: may@zjut.edu.cn [Institution of Micro/Nano-Mechanical Testing Technology & Application, College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China)

    2017-02-08

    Metallic glassy thin films with eight kind of compositions were successfully prepared on Si substrate by magnetron sputtering. The room-temperature creep tests were performed at plastic regions for each sample relying on spherical nanoindetation. The creep deformations were studied by recording the total creep displacement and strain after 2000 s holding. More pronounced creep deformation was observed in the sample with lower glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). Strain rate sensitivity (SRS) was then calculated from the steady-state creep and exhibited a negative correlation with increasing T{sub g}. It is suggested that creep mechanism of the nano-sized metallic glass was T{sub g}-dependent, according to the demarcation of SRS values. Based on the obtained SRS, shear transformation zone (STZ) size in each sample could be estimated. The results indicated that an STZ involves about 25–60 atoms for the employed eight samples and is strongly tied to T{sub g}. The characteristic of STZ size in metallic glassy thin films was discussed in terms of applied method and deformation modes.

  19. Nitric Oxide Detection with Glassy Carbon Electrodes Coated with Charge-different Polymer Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Lei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace amounts of nitric oxide (NO have been determined in aqueous phosphate buffersolutions (pH=7.4 by using a glassy carbon electrode coated with three charge-different polymerfilms. The glassy carbon electrode was coated first with negatively charged Nafion film containingtetrakis(pentafluorophenylporphyrin iron(III chloride (Fe(IIITPFPP as the NO oxidation catalyst,and then with positively charged poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PADDAand with neutral poly(dimethylsiloxane (silicone at the outermost layer. This polymer-coatedelectrode showed an excellent selectivity towards NO against possible concomitants in blood such asnitrite, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dopamine. All current ratios between each concomitant and NOat the cyclic voltammogram was in 10-3 ~ 10-4. This type of electrode showed a detection limit of80 nM for NO. It was speculated from the electrochemical study in methanol that high-valent oxoiron(IV of Fe(TPFPP participated in the catalytic oxidation of NO.

  20. Influence of surface morphology on methanol oxidation at a glassy carbon-supported Pt catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. STEVANOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Platinum supported on glassy carbon (GC was used as a model system for studying the influence of the surface morphology of a Pt catalyst on methanol oxidation in alkaline and acidic solutions. Platinum was deposited by the potential step method on GC samples from H2SO4 + H2PtCl6 solution under the same conditions with loadings from 10 to 80 mg cm-2. AFM and STM images of the GC/Pt electrodes showed that the Pt was deposited in the form of 3D agglomerates composed of spherical particles. Longer deposition times resulted in increased growth of Pt forms and a decrease in the specific area of the Pt. The real surface area of Pt increased with loading but the changes were almost negligible at higher loadings. Nevertheless, both the specific and mass activity of platinum supported on glassy carbon for methanol oxidation in acidic and in alkaline solutions exhibit a volcanic dependence with respect to the platinum loading. The increase in the activity can be explained by the increasing the particle size with the loading and thus an increase in the contiguous Pt sites available for adsorption and decomposition of methanol. However, the decrease in the activity of the catalyst with further increase of loading and particle size after reaching the maximum is related to the decrease of active sites available for methanol adsorption and their accessibility as a result of more close proximity and pronounced coalescence of the Pt particles.

  1. Temperature and frequency response of conductivity in Ag2S doped chalcogenide glassy semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Swarupa; Das, Anindya Sundar; Roy, Madhab; Bhattacharya, Sanjib

    2018-06-01

    The electric conductivity of chalcogenide glassy semiconductor xAg2S-(1-x)(0.5S-0.5Te) has been presented here as a function of temperature and frequency. Formation of different nanocrystallites has been confirmed from X-ray diffraction study. It is also noteworthy that average size of nanocrystallites decreases with the increase of dislocation density. Dc conductivity data have been interpreted using Mott's model and Greaves's model in low and high temperature regions respectively. Ac conductivity above the room temperature has been analyzed using Meyer-Neldel (MN) conduction rule. It is interestingly noted that Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model is the most appropriate conduction mechanism for x = 0.35, where pairs of charge carrier are considered to hop over the potential barrier between the sites via thermal activation. To interpret experimental data for x = 0.45, modified non-overlapping small polaron tunnelling (NSPT) model is supposed to be appropriate model due to tunnelling through grain boundary. The conductivity spectra at various temperatures have been analyzed using Almond-West Formalism (power law model). Scaling of conductivity spectra reveals that electrical relaxation process of charge carriers (polaron) is temperature independent but depends upon the composition of the present chalcogenide glassy system.

  2. Structural and surface changes in glassy carbon due to strontium implantation and heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odutemowo, O. S.; Malherbe, J. B.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Njoroge, E. G.; Erasmus, R.; Wendler, E.; Undisz, A.; Rettenmayr, M.

    2018-01-01

    There are still questions around the microstructure of glassy carbon (GC), like the observation of the micropores. These were proposed to explain the low density of GC. This paper explains the effect of ion bombardment (200 keV Sr+, 1 × 1016 Sr+/cm2 at RT) on the microstructure of GC. TEM and AFM show that micropores in pristine GC are destroyed leading to densification of GC from 1.42 g/cm3 to 2.03 g/cm3. The amorphisation of glassy carbon was also not complete with graphitic strands embedded within the GC. These were relatively few, as Raman analysis showed that the Sr implantation resulted in a typical amorphous Raman spectrum. Annealing of the sample at 900 °C only resulted in a slight recovery of the GC structure. AFM and SEM analysis showed that the surface of the sample became rougher after Sr implantation. The roughness increased after the sample was annealed at 600 °C due to segregation of Sr towards the surface of the GC. SEM measurements of a sample with both implanted and un-implanted edges after annealing at 900 °C, showed that the high temperature heat treatment did not affect the surface topography of un-irradiated GC.

  3. Formation and Applications of Bulk Glassy Alloys in Late Transition Metal Base System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Shen Baolong

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent results of the formation, fundamental properties, workability and applications of late transition metal (LTM) base bulk glassy alloys (BGAs) developed since 1995. The BGAs were obtained in Fe-(Al,Ga)-(P,C,B,Si), Fe-(Cr,Mo)-(C,B), Fe-(Zr,Hf,Nb,Ta)-B, Fe-Ln-B(Ln=lanthanide metal), Fe-B-Si-Nb and Fe-Nd-Al for Fe-based alloys, Co-(Ta,Mo)-B and Co-B-Si-Nb for Co-based alloys, Ni-Nb-(Ti,Zr)-(Co,Ni) for Ni-based alloys, and Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf), Cu-Ti-(Zr,Hf)-(Ni,Co) and Cu-Al-(Zr,Hf)-(Ag,Pd) for Cu-based alloys. These BGAs exhibit useful properties of high mechanical strength, large elastic elongation and high corrosion resistance. In addition, Fe- and Co-based glassy alloys have good soft magnetic properties which cannot be obtained for amorphous and crystalline type magnetic alloys. The Fe- and Ni-based BGAs have already been used in some application fields. These LTM base BGAs are promising as new metallic engineering materials

  4. Detection and typing of Xylella fastidiosa from glassy-winged sharpshooter for Pierce’s disease epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of Pierce’s disease of grape, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), is largely dependent on populations of insect vectors such as the invasive glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) (Homalodisca vitripennis). In the grape-growing regions of the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  5. Design of a candidate vibrational signal for mating disruption against the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca Vitripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is an important pest of grapevines due to its ability to transmit Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s disease. GWSS mating communication is based on vibrational signals; therefore, vibrational mating disruption could be an ...

  6. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  7. Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydroxylamine at a Quinizarine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: Application to Differential Pulse Voltammetry Detection of Hydroxylamine

    OpenAIRE

    MAZLOUMARDAKANI, Mohammad; KARAMI, Payam EBRAHIMI

    2014-01-01

    The electrocatalytic behavior of hydroxylamine was studied on a glassy carbon electrode modified by electrodeposition of quinizarine, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk voltammetry as diagnostic techniques. Cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic current of the system depends on the concentration of hydroxylamine. The magnitude of the peak current for quinizarine increased sharply in the presence of hydroxylamine and proportional to hydroxylamine conc...

  8. Dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity studies of Se90Cd10−xInx glassy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Shukla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glassy alloys of Se90Cd10−xInx (x = 2, 4, 6, 8 are synthesized by melt quench technique. The prepared glassy alloys have been characterized by techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX. Dielectric properties of Se90Cd10−xInx (x = 2, 4, 6, 8 chalcogenide glassy system have been studied using impedance spectroscopic technique in the frequency range 42 Hz to 5 MHz at room temperature. It is found that the dielectric constants ɛ′, dielectric loss factor ɛ″ and loss angle Tan δ depend on frequency. ɛ′, ɛ″ and loss angle Tan δ are found to be decreasing with the In content in Se90Cd10−xInx glassy system. AC conductivity of the prepared sample has also been studied. It is found that AC conductivity increases with frequency where as it has decreasing trend with increasing In content in Se–Cd matrix. The semicircles observed in the Cole–Cole plots indicate a single relaxation process.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND VECTOR ABILITY OF GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTERS FROM ALLOPATRIC POPULATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), is native to the southeastern United States and northeastern Mexico. It was detected in southern California in the late 1980s and in the San Joaquin Valley in 1999, where it transmits the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa to grapev...

  10. Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers absorbed on glassy carbon and gold electrodes by application of a confocal Raman microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palys-Staron, B.J.; Palys, B.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1992-01-01

    Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers, adsorbed on gold and on glassy carbon surfaces (electrodes), are presented. These spectra have been recorded with the electrodes inside and outside an electrochemical cell filled with an aqueous electrolyte. A confocal Raman microspectrometer was

  11. Characterization of glassy phase at the surface of alumina ceramics substrate and its effect on laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Renli [School of Mechanical-Electronic and Materials Engineering, China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, JS (China); Dept. of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, Univ. of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Li Yanbo [School of Mechanical-Electronic and Materials Engineering, China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, JS (China); Xu Xin; Ferreira, J.M.F. [Dept. of Ceramics and Glass Engineering, CICECO, Univ. of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays alumina ceramic substrates are widely used for high precision applications in electronic devices, such as hybrid integrated circuits (HIC). Usually, the alumina ceramic substrates are shaped through tape casting method and sintered in continuous slab kilns. The sintering aids used to enhance densification during sintering give rise to the formation of an alumino-silicate liquid phase, which is of crucial importance in pressureless and low-temperature sintering (<1600 C) of alumina ceramics. The preferential migration of liquid phase to the surface of alumina substrates under the capillary action and its transformation into glassy phase during cooling affects the subsequent processing steps of HIC. A smoothening effect on surface with its enrichment in glassy phase is accompanied by a decrease of the surface toughness. On the other hand, the accumulated glassy phase onto the surface has a great effect on laser cutting. The high temperatures developed during laser cutting turn the superficial glassy phase into liquid again, while rapid solidification will occur after removing laser beam. The fast cooling of the liquid phase causes formation of extensive network of cracks on the surface of alumina substrate. Apparently, the presence of such faults degrades mechanical strength and thermal shock resistance of alumina substrates. Meanwhile, the recast layers and spatter deposits at the periphery of the hole has been observed. (orig.)

  12. The application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to the study of glassy and partially crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, M.D.; Hill, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The use of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as a materials characterisation technique is discussed and is illustrated by examples from the authors' laboratory. A brief guide to interpretation of PALS results for metals, semiconductors, ionic solids and molecular solids is presented; however, the paper focuses on recent results for glassy and partially crystalline ionic and molecular solids. Case studies are presented in which the phenomena studied by PALS include miscibility of polymer blends, plasticization of solid polymer electrolytes, crystallinity in molecular and ionic solids, nanostructure of glass-ceramics, and refractivity of fluoride glasses. Future directions for PALS research of the electronic and defect structures of materials are discussed. 140 refs., 1 tab., 19 figs

  13. The electrochemical behavior of some podands at a benzo[c]cinnoline modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Uestuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Natsagdorj, Amgalan; Kilic, Emine; Kilic, Zeynel

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the grafting of benzo[c]cinnoline (BCC) molecules on glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface. The attachment of BCC molecules to carbon substrate is induced by the electrochemical reduction of the corresponding diazonium salt. The modification of GC with BCC diazonium salt was done in aprotic solution and proved by blocking of dopamine electron transfer. The presence of BCC at the GC surface was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On modified surface, the electrochemical behavior of two different types of podands and the catalytic effects of the GC-BCC surface were studied. The XPS was used to monitor element characteristics of the adsorbates on the GC surface and confirm the attachment of BCC molecules to the GC surface

  14. Electrografting of diazonium-functionalized polyoxometalates: synthesis, immobilisation and electron-transfer characterisation from glassy carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfray, Corentin; Izzet, Guillaume; Pinson, Jean; Gam Derouich, Sarra; Ganem, Jean-Jacques; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Proust, Anna

    2013-10-04

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are attractive candidates for the rational design of multi-level charge-storage materials because they display reversible multi-step reduction processes in a narrow range of potentials. The functionalization of POMs allows for their integration in hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)/molecular devices, provided that fine control of their immobilisation on various substrates can be achieved. Owing to the wide applicability of the diazonium route to surface modification, a functionalized Keggin-type POM [PW11 O39 {Ge(p-C6 H4 -CC-C6 H4 -${{\\rm N}{{+\\hfill \\atop 2\\hfill}}}$)}](3-) bearing a pending diazonium group was prepared and subsequently covalently anchored onto a glassy carbon electrode. Electron transfer with the immobilised POM was thoroughly investigated and compared to that of the free POM in solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. On melting dynamics and the glass transition. II. Glassy dynamics as a melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzakala, Florent; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2011-01-21

    There are deep analogies between the melting dynamics in systems with a first-order phase transition and the dynamics from equilibrium in super-cooled liquids. For a class of Ising spin models undergoing a first-order transition--namely p-spin models on the so-called Nishimori line--it can be shown that the melting dynamics can be exactly mapped to the equilibrium dynamics. In this mapping the dynamical--or mode-coupling--glass transition corresponds to the spinodal point, while the Kauzmann transition corresponds to the first-order phase transition itself. Both in mean field and finite dimensional models this mapping provides an exact realization of the random first-order theory scenario for the glass transition. The corresponding glassy phenomenology can then be understood in the framework of a standard first-order phase transition.

  16. Poly(amidosulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of isoniazid in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gongjun; Wang, Cunxiao; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Chenying; Qu, Qishu; Hu, Xiaoya

    2008-06-01

    Amidosulfonic acid was electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetry onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to fabricate the chemically modified electrode, which showed high stability, good selectivity and reproducibility for determination of isoniazid. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical effect on the oxidation of isoniazid. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between anodic peak current and isoniazid concentration in the range of 5.0 x 10(-8)- 1.0 x 10(-5) M, and a detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-8) M (S/N = 3) was obtained after 120 s at the accumulation potential of - 0.2 V (vs. SCE). This developed method had been applied to the direct determination of isoniazid in injection and tablet samples with satisfactory results.

  17. Deformation and structure evolution of glassy poly(lactic acid) below the glass transition temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    , the onset of the mesocrystal formation is delayed to a higher strain value, whereas corresponding to the same critical orientation degree of amorphous chains (f(am) approximate to 0.45). The DSC results indicated that the post-T-g endothermic peak corresponding to the melting of mesocrystal appears...... and shifts to a higher temperature with increasing stretching temperature, followed by the down-shifts (to a lower temperature) of the exothermic peak of cold crystallization of PLA. The appearance of a small exothermic peak just before the melting peak related to the transition of the alpha' to alpha...... crystal implies the formation of an alpha' crystal during cold crystallization in the drawn PLA samples. The structure evolution of glassy PLA stretched below T-g was discussed in details....

  18. Simulations of tensile failure in glassy polymers: effect of cross-link density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, M; Narayanan, S; Brinson, L C

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the failure mechanisms of glassy polymers, particularly with respect to increasing density of cross-links. In our simulations thermosetting polymers, which are cross-linked, exhibit an embrittlement compared with uncross-linked thermoplastics in a similar fashion to several experimental investigations (Levita et al 1991 J. Mater. Sci. 26 2348; Sambasivam et al 1997 J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 65 1001; Iijima et al 1992 Eur. Polym. J. 28 573). We perform a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and propose an interpretation based on the predominance of chain scission process over disentanglement in thermosetting polymers. We also elucidate the brittle fracture response of the thermosetting polymers

  19. Graphene quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of doxorubicin hydrochloride in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hashemzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low toxic graphene quantum dot (GQD was synthesized by pyrolyzing citric acid in alkaline solution and characterized by ultraviolet--visible (UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, spectrofluorimetery and dynamic light scattering (DLS techniques. GQD was used for electrode modification and electro-oxidation of doxorubicin (DOX at low potential. A substantial decrease in the overvoltage (−0.56 V of the DOX oxidation reaction (compared to ordinary electrodes was observed using GQD as coating of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to evaluate the analytical performance of DOX in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 4.0 and good limit of detection was obtained by the proposed sensor. Such ability of GQD to promote the DOX electron-transfer reaction suggests great promise for its application as an electrochemical sensor.

  20. Biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, J.; Kang, T.F.; Xue, R.; Ge, C.N.; Cheng, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a biosensor for phenolic compounds that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with tyrosinase immobilized on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The MWNTs possess excellent inherent electrical conductivity which enhances the electron transfer rate and results in good electrochemical catalytic activity towards the reduction of benzoquinone produced by enzymatic reaction. The biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the experimental conditions were optimized. The cathodic current is linearly related to the concentration of the phenols between 0.4 μM and 10 μM, and the detection limit is 0.2 μM. The method was applied to the determination of phenol in water samples (author)

  1. Photoswitchable molecular dipole antennas with tailored coherent coupling in glassy composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbahri, Mady; Zillohu, Ahnaf Usman; Gothe, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . We also introduce the concept of 'tailored molecular photonic coupling' while highlighting the role of interferences for the design of optically active media by adjusting the photonic response of the medium with the real and imaginary refractive index of photoswitchable molecules in the 'ON' state...... alteration of photochromic molecular dipole antennas. We successfully demonstrate the concept of Brewster wavelength, which is based on the dipolar interaction between radiating dipoles and the surrounding matrix possessing a net dipole moment, as a key tool for highly localized sensing of matrix polarity....... Our results enhance our fundamental understanding of coherent dipole radiation and open a new vein of research based on glassy disordered dipolar composites that act as macroscopic antenna with cooperative action; furthermore, these results have important implications for new design rules of tailored...

  2. Pressure-induced positive electrical resistivity coefficient in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, M.; Gangli, C.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements under hydrostatic pressure of the electrical resistivity of (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)100-xHx (x = 9.8, 11.5, and 14) glassy alloys have been made in the range of 0-8 GPa and 0.5-300 K. The resistivity of the (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)86H14 alloy changed its sign from negative to positive under application of 2-8 GPa in the temperature range of 300-22 K, coming from electron-phonon interaction in the cluster structure under pressure, accompanied by deformation of the clusters. In temperature region below 22 K, the resistivity showed negative thermal coefficient resistance by Debye-Waller factor contribution, and superconductivity was observed at 1.5 K.

  3. Voltammetric Determination of Salbutamol Based on Electrochemical Oxidation at Platinum and Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Niyazi; ÖZKAN, Sibel A.; USLU, Bengi

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative behavior of salbutamol was studied as a function of pH at platinum and activated glassy carbon electrodes. Between pH 1.9 and 12.0, the drug was characterized by a single oxidation step at both electrodes. The process was found to be dependent on the nature and the pH of the supporting elctrolyte. The procedure yielded a linear concentration range of 1 \\times 10-4 to 1 \\times 10-3 M and 2 \\times 10-5 to 1 \\times 10-3 M in 0.2 M sulphuric acid and a phosphate buffer of pH 6, at p...

  4. Electrochemical Determination of Uric Acid at CdTe Quantum Dot Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Deng; Rong, Shengzhong; Zhang, Guangteng; Zhang, Yannan; Zhou, Qiang; Liu, Fenghai; Li, Miaojing; Chang, Dong; Pan, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of uric acid (UA) at a CdTe quantum dot (QD) modified the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). CdTe QDs, as new semiconductor nanocrystals, can greatly improve the peak current of UA. The anodic peak current of UA was linear with its concentration between 1.0×10(-6) and 4.0×10(-4) M in 0.1 M pH 5.0 phosphate buffer solution. The LOD for UA at the CdTe electrode (1.0×10(-7) M) was superior to that of the GCE. In addition, we also determined the effects of scan rate, pH, and interferences of UA for the voltammetric behavior and detection. The results indicated that modified electrode possessed excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, a new and efficient electrochemical sensor for detecting UA was developed.

  5. Electrochemical parameters of ethamsylate at multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fu; Xu, Qiao

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, some electrochemical parameters of ethamsylate at a multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode, such as the charge number, exchange current density, standard heterogeneous rate constant and diffusion coefficient, were measured by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. The modified electrode exhibits good promotion of the electrochemical reaction of ethamsylate and increases the standard heterogeneous rate constant of ethamsylate greatly. The differential pulse voltammetry responses of ethamsylate were linearly dependent on its concentrations in a range from 2.0 x 10(-6) to 6.0 x 10(-5) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1).

  6. Voltammetric sensor for caffeine based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, F.; Wang, F.; Zhao, W.; Zhou, J.; Liu, Y.; Zou, L.; Ye, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a voltammetric sensor for caffeine that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with Nafion and graphene oxide (GO). It exhibits a good affinity for caffeine (resulting from the presence of Nafion), and excellent electrochemical response (resulting from the pressence of GO) for the oxidation of caffeine. The electrode enables the determination of caffeine in the range from 4.0 x 10 -7 to 8.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10 -7 mol L -1 . The sensor displays good stability, reproducibility, and high sensitivity. It was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of caffeine in beverages. (author)

  7. Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5 by Containerless Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Kentei Yu, Yu; Kumar, Vijaya; Kameko, Masashi

    Many efforts have been devoted to forming bulk glass from the melt of ferroelectric crystalline materials without adding any network-forming oxides such as SiO2 due to the potential for producing transparent glass ceramics with high dielectric constant and enhanced piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electro-optic use. The containerless processing is an attractive synthesis tech-nique as it can prevent melt contamination, minimize heterogeneous nucleation, and allow melt to achieve deep undercooling for forming metastable and glassy materials. We have fabricated a new ferroelectric materiel BaTi2 O5 [1] as bulk glass from melt by us-ing containerless processing and studied the phase relationship between microstructure and ferroelectric properties of BaTi2 O5 [2]. The structures of glassy and metastable crystalline BaTi2 O5 fabricated by the containerless pro-cessing were comprehensively investigated by combined X-ray and neutron diffractions, XANES analyses and computer simulations [3]. The 3-dimensional atomic structure of glassy BaTi2 O5 (g-BaTi2 O5 ), simulated by Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling on diffraction data, shows that extremely distorted TiO5 polyhedra interconnected with both corner-and edge-shared oxy-gen, formed a higher packing density structure than that of conventional silicate glass linked with only corner-sharing of SiO4 polyhedra. In addition, XANES measurement reveales that five-coordinated TiO5 polyhedra were formable in the crystallized metastable a-and b-BaTi2 O5 phases. The structure of metastable b-BaTi2 O5 was solved by ab initio calculation, and refined by Rietveld refinement as group Pnma with unit lattices a = 10.23784 ˚, b = 3.92715 ˚, c A A = 10.92757 A ˚. Our results show that the glass-forming ability enhanced by containerless pro-cessing, not by `strong glass former', fabricated new bulk oxide glasses with peculiar structures and properties. The intermediate-range structure of g-BaTi2 O5 and the crystalline structure of

  8. Sensitive determination of buformin using poly-aminobenzoic acid modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Ying Jin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glassy carbon electrode, which is used to electrochemically determine the content of buformin, is modified with an electropolymerized film of p-aminobenzoic acid in pH 7.0 acetate buffer solution (ABS. The polymer showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of buformin. In pH 7.0 ABS, the cathodic peak current increased linearly over three concentration intervals of buformin, and the detection limit (S/N=3 was 2.0×10−9 g/mL. The method was successfully applied to directly determine buformin in tablets with standard addition recoveries of 95.8–102.5%. The proposed method is simple, cheap and highly efficient. Keywords: Chemically modified electrode, Aminobenzoic acid, Buformin

  9. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and Tween 20 was studied. Among these surfactants SLS showed significant enhancement in reduction peak. The cathodic peak currents were directly proportional to the concentration of midazolam with correlation coefficient of 0.99.

  10. Anomalous Capacitance Maximum of the Glassy Carbon-Ionic Liquid Interface through Dilution with Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozym, David J; Uralcan, Betül; Limmer, David T; Pope, Michael A; Szamreta, Nicholas J; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2015-07-02

    We use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure the effect of diluting a hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid with miscible organic solvents on the differential capacitance of the glassy carbon-electrolyte interface. We show that the minimum differential capacitance increases with dilution and reaches a maximum value at ionic liquid contents near 5-10 mol% (i.e., ∼1 M). We provide evidence that mixtures with 1,2-dichloroethane, a low-dielectric constant solvent, yield the largest gains in capacitance near the open circuit potential when compared against two traditional solvents, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. To provide a fundamental basis for these observations, we use a coarse-grained model to relate structural variations at the double layer to the occurrence of the maximum. Our results reveal the potential for the enhancement of double-layer capacitance through dilution.

  11. Electrochemical sensor for nitrite using a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold-copper nanochain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Su-Su; Mei, Li-Ping; Zhou, Jia-Ying; Guo, Fei-Ying; Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic gold-copper nanochain networks (AuCu NCNs) were prepared by a single-step wet-chemical approach using metformin as a growth-directing agent. The formation mechanism was investigated in detail, and the AuCu NCNs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanocrystals were deposited on glassy carbon electrode and this resulted in a highly sensitive sensor for nitrite. Features include a low working potential (best at 0.684 V vs. SCE), fair sensitivity (17.55 μA mM −1 ), a wide linear range (0.01 to 4.0 mM), a low detection limit (0.2 μM, S/N = 3), and superior selectivity as compared to other sensors. (author)

  12. Determination of nitrite ion at schiff's base derivative of chitosan modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhongliang; Zhang Jianmei; Liu Shujuan; Peng Daofeng

    2007-01-01

    Chitosan react with salicyclaldehyde by schiff's base reaction in water, a polymer product S-CTS can be prepared. Glassy carbon electrode was modified with S-CTS by drop-coating method. Then, its electrocatalysis effect on the reduction of nitrite by the films of S-CTS was investigated. Experimental results showed that S-CTS modified electrode could reduce the oxidation overpotential of nitrite in pH4.5 B-R buffer solution, the peak current of reduction was proportional to the concentration of nitrite and a good linear relation from 0.20 to 81 mg/kg (r=0.9899) with a detection limit of 2.8 x 10 -7 mol/L was obtained. The methods have been applied to determining nitrite in some samples, satisfactory results were obtained. (authors)

  13. Voltammetric Determination of Flunixin on Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Elgawad Radi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensing approach, based on electropolymerization of a molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPpy film onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface, was developed for the detection of flunixin (FXN. The sensing conditions and the performance of the constructed sensor were assessed by cyclic, differential pulse and (DPV square wave voltammetry (SWV. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity, with linear responses in the range of 5.0 to 50.0 µM with detection limits of 1.5 and 1.0 µM for DPV and SWV, respectively. In addition, the sensor showed high selectivity towards FXN in comparison to other interferents. The sensor was successfully utilized for the direct determination of FXN in buffalo raw milk samples.

  14. Using Poly-L-Histidine Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode to Trace Hydroquinone in the Sewage Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive voltammetric method for trace measurements of hydroquinone in the sewage water is described. The poly-L-histidine is prepared to modify the glassy carbon electrode in order to improve the electrochemical catalysis of interesting substances such as hydroquinone. The influence of the base solution, pH value, and scanning speed on the tracing of hydroquinone is discussed, and the experimental procedures and conditions are optimized. The laboratory results show that it is possible to construct a linear calibration curve between the peak current of hydroquinone on modified electrode and its concentration at the level of 0.00001 mol/L. The potential limitation of the method is suggested by a linear peaking shift model as well. The method was successfully applied to the determination of hydroquinone in the actual sample of industrial waste water.

  15. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  16. Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of 2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceuticals and Real Samples Using Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen M. Gokavi; Vijay P. Pattar; Atmanand M. Bagoji; Sharanappa T. Nandibewoor

    2013-01-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques for the determination of trace-level sulfur containing compound, 2-thiouracil, at a glassy carbon electrode. 2-thiouracil produced two anodic peaks at 0.334 V and 1.421 V and a cathodic peak at −0.534 V. The square wave voltammetry of 2-thiouracil gave a good linear response in the range of 1–20 μM with a detection limit of 0.16 μM and quantification limit of 0.53 μM (0.0679 μg/g), which is in good ag...

  17. Electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol on platinum-iridium mixtures supported on glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Henry; Hoyos Bibian

    2004-01-01

    Electro-catalytic oxidation of ethanol on platinum-iridium mixtures supported on glassy carbon was studied, in acid media at different temperatures and concentrations. During the maturation time of deposited iridium, the surface is covered by an irreversible oxide formation, which affects the behavior of the catalytic mixture. The Pt 7 0 Ir 3 0 and Pt 9 0 Ir 1 0 mixtures seem to be a little more active than the Pt/C electrode at potentials below 800 mV (vs. HRE). In all electrodes appears two reactions: partial ethanol oxidation to produce acetaldehyde (main path of reaction at low temperatures and high electrode coverage with ethanol adsorption residues) and the total oxidation to carbon dioxide which is considerable at potential above 800 mV and it is increased with increasing temperature

  18. Wetting of a Charged Surface of Glassy Carbon by Molten Alkali-Metal Chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Values of the contact angle of wetting of a surface of glassy carbon by molten chlorides of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium are measured by the meniscus weight method to determine the common factors of wettability of solid surfaces by ionic melts upon a change in the salt phase composition and a jump in electric potential. It is found that with a potential shift in the positive direction the shape of the curve of the contact angle's dependence on the potential varies upon substitution of one salt by another: the angle of wetting shrinks monotonously in lithium chloride but remains constant in molten cesium chloride. This phenomenon is explained by the hypothesis that the nature of the halide anion adsorption on the positively charged surface of an electrode is chemical and not electrostatic. It is shown that the adsorption process is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface, with covalent bonding between the adsorbent and adsorbate.

  19. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  20. Molecular imprinted polypyrrole modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of tobramycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Özaltın, Nuran; Atar, Necip; Üstündağ, Zafer; Uzun, Lokman

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Atomic force microscopic images of (A) bare GCE and (B) TOB imprinted PPy/GCE surface. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole was prepared. • The developed surfaces were characterized by AFM, FTIR, EIS and CV. • The developed nanosensor was applied to egg and milk samples. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, molecular imprinted polymers have attracted a broad interest from scientists in sensor development. In the preparation of molecular imprinted polymers the desired molecule (template) induces the creation of specific recognition sites in the polymer. In this study, the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (PPy) was fabricated for the determination of tobramycin (TOB). The developed electrode was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (TOB) during the electropolymerization of pyrrole on GCE in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes was evaluated by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The effect of pH, monomer and template concentrations, electropolymerization cycles on the performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes was investigated and optimized. The non-modified and TOB-imprinted surfaces were characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and CV. The linearity range of TOB was 5.0 × 10 −10 –1.0 × 10 −8 M with the detection limit of 1.4 × 10 −10 M. The developed nanosensor was applied successfully for the determination of TOB in egg and milk

  1. Probing Properties of Glassy Water and Other Liquids with Site Selective Spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Nhan Chuong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The standard non-photochemical hole burning (NPHB) mechanism, which involves phonon-assisted tunneling in the electronically excited state, was originally proposed to explain the light-induced frequency change of chemically stable molecules in glassy solids at liquid helium temperatures by this research group more than two decades ago. The NPHB mechanism was then further elucidated and the concept of intrinsic to glass configurational relaxation processes as pre-mediating step to the hole burning process was introduced. The latter provided the theoretical basis for NPHB to evolve into a powerful tool probing the dynamics and nature of amorphous media, which aside from ''simple'' inorganic glasses may include also ''complex'' biological systems such as living cells and cancerous/normal tissues. Presented in this dissertation are the experimental and theoretical results of hole burning properties of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate (APT) in several different matrices: (1) hyperquenched glassy water (HGW); (2) cubic ice (Ic); and (3) water confined into poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (poly-HEMA). In addition, results of photochemical hole burning (PHB) studies obtained for phthalocyanine tetrasulphonate (PcT) in HGW and free base phthalocyanine (Pc) in ortho-dichlorobenzene (DCB) glass are reported. The goal of this dissertation was to provide further evidence supporting the NPHB mechanism and to provide more insight that leads to a better understanding of the kinetic events (dynamics) in glasses, and various dynamical processes of different fluorescent chromorphores in various amorphous solids and the liquid that exist above the glass transition temperature (Tg). The following issues are addressed in detail: (1) time evolution of hole being burned under different conditions and in different hole burning systems; (2) temperature dependent hole profile; and (3) the structure

  2. Asphaltene-laden interfaces form soft glassy layers in contraction experiments: a mechanism for coalescence blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Vincent; Rane, Jayant P; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-11-04

    In previous studies, the adsorption kinetics of asphaltenes at the water-oil interface were interpreted utilizing a Langmuir equation of state (EOS) based on droplet expansion experiments.1-3 Long-term adsorption kinetics followed random sequential adsorption (RSA) theory predictions, asymptotically reaching ∼85% limiting surface coverage, which is similar to limiting random 2D close packing of disks. To extend this work beyond this slow adsorption process, we performed rapid contractions and contraction-expansions of asphaltene-laden interfaces using the pendant drop experiment to emulate a Langmuir trough. This simulates the rapid increase in interfacial asphaltene concentration that occurs during coalescence events. For the contraction of droplets aged in asphaltene solutions, deviation from the EOS consistently occurs at a surface pressure value ∼21 mN/m corresponding to a surface coverage ∼80%. At this point droplets lose the shape required for validity of the Laplace-Young equation, indicating solidlike surface behavior. On further contraction wrinkles appear, which disappear when the droplet is held at constant volume. Surface pressure also decreases down to an equilibrium value near that measured for slow adsorption experiments. This behavior appears to be due to a transition to a glassy interface on contraction past the packing limit, followed by relaxation toward equilibrium by desorption at constant volume. This hypothesis is supported by cycling experiments around the close-packed limit where the transition to and from a solidlike state appears to be both fast and reversible, with little hysteresis. Also, the soft glass rheology model of Sollich is shown to capture previously reported shear behavior during adsorption. The results suggest that the mechanism by which asphaltenes stabilize water-in-oil emulsions is by blocking coalescence due to rapid formation of a glassy interface, in turn caused by interfacial asphaltenes rapidly increasing in

  3. Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite on tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins/Nafion glassy carbon modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calfuman, Karla [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Aguirre, Maria Jesus [Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Bollo, Soledad [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Llusar, Rosa [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Isaacs, Mauricio, E-mail: misaacs@uchile.cl [Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > Preparation and characterization of modified electrodes with M(II) Tetraruthenated porphyrins onto a Nafion film. > The electrodes were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM and SECM techniques. > The modified electrodes are active in the electrochemical reduction of nitrite at -660 mV vs Ag/AgCl. > GC/Nf/CoTRP modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. - Abstract: This paper describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrite ion in neutral aqueous solution mediated by tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins (Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)) electrostatically assembled onto a Nafion film previously adsorbed on glassy carbon or ITO electrodes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results have shown that on ITO electrodes the macrocycles forms multiple layers with a disordered stacking orientation over the Nafion film occupying hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites in the polyelectrolyte. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results demonstrated that the Nafion film is 35 nm thick and tetraruthenated metalloporphyrins layers 190 nm thick presenting a thin but compacted morphology. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) images shows that the Co(II) tetraruthenated porphyrins/Nf/GC modified electrode is more electrochemically active than their Ni and Zn analogues. These modified electrodes are able to reduce nitrite at -660 mV showing enhanced reduction current and a decrease in the required overpotential compared to bare glassy carbon electrode. Controlled potential electrolysis experiments verify the production of ammonia, hydrazine and hydroxylamine at potentials where reduction of solvent is plausible demonstrating some selectivity toward the nitrite ion. Rotating disc electrode voltammetry shows that the factor that governs the kinetics of nitrite reduction is the charge propagation in the film.

  4. Cap casting and enveloped casting techniques for Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 glassy alloy rod with 32 mm in diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Akihisa; Mund, Enrico; Schultz, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce centimetre-sized bulk glassy alloys (BMGs), various cast techniques have been developed. We succeed in the development of cap casting and enveloped casting technique to accomplish the fabrication of centimetre sized BMGs. The former has an advantage to increase cooling rate and the later has an advantage to joint another materials instead of welding. This paper presents the production of a glassy Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 alloy rod with a diameter of 32 mm and joined glassy Zr 55 Cu 30 Ni 5 Al 10 alloy parts with another materials for industrial applications.

  5. Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten. Oslo: Res Publica, 2011. José Luis Martí and Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero's Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010 (Simon Laumann Jørgensen)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2012-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95......Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95...

  6. Aplikasi Metode Lean Six Sigma Untuk Usulan Improvisasi Lini Produksi Dengan Mempertimbangkan Faktor Lingkungan. Studi Kasus: Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya merupakan produsen lampu pijar. Pada pelaksanaan proses produksinya, perusahaan menemui beberapa kendala yang terkait dengan waste. Analisis lean six sigma dengan menggunakan value stream mapping menunjukkan terjadi defect di mesin finishing dan waiting di mesin mounting. EHS waste juga muncul yang mengindikasikan adanya dampak terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan serta keselamatan pekerja. Pencarian akar permasalahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan tools RCA (5 whys dan FMEA hingga memunculkan 15 penyebab utama terjadinya ketiga waste tersebut. Pembentukan tim Total productive maintenance, penelitian perbaikan kualitas bulb dan flare, serta eksperimen pengurangan jumlah jenis coil menjadi usulan alternatif yang bisa dilakukan perusahaan. Dengan menggunakan konsep value management didapatkan alternatif terbaik dengan melakukan pembentukan dan pelatihan tim Total productive maintenance. Alternatif ini meningkatkan nilai sigma defect dari 2,92 menjadi 3,08 dan sigma waiting dari 2,83 menjadi 2,89. Indikator dampak lingkungan juga mengindikasikan penurunan yang sejalan.

  7. Two Millian Arguments: Using Helen Longino’s Approach to Solve the Problems Philip Kitcher Targeted with His Argument on Freedom of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Eigi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Philip Kitcher argued that the freedom to pursue one's version of the good life is the main aim of Mill's argument for freedom of expression. According to Kitcher, in certain scientific fields, political and epistemological asymmetries bias research toward conclusions that threaten this most important freedom of underprivileged groups. Accordingly, Kitcher claimed that there are Millian grounds for limiting freedom of inquiry in these fields to protect the freedom of the underprivileged.I explore Kitcher's argument in light of the interpretation Helen Longino gave to Mill's argument. She argued that free critical dialogue in the community allows bias to be overcome, through intersubjective criticism of hypotheses and the background assumptions that frame them.I suggest that Longino's approach allows for the identification of the fundamental problems of the research programs Kitcher targeted, and for the rejection of their claims to knowledge. Thus it is possible to address Kitcher's problem without limiting freedom of speech.

  8. Comparative study of reconstruction filters for cranio examinations of the Philips system and its influence on the quality of the tomographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, V.C.; Kodlulovich, S.; Delduck, R.S.; Oliveira, L.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different reconstruction algorithm (kernels) applied for head examinations. The research was carried out using 40-slice MDCT (Philips, Brilliance 40 CT scanner) and an ACR Phantoms to evaluate the image quality. The doses were estimated applying the coefficients obtained by IMPACT .The study showed that independently of the filter used the values of CT number have no change. The low contrast showed that the choice of correct filter might result a decrease of 9% of doses values. For special resolution, the sharp filter showed a better response for low m As. The noise value of image to certain filters smooth has no changed, even by reducing the m As values. (author)

  9. Apropiación y alienación: consideraciones hermenéutico-existenciales a propósito de la Pastoral americana de Philip Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Vélez López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una formulación básica de algunos elementos relevantes de la hermenéutica fenomenológica de Heidegger, el presente artículo propone una lectura de la obra del escritor norteamericano Philip Roth titulada Pastoral americana, que lo hizo acreedor al premio Pulitzer en 1989. El propósito cen- tral de esa lectura consiste en mostrar de qué manera fenómenos existenciales elementales como estar-lejos (Wegsein, estar-despierto (Wachsein, estar-ahí (Dasein permiten una articulación propia del sentido de la obra de Roth en la que ésta manifiesta su particular compromiso existencial.

  10. SU-E-T-596: P3DVHStats - a Novel, Automatic, Institution Customizable Program to Compute and Report DVH Quantities On Philips Pinnacle TPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a novel, automatic, institutional customizable DVH quantities evaluation and PDF report tool on Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An add-on program (P3DVHStats) is developed by us to enable automatic DVH quantities evaluation (including both volume and dose based quantities, such as V98, V100, D2), and automatic PDF format report generation, for EMR convenience. The implementation is based on a combination of Philips Pinnacle scripting tool and Java language pre-installed on each Pinnacle Sun Solaris workstation. A single Pinnacle script provide user a convenient access to the program when needed. The activated script will first export DVH data for user selected ROIs from current Pinnacle plan trial; a Java program then provides a simple GUI interface, utilizes the data to compute any user requested DVH quantities, compare with preset institutional DVH planning goals; if accepted by users, the program will also generate a PDF report of the results and export it from Pinnacle to EMR import folder via FTP. Results: The program was tested thoroughly and has been released for clinical use at our institution (Pinnacle Enterprise server with both thin clients and P3PC access), for all dosimetry and physics staff, with excellent feedback. It used to take a few minutes to use MS-Excel worksheet to calculate these DVH quantities for IMRT/VMAT plans, and manually save them as PDF report; with the new program, it literally takes a few mouse clicks in less than 30 seconds to complete the same tasks. Conclusion: A Pinnacle scripting and Java language based program is successfully implemented, customized to our institutional needs. It is shown to dramatically reduce time and effort needed for DVH quantities computing and EMR reporting

  11. Comparison of different tube-of-response (TOR) models for resolution recovery in PET image reconstruction for the Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lougovski, Alexandr; Hofheinz, Frank; Van Den Hoff, Jorg [Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, PET Center, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Recently, we have proposed a method for on-the-fly system matrix computation where the tube-of-response (TOR) is approximated as a cylinder with constant density (TORCD) and the cubic voxels are replaced by spheres. We could show that with this model the PET image quality can be notably improved compared to the vendor provided image reconstruction of our Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR. In this work we address the question whether image quality can be further improved by using a variable density TOR (TOR-VD). The radial variability of TOR-VD was modelled by a Kaiser-Bessel function. Free parameters of this density model were used to optimize image properties regarding resolution, noise, and Gibbs artifacts. Additional, a TOR-VD model accounting for position dependent effects along the TOR caused by the finite solid angles of the detectors is under investigation. Phantom measurement were performed with a Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR scanner. Listmode data were reconstructed using TOR-CD and TORVD, respectively on two different grids with cubic voxel size of 2 mm and 4 mm. Image quality was assessed with resolution-noise curves and investigation of the radial position dependence of the spatial resolution. For 2 mm voxels, TOR-VD consistently yields a slight improvement of the investigated image quality measures compared to TOR-CD. For 4 mm voxels both models lead essentially to the same results. These findings can be understood as a consequence of the relative size of voxel and TOR. For typical whole body studies (4 mm voxel size) a variable TOR does not improve image quality beyond what is achievable with a constant density TOR. For smaller voxel size the image quality can indeed be somewhat improved with a variable TOR but at the expense of drastically increased computation time.

  12. SU-E-T-596: P3DVHStats - a Novel, Automatic, Institution Customizable Program to Compute and Report DVH Quantities On Philips Pinnacle TPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C [Sutter Medical Foundation, Roseville, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a novel, automatic, institutional customizable DVH quantities evaluation and PDF report tool on Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An add-on program (P3DVHStats) is developed by us to enable automatic DVH quantities evaluation (including both volume and dose based quantities, such as V98, V100, D2), and automatic PDF format report generation, for EMR convenience. The implementation is based on a combination of Philips Pinnacle scripting tool and Java language pre-installed on each Pinnacle Sun Solaris workstation. A single Pinnacle script provide user a convenient access to the program when needed. The activated script will first export DVH data for user selected ROIs from current Pinnacle plan trial; a Java program then provides a simple GUI interface, utilizes the data to compute any user requested DVH quantities, compare with preset institutional DVH planning goals; if accepted by users, the program will also generate a PDF report of the results and export it from Pinnacle to EMR import folder via FTP. Results: The program was tested thoroughly and has been released for clinical use at our institution (Pinnacle Enterprise server with both thin clients and P3PC access), for all dosimetry and physics staff, with excellent feedback. It used to take a few minutes to use MS-Excel worksheet to calculate these DVH quantities for IMRT/VMAT plans, and manually save them as PDF report; with the new program, it literally takes a few mouse clicks in less than 30 seconds to complete the same tasks. Conclusion: A Pinnacle scripting and Java language based program is successfully implemented, customized to our institutional needs. It is shown to dramatically reduce time and effort needed for DVH quantities computing and EMR reporting.

  13. Comparison of different tube-of-response (TOR) models for resolution recovery in PET image reconstruction for the Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougovski, Alexandr; Hofheinz, Frank; Van Den Hoff, Jorg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed a method for on-the-fly system matrix computation where the tube-of-response (TOR) is approximated as a cylinder with constant density (TORCD) and the cubic voxels are replaced by spheres. We could show that with this model the PET image quality can be notably improved compared to the vendor provided image reconstruction of our Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR. In this work we address the question whether image quality can be further improved by using a variable density TOR (TOR-VD). The radial variability of TOR-VD was modelled by a Kaiser-Bessel function. Free parameters of this density model were used to optimize image properties regarding resolution, noise, and Gibbs artifacts. Additional, a TOR-VD model accounting for position dependent effects along the TOR caused by the finite solid angles of the detectors is under investigation. Phantom measurement were performed with a Philips Ingenuity-TF PET/MR scanner. Listmode data were reconstructed using TOR-CD and TORVD, respectively on two different grids with cubic voxel size of 2 mm and 4 mm. Image quality was assessed with resolution-noise curves and investigation of the radial position dependence of the spatial resolution. For 2 mm voxels, TOR-VD consistently yields a slight improvement of the investigated image quality measures compared to TOR-CD. For 4 mm voxels both models lead essentially to the same results. These findings can be understood as a consequence of the relative size of voxel and TOR. For typical whole body studies (4 mm voxel size) a variable TOR does not improve image quality beyond what is achievable with a constant density TOR. For smaller voxel size the image quality can indeed be somewhat improved with a variable TOR but at the expense of drastically increased computation time.

  14. Multiscale simulations of PS-SiO2 nanocomposites: from melt to glassy state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, I G; Vogiatzis, G G; Tzoumanekas, C; Theodorou, D N

    2016-09-28

    The interaction energetics, molecular packing, entanglement network properties, segmental dynamics, and elastic constants of atactic polystyrene-amorphous silica nanocomposites in the molten and the glassy state are studied via molecular simulations using two interconnected levels of representation: (a) a coarse-grained one, wherein each polystyrene repeat unit is mapped onto a single "superatom" and the silica nanoparticle is viewed as a solid sphere. Equilibration at all length scales at this level is achieved via connectivity-altering Monte Carlo simulations. (b) A united-atom (UA) level, wherein the polymer chains are represented in terms of a united-atom forcefield and the silica nanoparticle is represented in terms of a simplified, fully atomistic model. Initial configurations for UA molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are obtained by reverse mapping well-equilibrated coarse-grained configurations. By analysing microcanonical UA MD trajectories, the polymer density profile is studied and the polymer is found to exhibit layering in the vicinity of the nanoparticle surface. An estimate of the enthalpy of mixing between polymer and nanoparticles, derived from the UA simulations, compares favourably against available experimental values. The dynamical behaviour of polystyrene (in neat and filled melt systems) is characterized in terms of bond orientation and dihedral angle time autocorrelation functions. At low concentration in the molten polymer matrix, silica nanoparticles are found to cause a slight deceleration of the segmental dynamics close to their surface compared to the bulk polymer. Well-equilibrated coarse-grained long-chain configurations are reduced to entanglement networks via topological analysis with the CReTA algorithm, yielding a slightly lower density of entanglements in the filled than in the neat systems. UA melt configurations are glassified by MD cooling. The elastic moduli of the resulting glassy nanocomposites are computed through an

  15. Determining the structural relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical Telmisartan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrjanowicz, K; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ngai, K L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2010-03-31

    By using the dielectric relaxation method proposed recently by Casalini and Roland (2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 035701), we were able to determine the structural alpha-relaxation times deep in the glassy state of the pharmaceutical, Telmisartan. Normally, deep in the glassy state tau{sub a}lpha is so long that it cannot be measured but tau{sub b}eta, which is usually much shorter, can be directly determined. The method basically takes advantage of the connection between the alpha-relaxation and the secondary beta-relaxation of the Johari-Goldstein kind, including a relation between their relaxation times tau{sub a}lpha and tau{sub b}eta, respectively. Thus, tau{sub a}lpha of Telmisartan were determined by monitoring the change of the dielectric beta-loss, epsilon'', with physical aging time at temperatures well below the vitrification temperature. The values of tau{sub a}lpha were compared with those expected by the coupling model (CM). Unequivocal comparison cannot be made in the case of Telmisartan because its beta-loss peak is extremely broad, and the CM predicts only an order of magnitude agreement between the primitive relaxation frequency and the beta-peak frequency. We also made an attempt to analyze all isothermal and aging susceptibility data after transformation into the electric modulus representation. The tau{sub a}lpha found in the glass state by using the method of Casalini and Roland in the modulus representation are similar to those obtained in the susceptibility representation. However, it is remarkable that the stretching parameter beta{sub KWWM} = 0.51 in the electric modulus representation gives more precise fits to the aging data than in the susceptibility representation with beta{sub KWW} = 0.61. Our results suggest that the electric modulus representation may be useful as an alternative to analyze aging data, especially in the case of highly polar glassformers having a large ratio of low frequency and high frequency dielectric

  16. Electrocatalytic behaviour and application of manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle- surface modified glassy carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebarchievici, I., E-mail: incemc@incemc.ro [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Tăranu, B.O. [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Birdeanu, M. [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania); Rus, S.F. [National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Aurel Paunescu Podeanu Street 144, 300569 Timisoara (Romania); Fagadar-Cosma, E., E-mail: efagadar@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry Timisoara of Romanian Academy, M. Viteazul Ave. 24, 300223 Timisoara (Romania)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Mn-porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes were obtained. • AFM investigations of thin films display multilayer of triangular type architecture. • Oxidation and reduction processes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are diffusion controled. • There is a linear dependence between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and the currents intensity. • The modified electrodes show better electrochemical detection ability to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to obtain manganese porphyrin/gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrodes and to use them for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Two sets of modified electrodes were prepared by drop-cast deposition of 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-methyl-phenyl)porphyrinato manganese(III) chloride alone and of the same Mn-porphyrin and gold-colloid solution and comparatively characterized by Raman, UV–vis, ellipsometry, AFM and TEM microscopy, XPS and cyclic voltammetry. XPS spectrum recorded for GC-MnP-nAu modified electrode displayed the characteristic signals of gold nanoparticles. The optical parameters have greater values for GC-MnP-nAu in comparison with GC-MnP, due to increasing charge transfer efficiency. The MnP-nAu film mediates the electron transfer between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GC, evidenced by an increase in the current intensity of the anodic peak, and facilitates the electrochemical regeneration of oxidized H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at cathodic potentials. From the cyclic voltammetry experiments a linear relationship between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration vs oxidation and reduction currents was observed. The linear dependence between density of current and the square root of the scan rate indicates that the oxidation and reduction processes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are diffusion controlled. The GC-MnP-nAu modified electrode shows great potential as electrochemical sensor for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Rotating speed effect on electronic transport behaviors of Ni–Nb–Zr–H glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electronic transport behaviors of (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 100−y H y (0 ≤ y ≤ 15) glassy alloys, which produced by rotating (or quenching) speeds of 3000 and 10,000 rpm, have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. ► The resistivity for (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 97.8 H 2.2 alloy, produced by rotating speed of 10,000 rpm, displayed 0.1 nΩ cm, which is 0.01% of silver (1.62 μΩ cm) at room temperature, between 40 and 252 K. ► Supercooling of the molten alloy induces a superior ballistic conductor and a room-temperature Coulomb oscillation. - Abstract: The electronic transport behaviors of (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 100−y H y (0 ≤ y ≤ 15) glassy alloys, produced by rotating (or quenching) speeds of 3000 and 10,000 rpm, have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. These alloys show semiconducting, superior ballistic transport, superconducting and electric current-induced Coulomb oscillation, as hydrogen content increases. The resistivity for (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 97.8 H 2.2 alloy, produced by rotating speed of 10,000 rpm, displayed 0.1 nΩ cm, which is 0.01% of silver (1.62 μΩ cm) at room temperature, between 40 and 252 K. The Coulomb oscillation of the 10,000 rpm-(Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 95.2 H 4.8 alloy is about 4-fold larger than that of the 3000 rpm-(Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 91.1 H 8.9 alloy. Supercooling of the molten alloy induces a superior ballistic conductor and a room-temperature Coulomb oscillation at lower and higher hydrogen contents, respectively.

  18. Corrosion fatigue studies on a bulk glassy Zr-based alloy under three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Daniel; Wilkin, Yannic; Gostin, Petre F.; Gebert, Annett; Kerscher, Eberhard

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion fatigue (CF) tests were carried out on bulk glassy Zr52.5Cu17.9Al10Ni14.6Ti5 (Vitreloy 105) samples under load-controlled three-point bending conditions with a load ratio of R = 0.1 in 0.01 M Na2SO4 + 0.01 M NaCl electrolyte. During cyclic testing, the bar-shaped specimens were polarized in situ at constant potentials and the current was monitored. Three different anodic potentials within the interval between the pitting potential EP and the repassivation potential ER, and three different load amplitudes were applied. In some cases, in situ microscopic observations revealed the formation of black corrosion products in the vicinity of the crack tip during anodic polarization. Fractographic analysis revealed a clear distinction between two modes of crack growth characterized by smooth dissolution induced regions on the one hand and slim fast fracture areas on the other hand. Both alternating features contributed to a broad striated corrosion fatigue fracture surface. Moreover, further fatigue tests were carried out under free corrosion conditions yielding additional information on crack initiation and crack propagation period by means of the open circuit potential (OCP) changes. Thereby, a slight increase in OCP was detected after rupture of the passive layer due to bare metal exposed to the electrolyte. The electrochemical response increased continuously according to stable crack propagation until fracture occurred. Finally, the fracture surfaces of the corrosion fatigue samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray with the objective of analyzing the elemental distribution after anodic dissolution. Interestingly, anodic polarization at a near repassivation potential of -50 mV vs. SCE (Saturated Calomel Electrode, E = 0.241 V vs. SHE, Standard Hydrogen Electrode) led to favorable effects on the fatigue lifetime. In conclusion, all results are conflated to a corrosion fatigue model for bulk glassy Vitreloy 105 under anodic polarization in chloride

  19. Effect of chain rigidity on network architecture and deformation behavior of glassy polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kyler Reser

    Processing carbon fiber composite laminates creates molecular-level strains in the thermoset matrix upon curing and cooling which can lead to failures such as geometry deformations, micro-cracking, and other issues. It is known strain creation is attributed to the significant volume and physical state changes undergone by the polymer matrix throughout the curing process, though storage and relaxation of cure-induced strains remain poorly understood. This dissertation establishes two approaches to address the issue. The first establishes testing methods to simultaneously measure key volumetric properties of a carbon fiber composite laminate and its polymer matrix. The second approach considers the rigidity of the polymer matrix in regards to strain storage and relaxation mechanisms which ultimately control composite performance throughout manufacturing and use. Through the use of a non-contact, full-field strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC), we describe and implement useful experiments which quantify matrix and composite parameters necessary for simulation efforts and failure models. The methods are compared to more traditional techniques and show excellent correlation. Further, we established relationships which represent matrix-fiber compatibility in regards to critical processing constraints. The second approach involves a systematic study of epoxy-amine networks which are chemically-similar but differ in chain segment rigidity. Prior research has investigated the isomer effect of glassy polymers, showing sizeable differences in thermal, volumetric, physical, and mechanical properties. This work builds on these themes and shows the apparent isomer effect is rather an effect of chain rigidity. Indeed, it was found that structurally-dissimilar polymer networks exhibit very similar properties as a consequence of their shared average network rigidity. Differences in chain packing, as a consequence of chain rigidity, were shown to

  20. Mode coupling theory for nonequilibrium glassy dynamics of thermal self-propelled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengkai; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2017-06-28

    We present a mode coupling theory study for the relaxation and glassy dynamics of a system of strongly interacting self-propelled particles, wherein the self-propulsion force is described by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck colored noise and thermal noises are included. Our starting point is an effective Smoluchowski equation governing the distribution function of particle positions, from which we derive a memory function equation for the time dependence of density fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states. With the basic assumption of the absence of macroscopic currents and standard mode coupling approximation, we can obtain expressions for the irreducible memory function and other relevant dynamic terms, wherein the nonequilibrium character of the active system is manifested through an averaged diffusion coefficient D[combining macron] and a nontrivial structural function S 2 (q) with q being the magnitude of wave vector q. D[combining macron] and S 2 (q) enter the frequency term and the vertex term for the memory function, and thus influence both the short time and the long time dynamics of the system. With these equations obtained, we study the glassy dynamics of this thermal self-propelled particle system by investigating the Debye-Waller factor f q and relaxation time τ α as functions of the persistence time τ p of self-propulsion, the single particle effective temperature T eff as well as the number density ρ. Consequently, we find the critical density ρ c for given τ p shifts to larger values with increasing magnitude of propulsion force or effective temperature, in good accordance with previously reported simulation work. In addition, the theory facilitates us to study the critical effective temperature T for fixed ρ as well as its dependence on τ p . We find that T increases with τ p and in the limit τ p → 0, it approaches the value for a simple passive Brownian system as expected. Our theory also well recovers the results for passive systems and can be

  1. Effect of cooling rate on microstructure and deformation behavior of Ti-based metallic glassy/crystalline powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Huang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shen, J., E-mail: junshen@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Y.Q.; Huang, H. [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Zou, J., E-mail: j.zou@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2010-08-20

    The microstructures and deformation behavior of Ti-based metallic powders were comprehensively investigated. It has been found that, with increasing the powder size, the phase constituent alters from pure glassy to glassy with crystalline phases (face centered cubic structured NiSnZr and hexagonal structured Ti{sub 3}Sn phases). Our results suggest that the synergetic effect of the thermodynamics and kinetics determines the subsequent characteristics of the crystalline precipitations. Through comparative nanoindentation tests, it was found that the small powders exhibit more pop-in events and a larger pile-up ratio, suggesting that the plastic deformation of the metallic powders is governed by the combined effects of the free volume and the crystallization, which are determined by the cooling rate.

  2. Impedance aspect of charge storage at graphite and glassy carbon electrodes in potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Magdić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of charge storage mechanisms at unmodified graphite vs. glassy carbon electrodes in acid sulphate supporting solution containing potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte, have been revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and supported by cyclic voltammetry experiments. Reversible charge transfer of Fe(CN63-/4- redox reaction detected by assessment of CVs of glassy carbon electrode, is in impedance spectra indicated by presence of bulk diffusion impedance and constant double-layer/pseudocapacitive electrode impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. Some surface retention of redox species detected by assessment of CVs of graphite electrode is in impedance spectra indicated by diffusion impedance coupled in this case by diminishing of double-layer/pseudo­capacitive impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. This phenomenon is ascribed to contribution of additional pseudocapacitive impedance generated by redox reaction of species confined at the electrode surface.

  3. Leaching behaviour of a glassy slag and derived glass-ceramics from arc-plasma vitrification of hospital wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Maximina; Hernández, M. S.; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2009-01-01

    The arc-plasma vitrification of a hospital wastes containing metals and inorganic oxides yields to a leach-resistant glassy or vitreous slag, which can be environmentally safe for landfill disposal or could be transformed in glass-ceramic tiles with physical and mechanical properties similar to those showed by marketable products for building applications. Standard methods have been used for testing the leachability of elements from this new type of tiles. The water resistance was evaluated b...

  4. Study of short range order in alloy of glassy metals and effect of neutron irradiation on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Salman, M.; Gupta, A.; Principi, G.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we have studied a series of glassy metals with composition Fe 78-x Ni x Si 8 B 14 with x=0, 15, 25,38,53, 58. We have used Moessbauer spectroscopy to get information about short range order and local structure in these alloys. The specimens are exposed to neutron irradiation to perturb local structure and their short range order. The hyperfine parameters obtained from spectra before and after n-irradiation and are compared

  5. Read/write characteristics of a new type of bit-patterned-media using nano-patterned glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kana; Saidoh, Noriko; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Ishimaru, Manabu; Futamoto, Masaaki; Inoue, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports a feasibility study of new type bit-patterned-media using a nano-patterned glassy alloy template for ultra-high density hard disk applications. The prototype bit-patterned-media was prepared using a nano-hole array pattern fabricated on a Pd-based glassy alloy thin film and a Co/Pd multilayered film filled in the nano-holes. The prepared prototype bit-patterned-media had a smooth surface and isolated Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots, where the average dot diameter, the average dot pitch and the average dot height were 30, 60 and 19 nm, respectively. MFM (magnetic force microscope) observation revealed that each dot was magnetized in a perpendicular direction and the magnetization could reverse when an opposite magnetic field was applied. Static read/write tester measurements showed that repeated writing and reading on isolated magnetic dots were possible in combination with conventional magnetic heads and high-accuracy positioning technologies. The present study indicates that the new type of bit-patterned-media composed of nano-hole arrays fabricated on glassy alloy film template and Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots are promising for applications to next generation ultra-high density hard disk drives. - Highlights: ► Prototype BPM using a nano-hole array pattern of imprinted Pd-based glassy alloy thin film and Co/Pd multilayered film was set. ► The prototype BPM has smooth surface and isolated Co/Pd multilayer magnetic dots with an average dot diameter of 30 nm. ► Dots acted as perpendicular magnetic dot and were able to read, erase and write in a row by a usual perpendicular magnetic head.

  6. Glassy behavior of the Nd sublattice induced by Fe doping in NdFexGa1-xO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, F.; Parra-Borderias, M.; Blasco, J.; Bartolome, J.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic ordering of Nd with the Fe content in NdFe x Ga 1-x O 3 is studied by low-temperature specific-heat measurements for x= =0.2. Fe doping creates a distribution of internal fields on Nd, originating a Schottky contribution to the specific heat which is present for x>0. The power law followed by the low-temperature specific heat suggests a glassy behavior for x>=0.1

  7. Behavior of nuclear waste elements during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite in an active geothermal system: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturchio, N.C.; Seitz, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The behavior of a group of nuclear waste elements (U, Th, Sr, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, and Sm) during hydrothermal alteration of glassy rhyolite is investigated through detailed geochemical analyses of whole rocks, glass and mineral separates, and thermal waters. Significant mobility of U, Sr, Sb, Cs, and Ba is found, and the role of sorption processes in their observed behavior is identified. Th, Zr, and Sm are relatively immobile, except on a microscopic scale. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Age and petrogenetic constraints on the Lower Glassy Ignimbrite of the Mount Somers Volcanic Group, New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Quinten; Waight, Tod Earle; Whitehouse, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The Mount Somers Volcanic Group (MSVG) forms a large (~18000 km2) calc-alkaline volcanic complex on New Zealand’s Eastern Province. U-Pb SIMS spot ages on zircon from the lower glassy ignimbrite in Rakaia Gorge reveal a bimodal distribution of 99.0 ± 0.5 and 96.3 ± 0.5 Ma (2σ). These ages...

  9. Dielectric relaxation studies in super-cooled liquid and glassy phases of anti-cancerous alkaloid: Brucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Aboothahir; Shahin Thayyil, M.; Sulaiman, M. K.; Kulkarni, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Brucine has good anti-tumor effects, on both liver cancer and breast cancer. It has bioavailability of 40.83%. Since the bioavailability of the drug is low, an alternative method to increase its bioavailability and solubility is by changing the drug into glassy form. We used Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for studying the glass forming ability of the drug. Brucine was found to be a very good glass former glass transition temperature 365 K. Based on the DSC analysis we have used broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) for studying the drug in the super cooled and glassy state. BDS is an effective tool to probe the molecular dynamics in the super cooled and glassy state. Molecular mobility is found to be present even in the glassy state of this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which is responsible for the instability. Our aim is to study the factors responsible for instability of this API in amorphous form. Cooling curves for dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss revealed the presence of structural (α) and secondary relaxations (β and γ). Temperature dependence of relaxation time is fitted by Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and found the values of activation energy of the α relaxation, fragility and glass transition temperature. Paluch's anti correlation is also verified, that the width of the α-loss peak at or near the glass transition temperature Tg is strongly anticorrelated with the polarity of the molecule. The larger the dielectric relaxation strength Δɛ (Tg) of the system, the narrower is the α-loss peak (higher value of βKWW).

  10. FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of sodium–aluminum–iron phosphate glassy materials for high level waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, S.V., E-mail: serge.stefanovsky@yandex.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Radioecology and Radiation Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stefanovsky, O.I. [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Radioecology and Radiation Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Remizov, M.B.; Belanova, E.A.; Kozlov, P.V. [FSUE PA Mayak, Central Plant Laboratory, Ozersk, Chelyabinsk Reg. (Russian Federation); Glazkova, Ya.S.; Sobolev, A.V.; Presniakov, I.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Radiochemistry (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S.N. [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Radioecology and Radiation Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Radiochemistry (Russian Federation); Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Myasoedov, B.F. [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Radioecology and Radiation Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Complex sodium-aluminum-iron phosphate glassy materials with various Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio containing high level waste (HLW) surrogate were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and studied in details by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The samples with high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and not containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were predominantly amorphous but subjected to devitrification under annealing. Addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and partial Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} substitution for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the materials increases their resistance to devitrification whereas further substitution and NiO incorporation significantly increase the tendency to devitrification. FTIR spectra demonstrate changes in the structure of glassy materials caused by both structural variations in the anionic motif and occurrence of crystalline phases in the materials. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data, iron in the glassy samples is present as octahedrally coordinated Fe{sup 3+} ions while in the partly devitrified samples iron is partitioned among vitreous and crystalline phases entering the vitreous phase mainly as Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 6} units and crystalline phases as major Fe{sup 3+} and minor Fe{sup 2+} ions in a magnetically ordered state and participating in a “fast” electronic exchange.

  11. Annealing effect on thermal conductivity and microhardness of carbon nanotube containing Se80Te16Cu4 glassy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A. N.; Tiwari, R. S.; Singh, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    This study deals with the effect of thermal annealing on structural/microstructural, thermal and mechanical behavior of pristine Se80Te16Cu4 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) containing Se80Te16Cu4 glassy composites. Pristine Se80Te16Cu4, 3 and 5 wt%CNTs-Se80Te16Cu4 glassy composites are annealed in the vicinity of glass transition temperature to onset crystallization temperature (340-380 K). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern revealed formation of polycrystalline phases of hexagonal CuSe and trigonal selenium. The indexed d-values in XRD patterns are in well conformity with the d-values obtained after the indexing of the ring pattern of selected area electron diffraction pattern of TEM images. The SEM investigation exhibited that the grain size of the CNTs containing Se80Te16Cu4 glassy composites increased with increasing annealing temperature and decreased at further higher annealing temperature. Thermal conductivity, microhardness exhibited a substantial increase with increasing annealing temperature of 340-360 K and slightly decreases for 380 K. The variation of thermal conductivity and microhardness can be explained by cross-linking formation and voids reduction.

  12. Electrochemical Glucose Oxidation Using Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Au-Ag Nanoparticles: Influence of Ag Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Gabriela García-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of glassy carbon modified electrodes bearing Aux-Agy nanoparticles to catalyze the electrochemical oxidation of glucose. In particular, the paper shows the influence of the Ag content on this oxidation process. A simple method was applied to prepare the nanoparticles, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. These nanoparticles were used to modify glassy carbon electrodes. The effectiveness of these electrodes for electrochemical glucose oxidation was evaluated. The modified glassy carbon electrodes are highly sensitive to glucose oxidation in alkaline media, which could be attributed to the presence of Aux-Agy nanoparticles on the electrode surface. The voltammetric results suggest that the glucose oxidation speed is controlled by the glucose diffusion to the electrode surface. These results also show that the catalytic activity of the electrodes depends on the Ag content of the nanoparticles. Best results were obtained for the Au80-Ag20 nanoparticles modified electrode. This electrode could be used for Gluconic acid (GA production.

  13. Vapor annealing synthesis of non-epitaxial MgB2 films on glassy carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. A.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Bae, J. H.; Stavrou, E.; Steich, D. J.; McCall, S. K.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2018-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of 25–800 nm thick MgB2 films on glassy carbon substrates by Mg vapor annealing of sputter-deposited amorphous B films. Results demonstrate a critical role of both the initial B film thickness and the temperature–time profile on the microstructure, elemental composition, and superconducting properties of the resultant MgB2 films. Films with thicknesses of 55 nm and below exhibit a smooth surface, with a roughness of 1.1 nm, while thicker films have surface morphology consisting of elongated nano-crystallites. The suppression of the superconducting transition temperature for thin films scales linearly with the oxygen impurity concentration and also correlates with the amount of lattice disorder probed by Raman scattering. The best results are obtained by a rapid (12 min) anneal at 850 °C with large temperature ramp and cooling rates of ∼540 °C min‑1. Such fast processing suppresses the deleterious oxygen uptake.

  14. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and glucose biosensing on a hydroxyl fullerenes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun-Fei; Yang, Tian; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Shuai; Xiao, Bao-Lin; Hong, Jun; Sheibani, Nader; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Hong, Tao; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2014-10-15

    Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved when GOD-hydroxyl fullerenes (HFs) nano-complex was immobilized on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode and protected with a chitosan (Chit) membrane. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and circular dichroism spectropolarimeter (CD) methods were utilized for additional characterization of the GOD, GOD-HFs and Chit/GOD-HFs. Chit/HFs may preserve the secondary structure and catalytic properties of GOD. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified GC electrode showed a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with the formal potential (E°') of 353 ± 2 mV versus Ag/AgCl at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was calculated to be 2.7 ± 0.2s(-1). The modified electrode response to glucose was linear in the concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.0mM, with a detection limit of 5 ± 1 μM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km(app)) was 694 ± 8 μM. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor for glucose with high sensitivity, selectivity and low detection limit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser annealing effects of the Raman laser on nitrogen implanted glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara, D.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Raman analysis is a popular method of investigating crystallite sizes, ordering and the types of bonds that exist in ion irradiated carbon materials, namely graphite, diamond and glassy carbon (G.C.). In particular Raman spectroscopy is used in determining the tetrahedral bonding required for the elusive and potentially important new material called carbon nitride. Carbon nitride, {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, is predicted to exist in several forms. Forming the tetrahedral bond between C and N has proved troublesome bain of many experimenters. A proven method for synthesizing novel materials is ion implantation. Thus G.C. was implanted with N at low temperatures so that diffusion of the implanted N would be hindered. G.C. is a relatively hard, chemically inert, graphitic material. The opaque property of G.C. means that Raman spectroscopy will only give information about the structures that exist at the surface and near surface layers. It was decided, after observing conflicting Raman spectra at different laser powers, that an investigation of the laser annealing effects of the Raman laser on the N implanted G.C. was warranted. The results of the preliminary investigation of the effects of increasing the Raman laser power and determining a power density threshold for high dose N implanted G.C. are discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Au55, a stable glassy cluster: results of ab initio calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vollath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure and properties of small nanoparticles are still under discussion. Moreover, some thermodynamic properties and the structural behavior still remain partially unknown. One of the best investigated nanoparticles is the Au55 cluster, which has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically. However, up to now, the results of these studies are still inconsistent. Consequently, we have carried out the present ab initio study of the Au55 cluster, using up-to-date computational concepts, in order to clarify these issues. Our calculations have confirmed the experimental result that the thermodynamically most stable structure is not crystalline, but it is glassy. The non-crystalline structure of this cluster was validated by comparison of the coordination numbers with those of a crystalline cluster. It was found that, in contrast to bulk materials, glass formation is connected to an energy release that is close to the melting enthalpy of bulk gold. Additionally, the surface energy of this cluster was calculated using two different theoretical approaches resulting in values close to the surface energy for bulk gold. It shall be emphasized that it is now possible to give a confidence interval for the value of the surface energy.

  17. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbir, Aybueke A.; Solak, Ali Osman; Ustuendag, Zafer; Bilge, Selen; Kilic, Zeynel

    2006-01-01

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO 2 , keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined

  18. Laser annealing effects of the Raman laser on nitrogen implanted glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara, D; Prawer, S; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Raman analysis is a popular method of investigating crystallite sizes, ordering and the types of bonds that exist in ion irradiated carbon materials, namely graphite, diamond and glassy carbon (G.C.). In particular Raman spectroscopy is used in determining the tetrahedral bonding required for the elusive and potentially important new material called carbon nitride. Carbon nitride, {beta}-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, is predicted to exist in several forms. Forming the tetrahedral bond between C and N has proved troublesome bain of many experimenters. A proven method for synthesizing novel materials is ion implantation. Thus G.C. was implanted with N at low temperatures so that diffusion of the implanted N would be hindered. G.C. is a relatively hard, chemically inert, graphitic material. The opaque property of G.C. means that Raman spectroscopy will only give information about the structures that exist at the surface and near surface layers. It was decided, after observing conflicting Raman spectra at different laser powers, that an investigation of the laser annealing effects of the Raman laser on the N implanted G.C. was warranted. The results of the preliminary investigation of the effects of increasing the Raman laser power and determining a power density threshold for high dose N implanted G.C. are discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Characterization of cell lines developed from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamita, Shizuo G; Do, Zung N; Samra, Aman I; Hagler, James R; Hammock, Bruce D

    2005-01-01

    Four continuous cell lines were established from the embryos of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), an economically important insect vector of bacterial pathogens of grape, almond, citrus, oleander, and other agricultural and ornamental plantings. The cell lines were designated GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, GWSS-G3, and GWSS-LH. The GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, and GWSS-G3 lines were cultured in Ex-Cell 401 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), whereas the GWSS-LH line was cultured in LH medium supplemented with 20% FBS. The cell lines were characterized in terms of their morphology, growth, protein composition, and polymerase chain reaction- amplification patterns of their chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid. The population doubling times of GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, GWSS-G3, and GWSS-LH were 46.2, 90.9, 100.3, and 60.2 h, respectively. These lines should be useful for the study of insect-pathogenic viruses of leafhoppers, aphids, treehoppers, and other related insects as well as plant-pathogenic viruses that are transmitted by these insects.

  20. Generation and extinction of crystal nuclei in an extremely non-equilibrium glassy state of salol

    CERN Document Server

    Paladi, F

    2003-01-01

    Strange generation and subsequent extinction of crystal nuclei were observed in the glassy state of salol (phenyl salicylate) during the course of ageing at very low constant-temperatures. The presence/absence of crystal nuclei within the glass were judged, by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), from whether the crystal growth and fusion phenomena were observed in the following heating process or not. The liquid sample was cooled rapidly at 200 K min sup - sup 1 from 333 K above the fusion temperature down to a desired ageing temperature (T sub a) below the glass transition temperature (T sub g = 220 K), aged there for different periods (t sub a), and then heated up to 213 K at 200 K min sup - sup 1. The DSC measurement was carried out at 10 K min sup - sup 1 from 213 to 333 K. The ageing periods were taken in a range between 30 s and 316 min. At T sub a = 213 K, crystal nucleation was found to proceed for ageing longer than 100 min. No crystal nucleation was found at T sub a in between 123 and 1...

  1. Preparation and characterization of diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbir, Aybueke A. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.tr; Ustuendag, Zafer [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Bilge, Selen [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Zeynel [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-07-28

    Diethylene glycol bis(2-aminophenyl) ether (DGAE) diazonium salt was covalently electrografted on a glassy carbon (GC) surface and behavior of this novel surface was investigated. Synthesis of DGAE diazonium salt (DGAE-DAS) and in situ modification of GC electrode were performed in aqueous media containing NaNO{sub 2}, keeping the temperature below +4 deg. C. For the characterization of the modified electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry, dopamine (DA) was used to prove the attachment of the DGAE-DAS on the GC surface. Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to observe the molecular bound properties of the adsorbates at the DGAE-modified GC surface (GC-DGAE). The EIS results were analyzed using the Randles equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance on bare GC and the modified surface were calculated using the model equivalent circuit for the ferrocene redox system. Surface coverage was found as 0.4 showing the presence of high pinhole and defects in the modified electrode. The rate constant of electron transfer through the monolayer was calculated for ferrocene. Working potential range and the stability of the DGAE-modified GC electrode was also determined.

  2. Comparative classical and 'ab initio' molecular dynamics study of molten and glassy germanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawlitzky, M; Horbach, J; Binder, K; Ispas, S; Krack, M

    2008-01-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) study of the static and dynamic properties of molten and glassy germanium dioxide is presented. The interactions between the atoms are modeled by the classical pair potential proposed by Oeffner and Elliott (OE) (1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 14791). We compare our results to experiments and previous simulations. In addition, an 'ab initio' method, the so-called Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD), is applied to check the accuracy of the structural properties, as obtained by the classical MD simulations with the OE potential. As in a similar study for SiO 2 , the structure predicted by CPMD is only slightly softer than that resulting from the classical MD. In contrast to earlier simulations, both the static structure and dynamic properties are in very good agreement with pertinent experimental data. MD simulations with the OE potential are also used to study the relaxation dynamics. As previously found for SiO 2 , for high temperatures the dynamics of molten GeO 2 is compatible with a description in terms of mode coupling theory

  3. Surface oxidation in glassy arsenic trisulphide induced by high-energy γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, M.; Shpotyuk, O.; Serkiz, R.; Demchenko, P.; Kozhyukhin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Influence of high-energy γ-irradiation with ∼3 MGy dose on glassy g-As 2 S 3 was investigated by a complex of scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. A white layer composed of separate 1–2 μm rhombohedral arsenolite As 2 O 3 crystallites was observed at the surface of γ-irradiated samples. These As 2 O 3 extractions along with crystallised S allotropes are responsible for expansion of the first sharp diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns of g-As 2 S 3 . - Highlights: • As 2 O 3 crystallites are observed at the surface of γ-irradiated As 2 S 3 samples. • Observed crystallites can be removed from the surface after washing and polishing. • γ-Irradiation broadens the FSDP due to satellite lines located on its both sides. • As 2 O 3 and S phases extracted at the surface are responsible for satellite lines

  4. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Mamontov, Eugene; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ 0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χ T (Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement (x 2 ) and the non-Gaussian parameter α 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  5. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  6. Laser annealing effects of the Raman laser on nitrogen implanted glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, D.; Prawer, S.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    Raman analysis is a popular method of investigating crystallite sizes, ordering and the types of bonds that exist in ion irradiated carbon materials, namely graphite, diamond and glassy carbon (G.C.). In particular Raman spectroscopy is used in determining the tetrahedral bonding required for the elusive and potentially important new material called carbon nitride. Carbon nitride, β-C 3 N 4 , is predicted to exist in several forms. Forming the tetrahedral bond between C and N has proved troublesome bain of many experimenters. A proven method for synthesizing novel materials is ion implantation. Thus G.C. was implanted with N at low temperatures so that diffusion of the implanted N would be hindered. G.C. is a relatively hard, chemically inert, graphitic material. The opaque property of G.C. means that Raman spectroscopy will only give information about the structures that exist at the surface and near surface layers. It was decided, after observing conflicting Raman spectra at different laser powers, that an investigation of the laser annealing effects of the Raman laser on the N implanted G.C. was warranted. The results of the preliminary investigation of the effects of increasing the Raman laser power and determining a power density threshold for high dose N implanted G.C. are discussed. 4 refs., 4 figs

  7. Sensitive methanol sensor based on PMMA-G-CNTs nanocomposites deposited onto glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed M; Hussein, Mahmoud A; Alamry, Khalid A; Al Shehry, Faten M; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-04-01

    A new series of polymethyl methacrylate-graphene-carbon nanotubes crossbred nanocomposites in the form of PMMA-G-CNTs has been synthesized using simple dissolution procedure in organic media. The desired nanocomposites have been prepared using different loading (2 ∼ 30%) from consequently mixed GNPs/CNTs ratio and confirmed by various characterization techniques utilized to corroborate the assembly of these new hybrid series including X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The PMMA-G-CNTs nanocomposites were deposited on flat glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) to result in a sensor that has a fast response toward methanol in the phosphate buffer phase. Features including high sensitivity, low-sample volume, reliability, reproducibility, ease of integration, long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical responses are investigated. The calibration plot is linear (r(2)=0.9895) over the 1.0 nmol L(-1) to 10.0 mmol L(-1) methanol concentration ranges. The sensitivity and detection limit is 13.491 µA cm(-2) mmol L(-2) and 0.39 ± 0.1 nmol L(-1) (at a signal-to-noise-ratio, SNR of 3), respectively. With such excellent features of analytical parameters, the developed sensor provides a new strategy for determination of methanol in biomedical and environmental analytes with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of the surface redox process of adsorbed morin at glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesio, Alvaro Yamil; Granero, Adrian Marcelo; Fernandez, Hector; Zon, Maria Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetics of the adsorption of morin (MOR) on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes in 0.2 mol dm -3 phosphate buffer solutions (PBS, pH 7.00) was studied by both cyclic (CV) and square wave (SWV) voltammetries. The Frumkin adsorption isotherm was the best to describe the specific interaction of MOR with GC electrodes. The SWV allowed to characterize the thermodynamic and kinetics of surface quasi-reversible redox couple of MOR, using the combination of the 'quasi-reversible maximum' and the 'splitting of SW net peaks' methods. Average values obtained for the formal potential and the anodic transfer coefficient were (0.27 ± 0.02) V and (0.59 ± 0.09), respectively. Moreover, a value of formal rate constant (k s ) of 87 s -1 for the overall two-electron redox process was calculated. The SWV was also employed to generate calibration curves, which were linear in the range MOR bulk concentration (c MOR *) from 1.27 x 10 -7 to 2.50 x 10 -5 mol dm -3 . The lowest concentration experimentally measured for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 1.25 x 10 -8 mol dm -3 (3 ppb).

  9. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  10. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning; Steenackers, Marin; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Study and Electrochemical Determination of Tyrosine at Graphene Nanosheets Composite Film Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Behpour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A graphene nanosheets (GNS film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for sensitive determination of tyrosine (Tyr. The GNS-based sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The voltammetric techniques were employed to study electro-oxidation of Tyr. The results revealed that the modified electrode showed an electrocatalytic activity toward the anodic oxidation of Tyr by a marked enhancement in the current intensity and the shift in the oxidation potential to lower values (50 mV in comparison with the bare GCE. Some kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient (α were also determined for the Tyr oxidation. The detection limit  for Tyr was found to be 2.0×10-8 M (n=9, and the peak current increases linearly with the Tyr concentration within the molar concentration ranges of 5.0 ×10-6 to 1.2 ×10-4 M. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The prepared electrode was applied for the determination of Tyr in real sample.

  12. Electrochemical sensing of etoposide using carbon quantum dot modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Richtera, Lukas; Moulick, Amitava; Xhaxhiu, Kledi; Kudr, Jiri; Cernei, Natalia; Polanska, Hana; Heger, Zbynek; Masarik, Michal; Kopel, Pavel; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2016-04-25

    In this study, enhancement of the electrochemical signals of etoposide (ETO) measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is demonstrated. In comparison with a bare GCE, the modified GCE exhibited a higher sensitivity towards electrochemical detection of ETO. The lowest limit of detection was observed to be 5 nM ETO. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed for the further study of the working electrode surface after the modification with CQDs. Finally, the GCE modified with CQDs under optimized conditions was used to analyse real samples of ETO in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. After different incubation times (1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h), these samples were then prepared prior to electrochemical detection by the GCE modified with CQDs. High performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detection method was employed to verify the results from the GCE modified with CQDs.

  13. Sensing behavior study of silica-coated Ag nanoparticles deposited on glassy carbon toward nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Pooja; Reddy, Pramod [CSIR, Sector-30C, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (India); Arora, Swati [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University (India); Singh, Suman; Ghanshyam, C.; Singla, M. L., E-mail: singla_min@yahoo.co.in [CSIR, Sector-30C, Central Scientific Instruments Organization (India)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of silica-coated silver core/shell nanostructures (NSs) and their sensing behavior when deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode for nitrobenzene (NB) detection. Synthesized silica-coated silver core/shell NSs were characterized for their chemical, structural and morphological properties. TEM analysis confirmed that the silica-coated silver nanoparticles (size {approx}200 nm) are spherical in shape and the core diameter is {approx}38 nm. FT-IR spectra also confirmed the coating of silica on the surface of silver nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry studies of NB with silica-coated silver core-shell nanoparticles-modified GC electrodes revealed two cathodic peaks at -0.74 V (C{sub 1}) and -0.34 V (C{sub 2}) along with two anodic peaks at -0.64 V (A{sub 1}) and -0.2 V (A{sub 2}). Enhanced cathodic peak current (C{sub 1}, I{sub P}) of the core-shell NSs-modified electrode is observed relative to bare and silica-modified electrodes. Amperometric studies revealed a very high current sensitivity (114 nA/nM) and linearly dependent reduction current with NB amount in the low concentration range and a detection limit of 25 nM. Moreover, the core-shell NSs-modified electrode showed good reproducibility and selectivity toward NB in the presence of many cationic, anionic, and organic interferents.

  14. Sensing behavior study of silica-coated Ag nanoparticles deposited on glassy carbon toward nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Pooja; Reddy, Pramod; Arora, Swati; Singh, Suman; Ghanshyam, C.; Singla, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of silica-coated silver core/shell nanostructures (NSs) and their sensing behavior when deposited on glassy carbon (GC) electrode for nitrobenzene (NB) detection. Synthesized silica-coated silver core/shell NSs were characterized for their chemical, structural and morphological properties. TEM analysis confirmed that the silica-coated silver nanoparticles (size ∼200 nm) are spherical in shape and the core diameter is ∼38 nm. FT-IR spectra also confirmed the coating of silica on the surface of silver nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry studies of NB with silica-coated silver core–shell nanoparticles-modified GC electrodes revealed two cathodic peaks at −0.74 V (C 1 ) and −0.34 V (C 2 ) along with two anodic peaks at −0.64 V (A 1 ) and −0.2 V (A 2 ). Enhanced cathodic peak current (C 1 , I P ) of the core–shell NSs-modified electrode is observed relative to bare and silica-modified electrodes. Amperometric studies revealed a very high current sensitivity (114 nA/nM) and linearly dependent reduction current with NB amount in the low concentration range and a detection limit of 25 nM. Moreover, the core–shell NSs-modified electrode showed good reproducibility and selectivity toward NB in the presence of many cationic, anionic, and organic interferents.

  15. Comparison of glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes: Resistance to biofouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouillon, Raphael, E-mail: raphael.trouillon06@imperial.ac.u [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); O' Hare, Danny [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    Carbon based electrodes are widely used for in vivo and in vitro electrochemical studies. In particular, monoamine neurochemistry has been investigated using carbon microfibre electrodes. Similarly, glassy carbon (GC) is the preferred material for many biochemical applications, such as electrochemical detection in chromatography. More recently, boron doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized for biosensing, as its carbon sp{sup 3} structure is expected to provide better resistance to analyte fouling. However, the main factor limiting the use of electrochemical sensors for biological studies is the effect of the biological matrix. Indeed, in vivo or in situ measurements expose the sensor to a complex matrix of proteins, which adsorb on the sensing surface and interfere with the electrochemical measurements. Here, we compare the performance of three carbon based electrodes: GC, GC with low surface oxides and BDD. The redox species ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer-sphere), ferrocyanide (surface sensitive) and the biologically significant dopamine have been investigated in protein and blood-mimicking matrices. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to examine the effect of spectator molecules and reaction products on electrode mechanisms. Our results show that BDD generally exhibits the best performance for most conditions and reactions and should therefore be preferred for measurements in biologically fouling environments. Furthermore, surface oxides seem also to improve resistance of the GC electrode to biofouling.

  16. Electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid at p-phenylenediamine film-holes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olana Bikila Nagasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the determination of ascorbic acid (AA at glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with a perforated film produced by reduction of diazonium generated in situ from p-phenylenediamine (PD is reported. Holes were intentionally created in the modifier film by stripping a pre-deposited gold nanoparticles. The modified electrodes were electrochemically characterized by common redox probes: hydroquinone, ferrocyanide and hexamineruthenium(III. The cyclic voltammetric and amperometric response of AA using the modified electrodes was compared with that of bare GCE. The bare GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 mM to 45 mM with detection limit of 1.656 mM and the modified GCE showed a linear response to AA in the concentration range of 5 μM to 45 μM with detection limit of 0.123 μM. The effect of potential intereferents on amperometric signal of AA at the modified GCE was examined and found to be minimal. The inter-electrode reproducibility, stability, and accuracy were determined. The modified electrode showed excellent inter-electrode reproducibility, accuracy and stability. The modified electrode reported is a promising candidate for use in electroanalysis of AA.

  17. Direct chronopotentiometric analysis of riboflavin using a glassy carbon vessel as the working electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezo Tanja Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the determination of riboflavin (vitamin B2 was developed based on chronopotentiometry with a glassy carbon process vessel macroelectrode. The method optimisation included investigation of the most important experimental parameters: type and concentration of the supporting electrolyte, initial potential, reduction current, and the working electrode surface area. The reduction signal of riboflavin appeared at about -0.12 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3.5 mol/dm3 KCl electrode in 0.025 mol/dm3 HCl as the supporting electrolyte. A linear response was obtained in the the range of 0.05-4 mg/dm3. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.018 mg/dm3 and 0.054 mg/dm3, respectively. Due to the use of specific working electrode, a significant enhancement of the method relative sensitivity of about 10 times was achieved. The accuracy of the defined method was confirmed by HPLC analyses. The developed method was successfully applied for the quantitation of riboflavin in various pharmaceutical multivitamin preparations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  18. Onset of shear thinning in glassy liquids: Shear-induced small reduction of effective density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We propose a simple mechanism for describing the onset of shear thinning in a high-density glassy liquid. In a shear flow, along the compression axis, the overlap between neighboring particles is more enhanced than that at equilibrium, meaning that the "effective" size is reduced along this axis. On the other hand, along the extension axis perpendicular to the compression axis, the average structural configurations are stretched, but it does not indicate the expansion of the "effective" size itself. This asymmetric shear flow effect for particles results in a small reduction of the "effective" density. Because, in glass-forming liquids, the structural relaxation time τ_{α} strongly depends on the density ρ, even a very small reduction of the effective density should lead to a significant decrease of the relaxation time under shear flow. We predict that the crossover shear rate from Newtonian to non-Newtonian flow behaviors is given by γ[over ̇]_{c}=[ρ(∂τ_{α}/∂ρ)]^{-1}, which can be much smaller than 1/τ_{α} near the glass transition point. It is shown that this prediction is consistent with the results of molecular dynamics simulations.

  19. MIP-graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of trimethoprim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Hélder; Pacheco, João G; Magalhães, Júlia M C S; Viswanathan, Subramanian; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-02-15

    A novel sensitive electrochemical sensor was developed by electropolymerization of pyrrole (PY) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) which was synthesized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in aqueous solution using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of Trimethoprim (TMP) as template molecules. Furthermore, a previous electrode modification was performed by deposition of a suspension of graphene on the electrode's surface. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP) films was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) of a ferric solution. The molecularly imprinted film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward TMP. The sensor presented a linear range, between peak current intensity and logarithm of TMP concentration between 1.0 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-4)M. The results were accurate (with recoveries higher than 94%), precise (with standard deviations less than 5%) and the detection limit was 1.3 × 10(-7)M. The new sensor is selective, simple to construct and easy to operate. The MIP sensor was successfully applied to quantify TMP in urine samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasensitive Determination of Piroxicam at Diflunisal-Derived Gold Nanoparticle-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Tayyaba; uddin, SiraJ; Talpur, Farah N.; Khaskeli, Abdul R.; Agheem, Muhammad H.; Shah, Muhammad R.; Sherazi, Tufail H.; Siddiqui, Samia

    2017-10-01

    We present a simple and green approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) using analgesic drug diflunisal (DF) as capping and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Characterization of the synthesized diflunisal-derived gold nanoparticles (DF-AuNps) was performed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, revealing the surface plasmon absorption band at 520 nm under optimized experimental conditions. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy established the effective interaction of the capping agent with the AuNps. Topographical features of the synthesized DF-AuNps were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), revealing average particle height of 29 nm to 32 nm. X-ray diffractometry was used to study the crystalline nature, revealing that the synthesized DF-AuNps possessed excellent crystalline properties. The synthesized DF-AuNps were employed to modify the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for selective determination of piroxicam (PX) using differential pulse voltammetry technique. The fabricated Nafion/DF-AuNps/GCE sensor exhibited high sensitivity compared with bare GCE. The current response of the fabricated sensor was found to be linear in the PX concentration range of 0.5 μM to 50 μM, with limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 50 nM and 150 nM, respectively. The proposed sensor was successfully utilized for sensitive and rapid determination of PX in human serum, urine, and pharmaceutical samples.

  1. The Enhanced Photo-Electrochemical Detection of Uric Acid on Au Nanoparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuting; Wang, Jin; Li, Shumin; Yan, Bo; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Ke; Du, Yukou

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a sensitive and novel method for determining uric acid (UA) has been developed, in which the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with electrodeposition Au nanoparticles and used to monitor the concentration of UA with the assistant of visible light illumination. The morphology of the Au nanoparticles deposited on GCE surface were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the nanoparticles were found to be well-dispersed spheres with the average diameter approaching 26.1 nm. A series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements have revealed that the introduction of visible light can greatly enhance both the strength and stability of response current due to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Specifically, the DPV showed a linear relationship between peak current and UA concentration in the range of 2.8 to 57.5 μM with the equation of I pa (μA) = 0.0121 c UA (μM) + 0.3122 ( R 2 = 0.9987). Herein, the visible light illuminated Au/GCE possesses a potential to be a sensitive electrochemical sensor in the future.

  2. Glassy carbon electrode modified with polyanilne/ethylenediamine for detection of copper ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Harshada K.; Deshmukh, Megha A.; Bodkhe, Gajanan A.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-05-01

    Increasing water pollution is having high concern, since it creates the threats to all leaving organisms of existence. Industrial sewages have not only polluted the main stream lines of water, also the ground level water is having serious contaminations. Heavy metal ions are the pollutants which are not degradable and can be accumulated on living things ultimately the excess accumulation results into the serious concerns. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the sensors which can detect the heavy metal ions up to its maximum contamination limits. Conducting polymers are the materials which possess large application spectra. This investigation reports the electrochemically synthesized polyaniline (PANI) for modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Ethylenediamine (EDA) - chelating ligand used for the modification of polyaniline so as to inculcate the selectivity toward copper ions Cu (II). The electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used for the study of redox characteristics of PANI and influence of EDA modification. The result of CV has shown the reduced oxidation and reduction peak currents after modification indicating the domination of EDA. GCE modified with PANI/EDA was then employed for the detection of divalent copper ions and have shown the affinity toward Cu ions. The detection limit achieved was equal to 10mg/lit.

  3. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Hydroquinone using an Electrochemically Pretreated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Niaz1,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV method was developed for the determination of hydroquinone at an electrochemically pretreated glassy carbon (GC electrode in waste water. Various parameters such as solvent system, accumulation potential, accumulation time and scan rate were optimized. The electrochemically pretreated GC electrode showed good response towards hydroquinone determination by using AdSV. Under the optimized conditions the peak current showed good linear relationship with the hydroquinone concentration in the range of 0.5-4.0mg L-1 and 5-30mg L-1. The 60/40 methanol/water composition was found to be the best solvent system and 0.05mol L-1 H2SO4 was found as useful supporting electrolyte concentration. The accumulation time was 60 s and the detection limit was 50µg L-1. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of hydroquinone in polymeric industrial discharge samples waste photographic developer solution and cream sample without any significant effect of surface fouling.

  4. Investigations into crazing in glassy amorphous polymers through molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Sudarkodi; Basu, Sumit

    2015-04-01

    In many glassy amorphous polymers, localisation of deformation during loading leads to crazes. Crazes are crack like features whose faces are bridged either by fibrils or a cellular network of voids and fibrils. While formation of crazes is aided by the presence of surface imperfections and embedded dust particles, in this work, we focus on intrinsic crazes that form spontaneously in the volume of the material. We perform carefully designed molecular dynamics simulations on well equilibrated samples of a model polymer with a view to gaining insights into certain incompletely understood aspects of the crazing process. These include genesis of the early nanovoids leading to craze nucleation, mechanisms of stabilising the cellular or fibrillar structure and the competition between chain scission and chain disentanglement in causing the final breakdown of the craze. Additionally, we identify and enumerate clusters of entanglement points with high functionality as effective topological constraints on macromolecular chains. We show that regions with low density of entanglement clusters serve as sites for nanovoid nucleation under high mean stress. Growth occurs by the repeated triggering of cavitation instabilities above a growing void. The growth of the void is aided by disentanglement in and flow of entanglements away from the cavitating region. Finally, for the chain lengths chosen, scission serves to supply short chains to the growing craze but breakdown occurs by complete disentanglement of the chains. In fact, most of the energy supplied to the material seems to be used in causing disentanglements and very little energy is required to create a stable fibril.

  5. Acoustic excitations in glassy sorbitol and their relation with the fragility and the boson peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Scarponi, F.; Fioretto, D.; Giordano, V. M.; Monaco, G.

    2012-12-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the dynamic structure factor of glassy sorbitol by using inelastic X-ray scattering and previously measured light scattering data [B. Ruta, G. Monaco, F. Scarponi, and D. Fioretto, Philos. Mag. 88, 3939 (2008), 10.1080/14786430802317586]. The thus obtained knowledge on the density-density fluctuations at both the mesoscopic and macroscopic length scale has been used to address two debated topics concerning the vibrational properties of glasses. The relation between the acoustic modes and the universal boson peak (BP) appearing in the vibrational density of states of glasses has been investigated, also in relation with some recent theoretical models. Moreover, the connection between the elastic properties of glasses and the slowing down of the structural relaxation process in supercooled liquids has been scrutinized. For what concerns the first issue, it is here shown that the wave vector dependence of the acoustic excitations can be used, in sorbitol, to quantitatively reproduce the shape of the boson peak, supporting the relation between BP and acoustic modes. For what concerns the second issue, a proper study of elasticity over a wide spatial range is shown to be fundamental in order to investigate the relation between elastic properties and the slowing down of the dynamics in the corresponding supercooled liquid phase.

  6. Methionine – Au Nanoparticle Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode: a Novel Platform for Electrochemical Detection of Hydroquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong HE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitive electrochemical sensor based on methionine/gold nanoparticles (MET/AuNPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE was fabricated for the quantitative detection of hydroquinone (HQ. The as-modified electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The electrochemical performance of the sensor to HQ was investigated by using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry, which revealed its excellent electrocatalytic activity and reversibility towards HQ. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak (∆Ep was decreased from 471 mV to 75 mV. The anodic peak current achieved under the optimum conditions was linear with the HQ concentration ranging from 8 μM to 400 μM with the detection limit 0.12 μM (3σ. The as-fabricated sensor also showed a good selectivity towards HQ without demonstrating interference from other coexisting species. Furthermore, the sensor showed a good performance for HQ detection in environmental water, which suggests its potential practical application. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6477

  7. Platinum nano-cluster thin film formed on glassy carbon and the application for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gang; Oyama, Munetaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    As an interesting platinum nanostructured material, a Pt nano-cluster film (PtNCF) attached on glassy carbon (GC) is reported. Through the reduction of PtCl 4 2- by ascorbic acid in the presence of GC substrate, a Pt thin continuous film composed of small nano-clusters which had a further agglomerated nanostructure of small grains could be attached on the GC surface. It was found that the electrocatalytic ability of PtNCF for the methanol oxidation was apparently higher than those of the Pt nano-clusters dispersedly attached on GC or indium in oxides. In addition, the electrocatalytic performance of PtNCF per Pt amount was superior to that of Pt black on GC. These results indicate that, in spite of the continuous nanostructures, nano-grains of PtNCF worked effectively for the catalytic electrolysis. The present PtNCF can be regarded as an interesting thin film material, which can be easily prepared by one-step chemical reduction

  8. Electrochemical behaviour of dopamine at covalent modified glassy carbon electrode with l-cysteine: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of glassy carbon (GC electrode has been modified by oxidation of L-cysteine. The covalent modified GC electrode with L-Cysteine has been studied, according the supporting electrolyte used. Favourable interactions between the L-cysteine film and DA enhance the current response compared to that at the Nafion GC and bare GC electrodes, achieving better performances than those other electrodes. This behaviour was as result of the adsorption of the cysteine layer film, compact and uniform formation; depending on L-cysteine solution (phosphate buffer or chloridric acid supporting electrolyte used for modifying GC surface. In cyclic voltammetric measurements, modified electrodes can successfully separate the oxidation/reduction DA peaks in different buffer solutions, but an evident dependence in the response was obtained as function of pH and modified electrode. The modified electrode prepared with L-cysteine/HCl solution was used to obtain the calibration curve and it exhibited a stable and sensitive response to DA. The results are described and discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  9. Effect of holographic grating period on its relaxation in a molecular glassy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Augustovs, P; Kokars, V; Traskovskis, K; Saharov, D

    2013-01-01

    Holographic grating (HG) relaxation has been experimentally studied in 5,5,5-triphenylpentyl 4-((4-(bis(5,5,5-triphenylpentyl)amino) phenyl) diazenyl) benzoate molecular glassy film for HG periods (Λ) of 0.50, 2.0 and 8.6 μm. A strong effect of HG period on its relaxation is found manifesting itself differently in the volume and on the surface. The volume part of HG is fairly stable during 40 days if Λ > 0.50μm whereas the surface part of HG (most probably, surface relief grating) exhibits relaxational self-enhancement which is maximal at Λ = 8.6μm. It is proposed that thermostimulated directional mass transfer in the process of relaxation can be responsible for this relaxational self-enhancement. Weak HG recording and relatively fast HG decay takes place at Λ=0.50 μm. Therefore, effective chromophore photoorientation domain of about 0.2 μm is supposed

  10. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Naderi, Leila; Ghalkhani, Masoumeh

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001-2.0 μM and 2.0-10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of diffuse scattering in neutron powder diagrams. Application to glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, H.

    1985-01-01

    From the quantitative analysis of the diffuse scattered intensity in powder diagrams valuable information about the disorder in crystals may be obtained. According to the dimensionality of this disorder (0D, 1D, 2D or 3D corresponding to diffuse peaks, streaks, planes or volume in reciprocal space) a characteristic modulation of the background is observed, which is described by specific functions. These are derived by averaging the appropriate cross sections over all crystallite orientations in the powder and folding with the resolution function of the instrument. If proper account is taken of all proportionality factors different components of the background can be put on one relative scale. The results are applied to two samples of glassy carbon differing in their degree of disorder. The neutron powder patterns contain contributions from 0D (00l peaks due to the stacking of graphitic layers), 1D (hkzeta streaks caused by the random orientation of these layers) and 3D (incoherent scattering, averaged thermal diffuse scattering, multiple scattering). From the fit to the observed data various parameters of the disorder like domain sizes, strains, interlayer distances, amount of incorporated hydrogen, pore sizes etc. are determined. It is shown that the omission of resolution corrections leads to false parameters. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of glassy carbon and boron doped diamond electrodes: Resistance to biofouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouillon, Raphael; O'Hare, Danny

    2010-01-01

    Carbon based electrodes are widely used for in vivo and in vitro electrochemical studies. In particular, monoamine neurochemistry has been investigated using carbon microfibre electrodes. Similarly, glassy carbon (GC) is the preferred material for many biochemical applications, such as electrochemical detection in chromatography. More recently, boron doped diamond (BDD) has been utilized for biosensing, as its carbon sp 3 structure is expected to provide better resistance to analyte fouling. However, the main factor limiting the use of electrochemical sensors for biological studies is the effect of the biological matrix. Indeed, in vivo or in situ measurements expose the sensor to a complex matrix of proteins, which adsorb on the sensing surface and interfere with the electrochemical measurements. Here, we compare the performance of three carbon based electrodes: GC, GC with low surface oxides and BDD. The redox species ruthenium(III) hexaammine (outer-sphere), ferrocyanide (surface sensitive) and the biologically significant dopamine have been investigated in protein and blood-mimicking matrices. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to examine the effect of spectator molecules and reaction products on electrode mechanisms. Our results show that BDD generally exhibits the best performance for most conditions and reactions and should therefore be preferred for measurements in biologically fouling environments. Furthermore, surface oxides seem also to improve resistance of the GC electrode to biofouling.

  13. Stochastic model prediction of the Kovacs' ``expansion gap'' effect for volume relaxation in glassy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James

    2015-03-01

    The classic series of experiments by A. Kovacs on volume relaxation following temperature jumps for poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, in the Tg region revealed the richness and complexity of the viscoelastic behavior of glassy materials. Over the years no theoretical model has been able to predict all the features of the Kovacs data, where the so-called ``expansion gap'' effect proved to be particularly challenging. Specifically, for a series of up-jump experiments with different initial temperatures, Ti, but with the same final temperature, as the relaxation approaches equilibrium it would be expected that the effective relaxation time would be the same regardless of Ti; however, Kovacs observed that the dependence on Ti persisted seemingly all the way to equilibrium. In this communication we will show that a recently developed Stochastic Constitutive Model (SCM) that explicitly acknowledges the nano-scale dynamic heterogeneity of glasses can capture the ``expansion gap'' as well as the rest of the Kovacs data set for PVAc. It will be shown that the success of the SCM is due to its inherent thermo-rheological complexity.

  14. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Ahn; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jung Han; Lee, Chong Soo; Namkung, Jung; Kim, Moon Chul

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys

  15. Hysteresis, reentrance, and glassy dynamics in systems of self-propelled rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Blackwell, Robert; Hough, Loren E; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D

    2015-01-01

    Nonequilibrium active matter made up of self-driven particles with short-range repulsive interactions is a useful minimal system to study active matter as the system exhibits collective motion and nonequilibrium order-disorder transitions. We studied high-aspect-ratio self-propelled rods over a wide range of packing fractions and driving to determine the nonequilibrium state diagram and dynamic properties. Flocking and nematic-laning states occupy much of the parameter space. In the flocking state, the average internal pressure is high and structural and mechanical relaxation times are long, suggesting that rods in flocks are in a translating glassy state despite overall flock motion. In contrast, the nematic-laning state shows fluidlike behavior. The flocking state occupies regions of the state diagram at both low and high packing fraction separated by nematic-laning at low driving and a history-dependent region at higher driving; the nematic-laning state transitions to the flocking state for both compression and expansion. We propose that the laning-flocking transitions are a type of glass transition that, in contrast to other glass-forming systems, can show fluidization as density increases. The fluid internal dynamics and ballistic transport of the nematic-laning state may promote collective dynamics of rod-shaped micro-organisms.

  16. Modified glassy carbon electrodes based on carbon nanostructures for ultrasensitive electrochemical determination of furazolidone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Leila [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for advanced technology, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, Tehran, 16788 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode modified with different carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), nanodiamond-graphite (NDG), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-CNT hybrids (various ratios) using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results of voltammetric studies exhibited a considerable increase in the cathodic peak current of Fu at the RGO modified GCE, compared to other modified electrodes and also bare GCE. The surface morphology and nature of the RGO film was thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The modified electrode showed two linear dynamic ranges of 0.001–2.0 μM and 2.0–10.0 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 nM for the voltammetric determination of Fu. This sensor was used successfully for Fu determination in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations. - Highlights: • The electrochemical behavior of Furazolidone (Fu) was investigated on the surface of the modified electrode with different carbon nanomaterials by Linear sweep voltammetry. • Two linear dynamic ranges and a low detection limit were obtained. • The modified electrode was applied for the detection of Fu in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  17. Dihydropyridine-fused and pyridine-fused coumarins: Reduction on a glassy carbon electrode in dimethylformamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuñez-Vergara, Luis J.; Pardo-Jiménez, V.; Barrientos, C.; Olea-Azar, C.A.; Navarrete-Encina, P.A.; Squella, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, two series of dihydropyridine-fused and pyridine-fused coumarins were synthesised and electrochemically characterised in aprotic medium. In both series, the most easily reducible groups were the endocyclic carbonyl groups. The electrochemical mechanism for both types of compounds is strongly dependent on the experimental time-scale. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) reduction on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) of the endocyclic carbonyl group of dihydropyridine-fused coumarins involves an ECEC mechanism with two electron transfer steps that are coupled with chemical reactions to produce the corresponding hemiacetal derivative. In the case of pyridine-fused coumarins, CV reduction of the endocyclic carbonyl group involves an EEC mechanism. ESR studies revealed the presence of a stabilised intermediate only for the pyridine-fused derivatives. Our theoretical study showed a spin density map of radical species delocalised mainly within the coumarin ring, indicating the reduction of the endocyclic carbonyl group. In the case of the dihydropyridine-fused derivatives, the mildly acid hydrogen of the dihydropyridine ring destabilises the radical via a father–son type reaction.

  18. Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine With a Nitrogen-doped Graphene Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nitrogen-doped graphene (NG nanosheets were used as the modifier on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The modified electrode (NG/GCE was further applied to the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA by voltammetric method. Due to the unique properties of NG such as large surface area and excellent electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical response of DA was greatly enhanced on NG/GCE with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared on cyclic voltammogram. Electrochemical behaviors of DA on NG/GCE were carefully investigated with the electrochemical parameters calculated. Under the selected conditions the oxidation peak currents of DA had a good linear relationship with its concentration in the range from 8.0×10–7 mol L–1 to 8.0×10–4 mol L–1 with a detection limit of 2.55×10–7 mol L–1 (3σ. The proposed method was further applied to the DA injection samples determination with satisfactory results. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  19. Electrochemical Oxidation of Sulfamethazine on Multi-Walled Nanotube Film Coated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fotouhi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of sulfamethazine (SMZ has been studied at a multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNT-GCE by cyclic voltammetry. This modified electrode (MWCNT-GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic behavior toward the oxidation of SMZ as evidenced by the enhancement of the oxidation peak current and the shift in the anodic potential to less positive values (170 mV in comparison with the bare GCE. The formal potential, E0', of SMZ is pH dependent with a slope of 54 mV per unit of pH, close to the anticipated Nerstian value of 59 mV for a 2-electron and 2-proton oxidation process. A detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms gave fundamental electrochemical parameters including the electroactive surface coverage (Г, the transfer coefficient (a, the heterogeneous rate constant (ks. Under the selected conditions, the peak current shows two dynamic linear ranges of 10-200 mM and 300-3000 mM with the detection limit of 6.1 mM. The method was successfully applied to analyze SMZ in serum sample

  20. Determination of Mercury (II Ion on Aryl Amide-Type Podand-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Güney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new voltammetric sensor based on an aryl amide type podand, 1,8-bis(o-amidophenoxy-3,6-dioxaoctane, (AAP modified glassy carbon electrode, was described for the determination of trace level of mercury (II ion by cyclic voltammetry (CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. A well-defined anodic peak corresponding to the oxidation of mercury on proposed electrode was obtained at 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The effect of experimental parameters on differential voltammetric peak currents was investigated in acetate buffer solution of pH 7.0 containing 1 × 10−1 mol L−1 NaCl. Mercury (II ion was preconcentrated at the modified electrode by forming complex with AAP under proper conditions and then reduced on the surface of the electrode. Interferences of Cu2+, Pb2+, Fe3+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ ions were also studied at two different concentration ratios with respect to mercury (II ions. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of mercury (II ions in seawater sample.

  1. Biomedical Applications of Modified Carbon Glassy Electrode Sensor with Nanoparticles and Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon W. LEUNG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported the development of a biosensor platform that is capable of measuring biometabolites and environmental sensitive species, such as peroxide and nitrate/nitrate, to concentrations in the order of ppb (parts per billion or lower. In this investigation, we modified our platform with dendrimers to enhance its performance. Zero and second generation of dendrimers were coated on the surface of a carbon glassy electrode which was then modified with l-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and α-keto glutarate. The resulting electrode was tested with ammonium solutions, concentrations ranged from 2 to 300 nM at pH 7.4; the results were satisfactory. Measurements at lower concentrations had better resolution than at higher concentrations and it is believed that the measurement limit can be lower than 2 nM. This biosensor platform was proven to be versatile and can be employed as a platform for ultrasensitive detecting devices in many biomedical and environmental applications.

  2. Pt/glassy carbon model catalysts prepared from PS-b-P2VP micellar templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunlong; St-Pierre, Jean; Ploehn, Harry J

    2008-11-04

    Poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer was used as a micellar template to fabricate arrays of Pt nanoparticles on mica and glassy carbon (GC) supports. Polymer micellar deposition yields Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size and surface number density on both mica and GC. After deposition of precursor-loaded micelles onto GC, oxygen plasma etching removes the polymer shell, followed by thermal treatment with H2 gas to reduce the Pt. Etching conditions were optimized to maximize removal of the polymer while minimizing damage to the GC. Arrays of Pt nanoparticles with controlled size and surface number density can be prepared on mica (for particle size characterization) and GC to make Pt/GC model catalysts. These model catalysts were characterized by tapping mode atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry to measure activity for oxidation of carbon monoxide or methanol. Cyclic voltammetry results demonstrate the existence of a correlation between Pt particle size and electrocatalytic properties including onset potential, tolerance of carbonaceous adsorbates, and intrinsic activity (based on active Pt area from CO stripping voltammetry). Results obtained with Pt/GC model catalysts duplicate prior results obtained with Pt/porous carbon catalysts therefore validating the synthesis approach and offering a new, tunable platform to study catalyst structure and other effects such as aging on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) reactions.

  3. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Luis; Berrios, Cristhian; Yanez, Mauricio; Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  4. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-07-28

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Using low-field NMR to infer the physical properties of glassy oligosaccharide/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhardt, Kasia; Bui, Quang D; Normand, Valéry

    2007-03-01

    Low-field NMR (LF-NMR) is usually used as an analytical technique, for instance, to determine water and oil contents. For this application, no attempt is made to understand the physical origin of the data. Here we build a physical model to explain the five fit parameters of the conventional free induction decay (FID) for glassy oligosaccharide/water mixtures. The amplitudes of the signals from low-mobility and high-mobility protons correspond to the density of oligosaccharide protons and water protons, respectively. The relaxation time of the high-mobility protons is described using a statistical model for the probability that oligosaccharide hydroxyl groups form multiple hydrogen bonds. The variation of energy of the hydrogen bond is calculated from the average bond distance and the average angle contribution. Applying the model to experimental data shows that hydrogen atoms screen the water oxygen atoms when two water molecules solvate a single hydroxyl group. Furthermore, the relaxation time of the oligosaccharide protons is independent of its molecular weight and the water content. Finally, inversion of the FID using the inverse Laplace transform gives the continuous spectrum of relaxation times, which is a fingerprint of the oligosaccharide.

  6. Square Wave Voltammetric Determination of 2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceuticals and Real Samples Using Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen M. Gokavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method was developed using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques for the determination of trace-level sulfur containing compound, 2-thiouracil, at a glassy carbon electrode. 2-thiouracil produced two anodic peaks at 0.334 V and 1.421 V and a cathodic peak at −0.534 V. The square wave voltammetry of 2-thiouracil gave a good linear response in the range of 1–20 μM with a detection limit of 0.16 μM and quantification limit of 0.53 μM (0.0679 μg/g, which is in good agreement as per IUPAC definition of trace component analysis (100 μg/g. The obtained recoveries range from 98.10% to 102.1%. The proposed method was used successfully for its quantitative determination in pharmaceutical formulations and urine as real samples.

  7. Redox Response of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes to Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Anzai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface of a glassy carbon (GC electrode was modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO to evaluate the electrochemical response of the modified GC electrodes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and hydrazine. The electrode potential of the GC electrode was repeatedly scanned from −1.5 to 0.6 V in an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO to deposit rGO on the surface of the GC electrode. The surface morphology of the modified GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. SEM and AFM observations revealed that aggregated rGO was deposited on the GC electrode, forming a rather rough surface. The rGO-modified electrodes exhibited significantly higher responses in redox reactions of H2O2 as compared with the response of an unmodified GC electrode. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity of the rGO-modified electrode to hydrazine oxidation was also higher than that of the unmodified GC electrode. The response of the rGO-modified electrode was rationalized based on the higher catalytic activity of rGO to the redox reactions of H2O2 and hydrazine. The results suggest that rGO-modified electrodes are useful for constructing electrochemical sensors.

  8. Ideal solution behaviour of glassy Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf alloys and properties of amorphous copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristić, R.; Cooper, J.R.; Zadro, K.; Pajić, D.; Ivkov, J.; Babić, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ideal solution behaviour (ISB) is established in all Cu–Ti, Zr, Hf glassy alloys. • ISB enables reliable estimates for various properties of amorphous Cu. • ISB also impacts glass forming ability in these and probably other similar alloys. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of selected properties of amorphous (a) Cu–TE alloys (TE = Ti, Zr and Hf) has been performed. Data for average atomic volumes of a-Cu–Hf, Ti alloys combined with literature data show that ideal solution behaviour (Vegard’s law) extends over the whole glass forming range (GFR) in all a-Cu–TE alloys. This enables one to obtain an insight into some properties and probable atomic arrangements for both, a-TEs (Ristić et al., 2010) and a-Cu by extrapolation of the data for alloys. Indeed the atomic volumes and other properties studied for all a-Cu–TE alloys extrapolate to the same values for a-Cu. Depending on the property, these values are either close to those of crystalline (c) Cu, or are close to those for liquid (L) Cu. In particular, the electronic transport properties of a-Cu seem close to those of L-Cu, whereas the static properties, such as the density of states, and Young’s modulus, converge to those of c-Cu. The possible impact of these results on our understanding of a-Cu–TE alloys, including glass forming ability, is discussed

  9. Mechanical properties of Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B bulk glassy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Ahn [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: keeahn@andong.ac.kr; Kim, Yong Chan [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Han [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Soo [Center for Advanced Aerospace materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, Jung [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon Chul [New Metals Research Team, RIST, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-25

    The mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of new Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based bulk glassy alloys were investigated. The suitability of the continuous roll casting method for the production of bulk metallic glass (BMG) sheets in such alloy systems was also examined. BMG samples (Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-W-Si-B) in amorphous strip, cylindrical, and sheet forms were prepared through melt spinning, copper mold casting, and twin roll strip casting, respectively. Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy exhibited compressive strength of up to 2.93 GPa and plastic strain of about 1.51%. On the other hand, the Fe-Ni-Zr-Cr-Si-B, composite-type bulk sample with diameter of 2.0 mm showed remarkable compressive plastic strain of about 4.03%. The addition of zirconium was found to enhance the homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline less than 7 nm and to develop a hybrid-composite microstructure with increasing sample thickness. Twin roll strip casting was successfully applied to the fabrication of sheets in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B-based BMGs. The combined characteristics of high mechanical properties and ease of microstructure control proved to be promising in terms of the future progress of structural bulk amorphous alloys.

  10. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Luis [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Berrios, Cristhian [Laboratorio de Electrocatalisis, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Yanez, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Recursos Renovables, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla-160 C, Concepcion (Chile); Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I., E-mail: gloria.cardenas@usach.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-11-26

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  11. Electrochemistry of raloxifene on glassy carbon electrode and its determination in pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Akbar; Hosseini, Hadi

    2012-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of raloxifene (RLX) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV studies were performed in various supporting electrolytes, wide range of potential scan rates, and pHs. The results showed an adsorption-controlled and quasi-reversible process for the electrochemical reaction of RLX, and a probable redox mechanism was suggested. Under the optimum conditions, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was applied for quantitative determination of the RLX in pharmaceutical formulations. The DPV measurements showed that the anodic peak current of the RLX was linear to its concentration in the range of 0.2-50.0μM with a detection limit of 0.0750μM, relative standard deviation (RSD %) below 3.0%, and a good sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of the RLX in pharmaceutical and human plasma samples with a good selectivity and suitable recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermodynamic parameters of bonds in glassy materials from viscosity-temperature relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I; Travis, Karl P; Hand, Russell J

    2007-01-01

    Doremus's model of viscosity assumes that viscous flow in amorphous materials is mediated by broken bonds (configurons). The resulting equation contains four coefficients, which are directly related to the entropies and enthalpies of formation and motion of the configurons. Thus by fitting this viscosity equation to experimental viscosity data these enthalpy and entropy terms can be obtained. The non-linear nature of the equation obtained means that the fitting process is non-trivial. A genetic algorithm based approach has been developed to fit the equation to experimental viscosity data for a number of glassy materials, including SiO 2 , GeO 2 , B 2 O 3 , anorthite, diopside, xNa 2 O-(1-x)SiO 2 , xPbO-(1-x)SiO 2 , soda-lime-silica glasses, salol, and α-phenyl-o-cresol. Excellent fits of the equation to the viscosity data were obtained over the entire temperature range. The fitting parameters were used to quantitatively determine the enthalpies and entropies of formation and motion of configurons in the analysed systems and the activation energies for flow at high and low temperatures as well as fragility ratios using the Doremus criterion for fragility. A direct anti-correlation between fragility ratio and configuron percolation threshold, which determines the glass transition temperature in the analysed materials, was found

  13. Voltammetric Determination of Codeine on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Nafion/MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Piech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A glassy carbon electrode modified with a Nafion/MWCNTs composite is shown to enable the determination of codeine using differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer of pH 3.0. At a preconcentration time of 15 s, the calibration graph is linear in the 0.5 µM (0.15 mg·L−1 to 15 µM (4.5 mg·L−1 concentration range with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The detection limit at a preconcentration time of 120 s is as low as 4.5 μg·L−1. The repeatability of the method at a 0.6 μg·L−1 concentration level, expressed as the RSD, is 3.7% (for n=5. The method was successfully applied and validated by analyzing codeine in drug, human plasma, and urine samples.

  14. Effect of high-order multicomponent on formation and properties of Zr-based bulk glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A., E-mail: ainouebmg@yahoo.co.jp [International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane 283-8555 (Japan); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Wang, Z.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Han, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, F.L. [International Institute of Green Materials, Josai International University, Togane 283-8555 (Japan); Shalaan, E.; Al-Marzouki, F. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-25

    Highlights: • A multicomponent Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}Pd{sub 6}Ag{sub 5} bulk glassy alloy was formed. • The high-order multiplication suppression of the decrease in mechanical strength. • The BGAs show good corrosion resistance and slow growth rate of primary precipitates. - Abstract: We examined the formation, thermal stability, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of a multicomponent Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Fe{sub 6}Co{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}Pd{sub 6}Ag{sub 5} bulk glassy alloy, with the aim of clarifying the effect of high-order multiplication of the number of components on their properties. The bulk glassy alloy rods of 2 and 6 mm in diameter were formed by suction casting even at the low total content of typical glass-forming 3-d late transition metals like Co, Ni and Cu. The Vickers hardness is different in the center region and in the outer surface region. The difference seems to reflect the relaxation level of glassy structure. The Young’s modulus and the compressive fracture strength are nearly the same for the base Zr{sub 55}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 5}Cu{sub 30} alloy in spite of the existence of immiscible atomic pairs. Moreover, the multicomponent alloy exhibits better corrosion resistance than that for the base alloy. The glassy phase changes to a supercooled liquid state at 720 K and then starts to crystallize at 754 K with a single exothermic peak, in contrast to the appearance of a wide supercooled liquid region for the base alloy. The primary crystalline phase precipitates with very short incubation time and very low growth rate, which are different from those for the base alloy. The extremely low growth rate of the crystallites is presumably due to the reduction of diffusivity of late transition metal elements resulting from multiplication. Thus, the high-order multiplication has the features of (1) the maintenance of high glass-forming ability even at the lower Co, Ni and Cu content and in the absence of

  15. Structurally bound sulfide and sulfate in apatite from the Philips Mine iron oxide - apatite deposit, New York, USA: A tracer of redox changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadove, G.; Konecke, B.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple competing hypotheses attempt to explain the genesis of iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ore deposits. Many studies have investigated the chemistry of apatite because the abundances of F and Cl can distinguish magmatic vs. hydrothermal processes. Recent experiments demonstrate that apatite incorporates S6+, S4+, and S2-, and that total sulfur (∑S) as well as the S6+/∑S ratio in apatite vary systematically as a function of oxygen fugacity [1], providing information about sulfur budget and redox. Here, we present results from X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the S K-edge, electron microprobe analyses, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, and element mapping of apatite from the Philip's Mine IOA deposit, southern Adirondack Mountains, USA. The Philip's Mine apatite contains inclusions of pyrite and pyrrhotite, where the latter includes iron oxide and Ni-rich domains. The apatite also contains inclusions of monazite, and exhibits complex CL zonation coincident with variations in the abundances of REE and S. The presence of monazite fingerprints fluid-mediated dissolution-reprecipitation of originally REE-enriched apatite [2]. The S XANES spectra reveal varying proportions of structurally bound S6+ and S2-, as the S6+/∑S ratio ranges from sulfide-only to sulfate-only. Notably, sulfide-dominated domains contain higher S contents than sulfate-dominated regions. These observations are consistent with co-crystallization of apatite and monosulfide solid solution (MSS) at reducing conditions, followed by decomposition of MSS to pyrrhotite, pyrite and intermediate solid solution (ISS, which is not preserved; [3]). Metasomatism of that assemblage by an oxidized fluid resulted in formation of monazite in apatite and iron oxide domains in pyrrhotite. We conclude that the deposit formed by a H2S-Fe-rich volatile phase, possibly evolved from a rather primitive magmatic source, which is consistent with the low Ti content of magnetite. The deposit was

  16. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    tailored both at microscopic and macroscopic length scales. This includes either droplet-like or interconnected microstructures at the microscopic level and glass-glass or glass-crystalline composites at the macroscopic level. Essential parameter for the quenched in microstructure is the temperature dependence of liquid-liquid phase separation, which is determined by the chemical composition of the alloy: on the one hand, earlier and/or later stages of spinodal decomposition or almost homogeneous glassy states are obtained if the critical temperature of miscibility gap T c is close to the glass transition temperature T g ; and on the one hand, coarsening and secondary precipitations of the liquids are obtained if T c is much higher than T g . Finally, the influence of the microstructure developed by phase separation on their magnetic properties had been investigated. The saturation magnetization σ S depends on the overall amount of Gd atoms in the alloys and is not remarkably affected by phase separation processes. The Curie temperature T Curie of the magnetic transition is influenced by the changed chemical composition of the Gd-rich glassy phases compared to that of monolithic Gd-Co-Al glasses.

  17. An extensive study of electrochemical behavior of brimonidine and its determination at glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksić, Mara M.; Radulović, Valentina; Agbaba, Danica; Kapetanović, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrochemical behavior of BRIM was investigated by CV, DPV and SWV at GCE. • The effects of pH, scan rate and BRIM concentriation was studied. • The nature of the electrode process, and the mechanism scheme was proposed. • DPV method was developed for the estimation of BRIM in the Alphagan eye drops. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of brimonidine (BRIM), an antiglaucoma agent applied in therapy for lowering high intraocular pressure, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The reduction of BRIM occurs as one-step quasi-reversible reaction in acid and neutral medium, reaching the full reversibility in alkaline solutions. Reduction process involves the transfer of two electrons and two protons at the pyrazine ring of quinoxaline moiety, forming a dihydro-derivative. In acid and neutral solutions, brimonidine reduction product is partly oxidized to its hydroxy-derivative. BRIM is also oxidized irreversibly with the transfer of one electron and one proton at secondary amine moiety. The effects of pH of the electrolyte solution, scan rate and BRIM concentration were monitored. The nature of the electrode process was found to be controlled by the adsorption at pH > 6 and the total surface concentration of brimonidine adsorbed onto the GCE surface at pH 7, Γ BRIM = 1.35 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 was obtained. Based on this study, differential pulse voltammetric method was developed, validated and suggested for rapid electroanalytical determination of the low concentration of brimonidine. The linearity was achieved within the concentration range from 5 × 10 −7 to 5 × 10 −6 M with LOD = 1.6 × 10 −7 M and LOQ = 5.3 × 10 −7 M. The method was applied for brimonidine determination in pharmaceutical dosage form, eye drops

  18. Alizarin red S functionalized mesoporous silica modified glassy carbon electrode for electrochemical determination of anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shan; Wei, Maochao; Zheng, Xiangli; Xu, Shuai; Xia, Fangquan; Zhou, Changli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Alizarin red S-SBA15 composite was prepared and characterized. • A novel sensing platform was constructed for anthracene determination. • The proposed sensor exhibited high sensitivity and low detection limit for detecting anthracene. • This method can be applied to the practical detection of anthracene in waste water. - Abstract: In the paper, a novel and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on modification of electroactive alizarin red S functionalized mesoporous silica material SBA15 onto glassy carbon electrode (ARS-SBA15/GCE) was developed. Alizarin red S, called electrochemical probe that can selectively recognize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as tools for the detection of tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anthracene. The morphology and interface property of ARS modified SBA15 (ARS-SBA15) were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Taking advantage of the π-π stacking force between alizarin red S and anthracene, the ARS-SBA15/GCE sensor could detect anthracene quantitatively in a wide range of 1.0 pM–10.0 nM and a low detection limit of 0.5 pM (S/N = 3). Other PAHs, such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene show little interference on the detection. Consequently, a simple and sensitive electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of anthracene, which can be used to determine anthracene in waste water samples. The electrochemical method provides a general tool that complements the commonly used spectroscopic methods and immune method for the detection of PAHs

  19. Electrocatalytic behaviour of hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate film on glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinu Mohan, A.M.; Rambabu, Gutru; Aswini, K.K.; Biju, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    A thin film of hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate (CoMnHCF), a redox mediator was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode and was employed as an amperometric sensor towards L-Tryptophan (L-Trp). The hybrid film was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), scanning electron microscope–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDAX), and electrochemical techniques. The atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis provided the stoichiometry of the hybrid film to be K 1.74-y Co y Mn 0.78 [Fe(CN) 6 ], y ≤ 0.68. The electrochemical impedance study revealed the excellent charge transfer properties of GC/CoMnHCF electrode. The voltammetric investigations demonstrated exceptional electrocatalytic properties of the hybrid film modified electrode when compared to that of bare GC, GC/CoHCF and GC/MnHCF electrodes, towards the L-Trp oxidation. The kinetic parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, the electron transfer rate constant, the diffusion coefficient and the catalytic rate constant for the electrooxidation process of L-Trp were investigated. The amperometric detection of L-Trp employing GC/CoMnHCF electrode possessed a good sensitivity of 10 × 10 −2 A M −1 cm −2 in a wide range of detection (2–200 μM) at a reduced overpotential of 680 mV. In addition, the proposed amperometric method was applied to the detection of L-Trp in commercial milk samples with reproducible results. - Highlights: • A hybrid cobalt–manganese hexacyanoferrate film was prepared. • The hybrid film possesses excellent charge transfer properties. • The hybrid film exhibits excellent electrocatalytic properties towards Tryptophan. • Tryptophan detection is possible from commercial milk samples

  20. Nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, M. Yousef; Mousavi, M.F.; Ghasemi, S.

    2008-01-01

    A nano-structured Ni(II)-curcumin (curcumin: 1,7-bis[4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione) film is electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode in alkaline solution. The morphology of polyNi(II)-curcumin (NC) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results show NC has a nano-globular structure in the range 20-50 nm. Using cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometry, steady-state polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the nano-structure NC film acts as an efficient material for the electrocatalytic oxidation of fructose. According to the voltammetric studies, the increase in the anodic peak current and subsequent decrease in the corresponding cathodic current, fructose was oxidized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. The EIS results show that the charge-transfer resistance has as a function of fructose concentration, time interval and applied potential. The increase in the fructose concentration and time interval in fructose solution results in enhanced charge transfer resistance in Nyquist plots. The EIS results indicate that fructose electrooxidation at various potentials shows different impedance behaviors. At lower potentials, a semicircle is observed in the first quadrant of impedance plot. With further increase of the potential, a transition of the semicircle from the first to the second quadrant occurs. Also, the results obtained show that the rate of fructose electrooxidation depends on concentration of OH - . Electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient and rate constant of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction are obtained. The modified electrode was used as a sensor for determination of fructose with a good dynamic range and a low detection limit

  1. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  2. Simultaneous voltammetric determination of tramadol and acetaminophen using carbon nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, Fatemeh; Shahrokhian, Saeed; Mohammadi, Ali; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was fabricated via the drop-casting of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) suspension onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The application of this sensor was investigated in simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACE) and tramadol (TRA) drugs in pharmaceutical dosage form and ACE determination in human plasma. In order to study the electrochemical behaviors of the drugs, cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies of ACE and TRA were carried out at the surfaces of the modified GCE (MGCE) and the bare GCE. The dependence of peak currents and potentials on pH, concentration and the potential scan rate were investigated for these compounds at the surface of MGCE. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for the characterization of the film modifier and its morphology on the surface of GCE. The results of the electrochemical investigations showed that CNPs, via a thin layer model based on the diffusion within a porous layer, enhanced the electroactive surface area and caused a remarkable increase in the peak currents. The thin layer of the modifier showed a catalytic effect and accelerated the rate of the electron transfer process. Application of the MGCE resulted in a sensitivity enhancement and a considerable decrease in the anodic overpotential, leading to negative shifts in peak potentials. An optimum electrochemical response was obtained for the sensor in the buffered solution of pH 7.0 and using 2 μL CNPs suspension cast on the surface of GCE. Using differential pulse voltammetry, the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of ACE and TRA in wide linear ranges of 0.1-100 and 10-1000 μM, respectively. The resulted detection limits for ACE and TRA was 0.05 and 1 μM, respectively. The CNPs modified GCE was successfully applied for ACE and TRA determinations in pharmaceutical dosage forms and also for the determination of ACE in human plasma.

  3. Hematoxylin multi-wall carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Hamid R.; Nasirizadeh, Navid

    2007-01-01

    A new hydrazine sensor has been fabricated by immobilizing hematoxylin at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The adsorbed thin films of hematoxylin on the MWCNT modified GCE show one pair of peaks with surface confined characteristics. The hematoxylin MWCNT (HMWCNT) modified GCE shows highly catalytic activity toward hydrazine electro-oxidation. The results show that the peak potential of hydrazine at HMWCNT modified GCE surface shifted by about 167 and 255 mV toward negative values compared with that at an MWCNT and activated modified GCE surface, respectively. In addition, at HMWCNT modified electrode surface remarkably improvement the sensitivity of determination of hydrazine. The kinetic parameters, such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the standard heterogeneous rate constant, k 0 , for oxidation of hydrazine at the HMWCNT modified GCE were determined and also is shown that the heterogeneous rate constant, k', is strongly potential dependent. The overall number of electron involved in the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining steps are 2 and 1, respectively. The amperometric detection of hydrazine is carried out at 220 mV in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7) with linear response range 2.0-122.8 μM hydrazine, detection limit of 0.68 μM and sensitivity of 0.0208 μA μM -1 . Finally the amperometric response for hydrazine determination is reproducible, fast and extremely stable, with no loss in sensitivity over a continual 400 s operation

  4. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Tang

    Full Text Available A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1 cm(-2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3, with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  5. Sequencing and de novo assembly of the transcriptome of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sekhar Nandety

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grapevines. The functional complexity of the transcriptome of H. vitripennis has not been elucidated thus far. It is a necessary blueprint for an understanding of the development of H. vitripennis and for designing efficient biorational control strategies including those based on RNA interference. RESULTS: Here we elucidate and explore the transcriptome of adult H. vitripennis using high-throughput paired end deep sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 32,803,656 paired-end reads were obtained with an average transcript length of 624 nucleotides. We assembled 32.9 Mb of the transcriptome of H. vitripennis that spanned across 47,265 loci and 52,708 transcripts. Comparison of our non-redundant database showed that 45% of the deduced proteins of H. vitripennis exhibit identity (e-value ≤1(-5 with known proteins. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript isoform. In order to gain insight into the molecular basis of key regulatory genes of H. vitripennis, we characterized predicted proteins involved in the metabolism of juvenile hormone, and biogenesis of small RNAs (Dicer and Piwi sequences from the transcriptomic sequences. Analysis of transposable element sequences of H. vitripennis indicated that the genome is less expanded in comparison to many other insects with approximately 1% of the transcriptome carrying transposable elements. CONCLUSIONS: Our data significantly enhance the molecular resources available for future study and control of this economically important hemipteran. This transcriptional information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the underlying biological and physiological mechanisms that

  6. Electrocatalytic oxidation of deferiprone and its determination on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadegari, H. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimian, K. [Arasto Pharmaceutical Chemicals Inc., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of the anti-thalassemia and anti-HIV replication drug, deferiprone, was investigated on a carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon (GC-CNT) electrode in phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.40 (PBS). During oxidation of deferiprone, two irreversible anodic peaks, with E{sub 1}{sup 0}=452 and E{sub 2}{sup 0}=906mV, appeared, using GC-CNT. Cyclic voltammetric study indicated that the oxidation process is irreversible and diffusion controlled. The number of exchanged electrons in the electro-oxidation process was obtained, and the data indicated that deferiprone is oxidized via two two-electron steps. The results revealed that carbon nanotube (CNT) promotes the rate of oxidation by increasing the peak current, so that deferiprone is oxidized at lower potentials, which thermodynamically is more favorable. This result was confirmed by impedance measurements. The diffusion coefficient, electron-transfer coefficient and heterogeneous electron-transfer rate constant of deferiprone were found to be 1.49 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, 0.44, and 3.83 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}, respectively. A sensitive, simple and time-saving differential-pulse voltammetric procedure was developed for the analysis of deferiprone. Using the proposed method, deferiprone can be determined with a detection limit of 5.25 x 10{sup -7} M. The applicability of the method to direct assays of spiked human serum and urine fluids is described.

  7. Selective oxidation of serotonin and norepinephrine over eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Hong; Li Shaoguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Tang Yuhai [Institute of Analytical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen Yan [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Chen Yuanzhong [Fujian Institute of Hematology, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China)], E-Mail: chenyz@pub3.fz.fj.cn; Lin Xinhua [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China)], E-mail: xhlin1963@sin.com

    2009-08-01

    A novel ECR-modified electrode is fabricated by electrodeposition of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in double-distilled water. The characterization of the ECR film modified electrode is carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectra (IR), spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that a slightly heterogeneous film formed on the surface of the modified electrode, and the calculated surface concentration of ECR is 2 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup -2}. The ECR film modified GC electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, the modified electrode can separately detect 5-HT and NE, even in the presence of 200-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and 25-fold concentration of uric acid (UA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the peak currents of 5-HT and NE recorded in pH 7 solution are linearly dependent on their concentrations in the range of 0.05-5 {mu}M and 2-50 {mu}M, respectively. The limits of detection are 0.05 and 1.5 {mu}M for 5-HT and NE, respectively. The ECR film modified electrode can be stored stable for at least 1 week in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7) at 4 {sup o}C in a refrigerator. Owing to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, the modified electrode could provide a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of 5-HT and NE in complex biosamples.

  8. Physical properties of Zr50Cu40-xAl10Pdx bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wencka, M.; Jagodic, M.; Gradisek, A.; Kocjan, A.; Jaglicic, Z.; McGuiness, P.J.; Apih, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Dolinsek, J.

    2010-01-01

    It was shown recently (Yokoyama et al. ) that the addition of a small amount of Pd to the Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 bulk glassy alloy (BGA) has a beneficial effect on fatigue-strength enhancement, where the composition Zr 50 Cu 37 Al 10 Pd 3 behaved in a resonant-like way by showing the highest fatigue limit of 1050 MPa and the minimum Vickers hardness. We performed a study of the magnetic properties, the specific heat, the electrical resistivity and the hydrogen-diffusion constant for a series of compositions Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x (x = 0-7 at.%), in order to determine their physical properties and to check for the influence of the Pd content on these properties. The Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs are nonmagnetic, conducting alloys, where the Pauli spin susceptibility of the conduction electrons is the only source of paramagnetism. The low-temperature specific heat indicates an enhancement of the conduction-electron effective mass m* below 5 K, suggesting that the Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs are not free-electron-like compounds. The electrical resistivities of the Zr 50 Cu 40-x Al 10 Pd x BGAs amount to about 200 μΩ cm and show a small, negative temperature coefficient (NTC) with an increase from 300 to 2 K of 4%. The hydrogen self-diffusion constant D in hydrogen-loaded samples shows classical over-barrier-hopping temperature dependence and is of comparable magnitude to the related icosahedral and amorphous Zr 69.5 Cu 12 Ni 11 Al 7.5 hydrogen-storage alloys. No correlation between the investigated physical parameters and the Pd content of the samples could be observed.

  9. An examination of the effect on cigarette prices and promotions of Philip Morris USA penalties to stores that sell cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Schleicher, N C; Ribisl, K M; Rogers, T

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of public policies to regulate price discounting strategies on retail cigarette prices and advertising. Philip Morris USA (PM USA) has a policy designed to sanction stores violating state laws banning illegal tobacco sales to minors by temporarily suspending price discounting incentives. This study examined the impact of those sanctions on retail cigarette prices and sales promotion advertising. In November 2006, the California Attorney General's Office informed PM USA that 196 stores were found guilty of illegal underage sales. Of these, 109 stores that participated in the PM USA Retail Leaders Program were notified that their merchandising and/or promotional resources would be suspended for the month of April 2007. The remaining 87 stores were not sanctioned and served as a comparison group. Trained raters assessed advertising and prices of selected PM USA brands in these stores pre-penalty and during the penalty phase. There were no significant differences between sanctioned and non-sanctioned stores on median changes in price and sales promotion advertising from the pre-penalty to the penalty phase. The lack of impact on cigarette prices and advertising indicate that the PM USA policy may be flawed in its design or execution. If public policies are developed to restrain cigarette price discounting strategies, they should be crafted to ensure compliance and preclude possible compensatory actions by retailers.

  10. Glassy behavior in the layered perovskites La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 4}(1.1{<=}x{<=}1.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sanseb68@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713104 (India); Mukherjee, Rajarshi [Department .of Physics, University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713104 (India); Banerjee, S.; Ranganathan, R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kumar, Uday [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research - Kolkata, Mohonpur 741252 (India)

    2012-03-15

    The glassy behavior of the phase segregated state in the layered cobaltite La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 4} has been studied. The role of the inter-cluster interactions as well as the disordered spins at the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic interface, behind the observed glassy behavior have been investigated. The disordered spins at the interface appear to be strongly pinned, and they contribute little to the observed glassy behavior. On the other hand, the inter-cluster interactions play the key role. Both the Co{sup 4+} and Co{sup 3+} ions are in the intermediate spin state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase segregated state of cobaltite La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 4} for (1.1{<=}x{<=}1.3) to find the origin of the observed glassy behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Result of the frequency dependent ac susceptibility measurement excludes the possibility of any spin glass phase, hints strong inter-cluster interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation experiments confirm the system to be a collection of clusters with two preferred sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The glassy behavior originates from strong inter-cluster interactions.

  11. Glassy behavior in the layered perovskites La2−xSrxCoO4(1.1≤x≤1.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Kumar, Uday

    2012-01-01

    The glassy behavior of the phase segregated state in the layered cobaltite La 2−x Sr x CoO 4 has been studied. The role of the inter-cluster interactions as well as the disordered spins at the paramagnetic–ferromagnetic interface, behind the observed glassy behavior have been investigated. The disordered spins at the interface appear to be strongly pinned, and they contribute little to the observed glassy behavior. On the other hand, the inter-cluster interactions play the key role. Both the Co 4+ and Co 3+ ions are in the intermediate spin state. - Highlights: ► Phase segregated state of cobaltite La 2−x Sr x CoO 4 for (1.1≤x≤1.3) to find the origin of the observed glassy behavior. ► Result of the frequency dependent ac susceptibility measurement excludes the possibility of any spin glass phase, hints strong inter-cluster interactions. ► Relaxation experiments confirm the system to be a collection of clusters with two preferred sizes. ► The glassy behavior originates from strong inter-cluster interactions.

  12. Glassy slag: A complementary waste form to homogeneous glass for the implementation of MAWS in treating DOE low level/mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Ordaz, G.; Krumrine, P.

    1994-01-01

    Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program for supporting DOE's environmental restoration efforts. These glassy slags are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an alumino-silicate glass phase. The slags are appropriate final waste forms for waste streams that contain large amounts of scrap metals and elements with low solubilities in glass, and that have low-flux contents. Homogeneous glass waste forms are appropriate for wastes with sufficient fluxes and low metal contents. Therefore, utilization of both glass and glassy slag waste forms will make vitrification technology applicable to the treatment of a much larger range of radioactive and mixed wastes. The MAWS approach was a plied to glassy slags by blending multiple waste streams to produce the final waste form, minimizing overall waste form volume and reducing costs. The crystalline oxide phases formed in the glassy slags can be specially formulated so that they are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. The Structural Bond Strength (SBS) Model was used to predict the chemical durability of the product from the slag composition so that optimized slag compositions could be obtain with a limited number of crucible melts and testing

  13. New anode material for lithium-ion cells produced by catalytic graphitization of glassy carbon at 1000 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronski, J.M. [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry; Central Lab. of Batteries and Cells, Poznan (Poland); Knofczynski, K. [Central Lab. of Batteries and Cells, Poznan (Poland)

    2006-10-15

    This study investigated the conversion of glassy carbon into graphite at relatively low temperature of 1000 degrees C under ambient pressure using iron powder as the catalyst. The composite product of reaction was a graphite and turbostratic carbon whose use was then examined in terms of application in lithium-ion cells. Glassy, hard carbon spheres of 10 to 15 {iota}m were prepared from phenolic resin in a nitrogen atmosphere and then subjected to heat treatment with an iron powder mixture. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the carbon/iron mixture was treated with diluted HCl solution to remove metallic additives. The modified carbon was then washed with distilled water until chloride ions disappeared in a filtrate. All samples were characterized using XRD analysis. Working electrodes for electrochemical measurements were made by mixing carbons with PVDF. Cyclic voltammograms recorded for unmodified and modified carbons were consistent with XRD measurements. SEM analysis revealed that the process of graphitization begins at the external regions of glassy carbon spheres where erosion occurs when the carbon reacts with iron particles. The surface destruction of carbon spheres progresses into the interior of the spheres, resulting in their collapse followed by the transformation into pallets resembling a stack of graphite sheets. It was noted that not all unorganized carbon was conversed to graphite. Rather, only 50 per cent of turbostratic carbon existed in the product of heat treatment. The product of graphitization appeared to be a promising material for the preparation of anodes for lithium-ion cells. The discharge capacity for carbon produced by catalytic treatment was found to be approximately 5 times higher, while the discharge/charge reversibility was 23 per cent higher than values obtained for untreated carbon. The study showed that the uptake of lithium ions by the original carbon depends on the insertion/deinsertion mechanism of hard carbon as well

  14. Electrochemical evaluation and determination of antiretroviral drug fosamprenavir using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-05-01

    Fosamprenavir is a pro-drug of the antiretroviral protease inhibitor amprenavir and is oxidizable at solid electrodes. The anodic oxidation behavior of fosamprenavir was investigated using cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. In cyclic voltammetry, depending on pH values, fosamprenavir showed one sharp irreversible oxidation peak or wave depending on the working electrode. The mechanism of the oxidation process was discussed. The voltammetric study of some model compounds allowed elucidation of the possible oxidation mechanism of fosamprenavir. The aim of this study was to determine fosamprenavir levels in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples by means of electrochemical methods. Using the sharp oxidation response, two voltammetric methods were described for the determination of fosamprenavir by differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry at the boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. These two voltammetric techniques are 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) and phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 which allow quantitation over a 4 x 10(-6) to 8 x 10(-5) M range using boron-doped diamond and a 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) M range using glassy carbon electrodes, respectively, in supporting electrolyte. All necessary validation parameters were investigated and calculated. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of fosamprenavir pharmaceutical dosage forms, human serum and urine samples. The standard addition method was used in biological media using boron-doped diamond electrode. No electroactive interferences from the tablet excipients or endogenous substances from biological material were found. The results were statistically compared with those obtained through an established HPLC-UV technique; no significant differences were found between the voltammetric and HPLC methods.

  15. A wrinkling-based method for investigating glassy polymer film relaxation as a function of film thickness and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Young; Douglas, Jack F; Stafford, Christopher M

    2017-10-21

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of thin polymer films at temperatures below the bulk glass transition T g by first compressing polystyrene films supported on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate to create wrinkling patterns and then observing the slow relaxation of the wrinkled films back to their final equilibrium flat state by small angle light scattering. As with recent relaxation measurements on thin glassy films reported by Fakhraai and co-workers, we find the relaxation time of our wrinkled films to be strongly dependent on film thickness below an onset thickness on the order of 100 nm. By varying the temperature between room temperature and T g (≈100 °C), we find that the relaxation time follows an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence to a good approximation at all film thicknesses investigated, where both the activation energy and the relaxation time pre-factor depend appreciably on film thickness. The wrinkling relaxation curves tend to cross at a common temperature somewhat below T g , indicating an entropy-enthalpy compensation relation between the activation free energy parameters. This compensation effect has also been observed recently in simulated supported polymer films in the high temperature Arrhenius relaxation regime rather than the glassy state. In addition, we find that the film stress relaxation function, as well as the height of the wrinkle ridges, follows a stretched exponential time dependence and the short-time effective Young's modulus derived from our modeling decreases sigmoidally with increasing temperature-both characteristic features of glassy materials. The relatively facile nature of the wrinkling-based measurements in comparison to other film relaxation measurements makes our method attractive for practical materials development, as well as fundamental studies of glass formation.

  16. Time effects and glassy state behaviour in superconducting Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Olutas, M.; Kilic, K.; Kilic, A.

    2007-01-01

    The quenched disorder in the moving entity is investigated in a polycrystalline bulk sample of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) by slow transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) on long time scales. The time evolution of sample voltage (V-t curve) are correlated to spatial reorganization of the driving current together with increasing or decreasing of resistive and non-resistive flow channels in a multiple connected network. In addition, it is shown that the voltage decays appearing in V-t curves are characterized by an exponential time dependence which is analogous to the glassy state relaxation

  17. Cyclic voltammetric investigations of microstructured and platinum-covered glassy carbon electrodes in contact with a polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, G G; Veziridis, Z; Staub, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Freimuth, H [Inst. fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz IMM, Mainz (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Model gas diffusion electrodes were prepared by microstructuring glassy carbon surfaces with high aspect ratios and subsequent deposition of platinum. These electrodes were characterized by hydrogen under-potential deposition (H-upd) in contact with a polymer electrolyte membrane employing cyclic voltametry. H-upd was found on platinum areas not in direct contact to the solid electrolyte, as long as a continuous platinum-path existed. A carbon surface between platinum acts as barrier for H-upd. (author) 4 figs., 5 refs.

  18. Moessbauer study of the local environment of the iron implanted in glassy AgAsS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, E.A.; Vlasov, Yu.G.; Dravin, V.A.; Semenov, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    Local environment of iron implanted into glassy AgAsS 2 or introduced into this glass in the course of synthesis is investigated. It is shown that chemical forms of iron stabilization are similar in both cases, however, concentrational relations of various forms differ sufficiently. The main doped glass spectrum component (85-88% of the total area) represents a quadrupole iron doublet (2) in glass in tetrahedral sulfide environment. In implanted sample spectra contributions from iron (2) in glass and from amorphous iron disulfide are comparable. Concentrational differences are probably linked with high rates of glass implanted area hardening

  19. Comparative study of reconstruction filters for cranio examinations of the Philips system and its influence on the quality of the tomographic image; Estudo comparativo dos filtros de reconstrucao para exames de cranio do sistema Philips e sua influencia na qualidade da imagem tomografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, V.C.; Kodlulovich, S.; Delduck, R.S., E-mail: simone@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, L.C.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CT/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different reconstruction algorithm (kernels) applied for head examinations. The research was carried out using 40-slice MDCT (Philips, Brilliance 40 CT scanner) and an ACR Phantoms to evaluate the image quality. The doses were estimated applying the coefficients obtained by IMPACT .The study showed that independently of the filter used the values of CT number have no change. The low contrast showed that the choice of correct filter might result a decrease of 9% of doses values. For special resolution, the sharp filter showed a better response for low m As. The noise value of image to certain filters smooth has no changed, even by reducing the m As values. (author)

  20. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t, following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity is maximized with a characteristic length ξ_{4}, when t reaches the relaxation time τ_{α}. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t=0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ∼ξ_{4}, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ_{4} upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τ_{α} and ξ: the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ, which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting

  1. Glassy carbon MEMS for novel origami-styled 3D integrated intracortical and epicortical neural probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshi, Noah; Castagnola, Elisa; Vomero, Maria; Gueli, Calogero; Cea, Claudia; Zucchini, Elena; Bjanes, David; Maggiolini, Emma; Moritz, Chet; Kassegne, Sam; Ricci, Davide; Fadiga, Luciano

    2018-06-01

    We report on a novel technology for microfabricating 3D origami-styled micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structures with glassy carbon (GC) features and a supporting polymer substrate. GC MEMS devices that open to form 3D microstructures are microfabricated from GC patterns that are made through pyrolysis of polymer precursors on high-temperature resisting substrates like silicon or quartz and then transferring the patterned devices to a flexible substrate like polyimide followed by deposition of an insulation layer. The devices on flexible substrate are then folded into 3D form in an origami-fashion. These 3D MEMS devices have tunable mechanical properties that are achieved by selectively varying the thickness of the polymeric substrate and insulation layers at any desired location. This technology opens new possibilities by enabling microfabrication of a variety of 3D GC MEMS structures suited to applications ranging from biochemical sensing to implantable microelectrode arrays. As a demonstration of the technology, a neural signal recording microelectrode array platform that integrates both surface (cortical) and depth (intracortical) GC microelectrodes onto a single flexible thin-film device is introduced. When the device is unfurled, a pre-shaped shank of polyimide automatically comes off the substrate and forms the penetrating part of the device in a 3D fashion. With the advantage of being highly reproducible and batch-fabricated, the device introduced here allows for simultaneous recording of electrophysiological signals from both the brain surface (electrocorticography—ECoG) and depth (single neuron). Our device, therefore, has the potential to elucidate the roles of underlying neurons on the different components of µECoG signals. For in vivo validation of the design capabilities, the recording sites are coated with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)—polystyrene sulfonate—carbon nanotube composite, to improve the electrical conductivity of the

  2. Chemical attachment of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on glassy carbon electrode for electrocatalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Abraham John, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FMWCNTs were covalently attached on GC surface with the aid of alkyldiamine. • The attached FMWCNTs were stable for a wide potential window due to the robust C−N bond. • The composite electrode was prepared by electropolymerizing thiadiazole on FMWCNTs. • The detection limit of 0.27 μM (S/N = 3) of GMP was achieved using composite modified electrode. - Abstract: The covalent attachment of acid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) on glassy carbon (GC) electrode using 1,8-octanediamine (OD) as a linker via carbodiimide chemistry was described. The attachment of FMWCNTs on GC electrode were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infra-red (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance studies. Raman spectrum of FMWCNTs modified surface shows the characteristic G and D bands at 1563 cm −1 and 1340 cm −1 , respectively. This confirmed the successful attachment of FMWCNTs on the OD modified GC surface. Further, the attachment of FMWCNTs on OD modified surface via amide linkage was confirmed from the observed characteristic peak at 1681 cm −1 in the ATR-FT-IR spectrum. The SEM images showed that the covalently attached FMWCNTs retained their morphology similar to powder and the average diameter of them was found to be 58 nm. Unlike modification of FMWCNTs on gold substrates with the aid of conventional thiol linkers (Au−S bond), modification of them by the present method was stable for a wide positive potential window due to the robust C−N bond. To demonstrate the electrochemical stability of the MWCNTs modified electrode at more positive potential, guanosine 5′-monophosphate (GMP) was selected as a representative probe because its oxidation occurs at more than 1 V. It was found that the FMWCNTs modified electrode not only showed a stable signal for GMP but also enhanced its oxidation current when compared to bare GC electrode. Further, the

  3. Revealing Hidden Structural Order Controlling Both Fast and Slow Glassy Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hua; Tanaka, Hajime

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of a supercooled liquid near the glass transition is characterized by two-step relaxation, fast β and slow α relaxations. Because of the apparently disordered nature of glassy structures, there have been long debates over whether the origin of drastic slowing-down of the α relaxation accompanied by heterogeneous dynamics is thermodynamic or dynamic. Furthermore, it has been elusive whether there is any deep connection between fast β and slow α modes. To settle these issues, here we introduce a set of new structural order parameters characterizing sterically favored structures with high local packing capability, and then access structure-dynamics correlation by a novel nonlocal approach. We find that the particle mobility is under control of the static order parameter field. The fast β process is controlled by the instantaneous order parameter field locally, resulting in short-time particle-scale dynamics. Then the mobility field progressively develops with time t , following the initial order parameter field from disorder to more ordered regions. As is well known, the heterogeneity in the mobility field (dynamic heterogeneity) is maximized with a characteristic length ξ4, when t reaches the relaxation time τα. We discover that this mobility pattern can be predicted solely by a spatial coarse graining of the initial order parameter field at t =0 over a length ξ without any dynamical information. Furthermore, we find a relation ξ ˜ξ4, indicating that the static length ξ grows coherently with the dynamic one ξ4 upon cooling. This further suggests an intrinsic link between τα and ξ : the growth of the static length ξ is the origin of dynamical slowing-down. These we confirm for the first time in binary glass formers both in two and three spatial dimensions. Thus, a static structure has two intrinsic characteristic lengths, particle size and ξ , which control dynamics in local and nonlocal manners, resulting in the emergence of the two

  4. Glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of some binary and ternary Ni-based glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Xie Guoqiang; Li Song; Zhang Wei; Inoue, Akihisa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current paper is to study the influence of Ti, V, Nb, Al, Sn and Pd additions on the glass-forming ability, formation of a supercooled liquid region and a devitrification process of some Ni-Zr glassy alloys as well as to compare the results with those obtained for similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. The Ni-based glassy alloys were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. Although the studied Ni-based alloys showed high values of the reduced glass-transition temperature of about 0.6, their glass-forming ability is quite low. This fact may be explained by low stability of the supercooled liquid against crystallization and formation of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds with a high growth rate compared to those observed in similar Cu-based alloys studied earlier. Relatively low thermal conductivity of Ni-based alloys is also found to be another factor limiting their glass-forming ability

  5. Operation of low-energy ion implanters for Si, N, C ion implantation into silicon and glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report details the operation of the low-energy ion implanters at GNS Science for C, N and Si implantations. Two implanters are presented, from a description of the components through to instructions for operation. Historically the implanters have been identified with the labels 'industrial' and 'experimental'. However, the machines only differ significantly in the species of ions available for implantation and sample temperature during implantation. Both machines have been custom designed for research purposes, with a wide range of ion species available for ion implantation and the ability to implant two ions into the same sample at the same time from two different ion sources. A fast sample transfer capability and homogenous scanning profiles are featured in both cases. Samples up to 13 mm 2 can be implanted, with the ability to implant at temperatures down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The implanters have been used to implant 28 Si + , 14 N + and 12 C + into silicon and glassy carbon substrates. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy has been used to analyse the implanted material. From the data a Si 30 C 61 N 9 layer was measured extending from the surface to a depth of about 77 ± 2 nm for (100) silicon implanted with 12 C + and 14 N + at multiple energies. Silicon and nitrogen ion implantation into glassy carbon produced a Si (40.5 %), C (38 %), N (19.5 %) and O (2%) layer centred around a depth of 50 ± 2 nm from the surface. (author). 8 refs., 20 figs

  6. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. PMID:27089341

  7. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of antiviral drug acyclovir at polymer film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorraji, Parisa S.; Jalali, Fahimeh, E-mail: fjalali@razi.ac.ir

    2016-04-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of acyclovir was developed by the electropolymerization of Eriochrome black T at a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of acyclovir on the modified electrode surface relative to the unmodified electrode. The detection limit of 12 nM and two linear calibration ranges of 0.03–0.3 μM and 0.3–1.5 μM were obtained for acyclovir determination using a differential pulse voltammetric method in acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood serum and pharmaceutical formulations, which offered good recovery (98–102%). The electrode showed excellent reproducibility, selectivity and antifouling effects. - Graphical abstract: Eriochrome black T (EBT) was electropolymerized at the surface of a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode enhanced the oxidation current of acyclovir, significantly. The sensor was used in the determination of acyclovir in human blood serum samples and pharmaceutical dosages. - Highlights: • Construction of a voltammetric sensor for acyclovir is described. • Eriochrome black T was electropolymerized at the electrode surface. • The sensor improved the sensitivity of the electrode for monitoring acyclovir. • The recoveries and standard deviations were acceptable in spiked human blood serum. • The proposed sensor had good lifetime to be used in biological matrices.

  8. Fabrication of calix[4]pyrrole nanofilms at the glassy carbon surface and their characterization by spectroscopic, optic and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taner, Bilge; Ozcan, Emine; Ustuendag, Zafer; Keskin, Selda; Solak, Ali Osman; Eksi, Haslet

    2010-01-01

    meso-Octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (CP) and meso-heptaethylcalix[4]pyrrole-meso-4-aminophenyl (4APCP) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were prepared by the electrochemical oxidation in acetonitrile solution. Binding of the calix[4]pyrroles with the glassy carbon surface was investigated that it is through the etheric linkage revealed from the reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Surface films of CP and 4APCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, RAIRS and the contact angle measurements. The thicknesses of the films were determined by ellipsometry which confirmed that the film was multilayer and homogeneous over the surface. Ellipsometric measurements also provided that the CP and 4APCP film thicknesses were 2.49 nm and 4.58 nm for 6 CV cycle modification, corresponding to 66 μF/cm 2 and 106 μF/cm 2 capacitances obtained by CV. The wetting behavior was examined by contact angle measurements and found that the hydrophobicity of the GC-4APCP surface was higher than that of GC-CP, probably due to the aromatic meso substituent present in the former.

  9. Fabrication of calix[4]pyrrole nanofilms at the glassy carbon surface and their characterization by spectroscopic, optic and electrochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, Bilge; Ozcan, Emine [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry, Konya (Turkey); Ustuendag, Zafer [Dumlupinar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuetahya (Turkey); Keskin, Selda [Middle East Technical University, Central Research Laboratory, Ankara (Turkey); Solak, Ali Osman, E-mail: osolak@science.ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Eksi, Haslet [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-10-29

    meso-Octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (CP) and meso-heptaethylcalix[4]pyrrole-meso-4-aminophenyl (4APCP) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were prepared by the electrochemical oxidation in acetonitrile solution. Binding of the calix[4]pyrroles with the glassy carbon surface was investigated that it is through the etheric linkage revealed from the reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Surface films of CP and 4APCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, RAIRS and the contact angle measurements. The thicknesses of the films were determined by ellipsometry which confirmed that the film was multilayer and homogeneous over the surface. Ellipsometric measurements also provided that the CP and 4APCP film thicknesses were 2.49 nm and 4.58 nm for 6 CV cycle modification, corresponding to 66 {mu}F/cm{sup 2} and 106 {mu}F/cm{sup 2} capacitances obtained by CV. The wetting behavior was examined by contact angle measurements and found that the hydrophobicity of the GC-4APCP surface was higher than that of GC-CP, probably due to the aromatic meso substituent present in the former.

  10. Electrochemical determination of serotonin in urine samples based on metal oxide nanoparticles/MWCNT on modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE at physiological pH 7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98 × 10−3 μM to 62.8 μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166 nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors were found to be electrochemically stable, reusable, economically effective due to their extremely low operational cost, and have demonstrated good limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity towards serotonin determination in urine samples. Keywords: Metal oxides nanoparticles, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Glassy carbon electrode, Serotonin, Cyclic voltammetry, Square wave voltammetry

  11. Destruction-polymerization transformations as a source of radiation-induced extended defects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Filipecki, Jacek; Shpotyuk, Mykhaylo

    2013-01-01

    Long-wave shift of the optical transmission spectrum in the region of fundamental optical absorption edge is registered for As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glassy semiconductors after γ-irradiation. This effect is explained in the frameworks of the destruction-polymerization transformations concept by accepting the switching of the heteropolar As-S covalent bonds into homopolar As-As ones. It is assumed that (As 4 + ; S 1 - ) defect pairs are created under such switching. Formula to calculate content of the induced defects in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors is proposed. It is assumed that defects concentration depends on energy of broken covalent bond, bond-switching energy balance, correlation energy, optical band-gap and energy of excitation light. It is shown that theoretically calculated maximally possible content of radiation-induced defects in As 2 S 3 is about 1.6% while concentration of native defects is negligible. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Molecular dynamics study of dynamic and structural properties of supercooled liquid and glassy iron in the rapid-cooling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qi-Long; Huang, Duo-Hui; Yang, Jun-Sheng; Wan, Min-Jie; Wang, Fan-Hou, E-mail: eatonch@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to study the dynamic and structural properties of supercooled liquid and glassy iron in the rapid-cooling processes. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter were used to describe the dynamic properties. The evolution of structural properties was investigated using the pair distribution functions and bond-angle distribution functions. Results for dynamic and structural relaxations indicate that the dynamic features are consistently correlated with the structure evolution, and there are three temperature regions as the temperature decreases: (1) at higher temperatures (1500 K, 1300 K, and 1100 K), the system remains in the liquid characteristics during the overall relaxation process. (2) At medial temperatures (1050 K, 900 K, and 700 K), a fast β-relaxation is followed by a much slower α-relaxation. There is a little change in the structural properties in the β-relaxation region, while major configuration rearrangements occurred in the α-relaxation range and the crystallization process was completed at the end of α-relaxation region. (3) At lower temperature (500 K), the system shows glassy characteristics during the overall relaxation process. In addition, the melting temperature, glass transition temperature and diffusion coefficients of supercooled liquid iron are also computed.

  13. Electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotube coated glassy carbon electrode for the improved sensing of tinidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed; Rastgar, Shokoufeh

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of tinidazole (TNZ) is studied on gold-nanoparticle/carbon-nanotubes (AuNP/CNT) modified glassy carbon electrodes using the linear sweep voltammetry. An electrochemical procedure was used for the deposition of gold nanoparticles onto the carbon nanotube film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode surface. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The effect of the electrodeposition conditions, e.g., salt concentration and deposition time on the response of the electrode was studied. Also, the effect of experimental parameters, e.g., potential and time of accumulation, pH of the buffered solutions and the potential sweep rate on the response is examined. Under the optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response toward the concentration of TNZ in the range of 0.1–50 μM with a detection limit of 10 nM. The prepared electrode was successfully applied for the determination of TNZ in pharmaceutical and clinical samples.

  14. Importance of thiol-functionalized molecules for the structure and properties of compression-molded glassy wheat gluten bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansens, Koen J A; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Goderis, Bart; Smet, Mario; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-11-06

    High-temperature compression molding of wheat gluten at low water levels yields a rigid plastic-like material. We performed a systematic study to determine the effect of additives with multiple thiol (SH) groups on gluten network formation during processing and investigate the impact of the resulting gluten network on the mechanical properties of the glassy end product. To this end, a fraction of the hydroxyl groups of different polyols was converted into SH functionalities by esterifying with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The monofunctional additive MPA was evaluated as well. During low-temperature mixing SH-containing additives decreased the gluten molecular weight, whereas protein cross-linking occurred during high-temperature compression molding. The extent of both processes depended on the molecular architecture of the additives and their concentration. After molding, the material strength and failure strain increased without affecting the modulus, provided the additive concentration was low. The strength decreased again at too high concentrations for polyols with low SH functionalization. Attributing these effects solely to the interplay of plasticization and the SH-facilitated introduction of cross-links is inadequate, since an improvement in both strength and failure strain was also observed in the presence of high levels of MPA. It is hypothesized that, regardless of the molecular structure of the additive, the presence of SH-containing groups induces conformational changes which contribute to the mechanical properties of glassy gluten materials.

  15. A 3D Microfluidic Chip for Electrochemical Detection of Hydrolysed Nucleic Bases by a Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vlachova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH. It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  16. A 3D microfluidic chip for electrochemical detection of hydrolysed nucleic bases by a modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachova, Jana; Tmejova, Katerina; Kopel, Pavel; Korabik, Maria; Zitka, Jan; Hynek, David; Kynicky, Jindrich; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-22

    Modification of carbon materials, especially graphene-based materials, has wide applications in electrochemical detection such as electrochemical lab-on-chip devices. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with chemically alternated graphene oxide was used as a working electrode (glassy carbon modified by graphene oxide with sulphur containing compounds and Nafion) for detection of nucleobases in hydrolysed samples (HCl pH = 2.9, 100 °C, 1 h, neutralization by NaOH). It was found out that modification, especially with trithiocyanuric acid, increased the sensitivity of detection in comparison with pure GCE. All processes were finally implemented in a microfluidic chip formed with a 3D printer by fused deposition modelling technology. As a material for chip fabrication, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene was chosen because of its mechanical and chemical stability. The chip contained the one chamber for the hydrolysis of the nucleic acid and another for the electrochemical detection by the modified GCE. This chamber was fabricated to allow for replacement of the GCE.

  17. Differential pulse voltammetric determination of nanomolar concentrations of antiviral drug acyclovir at polymer film modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorraji, Parisa S.; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for the sensitive detection of acyclovir was developed by the electropolymerization of Eriochrome black T at a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Under the optimized conditions, a significant electrochemical improvement was observed toward the electrooxidation of acyclovir on the modified electrode surface relative to the unmodified electrode. The detection limit of 12 nM and two linear calibration ranges of 0.03–0.3 μM and 0.3–1.5 μM were obtained for acyclovir determination using a differential pulse voltammetric method in acetate buffer (0.1 M, pH 4.0). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood serum and pharmaceutical formulations, which offered good recovery (98–102%). The electrode showed excellent reproducibility, selectivity and antifouling effects. - Graphical abstract: Eriochrome black T (EBT) was electropolymerized at the surface of a pretreated glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode enhanced the oxidation current of acyclovir, significantly. The sensor was used in the determination of acyclovir in human blood serum samples and pharmaceutical dosages. - Highlights: • Construction of a voltammetric sensor for acyclovir is described. • Eriochrome black T was electropolymerized at the electrode surface. • The sensor improved the sensitivity of the electrode for monitoring acyclovir. • The recoveries and standard deviations were acceptable in spiked human blood serum. • The proposed sensor had good lifetime to be used in biological matrices.

  18. Photogeneration of singlet oxygen by the phenothiazine derivatives covalently bound to the surface-modified glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata, E-mail: agata.blacha@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Piwowar, Katarzyna; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koscielniak, Piotr; Szuber, Jacek [Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The selected group of four NH{sub 2}-derivatives of phenothiazine was grafted to Glassy Carbon (GC) surface. • The grafted phenothiazines are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the radiation. • Such modified solid surfaces may find their application in the wastewater treatment. - Abstract: The selected group of four amine-derivatives of phenothiazine was covalently grafted to the glassy carbon surface in the four-step procedure consisting of the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt followed by the electrochemical and chemical post-modification steps. The proposed strategy involves the bonding of linker molecule to which the photosensitizer is attached. The synthesized organic layers were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, XPS and Raman Spectroscopy. It was shown that the phenothiazines immobilized via proposed strategy retain their photochemical properties and are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the laser radiation. The effectiveness of in situ singlet oxygen generation by those new solid photoactive materials was determined by means of UVVis spectroscopy. The reported, covalently modified solid surfaces may find their application as the singlet oxygen photogenerators in the fine chemicals’ synthesis or in the wastewater treatment.

  19. Local atomic and electronic structure in glassy metallic alloys. Final report, March 1, 1979-May 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messmer, R.P.; Wong, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research results reported, represent the first coordinated experimental-theoretical effort to arrive at important local atomic and electronic structure information in glassy alloys. During the three years covered by the contract, significant experimental and theoretical developments have taken place both in the general technical community and at General Electric which have had an important impact on the approach to this problem. This is particularly true in the theoretical area where two important advances, the development of a general Xα-LCAO approach, and the development of a general and accurate effective potential approach for density functional methods, have allowed us to construct a new computational capability which combines these two advances. Two subsections briefly review the experimental and theoretical technical developments, respectively. These developments have changed initial perspectives regarding research on local atomic and electronic structure in glassy metallic alloys. Section II presents a synopsis of our accomplishments during the contract period and Section III contains a more detailed discussion of some of these accomplishments, namely those portions of the work which have been published or submitted for publication at the time of writing this final report

  20. Modelos de Composição e Percepção de Xenakis: Concret PH e o Pavilhão Philips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rossetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda os modelos de composição e percepção de Xenakis. Segundo o próprio compositor, seu modelo de composição é baseado em distintas formalizações iniciais (estruturas fora-do-tempo, cujo objetivo é gerar dados musicais (estruturas no-tempo, tendo muitas vezes como referência o novo paradigma da ciência moderna do século XX. Por outro lado, a questão da sensibilidade musical é abordada por Xenakis a partir de um viés fundamentado na fenomenologia. Para ilustrar esta dualidade em seu processo criativo, abordaremos analiticamente o processo composicional de sua obra eletroacústica Concret PH (1958 e sua difusão no interior do Pavilhão Philips, cuja concepção de espacialidade se dá a partir do conceito de “gesto eletrônico”. Para a discussão teórica sobre seu modelo perceptivo, trazemos algumas considerações sobre espaço e tempo originárias de Kant e Merleau-Ponty. Já para a análise de Concret PH, nos reportaremos ao modelo de representação sonora de Gabor e ao conceito de trama de Xenakis, além de análises espectrais.

  1. Currency exposure management within Philips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronner, AE; Trappeniers, DAM; Bruni, F; Fair, DE; OBrien, R

    1996-01-01

    It is a major challenge to embed modern financial technology in the continuously changing organisational structure of a multinational company. The processes generating cash flow are to be controlled and proper forecasting models are to be implemented. Based on quarterly rolling forecasts the basic

  2. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  3. Layer by layer assembly of glucose oxidase and thiourea onto glassy carbon electrode: Fabrication of glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimi, Abdollah; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Although various enzymes immobilization have been approve for the construction of glucose biosensor, a layer by layer (LBL) technique has attracted more attention due to simplicity of the procedure, wide choice of materials that can be used, controllability of film thickness and unique mechanical properties. → In this paper, we described a novel and simple strategy for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer self assembly of glucose oxidase on the glassy carbon electrode modified by thiourea. → Thiourea has two amino groups that the one can be immobilized on the activated glassy carbon electrode and the other can be used for the coupling of glucose oxidase enzyme. → The biosensor exhibited good performance for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, short response time and wide concentration range. → Finally, the new method is strongly recommended for immobilization of many other enzymes or proteins containing carbaldehyde or carboxylic groups for fabricating third generation biosensors and bioelectronics devices. - Abstract: For the first time a novel, simple and facile approach is described to construct highly stable glucose oxidase (GOx) multilayer onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode using thiourea (TU) as a covalent attachment cross-linker. The layer by layer (LBL) attachment process was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-RS) techniques. Immobilized GOx shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation using ferrocenemethanol as artificial electron transfer mediator and biosensor response was directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active GOx per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K M ), of immobilized GOx were 1.50 x 10 -12 mol cm -2 , 9.2 ± 0.5 s -1 and 3.42(±0

  4. Layer by layer assembly of glucose oxidase and thiourea onto glassy carbon electrode: Fabrication of glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistsn, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistsn, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engenering, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, University of Isfahan, 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > Although various enzymes immobilization have been approve for the construction of glucose biosensor, a layer by layer (LBL) technique has attracted more attention due to simplicity of the procedure, wide choice of materials that can be used, controllability of film thickness and unique mechanical properties. > In this paper, we described a novel and simple strategy for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor based on layer-by-layer self assembly of glucose oxidase on the glassy carbon electrode modified by thiourea. > Thiourea has two amino groups that the one can be immobilized on the activated glassy carbon electrode and the other can be used for the coupling of glucose oxidase enzyme. > The biosensor exhibited good performance for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, short response time and wide concentration range. > Finally, the new method is strongly recommended for immobilization of many other enzymes or proteins containing carbaldehyde or carboxylic groups for fabricating third generation biosensors and bioelectronics devices. - Abstract: For the first time a novel, simple and facile approach is described to construct highly stable glucose oxidase (GOx) multilayer onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode using thiourea (TU) as a covalent attachment cross-linker. The layer by layer (LBL) attachment process was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-RS) techniques. Immobilized GOx shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward glucose oxidation using ferrocenemethanol as artificial electron transfer mediator and biosensor response was directly correlated to the number of bilayers. The surface coverage of active GOx per bilayer, heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub M}), of immobilized GOx were 1.50 x 10{sup -12} mol cm{sup -2}, 9.2 {+-} 0.5 s{sup -1

  5. Modification of glassy carbon electrode with a polymer/mediator composite and its application for the electrochemical detection of iodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chia-Yu; Balamurugan, A.; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Hu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Po-Yen; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FAD and PEDOT are combined to modify the glassy carbon electrode for IO 3 − sensing. ► The doping of FAD into PEDOT matrix can almost be viewed as an irreversible process. ► The optimal cycle number for preparing the GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode is found to be 9. ► The detection limit of the GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode for IO 3 − is found to be 0.16 μM. ► The GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode possesses enough selectivity toward IO 3 − . - Abstract: A modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by depositing a composite of polymer and mediator on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The mediator, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and the polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were electrochemically deposited as a composite on the GCE by applying cyclic voltammetry (CV). This modified electrode is hereafter designated as GCE/PEDOT/FAD. FAD was found to significantly enhance the growth of PEDOT. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) analysis was performed to study the mass changes in the electrode during the electrodeposition of PEDOT, with and without the addition of FAD. The optimal cycle number for preparing the modified electrode was determined to be 9, and the corresponding surface coverage of FAD (Γ FAD ) was ca. 5.11 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 . The amperometric detection of iodate was performed in a 100 mM buffer solution (pH 1.5). The GCE/PEDOT/FAD showed a sensitivity of 0.78 μA μM −1 cm −2 , a linear range of 4–140 μM, and a limit of detection of 0.16 μM for iodate. The interference effects of 250-fold Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Zn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Cl − , NO 3 − , I − , SO 4 2− and SO 3 2− , with reference to the concentration of iodate were negligible. The long-term stability of GCE/PEDOT/FAD was also investigated. The GCE/PEDOT/FAD electrode retained 82% of its initial amperometric response to iodate after 7 days. The GCE/PEDOT/FAD was also applied to determine iodate in a commercial salt.

  6. EIS study of the redox reaction of Fe(CN)63-/4- at glassy carbon electrode via diazonium reduction in aqueous and acetonitrile solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshroo, M.; Rostami, A. [Mazandaran Univ., Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that characterized soluble electroactive species by cyclic voltammetry to investigate the presence of grafted films and their blocking properties. In particular, the authority of the glassy carbon electrode modification conditions on the cyclic voltammetric response of Fe(CN)63-/4- oxido-reduction was examined for 2 layers grafted by electrochemical reduction of diazonium salts in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions. PAA and Fast Black K modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited a significant blocking behaviour for oxidation and reduction reactions of the Fe(CN)63-/4- redox system in aqueous and acetonitrile solutions. The study showed that the blocking effect increased which changes in time and concentration of diazonium salts in acetonitrile solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed that the physical barrier of grafted layers prevent the access of Fe(CN)63-/4- to the underlying glassy carbon electrode. Therefore the RCT resistance increases during the modification treatment. The substituted phenyl layers are much more compact and less permeable in a nonaqueous solvent than with an aqueous solvent. Electrochemical impedance measurements indicate that the kinetics of electron transfer slow down when the time and the concentration used to modify the glassy carbon electrode increase. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of kaolin particle film and imidacloprid on glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)populations and the prevention of spread of Xylella fastidiosa in grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata (Say), was introduced into California and soon became a major pest of important agronomic, horticultural, landscape, ornamental crops and native trees in California. This pest feeds readily on grape and, in doing so, transmits X. fastidio...

  9. A study on the positron annihilation of glassy Bi1Sr1Ca1Cu2Ox quenched from the molten liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Zhang; Xiao-Guang Wang; Le Luo; Shu-Hui Hu

    1989-01-01

    Some experimental results about the change of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening in glassy Bi 1 Sr 1 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x samples after post-annealing are reported. X-ray diffraction was used to examine the existing phases. Positron annihilation measurements indicate that there are two crystallization transformations from 20 0 to 830 0 C

  10. A validation of carbon fiber imaging couch top modeling in two radiation therapy treatment planning systems: Philips Pinnacle3 and BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njeh, Christopher F; Parker, Jason; Spurgin, Joseph; Rhoe, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) is now the material of choice for radiation therapy couch tops. Initial designs included side metal bars for rigidity; however, with the advent of IGRT, involving on board imaging, new thicker CF couch tops without metal bars have been developed. The new design allows for excellent imaging at the expense of potentially unacceptable dose attenuation and perturbation. We set out to model the BrainLAB imaging couch top (ICT) in Philips Pinnacle 3 treatment planning system (TPS), to validate the already modeled ICT in BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose treatment planning system and to compute the magnitude of the loss in skin sparing. Using CF density of 0.55 g/cm 3 and foam density of 0.03 g/cm 3 , we demonstrated an excellent agreement between measured dose and Pinnacle 3 TPS computed dose using 6 MV beam. The agreement was within 1% for all gantry angle measured except for 120 o , which was 1.8%. The measured and iPlan RT Dose TPS computed dose agreed to within 1% for all gantry angles and field sizes measured except for 100 o where the agreement was 1.4% for 10 cm × 10 cm field size. Predicted attenuation through the couch by iPlan RT Dose TPS (3.4% - 9.5%) and Pinnacle 3 TPS (2% - 6.6%) were within the same magnitude and similar to previously reported in the literature. Pinnacle 3 TPS estimated an 8% to 20% increase in skin dose with increase in field size. With the introduction of the CF couch top, it estimated an increase in skin dose by approximately 46 - 90%. The clinical impact of omitting the couch in treatment planning will be dependent on the beam arrangement, the percentage of the beams intersecting the couch and their angles of incidence. We have successfully modeled the ICT in Pinnacle 3 TPS and validated the modeled ICT in iPlan RT Dose. It is recommended that the ICT be included in treatment planning for all treatments that involve posteriors beams. There is a significant increase in skin dose that is dependent on the percentage of the beam

  11. A validation of carbon fiber imaging couch top modeling in two radiation therapy treatment planning systems: Philips Pinnacle3 and BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njeh Christopher F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon fiber (CF is now the material of choice for radiation therapy couch tops. Initial designs included side metal bars for rigidity; however, with the advent of IGRT, involving on board imaging, new thicker CF couch tops without metal bars have been developed. The new design allows for excellent imaging at the expense of potentially unacceptable dose attenuation and perturbation. Objectives We set out to model the BrainLAB imaging couch top (ICT in Philips Pinnacle3 treatment planning system (TPS, to validate the already modeled ICT in BrainLAB iPlan RT Dose treatment planning system and to compute the magnitude of the loss in skin sparing. Results Using CF density of 0.55 g/cm3 and foam density of 0.03 g/cm3, we demonstrated an excellent agreement between measured dose and Pinnacle3 TPS computed dose using 6 MV beam. The agreement was within 1% for all gantry angle measured except for 120o, which was 1.8%. The measured and iPlan RT Dose TPS computed dose agreed to within 1% for all gantry angles and field sizes measured except for 100o where the agreement was 1.4% for 10 cm × 10 cm field size. Predicted attenuation through the couch by iPlan RT Dose TPS (3.4% - 9.5% and Pinnacle3 TPS (2% - 6.6% were within the same magnitude and similar to previously reported in the literature. Pinnacle3 TPS estimated an 8% to 20% increase in skin dose with increase in field size. With the introduction of the CF couch top, it estimated an increase in skin dose by approximately 46 - 90%. The clinical impact of omitting the couch in treatment planning will be dependent on the beam arrangement, the percentage of the beams intersecting the couch and their angles of incidence. Conclusion We have successfully modeled the ICT in Pinnacle3 TPS and validated the modeled ICT in iPlan RT Dose. It is recommended that the ICT be included in treatment planning for all treatments that involve posteriors beams. There is a significant

  12. The University of Salamanca under Philip II in statistic data La Universidad de Salamanca bajo Felipe II en estadísticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier ALEJO MONTES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a statistical comparative study between the students who were registering in the University of Salamanca and who were obtaining each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University. It fills an existing emptiness in the University of Salamanca historiography, since a comparative study was necessary in the epoch of Philip II. The study analyzes the university matriculation, the requirements to formalize it, the order in which there were staying new recruits and the statistical contributed information. Likewise, there are analyzed and compare the statistical information contributed for each of three degrees that could be obtained in the University of Salamanca, which they were that of graduate, that of licentiate and that of doctor or teacher. It appreciates clearly the importance that had each of the faculties, being clearly the most valued the Faculty of Canon law and that less, that of Medicine.El presente artículo es un estudio estadístico comparativo entre los estudiantes que se matriculaban en la Universidad de Salamanca y los que obtenían cada uno de los tres grados que se podían obtener en la Universidad. Llena un vacío existente en la historiografía universitaria salmantina, ya que era necesario un estudio comparativo en la época de Felipe II. El estudio analiza la matrícula universitaria, los requisitos para formalizarla, el orden en el que quedaban inscritos y los datos estadísticos aportados. Asimismo, se analizan y comparan los datos estadísticos aportados para cada uno de los tres grados que se podían obtener en la Universidad de Salamanca, que eran el de bachiller, el de licenciado y el de doctor o maestro. Con ello, se aprecia claramente la importancia que tenía cada una de las Facultades, siendo claramente la más valorada la Facultad de Derecho Canónico y la que menos, la de Medicina.

  13. Dynamic actuation of glassy polymersomes through isomerization of a single azobenzene unit at the block copolymer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Mijanur Rahaman; Rangadurai, Poornima; Antony, Lucas; Swaminathan, Subramani; de Pablo, Juan J.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2018-06-01

    Nature has engineered exquisitely responsive systems where molecular-scale information is transferred across an interface and propagated over long length scales. Such systems rely on multiple interacting, signalling and adaptable molecular and supramolecular networks that are built on dynamic, non-equilibrium structures. Comparable synthetic systems are still in their infancy. Here, we demonstrate that the light-induced actuation of a molecularly thin interfacial layer, assembled from a hydrophilic- azobenzene -hydrophobic diblock copolymer, can result in a reversible, long-lived perturbation of a robust glassy membrane across a range of over 500 chemical bonds. We show that the out-of-equilibrium actuation is caused by the photochemical trans-cis isomerization of the azo group, a single chemical functionality, in the middle of the interfacial layer. The principles proposed here are implemented in water-dispersed nanocapsules, and have implications for on-demand release of embedded cargo molecules.

  14. Novel glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles and glucose oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Ying, S.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2011-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor is presented as that based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) and glucose oxidase. The sensor exhibits a better differential pulse voltammetric response towards glucose than the one based on conventional gold nanoparticles of the same size. This is attributed to the good biological conductivity and biocompatibility of HGNs. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor displays a linear range from 2.0 x 10 -6 to 4.6 x 10 -5 M of glucose, with a detection limit of 1.6 x 10 -6 M (S/N = 3). Good reproducibility, stability and no interference make this biosensor applicable to the determination of glucose in samples such as sports drinks. (author)

  15. Glucose biosensing using glassy carbon electrode modified with polyhydroxy-C60, glucose oxidase and ionic-liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Yu-Shuai; Xiao, BaoLin; Hong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) was achieved when an ionic liquid/GOD-Polyhydroxy-C60 functional membrane was confined on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of the modified GCE showed a pair of redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of - 329 ± 2 mV. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (k(s)) was 1.43 s-1. The modified GCE response to glucose was linear in the range from 0.02 to 2.0 mM. The detection limit was 1 μM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)(app)) was 1.45 mM.

  16. Oxidation of cumene hydroperoxide on glassy carbon electrodes in aqueous solution and its interaction with ascorbic and gallic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estévez, Rafael; Mellado, José Miguel Rodríguez; Mayén, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The cumene hydroperoxide oxidation on glassy carbon electrodes involves an irreversible one-electron transfer to peroxide and phenoxy radicals, being the main end products hydroquinone and acetone. The overall oxidation mechanism occurs in two steps: formation of acetone and a phenoxy radical, and the reaction of this phenoxy radical with water, getting stability by oxidizing into p-benzoquinone The interaction of such radicals with ascorbic and gallic acids decreases the oxidation signal of cumene hydroperoxide in differential pulse voltammetry. This decrease, due to the scavenging of the radicals formed after the electron transfer, is related to the antioxidant activities. So, it is possible to substitute the mercury as a probe for the electrochemical determination of antioxidant activity.

  17. Trans-membrane electron transfer in red blood cells immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chunmei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Zhenkun; Bao, Ning; Gu, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the trans-membrane electron transfer in human red blood cells (RBCs) immobilized in a chitosan film on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Electron transfer results from the presence of hemoglobin (Hb) in the RBCs. The electron transfer rate (k s ) of Hb in RBCs is 0.42 s −1 , and <1.13 s −1 for Hb directly immobilized in the chitosan film. Only Hb molecules in RBCs that are closest to the plasma membrane and the surface of the electrode can undergo electron transfer to the electrode. The immobilized RBCs displayed sensitive electrocatalytic response to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. It is believed that this cellular biosensor is of potential significance in studies on the physiological status of RBCs based on observing their electron transfer on the modified electrode. (author)

  18. Electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine by graphene oxide-Pd nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Daekun; You, Jung-Min; Kim, Seul Ki; Yun, Mira; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-12-01

    Pd nanoparticle catalysts supported by thiolated graphene oxide (tGO) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and denoted as tGO-Pd/GCE, are used in this study for the electrochemical determination of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. The physicochemical properties of tGO-Pd were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). They showed strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry were used to characterize the sensors' performances. The detection limits of hydroxylamine and hydrazine by tGO-Pd/GCE were 0.31 and 0.25 microM (s/n = 3), respectively. The sensors' sensitivity, selectivity, and stability were also investigated.

  19. A nanoscale characterisation of extended defects in glassy-like As2Se3 semiconductors with PAL technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Kovalskiy, A.; Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M.; Kozdras, A.

    2003-01-01

    A meaningful interpretation of positron lifetime characteristics for glassy-like g-As 2 Se 3 is developed taking into account calculations of Jensen et al. (J. Non-Cryst. Solids 170 (1994) 57) for positrons trapped by free-volume extended defects in orthorhombic As 2 Se 3 and void volume distribution for 146-atoms layer-biased model of amorphous As 2 Se 3 presented by Popescu (J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35-36 (1980) 549). The obtained results are compared for samples having different thermal pre-history. Two groups of experimental results with close lifetime characteristics are distinguished for each of the investigated samples. This feature is explained in terms of average positron lifetime by applying two-state positron trapping model for mathematical treatment of the obtained spectra

  20. Immobilization of CotA, an extremophilic laccase from Bacillus subtilis, on glassy carbon electrodes for biofuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneyton, T.; El Harrak, A.; Griffiths, A.D.; Taly, V. [Institut de Science et d' Ingenierie Supramoleculaire, CNRS UMR, Strasbourg (France); Hellwig, P. [Institut de Chimie, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-15

    Thanks to their high stability over a wide range of experimental conditions, extremophilic enzymes represent an interesting alternative to mesophilic enzymes as catalysts for biofuel cell applications. In the present work, we report for the first time the immobilization of a thermophilic laccase (CotA from Bacillus subtilis endospore coat) on glassy carbon electrodes functionalized via electrochemical reduction of in situ generated aminophenyl monodiazonium salts. We compare the performance of CotA-modified electrodes for the reduction of O{sub 2} to mutant variants and demonstrate that the measured electrical current is directly correlated to the catalytic efficiencies (k{sub cat}/K{sub m}) of the immobilized enzyme. CotA-modified electrodes showed an optimal operation temperature of 45-50 C and stable catalytic activity for at least 7 weeks. (author)

  1. Glassy formation ability, magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingwei; Xu, Chi; Yuan, Ye; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have fabricated the Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon with good glassy formation ability by melt-spinning technology. A broad paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition (second ordered) together with a large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon was observed around the Curie temperature TC ∼ 11 K. Under the magnetic field change (ΔH of 0-7 T, the values of MCE parameter of the maximum magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and refrigerant capacity (RC) for Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous ribbon reach 21.4 J/kg K and 599 J/kg, respectively. The outstanding glass forming ability as well as the excellent magneto-caloric properties indicate that Al27Cu18Er55 amorphous could be a good candidate for low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  2. Supercooled and glassy water: Metastable liquid(s), amorphous solid(s), and a no-man's land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas; Sciortino, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    We review the recent research on supercooled and glassy water, focusing on the possible origins of its complex behavior. We stress the central role played by the strong directionality of the water-water interaction and by the competition between local energy, local entropy, and local density. In this context we discuss the phenomenon of polyamorphism (i.e., the existence of more than one disordered solid state), emphasizing both the role of the preparation protocols and the transformation between the different disordered ices. Finally, we present the ongoing debate on the possibility of linking polyamorphism with a liquid-liquid transition that could take place in the no-man's land, the temperature-pressure window in which homogeneous nucleation prevents the investigation of water in its metastable liquid form.

  3. Trapped electron decay by the thermally-assisted tunnelling to electron acceptors in glassy matrices. A computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feret, B.; Bartczak, W.M.; Kroh, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Redi-Hopefield quantum mechanical model of the thermally-assisted electron transfer has been applied to simulate the decay of trapped electrons by tunnelling to electron acceptor molecules added to the glassy matrix. It was assumed that the electron energy levels in donors and acceptors are statistically distributed and the electron excess energy after transfer is dissipated in the medium by the electron-phonon coupling. The electron decay curves were obtained by the method of computer simulation. It was found that for a given medium there exists a certain preferred value of the electronic excess energy which can be effectively converted into the matrix vibrations. If the mismatch of the electron states on the donor and acceptor coincides with the ''resonance'' energy the overall kinetics of electron transfer is accelerated. (author)

  4. Electric resistivity and thermoelectricity of Ni-Nb-Zr and Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-09-01

    Electric resistivity ρ and thermoelectric power S of Ni 36Nb 24Zr 40 and (Ni 0.36Nb 0.24Zr 0.4) 90H 10 glassy alloys were investigated in temperature region between 1.5 and 300 K. After resistivity curves of both alloys increase gradually with decreasing temperature down to around 6 K, they dropped suddenly and then reached zero resistivity at 2.1 K, leading to superconductivity. Linear curve with negative TCR of ρ vs T2 and slight increase of S/ T in temperature region down to around 6 K clearly reveal Fermi-liquid phenomenon in electronic state for both alloys independent of hydrogen content.

  5. Electric resistivity and thermoelectricity of Ni-Nb-Zr and Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Inoue, Akihisa

    2010-01-01

    Electric resistivity ρ and thermoelectric power S of Ni 36 Nb 24 Zr 40 and (Ni 0.36 Nb 0.24 Zr 0.4 ) 90 H 10 glassy alloys were investigated in temperature region between 1.5 and 300 K. After resistivity curves of both alloys increase gradually with decreasing temperature down to around 6 K, they dropped suddenly and then reached zero resistivity at 2.1 K, leading to superconductivity. Linear curve with negative TCR of ρ vs T 2 and slight increase of S/T in temperature region down to around 6 K clearly reveal Fermi-liquid phenomenon in electronic state for both alloys independent of hydrogen content.

  6. A study on electrochemical redox behavior of nitric acid by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Song, K. C.; Lee, I. H.; Choi, I. K.; You, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical redox behaviors of nitric acid were studied by using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system, and its reaction mechanism was analyzed in several ways. The electrochemical reaction in less than 2.0 M nitric acid was not observed, but in more than 2.0 M nitric acid, the reduction rate of nitric acid to produce nitrous acid was slow so that the nitric acid solution had to be contacted with electrode enough in order for a apparent reduction current of nitric acid to nitrous acid be to observed. The nitrous acid generated in more than 2.0 M nitric acid was rapidly and easily reduced to NOx through an autocatalytic reaction. Sulfamic acid was confirmed to be effective to destroy the nitrous acid. The sulfamic acid of at least 0.05M was necessary to remove the nitrous acid generated in 3.5 M nitric acid

  7. Assembling gold nanorods on a poly-cysteine modified glassy carbon electrode strongly enhance the electrochemical response to tetrabromobisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanying; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Li, Chunya; Wu, Kangbing

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine (Cys) was electrochemically deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry. The poly-Cys modified electrode was placed in a solution of gold nanorods (GNRs) to induced self-assembly of the GNRs. The GNRs/poly-Cys/GCEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A voltammetric study on tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) with this GCE showed the current response to be enhanced by a factor of 11 compared to a non-modified GCE. Based on these findings, a square wave voltammetric assay was worked out. Under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and TBBPA is found for the 10 nM to 10 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 3.2 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of TBBPA in spiked tap water and lake water samples. (author)

  8. Nonequilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically glassy system: interplay of resistor-network theory and Sinai physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Daniel; Rahav, Saar; Cohen, Doron

    2013-12-01

    We introduce an explicit solution for the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath, and is driven by an external hot source with log-wide distribution of couplings. Having time scales that stretch over several decades is similar to glassy systems. Consequently there is a wide range of driving intensities where the NESS is like that of a random walker in a biased Brownian landscape. We investigate the resulting statistics of the induced current I. For a single ring we discuss how sign of I fluctuates as the intensity of the driving is increased, while for an ensemble of rings we highlight the fingerprints of Sinai physics on the distribution of the absolute value of I.

  9. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs irreversibly at a potential about 214 mV less negative than at a bare GC electrode in pH 7.0 buffer solution. Cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode (RDE techniques indicated that the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid has high electrocatalytic activity for the two-electron reduction of oxygen in the studied potential range. The kinetic parameters of ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified GC electrode were also determined by RDE and EIS techniques.

  10. A glassy lava flow from Toconce volcano and its relation with the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body in Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B.; Rodriguez, I.; Aguilera, F.

    2012-12-01

    Toconce is a composite stratovolcano located at the San Pedro - Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC). This volcanic chain distributes within the Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes) which is characterized by extensive rhyodacitic-to-rhyolitic ignimbritic fields, and voluminous domes of dacitic-to-rhyolitic composition (de Silva, 1989). The felsic melts that gave origin to ignimbrites and domes at this area were generated by mixing of mantle-derived magmas and anatectic melts assimilated during their ascent through the thick crust. Thus, partially molten layers exist in the upper crust below the APVC (de Silva et al., 2006). Evidence of large volumes of such melts has been also proposed by geophysical methods (i.e. the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body; Chmielowsky et al., 1999) In this work, petrography and whole rock, mineralogical and melt inclusions geochemistry of a glassy lava flow of Toconce volcano are presented. Petrographically, this lava flow shows a porphyric texture, with euhdral to subhedral plagioclase, ortho- and clino-pyroxene phenocrysts immersed in a glassy groundmass. Geochemically, the lava flow has 64.7% wt. SiO2. The glassy groundmass (~70% wt. SiO2) is more felsic than all the lavas in the volcanic chain (47-68% wt., Godoy et al., 2011). Analyzed orthopyroxene-hosted melt inclusions show an even higher SiO2 content (72-75% wt.), and a decreasing on Al2O3, Na2O, and CaO content with differentiation. Crystallization pressures of this lava flow, obtained using Putirka's two-pyroxene and clinopyroxene-liquid models (Putirka, 2008), range between 6 and 9 kbar. According to crystallization pressures, and major element composition, a felsic source located at shallow crustal pressures - where plagioclase is a stable mineralogical phase - originated the inclusions. This could be related to the presence of the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) located below SPLVC. On the other hand, glassy groundmass, and disequilibrium textures in minerals of this lava flow could

  11. A novel enzymatic glucose sensor based on Pt nanoparticles-decorated hollow carbon spheres-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhana, Charles; Bo, Xiang-Jie; Ju, Jian; Guo, Li-Ping

    2012-10-01

    A new glucose biosensor was developed based on hollow carbon spheres decorated with platinum nanoparticles (Pt/HCSs)-modified glassy carbon electrode immobilized with glucose oxidase (GOx) with the help of Nafion. The Pt nanoparticles were well dispersed on the HCSs with an average size of 2.29 nm. The detection of glucose was achieved via electrochemical detection of the enzymatically liberated H2O2 at +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl at physiologic pH of 7.4. The Pt/HCSs-modified electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activities toward both the oxidation and reduction of H2O2. The glucose biosensor showed good electrocatalytic performance in terms of high sensitivity (4.1 μA mM-1), low detection limit (1.8 μM), fast response time tested with this biosensor and a good recovery was achieved for the two spiked serum samples.

  12. Amperometric xanthine biosensors using glassy carbon electrodes modified with electrografted porous silica nanomaterials loaded with xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadaoui, Maroua; Sánchez, Alfredo; Díez, Paula; Raouafi, Noureddine; Pingarrón, José M.; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with silica materials such as silica nanoparticles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and mesoporous silica thin films with the aim to introduce scaffolds suitable for the immobilization of enzymes. Xanthine oxidase was selected as a model enzyme, and xanthine as the target analyte. A comparison of the modified electrodes showed the biosensor prepared with mesoporous silica nanoparticles to perform best. By using the respective biosensor, xanthine can be amperometrically determined (via measurement of enzymatically formed hydrogen peroxide) at a working voltage of 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a 0.28 μM detection limit. The biosensor was evaluated in terms of potential interferences, reproducibility and stability, and applied to the determination of fish freshness via sensing of xanthine. (author)

  13. Understanding the Composition Dependence of the Fragility of AgI-Ag2O-MxOy Glassy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniya, M

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the fragility in the AgI-Ag 2 O-M x O y (M = B, Ge, P, Mo) system is determined by Ag 2 O-M x O y and does not depend on the amount of AgI. This is an interesting result and provides a hint to understand the nature of the glassy state of these materials. However, the origin of such behavior has not been sufficiently discussed. In the present report a model for the above behavior is presented. According to the model, the behavior arises from the solid like nature of the network formed by Ag 2 O-M x O y and the liquid like AgI which flow between the networks. The model is consistent with the structural model of superionic glasses proposed previously.

  14. A model for complex flows of soft glassy materials with application to flows through fixed fiber beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Arijit; Koch, Donald L., E-mail: dlk15@cornell.edu [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, 120 Olin Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853-5201 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model has successfully described the time dependent simple shear rheology of a broad class of complex fluids including foams, concentrated emulsions, colloidal glasses, and solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The model considers a distribution of mesoscopic fluid elements that hop from trap to trap at a rate which is enhanced by the work done to strain the fluid element. While an SGR fluid has a broad exponential distribution of trap energies, the rheology of NOHMs is better described by a narrower energy distribution and we consider both types of trap energy distributions in this study. We introduce a tensorial version of these models with a hopping rate that depends on the orientation of the element relative to the mean stress field, allowing a range of relative strengths of the extensional and simple shear responses of the fluid. As an application of these models we consider the flow of a soft glassy material through a dilute fixed bed of fibers. The dilute fixed bed exhibits a range of local linear flows which alternate in a chaotic manner with time in a Lagrangian reference frame. It is amenable to an analytical treatment and has been used to characterize the strong flow response of many complex fluids including fiber suspensions, dilute polymer solutions and emulsions. We show that the accumulated strain in the fluid elements has an abrupt nonlinear growth at a Deborah number of order one in a manner similar to that observed for polymer solutions. The exponential dependence of the hopping rate on strain leads to a fluid element deformation that grows logarithmically with Deborah number at high Deborah numbers. SGR fluids having a broad range of trap energies flowing through fixed beds can exhibit a range of rheological behaviors at small Deborah numbers ranging from a yield stress, to a power law response and finally to Newtonian behavior.

  15. A model for complex flows of soft glassy materials with application to flows through fixed fiber beds

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Arijit; Koch, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Society of Rheology. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model has successfully described the time dependent simple shear rheology of a broad class of complex fluids including foams, concentrated emulsions, colloidal glasses, and solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The model considers a distribution of mesoscopic fluid elements that hop from trap to trap at a rate which is enhanced by the work done to strain the fluid element. While an SGR fluid has a broad exponential distribution of trap energies, the rheology of NOHMs is better described by a narrower energy distribution and we consider both types of trap energy distributions in this study. We introduce a tensorial version of these models with a hopping rate that depends on the orientation of the element relative to the mean stress field, allowing a range of relative strengths of the extensional and simple shear responses of the fluid. As an application of these models we consider the flow of a soft glassy material through a dilute fixed bed of fibers. The dilute fixed bed exhibits a range of local linear flows which alternate in a chaotic manner with time in a Lagrangian reference frame. It is amenable to an analytical treatment and has been used to characterize the strong flow response of many complex fluids including fiber suspensions, dilute polymer solutions and emulsions. We show that the accumulated strain in the fluid elements has an abrupt nonlinear growth at a Deborah number of order one in a manner similar to that observed for polymer solutions. The exponential dependence of the hopping rate on strain leads to a fluid element deformation that grows logarithmically with Deborah number at high Deborah numbers. SGR fluids having a broad range of trap energies flowing through fixed beds can exhibit a range of rheological behaviors at small Deborah numbers ranging from a yield stress, to a power law response and finally to Newtonian behavior.

  16. A model for complex flows of soft glassy materials with application to flows through fixed fiber beds

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Arijit

    2015-11-01

    © 2015 The Society of Rheology. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model has successfully described the time dependent simple shear rheology of a broad class of complex fluids including foams, concentrated emulsions, colloidal glasses, and solvent-free nanoparticle-organic hybrid materials (NOHMs). The model considers a distribution of mesoscopic fluid elements that hop from trap to trap at a rate which is enhanced by the work done to strain the fluid element. While an SGR fluid has a broad exponential distribution of trap energies, the rheology of NOHMs is better described by a narrower energy distribution and we consider both types of trap energy distributions in this study. We introduce a tensorial version of these models with a hopping rate that depends on the orientation of the element relative to the mean stress field, allowing a range of relative strengths of the extensional and simple shear responses of the fluid. As an application of these models we consider the flow of a soft glassy material through a dilute fixed bed of fibers. The dilute fixed bed exhibits a range of local linear flows which alternate in a chaotic manner with time in a Lagrangian reference frame. It is amenable to an analytical treatment and has been used to characterize the strong flow response of many complex fluids including fiber suspensions, dilute polymer solutions and emulsions. We show that the accumulated strain in the fluid elements has an abrupt nonlinear growth at a Deborah number of order one in a manner similar to that observed for polymer solutions. The exponential dependence of the hopping rate on strain leads to a fluid element deformation that grows logarithmically with Deborah number at high Deborah numbers. SGR fluids having a broad range of trap energies flowing through fixed beds can exhibit a range of rheological behaviors at small Deborah numbers ranging from a yield stress, to a power law response and finally to Newtonian behavior.

  17. Electrocatalytical oxidation and sensitive determination of acetaminophen on glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene–chitosan composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meixia; Gao, Feng; Wang, Qingxiang; Cai, Xili; Jiang, Shulian; Huang, Lizhang; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of acetaminophen (ACOP) on a graphene–chitosan (GR–CS) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry (CC) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electrochemical characterization showed that the GR–CS nanocomposite had excellent electrocatalytic activity and surface area effect. As compared with bare GCE, the redox signal of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE was greatly enhanced. The values of electron transfer rate constant (k s ), diffusion coefficient (D) and the surface adsorption amount (Γ ⁎ ) of ACOP on GR–CS/GCE were determined to be 0.25 s −1 , 3.61 × 10 −5 cm 2 s −1 and 1.09 × 10 −9 mol cm −2 , respectively. Additionally, a 2e − /2H + electrochemical reaction mechanism of ACOP was deduced based on the acidity experiment. Under the optimized conditions, the ACOP could be quantified in the range from 1.0 × 10 −6 to 1.0 × 10 −4 M with a low detection limit of 3.0 × 10 −7 M based on 3S/N. The interference and recovery experiments further showed that the proposed method is acceptable for the determination of ACOP in real pharmaceutical preparations. Highlights: ► A chitosan–graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared. ► The modified electrode was electrochemically characterized by CV and EIS. ► Electro-oxidation of acetaminophen was examined on the modified electrode. ► Sensing analysis of the modified electrode toward acetaminophen was studied

  18. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hydrogen diffusion and electron tunneling in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niki, Haruo; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Oshiro, Morihito; Yogi, Mamoru [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Seki, Ichiro; Fukuhara, Mikio [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Using the Fourier transform of the echo envelope, the proton line shapes, spin-lattice relaxation time, and spin-spin relaxation time have been measured in a (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy at 1.83 T ({approx}78 MHz) and at temperatures between 1.8 and 300 K. First, the spectral line width decreases abruptly between 1.8 and 2.1 K. Next, it remains almost constant at 13 kHz up to {approx}150 K. Finally, the line width decreases as the temperature increases from {approx}150 to 300 K. The initial decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the distribution of the external field, which is caused by the penetration of vortices in the superconducting state. The subsequent leveling off in the spectral line width is ascribed to the dipole-dipole interaction between protons when hydrogen atoms are trapped into vacancies among the Zr-centered icosahedral Zr{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Nb{sub 3} clusters. The final decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the motional narrowing of the width that is caused by the movement of hydrogen atoms. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation time showed that at temperature above 150 K and the activation energy of 8.7 kJ/mol allowed the hydrogen atoms to migrate among the clusters. The distance between the hydrogen atoms is estimated to be 2.75 A. Hydrogen occupancies among clusters in the (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy play an important role in the diffusion behavior and in the electronic properties of this alloy.

  19. Functionalization of glassy carbon surface by means of aliphatic and aromatic amino acids. An experimental and theoretical integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanossi, Davide; Benassi, Rois; Parenti, Francesca; Tassinari, Francesco; Giovanardi, Roberto; Florini, Nicola; De Renzi, Valentina; Arnaud, Gaelle; Fontanesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glassy carbon is functionalized via electrochemical assisted grafting of amino acids. ► The grafting mechanism is suggested to involve the “zwitterionic” species. ► DFT calculations allowed to determine the electroactive species. ► An original grafting mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces are functionalized through electrochemical assisted grafting, in oxidation regime, of six amino acids (AA): β-alanine (β-Ala), L-aspartic acid (Asp), 11-aminoundecanoic acid (UA), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), 4-(4-amino-phenyl)-butyric acid (PFB), 3-(4-amino-phenyl)-propionic acid (PFP). Thus, a GC/AA interface is produced featuring carboxylic groups facing the solution. Electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and XPS techniques are used to experimentally characterize the grafting process and the surface state. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental evidence to determine, at a molecular level, the overall grafting mechanism. Ionization potentials, standard oxidation potentials, HOMO and electron spin distributions are calculated at the CCD/6-31G* level of the theory. The comparison of experimental and theoretical data suggests that the main electroactive species is the “zwitterionic” form for the three aliphatic amino acids, while the amino acids featuring the amino group bound to the phenyl aromatic moiety show a different behaviour. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results suggests that both the neutral and the zwitterionic forms are present in the acetonitrile solution in the case of 4-(4-amino-phenyl)-butyric acid (PFB) and 3-(4-amino-phenyl)-propionic acid.

  20. Li ion transport in sputter deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films and glassy borate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhoff, Tobias; Gallasch, Tobias; Schmitz, Guido [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    LiCoO{sub 2} membranes are key components of current battery technology. We investigate sputter-deposited thin films of these materials aiming at the application in all-solid-state thin film batteries. For this, LiCoO{sub 2} films (10-200 nm) were deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates by ion beam sputtering. In addition, a part of these films are coated by an ion-conductive membrane of Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses in the thickness range of 50 to 300 nm. Structural, chemical and electrical properties of the layers are studied by means of TEM(EELS) and various electrical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry/-potentiometry). Since the color of the LiCoO{sub 2} films changes from red-brown to grey during de-intercalation of Li and the substrate as well as the glassy membrane deposited on top are optical transparent, reversible Li de- and intercalation can be directly demonstrated and quantified by a measurement of light transmission through the layered system. Samples coated with an ion-conductive membrane reveal a characteristic delay in switching optical transparency which is due to the slower transport across the membrane. Varying the thickness of the glassy membrane, the d.c. ion-conductivity and permeation through the membrane is determined quantitatively. Using thin membranes in the range of a few tens of nanometers the critical current densities are way sufficient for battery applications.