WorldWideScience

Sample records for thirteen unheralded contributors

  1. A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, C O

    1989-03-01

    Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation.

  2. Idiosyncrasies of volcanic sulfur viscosity and the triggering of unheralded volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eScolamacchia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unheralded blue-sky eruptions from dormant volcanoes cause serious fatalities, such as at Mt. Ontake (Japan on 27 September 2014. Could these events result from magmatic gas being trapped within hydrothermal system aquifers by elemental sulfur (Se clogging pores, due to sharp increases in its viscosity when heated above 159oC? This mechanism was thought to prime unheralded eruptions at Mt. Ruapehu in New Zealand. Impurities in sulfur (As, Te, Se are known to modify S-viscosity and industry experiments showed that organic compounds, H2S, and halogens dramatically influence Se viscosity under typical hydrothermal heating/cooling rates and temperature thresholds. However, the effects of complex sulfur compositions are currently ignored at volcanoes, despite its near ubiquity in long-lived volcano-hydrothermal systems. Models of impure S behavior must be urgently formulated to detect pre-eruptive warning signs before the next blue-sky eruption

  3. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  4. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  5. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  6. Wastewater Industrial Contributors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Industrial contributors to municipal wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program.

  7. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  8. Contributors

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Working Group on Infrastructure Finance Stern School of Business, New York University Pankaj Ghemawat, Professor of Management Joel Hasbrouck, Professor of Finance Peter Henry, Professor of Economics Michael Posner, Professor of Business and Society Paul Romer, Professor of Economics Michael Spence, Professor of Economics Paul Tice, Executive in Residence Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, Professor of Finance Ingo Walter, Professor Emeritus of Finance Tensie Whelan, Professor of Business and Society La...

  9. EDS becoms CERN Openlab contributor

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "EDS announced that it has become an official contributor to CERN openlab. The purpose of the joint project beteween CERN and EDS is to carry out research and development in the field of monitoring, management and operation of grid services." (1 page)

  10. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M; Schuster, W J [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed.

  11. Thirteen-colour photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Schuster, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen-colour photometry made at the San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, for a number of spectroscopically variable Be and shell stars is presented. Several of these stars also show photometric variability in the ultraviolet and/or infrared over a time base of two to three years. We analyze the more interesting stars in terms of colour-colour diagrams, colour excesses, spectral characteristics and changes in their energy distributions. Prospects for future research are discussed. (author)

  12. Ten Putative Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394

  13. 76 FR 16233 - Interpretive Rule Regarding Electronic Contributor Redesignations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... audit, the Commission recently determined that a specific redesignation practice provided the same degree of assurance of the contributor's identity and the contributor's intent to redesignate the... that this process provided assurance of contributor identity and intent equivalent to a written...

  14. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thirteen Plus One. A Comparison of Global Climate Policy Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldy, J.E.; Barrett, S.; Stavins, R.N.

    2003-07-01

    We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is t oo little, too fast ; developing countries should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Our investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance

  16. Thirteen plus one. A comparison of global climate policy architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldy, Joseph E.; Barrett, Scott; Stavins, Robert N.

    2003-01-01

    We critically review the Kyoto Protocol and thirteen alternative policy architectures for addressing the threat of global climate change. We employ six criteria to evaluate the policy proposals: environmental outcome, dynamic efficiency, cost-effectiveness, equity, flexibility in the presence of new information, and incentives for participation and compliance. The Kyoto Protocol does not fare well on a number of criteria, but none of the alternative proposals fare well along all six dimensions. We identify several major themes among the alternative proposals: Kyoto is 'too little, too fast'; developing countries (DCs) should play a more substantial role and receive incentives to participate; implementation should focus on market-based approaches, especially those with price mechanisms; and participation and compliance incentives are inadequately addressed by most proposals. Our investigation reveals tensions among several of the evaluative criteria, such as between environmental outcome and efficiency, and between cost-effectiveness and incentives for participation and compliance

  17. PACE: Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimation- A machine learning-based assessment of the number of contributors in DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Michael A; Adelman, Jonathan D

    2017-03-01

    The deconvolution of DNA mixtures remains one of the most critical challenges in the field of forensic DNA analysis. In addition, of all the data features required to perform such deconvolution, the number of contributors in the sample is widely considered the most important, and, if incorrectly chosen, the most likely to negatively influence the mixture interpretation of a DNA profile. Unfortunately, most current approaches to mixture deconvolution require the assumption that the number of contributors is known by the analyst, an assumption that can prove to be especially faulty when faced with increasingly complex mixtures of 3 or more contributors. In this study, we propose a probabilistic approach for estimating the number of contributors in a DNA mixture that leverages the strengths of machine learning. To assess this approach, we compare classification performances of six machine learning algorithms and evaluate the model from the top-performing algorithm against the current state of the art in the field of contributor number classification. Overall results show over 98% accuracy in identifying the number of contributors in a DNA mixture of up to 4 contributors. Comparative results showed 3-person mixtures had a classification accuracy improvement of over 6% compared to the current best-in-field methodology, and that 4-person mixtures had a classification accuracy improvement of over 20%. The Probabilistic Assessment for Contributor Estimation (PACE) also accomplishes classification of mixtures of up to 4 contributors in less than 1s using a standard laptop or desktop computer. Considering the high classification accuracy rates, as well as the significant time commitment required by the current state of the art model versus seconds required by a machine learning-derived model, the approach described herein provides a promising means of estimating the number of contributors and, subsequently, will lead to improved DNA mixture interpretation. Copyright © 2016

  18. Traumatic tricuspid valve insufficiency. Experience in thirteen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Son, J A; Danielson, G K; Schaff, H V; Miller, F A

    1994-11-01

    From 1964 through June 1993, thirteen patients with traumatic tricuspid insufficiency were treated surgically; all were male, and the ages ranged from 17 to 64 years (median 39 years). The condition was associated with blunt chest trauma in all patients: motor vehicle accidents in twelve and an explosion of a tank of compressed air in one. The median duration between trauma and operation was 17 years (range 1 month to 37 years). Preoperatively, six patients were in sinus rhythm and seven were in atrial fibrillation. At operation, the right ventricular function appeared moderately to severely depressed in twelve patients. In twelve patients, the anterior leaflet was flail because of chordal rupture (n = 9), rupture of anterior papillary muscle (n = 3), or tear in the anterior leaflet (n = 1). In one patient, the septal leaflet was missing and in another it was retracted and adherent to the ventricular septum. In five patients the tricuspid valve was repaired and in eight it was replaced. In seven patients in the latter group, the chordae, papillary muscles, and/or tricuspid valve leaflet(s) were found to be in a contracted and atrophic state, precluding repair. No early or late deaths occurred. At follow-up extending to 26 years (median 12 years), 12 patients are in New York Heart Association class I and one patient is in class II. Nine patients were in sinus rhythm and four were in atrial fibrillation. Although our experience indicates that good functional results can still be achieved many years after the onset of traumatic tricuspid valve insufficiency, earlier diagnosis and surgical treatment should increase the feasibility of tricuspid valve insufficiency, earlier diagnosis and surgical treatment should increase the feasibility of tricuspid valve repair, prevent progressive deterioration of right ventricular function, and increase the possibility of maintaining late sinus rhythm in a greater number of patients.

  19. Donations and dependence: Individual contributor strategies in house elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwig, Jennifer A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of individual contributors to financing federal candidates, past work has largely neglected this crucial financial constituency in favor of research on corporate and trade political action committees (PACs). By contrast, in this study I offer the first analysis of aggregate contributions from the population of individual contributors to House candidates. Using an original big dataset constructed from over fifteen million Federal Election Commission (FEC) disclosure records, I identify individual contributors (rather than contributions) and trace the variation in their strategies across types of House candidates. I distinguish between frequent donors, who are theorized to have more contact with members of Congress, versus infrequent donors in these elections. I find evidence that the character of aggregate donations from repeat donors is more access-oriented even while controlling for other salient candidate characteristics. Funds from infrequent donors, in contrast, appear more ideologically motivated. By also examining the percentage of funds that House candidates receive from repeat donors, I show that the fundraising coalitions of candidates may reproduce reliance on more access-oriented, repeat donors despite the influx of dollars from infrequent donors. I suggest that my findings provide a persuasive case for re-evaluating the diversity of roles individual contributors play in the campaign finance system, and for systematically analyzing variation in contributor strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral circadian misalignment: contributor to systemic insulin resistance and potential intervention to improve bariatric surgical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Kyle N.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Prachand, Vivek N.

    2016-01-01

    Thirteen percent of the world's population suffers from obesity and 39% from being overweight, which correlates with an increase in numerous secondary metabolic complications, such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity and results in significant weight loss and the amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities through changes in enteroendocrine activity, caloric intake, and alterations in gut microbiota composition. The circadian system has recently been found to be a critical regulatory component in the control of metabolism and, thus, may potentially play an important role in inappropriate weight gain. Indeed, some behaviors and lifestyle factors associated with an increased risk of obesity are also risk factors for misalignment in the circadian clock system and for the metabolic syndrome. It is thus possible that alterations in peripheral circadian clocks in metabolically relevant tissues are a contributor to the current obesity epidemic. As such, it is plausible that postsurgical alterations in central circadian alignment, as well as peripheral gene expression in metabolic tissues may represent another mechanism for the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery may represent an opportunity to identify changes in the circadian expression of clock genes that have been altered by environmental factors, allowing for a better understanding of the mechanism of action of surgery. These studies could also reveal an overlooked target for behavioral intervention to improve metabolic outcomes following bariatric surgery. PMID:27465735

  1. SR XRF and micro-PIXE studies on ancient metallurgy of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Vasilescu, Angela; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Oberländer-Târnoveanu, Ernest

    2012-11-01

    A thorough microscopic investigation by SR XRF and micro-PIXE brings insight into the probable techniques used in the manufacture of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets, one of the most spectacular archaeological finds ever on the territory of Romania.

  2. SR XRF and micro-PIXE studies on ancient metallurgy of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Vasilescu, Angela; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Oberlaender-Tarnoveanu, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    A thorough microscopic investigation by SR XRF and micro-PIXE brings insight into the probable techniques used in the manufacture of thirteen Dacian gold bracelets, one of the most spectacular archaeological finds ever on the territory of Romania. (orig.)

  3. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-07-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  4. Applying Open Researchers and Contributors ID in scholarly journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Im

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open Researchers and Contributors ID (ORCID launched its registry services in October 2012. Consequently, adding personal information to the ORCID registry became routine work for researchers. To add ORCID to an online article, the tag needs to be included in the Journal Article Tag Suite extensible markup language file, if such a file has been produced by the publisher. Subsequently, all co-authors’ ORCID can be easily and conveniently collected and then integrated into the manuscript management system. In the current age of information and the Internet, journals need to keep pace with the surge of new standards and technologies. Editors should be able to accept and apply these new systems rapidly.

  5. Physical activity levels and patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is worldwide concern over the decline in physical activity (PA) levels among school children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the (PA) levels and PA patterns of thirteen to fifteen year old boys from different race groups in the North- West Province and to determine to what degree this physical activity profile ...

  6. The Gas Laws and the Kinetic Theory: Curriculum Guide for the Thirteen-College Curriculum Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Army; And Others

    This booklet is both a teacher's manual and a student's manual in a series of booklets that make up the core of a Physical Science course designed for the freshman year of college and used by teachers in the 27 colleges participating in the Thirteen College Curriculum Program. This program is a curriculum revision project in support of 13…

  7. Assessing Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi) Quality Based on CONTRIBUTORS' Mapping Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégin, D.; Devillers, R.; Roche, S.

    2013-05-01

    VGI changed the mapping landscape by allowing people that are not professional cartographers to contribute to large mapping projects, resulting at the same time in concerns about the quality of the data produced. While a number of early VGI studies used conventional methods to assess data quality, such approaches are not always well adapted to VGI. Since VGI is a user-generated content, we posit that features and places mapped by contributors largely reflect contributors' personal interests. This paper proposes studying contributors' mapping processes to understand the characteristics and quality of the data produced. We argue that contributors' behaviour when mapping reflects contributors' motivation and individual preferences in selecting mapped features and delineating mapped areas. Such knowledge of contributors' behaviour could allow for the derivation of information about the quality of VGI datasets. This approach was tested using a sample area from OpenStreetMap, leading to a better understanding of data completeness for contributor's preferred features.

  8. Trauma as a Contributor to Violence in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, David S

    2016-06-01

    In examining contributors to violence among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one factor that has received little attention is a history of psychological trauma. This study's purpose was to explore the possible mechanisms for an association between trauma and violence in persons with ASD. The literature regarding the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of ASD is reviewed and compared with the literature on the neurobiology and theoretical underpinnings of trauma as a risk factor for violence in individuals without ASD. Information from this comparison is then used to formulate possible mechanisms for a trauma-violence association in ASD. Individuals with ASD may possess sensitized prefrontal-cortical-limbic networks that are overloaded in the face of trauma, leading to unchecked limbic output that produces violent behavior, and/or cognitive dysfunction (including deficits in theory of mind, central coherence, and executive function) that impacts trauma processing in ways that portend violence. While these mechanisms for a trauma-violence association in ASD may have case-based support, more research is needed to confirm these mechanisms and clarify whether in fact trauma increases violence risk in ASD. To facilitate the investigation, it would be helpful for clinical and forensic evaluators to obtain a careful trauma history when evaluating all individuals, including those with ASD. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Accident sequence precursor events with age-related contributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.A.; Kohn, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program at ORNL analyzed about 14.000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) filed by US nuclear power plants 1987--1993. There were 193 events identified as precursors to potential severe core accident sequences. These are reported in G/CR-4674. Volumes 7 through 20. Under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, the authors evaluated these events to determine the extent to which component aging played a role. Events were selected that involved age-related equipment degradation that initiated an event or contributed to an event sequence. For the 7-year period, ORNL identified 36 events that involved aging degradation as a contributor to an ASP event. Except for 1992, the percentage of age-related events within the total number of ASP events over the 7-year period ({approximately}19%) appears fairly consistent up to 1991. No correlation between plant ape and number of precursor events was found. A summary list of the age-related events is presented in the report.

  10. Determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the pension funds industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors in the Chilean pension funds industry. Results show that price consciousness and brand credibility are positively associated with perceived and actual knowledge of commission paid by pension fund contributors. Results also show that financial literacy is only positively associated with actual knowledge of commission paid by contributors. Additionally, results show that price based advertising exposure is only positively associated with perceived knowledge of commission paid by contributors. This association is stronger for contributors with a high use of the price-quality cue. Based on the findings presented, implications for managers, regulators and researchers are drawn.

  11. CT features of peritoneal and mesenteric involvement in pediatric malignancies. Experience from thirteen cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, N.; Filiatrault, D.; Garel, L.; Dube, J.; Paille, P.; Grenier, N.

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective study of all patients presenting with abdominal malignancies since November 1982 was undertaken in order to assess the CT features of peritoneal and mesenteric involvement in childhood. Thirteen cases, including 4 cases of malignant lymphomas, 1 case of Hodgkin's disease, 5 cases of adrenal tumors and 3 cases of ovarian tumors, were selected. Providing a good technique, CT appears as the best imaging modality of the mesentery. CT is also reliable in showing peritoneal implants, even without ascites. A high quality vascular opacification is needed in order to recognize the involvement of the lesser omentum (6/13 cases in our series). Precise knowledge of the intra-abdominal extension of the primary neoplasm has a definite impact upon the surgical indications and therefore upon the prognosis [fr

  12. Structure-activity relationships and molecular docking of thirteen synthesized flavonoids as horseradish peroxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudi, Reguia; Djeridane, Amar; Benarous, Khedidja; Gaydou, Emile M; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    For the first time, the structure-activity relationships of thirteen synthesized flavonoids have been investigated by evaluating their ability to modulate horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalytic activity. Indeed, a modified spectrophotometrically method was carried out and optimized using 4-methylcatechol (4-MC) as peroxidase co-substrate. The results show that these flavonoids exhibit a great capacity to inhibit peroxidase with Ki values ranged from 0.14±0.01 to 65±0.04mM. Molecular docking has been achieved using Auto Dock Vina program to discuss the nature of interactions and the mechanism of inhibition. According to the docking results, all the flavonoids have shown great binding affinity to peroxidase. These molecular modeling studies suggested that pyran-4-one cycle acts as an inhibition key for peroxidase. Therefore, potent peroxidase inhibitors are flavonoids with these structural requirements: the presence of the hydroxyl (OH) group in 7, 5 and 4' positions and the absence of the methoxy (O-CH 3 ) group. Apigenin contributed better in HRP inhibitory activity. The present study has shown that the studied flavonoids could be promising HRP inhibitors, which can help in developing new molecules to control thyroid diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological status and intersex in the endobenthic bivalve Scrobicularia plana from thirteen estuaries in northwest France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi Tankoua, O.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Denis, F.; Minier, C.; Mouneyrac, C.; Berthet, B.

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Scrobicularia plana, an important species for the structure and functioning of estuarine and coastal mudflats, was studied in thirteen sites from NW France differing by their degree of contamination to document the presence of reproduction impairments (intersex, sex ratio, gonadosomatic indices) in relation to the condition revealed by using hepatosomatic and condition indices. In agreement with recent studies in other European estuaries, intersex was revealed in all the studied estuaries, including sites the chemical and ecological status of which is considered “good” according to the criteria of the European Water Framework Directive. The presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) could result in such disturbances. Our results re-inforce the concern linked to the subtle effects of EDCs, which are active at very low doses, often in the absence of any major sign of toxicity. However at this stage, no clear link may be established between intersex and population effects. - Highlights: ► Clams were collected from 13 estuaries differing by their degree of contamination. ► Gonadosomatic, hepatosomatic and condition indices were determined. ► Reproduction impairments (intersex, biased sex ratio, asynchronism) were shown. ► Intersex shown even at sites with good ecological status (Water Framework Directive). ► No clear links between intersex and populational effects. - Intersex in clams from estuaries, the chemical/ecological status of which was considered as good under the EC Water Framework Directive.

  14. Sensitive Detection of Thirteen Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Agents Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Malaguti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is characterized by a polymicrobial proliferation of anaerobic bacteria and depletion of lactobacilli, which are components of natural vaginal microbiota. Currently, there are limited conventional methods for BV diagnosis, and these methods are time-consuming, expensive, and rarely allow for the detection of more than one agent simultaneously. Therefore, we conceived and validated a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay for the simultaneous screening of thirteen bacterial vaginosis-associated agents (BV-AAs related to symptomatic BV: Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, Mobiluncus mulieris, Bacteroides fragilis, Mycoplasma hominis, Atopobium vaginae, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Megasphaera type I, Clostridia-like bacteria vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVABs 1, 2, and 3, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Mycoplasma genitalium. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR compared to single PCR (sPCR were extremely high, including agreement of 99.1% and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 100.0%, negative predictive value of 97.0%, accuracy of 99.3%, and agreement with Nugent results of 100.0%. The prevalence of BV-AAs was very high (72.6%, and simultaneous agents were detected in 53.0%, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the M-PCR assay. Therefore, the M-PCR assay has great potential to impact BV diagnostic methods in vaginal samples and diminish associated complications in the near future.

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Variations in Thirteen Moringa oleifera Lam. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwell R. Ndhlala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to assess variation in antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of thirteen Moringa oleifera cultivars obtained from different locations across the globe. Standard antioxidant methods including the DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing power (FRAP and β-carotene-linoleic acid model were used to evaluate the activity. Variation in the antioxidant activity was observed, with TOT4951 from Thailand being the most active, with activity five times higher than that of ascorbic acid (reference compound. A different trend was observed for the activity in the FRAP and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae strains using the microdilution method. Acetone extracts of all cultivars exhibited good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae (MIC values of 0.78 mg/mL. The remaining extracts exhibited weak activity against the two microorganisms. For the antifungal activity, all the extracts exhibited low activity. Variations were observed in the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cultivars TOT5169 (Thailand and SH (South Africa exhibited highest amounts of total phenolic compounds while TOT5028 (Thailand exhibited the lowest amounts of five times lower than the highest. The information offer an understanding on variations between cultivars from different geographical locations and is important in the search for antioxidant supplementation and anti-ageing products.

  16. Borehole P- and S-wave velocity at thirteen stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Boore, David M.; Tinsley, John C.; Mueller, Charles S.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of a program to acquire seismic velocity data at locations of strong-ground motion in earthquakes (e.g., Gibbs et al., 2000), has investigated thirteen additional sites in the Southern California region. Of the thirteen sites, twelve are in the vicinity of Whittier, California, and one is located in San Bernardino, California. Several deployments of temporary seismographs were made after the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987 (Mueller et al., 1988). A deployment, between 2 October and 9 November 1987, was the motivation for selection of six of the drill sites. Temporary portable seismographs at Hoover School (HOO), Lincoln School (LIN), Corps of Engineers Station (NAR), Olive Junior High School (OLV), Santa Anita Golf Course (SAG), and Southwestern Academy (SWA) recorded significant aftershock data. These portable sites, with the exception of Santa Anita Golf Course, were co-sited with strong-motion recorders. Stations at HOO, Lincoln School Whittier (WLB), Saint Paul High School (STP), Alisos Adult School (EXC), Cerritos College Gymnasium (CGM), Cerritos College Physical Science Building (CPS), and Cerritos College Police Building (CPB) were part of an array of digital strong-motion stations deployed from "bedrock" in Whittier to near the deepest part of the Los Angeles basin in Norwalk. Although development and siting of this new array (partially installed at the time of this writing) was generally motivated by the Whittier Narrows earthquake, these new sites (with the exception of HOO) were not part of any Whittier Narrows aftershock deployments. A similar new digital strong-motion site was installed at the San Bernardino Fire Station during the same time frame. Velocity data were obtained to depths of about 90 meters at two sites, 30 meters at seven sites, and 18 to 25 meters at four sites. Lithology data from the analysis of cuttings and samples was obtained from the two 90-meter deep holes and

  17. Thirteen Year Loblolly Pine Growth Following Machine Application of Cut-Stump Treament Herbicides For Hardwood Stump-Sprout Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde G. Vidrine; John C. Adams

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen year growth results of 1-0 out-planted loblolly pine seedlings on nonintensively prepared up-land mixed pine-hardwood sites receiving machine applied cut-stump treatment (CST) herbicides onto hardwood stumps at the time of harvesting is presented. Plantation pine growth shows significantly higher growth for pine in the CST treated plots compared to non-CST...

  18. Performance of thirteen clinical rules to distinguish bacterial and presumed viral meningitis in Vietnamese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Huy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. RESULTS: Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85-90%. CONCLUSIONS: No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50% with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule.

  19. Institutional Affiliation of Contributors to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1973–83

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Simpson; John T. Steele

    1985-01-01

    History of reviews of contributions to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics are examined. Total pages, pages per capita all faculty, and per teaching research faculty of contributors to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics for 1979–83 are reported for land grant institutions. Rankings are provided. There are also averages for 1973–79 and 1980–83.

  20. FLOSS 2013 : a survey dataset about free software contributors. Challenges for curating, sharing and combining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robles, G.; Arjona-Reina, L.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Serebrenik, A.; González-Barahona, J.M.; Devanbu, P.T.; Kim, S.; Pinzger, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this data paper we describe a data set obtained by means of performing an on-line survey to over 2,000 Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) contributors. The survey includes questions related to personal characteristics (gender, age, civil status, nationality, etc.), education and level of

  1. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal; Muhammad Waseem Abbas; Muhammad Zohaib Chaudhary; Muhammad Nouman Iqbal; Mohammad Sami Aleem; Rukhsar Javaid; Hasnain Ahmed; Taleea Younas; Faiza Maqsood; Fiza Fatima; Hafiz Hasnain Ahmed; Sana Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is defined as physical, behavioral, social and psychological response to treat self-concept characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension. Nowadays anxiety is most commonly found among medical students. This study was conducted to find out the anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 178 medical students which tests the level of anxiety and severity of symptom...

  2. Risk-based ranking of dominant contributors to maritime pollution events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a conceptual approach for identifying dominant contributors to risk from maritime shipping of hazardous materials. Maritime transportation accidents are relatively common occurrences compared to more frequently analyzed contributors to public risk. Yet research on maritime safety and pollution incidents has not been guided by a systematic, risk-based approach. Maritime shipping accidents can be analyzed using event trees to group the accidents into 'bins,' or groups, of similar characteristics such as type of cargo, location of accident (e.g., harbor, inland waterway), type of accident (e.g., fire, collision, grounding), and size of release. The importance of specific types of events to each accident bin can be quantified. Then the overall importance of accident events to risk can be estimated by weighting the events' individual bin importance measures by the risk associated with each accident bin. 4 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Activity, content, contributors, and influencers of the twitter discussion on urologic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Hendrik; Loeb, Stacy; Salem, Johannes; Thomas, Christian; Haferkamp, Axel; Murphy, Declan G; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the activity, content, contributors, and influencers of the Twitter discussion on urologic oncology. We performed a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative Twitter analysis for the hashtags #prostatecancer, #bladdercancer, #kidneycancer, and #testicularcancer. Symplur was used to analyse activity over different time periods and the top influencers of the Twitter discussion. Tweet Archivist and Twitonomy analysis tools were used to assess characteristics of content and contributors. Twitter discussion on urologic oncology in 2014 contained 100,987 tweets created by 39,326 participants. Mean monthly tweet activity was 6,603±2,183 for #prostatecancer, 866±923 for #testicularcancer, 457±477 for #bladdercancer and 401±504 for #kidneycancer. Twitter activity increased by 41% in 2013 and by 122% in 2014. The content analysis detected awareness, cancer, and risk as frequently mentioned words in urologic oncology tweets. Prevalently used related hashtags were the general hashtag #cancer, awareness hashtags, and the respective cancer/urology tag ontology hashtags. Contributors originated from 41 countries on 6 continents and had a mean of 5,864±4,747 followers. They tweeted from platforms on exclusively mobile devices (39%) more frequently than from desktop devices (29%). Health care organizations accounted for 58% of the top influencers in all cancers. The largest proportion of physicians were among the #prostatecancer and #kidneycancer (each 9%) influencers and individual contributors were most frequent in the discussion on #kidneycancer (57%) and #testicularcancer (50%). There is a significant and growing activity in the Twitter discussion on urologic oncology, particularly on #prostatecancer. The Twitter discussion is global, social, and mobile, and merits attention of stakeholders in health care as a promising communication tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beyond fast food and slow motion: Weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Cizza, G.; Rother, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of “junk” food, dubbed “The Big Two”, are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of t...

  5. Maternal morbidity and mortality in Pakistan - an overview of major contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Izhar, V.; Viqar, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the trend of the proportion of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) due to common direct causes that are the major contributors in Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive method study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Jun 2014. Material and Methods: Descriptive method study was conducted in June 2014. Data collected in different time periods from articles published between 01 Jan 2005 to 31 Dec 2012 in medical journals, proceedings of workshops/conferences as well as from newsletters of the National Committee of Maternal Health (NCMH) along with global burden of disease (GBD) 2013 to estimate MMR. Data were later tabulated accordingly in June 2014. Results: In the hospitals over 80% of the deaths are due to direct causes. Direct causes account for 78.1 percent of deaths, hemorrhage being the most common followed by sepsis, eclampsia, rupture of the uterus, and abortions. The contributors were greater in booked multi-gravid as of 20 to 40 years, para 3 to 5, under matric education and with less than Rs. 10,000 monthly income. Conclusion: Massive hemorrhage and uncontrolled hypertension are major contributors of maternal morbidity in Pakistan. (author)

  6. The Case for DUF1220 Domain Dosage as a Primary Contributor to Anthropoid Brain Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eKeeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the hypothesis that increasing copy number (dosage of sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains is a major contributor to the evolutionary increase in brain size, neuron number and cognitive capacity that is associated with the primate order. We further propose that this relationship is restricted to the anthropoid sub-order of primates, with DUF1220 copy number markedly increasing in monkeys, further in apes, and most extremely in humans where the greatest number of copies (~272 haploid copies is found. We show that this increase closely parallels the increase in brain size and neuron number that has occurred among anthropoid primate species. We also provide evidence linking DUF1220 copy number to brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly. While we believe these and other findings presented here strongly suggest increase in DUF1220 copy number is a key contributor to anthropoid brain expansion, the data currently available rely on correlative measures that, though considerable, do not yet provide direct evidence for a causal connection. Nevertheless, we believe the evidence presented is sufficient to provide the basis for a testable model which proposes that DUF1220 protein domain dosage increase is a main contributor to the increase in brain size and neuron number found among the anthropoid primate species and that is at its most extreme in human.

  7. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The “Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer” study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14–25 years old enrolled 14–60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3–6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes. PMID:25969794

  8. Evaluating the Training, Responsibilities, and Practices of P&T Committee Members and Nonmember Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ryan; Kelly, Brett J; Moody, Mary

    2017-08-01

    Pharmacy and therapeutics (P&T) committees are responsible for managing drug formularies in numerous health care settings. Although pharmacy practice and health care organizations provide general recommendations of responsibilities and skills for members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees, the study investigators hypothesized that there is diversity in the training, responsibilities, and practices of these members and contributors. To describe the training, responsibilities, and practices of members and nonmember contributors of P&T committees in a variety of health care settings, using an online survey. In December 2015, an online survey was delivered to clinicians who were considered likely to be involved in P&T committee service from hospitals ranked by U.S. News & World Report and a convenience sample of clinicians practicing in managed care settings. The survey instrument was designed to assess various domains and perceptions of P&T committee processes. Sixty-nine respondents representing various health care delivery settings in the United States were eligible for and completed the survey. The majority of the respondents were pharmacists (94.2%), and 72.5% of the respondents were P&T committee members. The remainder of the respondents were nonmember P&T committee contributors. Approximately 60% of the respondents had served in P&T committee roles for ≥ 10 years. Specialized postgraduate training incorporating literature evaluation and formulary management was possessed by 21.7% and 17.4% of the respondents, respectively; however, most of the respondents received on-the-job training. Approximately half of the respondents were responsible for preparation of P&T committee documents, and 58% reported that nonmember contributors typically write and prepare these documents. Skill in literature evaluation was the most important criterion in selecting authors of P&T committee documents, while 10.1% of the respondents indicated that their committees did not

  9. Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Chen, Elizabeth J; Quisenberry, Thomas J; Ko, Kevin; Braverman, John M; Giarla, Thomas C; Mortimer, Nathan T; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Robic, Srebrenka; McCartha, Shannon R; Perry, Danielle R; Prescod, Lindsay M; Sheppard, Zenyth A; Saville, Ken J; McClish, Allison; Morlock, Emily A; Sochor, Victoria R; Stanton, Brittney; Veysey-White, Isaac C; Revie, Dennis; Jimenez, Luis A; Palomino, Jennifer J; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Himelblau, Edward T; Campbell, Jaclyn D; Hertz, Alexandra L; McEvilly, Maddison F; Wagner, Allison R; Youngblom, James; Bedi, Baljit; Bettincourt, Jeffery; Duso, Erin; Her, Maiye; Hilton, William; House, Samantha; Karimi, Masud; Kumimoto, Kevin; Lee, Rebekah; Lopez, Darryl; Odisho, George; Prasad, Ricky; Robbins, Holly Lyn; Sandhu, Tanveer; Selfridge, Tracy; Tsukashima, Kara; Yosif, Hani; Kokan, Nighat P; Britt, Latia; Zoellner, Alycia; Spana, Eric P; Chlebina, Ben T; Chong, Insun; Friedman, Harrison; Mammo, Danny A; Ng, Chun L; Nikam, Vinayak S; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Xu, Thomas Q; Burg, Martin G; Batten, Spencer M; Corbeill, Lindsay M; Enoch, Erica; Ensign, Jesse J; Franks, Mary E; Haiker, Breanna; Ingles, Judith A; Kirkland, Lyndsay D; Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Matthews, Jordan; Mittig, Cody M; Monsma, Nicholaus; Olson, Katherine J; Perez-Aragon, Guillermo; Ramic, Alen; Ramirez, Jordan R; Scheiber, Christopher; Schneider, Patrick A; Schultz, Devon E; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Wernette, Adam C; Wykle, Maxine E; Zavala-Arellano, Elizabeth; McDonald, Mitchell J; Ostby, Kristine; Wendland, Peter; DiAngelo, Justin R; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Cox, Amanda H; Docherty, James E B; Gingras, Robert M; Grieb, Stephanie M; Pavia, Michael J; Personius, Casey L; Polak, Grzegorz L; Beach, Dale L; Cerritos, Heaven L; Horansky, Edward A; Sharif, Karim A; Moran, Ryan; Parrish, Susan; Bickford, Kirsten; Bland, Jennifer; Broussard, Juliana; Campbell, Kerry; Deibel, Katelynn E; Forka, Richard; Lemke, Monika C; Nelson, Marlee B; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Ramey, S Mariel; Schmidt, Luke; Villegas, Paola; Jones, Christopher J; Christ, Stephanie L; Mamari, Sami; Rinaldi, Adam S; Stity, Ghazal; Hark, Amy T; Scheuerman, Mark; Silver Key, S Catherine; McRae, Briana D; Haberman, Adam S; Asinof, Sam; Carrington, Harriette; Drumm, Kelly; Embry, Terrance; McGuire, Richard; Miller-Foreman, Drew; Rosen, Stella; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Segal, Matt; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Skuse, Gary; Paetkau, Don W; Bridgman, Rachael K; Brown, Charlotte M; Carroll, Alicia R; Gifford, Francesca M; Gillespie, Julie Beth; Herman, Susan E; Holtcamp, Krystal L; Host, Misha A; Hussey, Gabrielle; Kramer, Danielle M; Lawrence, Joan Q; Martin, Madeline M; Niemiec, Ellen N; O'Reilly, Ashleigh P; Pahl, Olivia A; Quintana, Guadalupe; Rettie, Elizabeth A S; Richardson, Torie L; Rodriguez, Arianne E; Rodriguez, Mona O; Schiraldi, Laura; Smith, Joanna J; Sugrue, Kelsey F; Suriano, Lindsey J; Takach, Kaitlyn E; Vasquez, Arielle M; Velez, Ximena; Villafuerte, Elizabeth J; Vives, Laura T; Zellmer, Victoria R; Hauke, Jeanette; Hauser, Charles R; Barker, Karolyn; Cannon, Laurie; Parsamian, Perouza; Parsons, Samantha; Wichman, Zachariah; Bazinet, Christopher W; Johnson, Diana E; Bangura, Abubakarr; Black, Jordan A; Chevee, Victoria; Einsteen, Sarah A; Hilton, Sarah K; Kollmer, Max; Nadendla, Rahul; Stamm, Joyce; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gygi, Amber M; Ogawa, Emmy E; Van Camp, Matt; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Leatherman, Judith L; Modahl, Cassie M; Rubin, Michael R; Apiz-Saab, Susana S; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Carrion-Ortiz, Carlos F; Claudio-Vazquez, Patricia N; Espada-Green, Debbie M; Feliciano-Camacho, Marium; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Karina M; Taboas-Arroyo, Mariela; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Montañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera-Burgos, Myrielis; Rivera-Rosario, Francisco J; Eisler, Heather L; Alexander, Jackie; Begley, Samatha K; Gabbard, Deana; Allen, Robert J; Aung, Wint Yan; Barshop, William D; Boozalis, Amanda; Chu, Vanessa P; Davis, Jeremy S; Duggal, Ryan N; Franklin, Robert; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Gong, Henry Z; Greenstein, Rachel A; Guo, Averill D; Hanson, Casey; Homa, Kaitlin E; Hsu, Simon C; Huang, Yi; Huo, Lucy; Jacobs, Sarah; Jia, Sasha; Jung, Kyle L; Wai-Chee Kong, Sarah; Kroll, Matthew R; Lee, Brandon M; Lee, Paul F; Levine, Kevin M; Li, Amy S; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Max Mian; Lousararian, Adam P; Lowery, Peter B; Mallya, Allyson P; Marcus, Joseph E; Ng, Patrick C; Nguyen, Hien P; Patel, Ruchik; Precht, Hashini; Rastogi, Suchita; Sarezky, Jonathan M; Schefkind, Adam; Schultz, Michael B; Shen, Delia; Skorupa, Tara; Spies, Nicholas C; Stancu, Gabriel; Vivian Tsang, Hiu Man; Turski, Alice L; Venkat, Rohit; Waldman, Leah E; Wang, Kaidi; Wang, Tracy; Wei, Jeffrey W; Wu, Dennis Y; Xiong, David D; Yu, Jack; Zhou, Karen; McNeil, Gerard P; Fernandez, Robert W; Menzies, Patrick Gomez; Gu, Tingting; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2017-08-07

    The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster , but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes ( e.g. , larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae Compared to D. melanogaster , the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5' ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains. Copyright © 2017 Leung et al.

  10. Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Leung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb in D. ananassae. To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%, while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%. Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias, but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae. Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5′ ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2, while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains.

  11. Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Christopher D.; Chen, Elizabeth J.; Quisenberry, Thomas J.; Ko, Kevin; Braverman, John M.; Giarla, Thomas C.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Robic, Srebrenka; McCartha, Shannon R.; Perry, Danielle R.; Prescod, Lindsay M.; Sheppard, Zenyth A.; Saville, Ken J.; McClish, Allison; Morlock, Emily A.; Sochor, Victoria R.; Stanton, Brittney; Veysey-White, Isaac C.; Revie, Dennis; Jimenez, Luis A.; Palomino, Jennifer J.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Himelblau, Edward T.; Campbell, Jaclyn D.; Hertz, Alexandra L.; McEvilly, Maddison F.; Wagner, Allison R.; Youngblom, James; Bedi, Baljit; Bettincourt, Jeffery; Duso, Erin; Her, Maiye; Hilton, William; House, Samantha; Karimi, Masud; Kumimoto, Kevin; Lee, Rebekah; Lopez, Darryl; Odisho, George; Prasad, Ricky; Robbins, Holly Lyn; Sandhu, Tanveer; Selfridge, Tracy; Tsukashima, Kara; Yosif, Hani; Kokan, Nighat P.; Britt, Latia; Zoellner, Alycia; Spana, Eric P.; Chlebina, Ben T.; Chong, Insun; Friedman, Harrison; Mammo, Danny A.; Ng, Chun L.; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Xu, Thomas Q.; Burg, Martin G.; Batten, Spencer M.; Corbeill, Lindsay M.; Enoch, Erica; Ensign, Jesse J.; Franks, Mary E.; Haiker, Breanna; Ingles, Judith A.; Kirkland, Lyndsay D.; Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M.; Matthews, Jordan; Mittig, Cody M.; Monsma, Nicholaus; Olson, Katherine J.; Perez-Aragon, Guillermo; Ramic, Alen; Ramirez, Jordan R.; Scheiber, Christopher; Schneider, Patrick A.; Schultz, Devon E.; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Wernette, Adam C.; Wykle, Maxine E.; Zavala-Arellano, Elizabeth; McDonald, Mitchell J.; Ostby, Kristine; Wendland, Peter; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Ceasrine, Alexis M.; Cox, Amanda H.; Docherty, James E.B.; Gingras, Robert M.; Grieb, Stephanie M.; Pavia, Michael J.; Personius, Casey L.; Polak, Grzegorz L.; Beach, Dale L.; Cerritos, Heaven L.; Horansky, Edward A.; Sharif, Karim A.; Moran, Ryan; Parrish, Susan; Bickford, Kirsten; Bland, Jennifer; Broussard, Juliana; Campbell, Kerry; Deibel, Katelynn E.; Forka, Richard; Lemke, Monika C.; Nelson, Marlee B.; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Ramey, S. Mariel; Schmidt, Luke; Villegas, Paola; Jones, Christopher J.; Christ, Stephanie L.; Mamari, Sami; Rinaldi, Adam S.; Stity, Ghazal; Hark, Amy T.; Scheuerman, Mark; Silver Key, S. Catherine; McRae, Briana D.; Haberman, Adam S.; Asinof, Sam; Carrington, Harriette; Drumm, Kelly; Embry, Terrance; McGuire, Richard; Miller-Foreman, Drew; Rosen, Stella; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Segal, Matt; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Skuse, Gary; Paetkau, Don W.; Bridgman, Rachael K.; Brown, Charlotte M.; Carroll, Alicia R.; Gifford, Francesca M.; Gillespie, Julie Beth; Herman, Susan E.; Holtcamp, Krystal L.; Host, Misha A.; Hussey, Gabrielle; Kramer, Danielle M.; Lawrence, Joan Q.; Martin, Madeline M.; Niemiec, Ellen N.; O'Reilly, Ashleigh P.; Pahl, Olivia A.; Quintana, Guadalupe; Rettie, Elizabeth A.S.; Richardson, Torie L.; Rodriguez, Arianne E.; Rodriguez, Mona O.; Schiraldi, Laura; Smith, Joanna J.; Sugrue, Kelsey F.; Suriano, Lindsey J.; Takach, Kaitlyn E.; Vasquez, Arielle M.; Velez, Ximena; Villafuerte, Elizabeth J.; Vives, Laura T.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Hauke, Jeanette; Hauser, Charles R.; Barker, Karolyn; Cannon, Laurie; Parsamian, Perouza; Parsons, Samantha; Wichman, Zachariah; Bazinet, Christopher W.; Johnson, Diana E.; Bangura, Abubakarr; Black, Jordan A.; Chevee, Victoria; Einsteen, Sarah A.; Hilton, Sarah K.; Kollmer, Max; Nadendla, Rahul; Stamm, Joyce; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gygi, Amber M.; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Van Camp, Matt; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Leatherman, Judith L.; Modahl, Cassie M.; Rubin, Michael R.; Apiz-Saab, Susana S.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Carrion-Ortiz, Carlos F.; Claudio-Vazquez, Patricia N.; Espada-Green, Debbie M.; Feliciano-Camacho, Marium; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Karina M.; Taboas-Arroyo, Mariela; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Montañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera-Burgos, Myrielis; Rivera-Rosario, Francisco J.; Eisler, Heather L.; Alexander, Jackie; Begley, Samatha K.; Gabbard, Deana; Allen, Robert J.; Aung, Wint Yan; Barshop, William D.; Boozalis, Amanda; Chu, Vanessa P.; Davis, Jeremy S.; Duggal, Ryan N.; Franklin, Robert; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Gong, Henry Z.; Greenstein, Rachel A.; Guo, Averill D.; Hanson, Casey; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hsu, Simon C.; Huang, Yi; Huo, Lucy; Jacobs, Sarah; Jia, Sasha; Jung, Kyle L.; Wai-Chee Kong, Sarah; Kroll, Matthew R.; Lee, Brandon M.; Lee, Paul F.; Levine, Kevin M.; Li, Amy S.; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Max Mian; Lousararian, Adam P.; Lowery, Peter B.; Mallya, Allyson P.; Marcus, Joseph E.; Ng, Patrick C.; Nguyen, Hien P.; Patel, Ruchik; Precht, Hashini; Rastogi, Suchita; Sarezky, Jonathan M.; Schefkind, Adam; Schultz, Michael B.; Shen, Delia; Skorupa, Tara; Spies, Nicholas C.; Stancu, Gabriel; Vivian Tsang, Hiu Man; Turski, Alice L.; Venkat, Rohit; Waldman, Leah E.; Wang, Kaidi; Wang, Tracy; Wei, Jeffrey W.; Wu, Dennis Y.; Xiong, David D.; Yu, Jack; Zhou, Karen; McNeil, Gerard P.; Fernandez, Robert W.; Menzies, Patrick Gomez; Gu, Tingting; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Elgin, Sarah C.R.

    2017-01-01

    The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae. To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae. Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5′ ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains. PMID:28667019

  12. Risk assessment in the European Community (EC); perspective as partial contributor in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is oriented towards the use of nuclear power for electricity production. The subject is discussed under the following headings: preamble; survey of practice and trends in reliability analyses and risk assessment:general (the risk concept; the types of reliability and risk analysis; the present state and trends of a probabilistic approach in safety analysis); risk analysis, partial contributor in the acceptability-problem (the political scene; technological society; cost effectiveness of risk reduction, cost-risk-benefit balancing; risk perception and acceptance; comparison of energy systems); need for and limitations of quantified safety objectives. (U.K.)

  13. Competitive intelligence as an important contributor to the growth of banks: A Zimbabwean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how competitive intelligence has been an important contributor of growth in banks in Zimbabwe and how the banks are making use of competitive intelligence for such growth. The paper used a descriptive cross-sectional research methodology. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews. Purposive and stratified sampling methods were used. The paper found that most Zimbabwean banks have undertaken competitive intelligence in one way or another for strategic planning and better understanding the competitive business environment and competitors. The findings from this research will assist the entire banking sector and will be of great academic value

  14. CosmoQuest: Building a Community of Skilled Citizen Science Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P.; Lehan, C.; Bracey, G.; Durrell, P.; Komatsu, T.; Yamani, A.; Francis, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The CosmoQuest Virtual Research Facility invites the public to participate in NASA Science Mission Directorate related research that leads to publishable results and data catalogues. CosmoQuest projects range in difficulty from simple crater and transient marking tasks to more complicated mapping tasks. To successfully engage contributors in creating usable results, training and validation are required. This is accomplished through activities that are designed to mirror the experiences students would have in a university, and include mentoring by team scientists, feedback on contributor efforts, seminars to learn about new science, and even formal classes to provide needed background. Recruitment is accomplished using new and social media, and planetarium and Science on the Sphere™ trailers and shows, and community is built through online and real-world collaboration spaces and events. In this presentation, we detail CosmoQuest's four-pronged approach of media recruitment, science education, citizen science, and community collaboration. We also discuss how it is leveraged to create a skilled collaboration of citizen scientists. Training and data validation activities will be be emphasized, with examples of both what can go right and lessons learned from when things go wrong. We conclude with strategies on how to utilize best practices in user interface design to create virtual experiences that allow major citizen science efforts to be scalable to large audiences.

  15. Identifying the most likely contributors to a Y-STR mixture using the discrete Laplace method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2015-01-01

    In some crime cases, the male part of the DNA in a stain can only be analysed using Y chromosomal markers, e.g. Y-STRs. This may be the case in e.g. rape cases, where the male components can only be detected as Y-STR profiles, because the fraction of male DNA is much smaller than that of female DNA......, which can mask the male results when autosomal STRs are investigated. Sometimes, mixtures of Y-STRs are observed, e.g. in rape cases with multiple offenders. In such cases, Y-STR mixture analysis is required, e.g. by mixture deconvolution, to deduce the most likely DNA profiles from the contributors. We...... demonstrate how the discrete Laplace method can be used to separate a two person Y-STR mixture, where the Y-STR profiles of the true contributors are not present in the reference dataset, which is often the case for Y-STR profiles in real case work. We also briefly discuss how to calculate the weight...

  16. Topology and parameter data of thirteen non-natural amino acids for molecular simulations with CHARMM22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujide O. Olubiyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a data package containing the topology files and parameters compatible with the CHARMM22 force field for thirteen non-natural amino acids. The force field parameters were derived based on quantum mechanical (QM calculations involving geometry optimization and potential energy surface scanning at the HF 6-31G(d and HF 6-311G(d,p levels of theory. The resulting energy data points were fitted to mathematical functions representing each component of the CHARMM22 force field. Further fine-tuning of the parameters utilized molecular mechanics energies, which were iteratively calculated and compared to the corresponding QM values until the latter were satisfactorily reproduced. The final force field data were validated with molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent conditions.

  17. Repairing skull defects in children with nano-hap/collagen composites:A clinical report of thirteen cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuoyu Chen; Fuzhai Cui; Yuqi Zhang; Huancong Zuo; Yapeng Zhao; Chaoqiang Xue; Bin Luo; Qinglin Zhang; Jin Zhu; Xiumei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical results of repairing skull defects with biomimetic bone (nano-hap/collagen composites, NHACs) in children. Methods:Thirteen children with skull defects were treated with NHACs in our hospital. The NHACs molded with the help of a 3D printer were used in the operations. Results: All 13 operations were successful, and patients recovered without infection. Only one patient suffered from subcutaneous hydrops post-operation. The implanted NHACs remained fixed well after 1 year, and their CT HU values raised gradually. Skull shapes of children developed normally. Recovery of neurological and cognitive function was significant. Conclusions:NHAC, chosen to repair skull defects in children, can coexist with normal skull and reduce the negative effects on growth and development. NHAC could be a good choice for children with skull defects.

  18. Beyond fast food and slow motion: Weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, G.; Rother, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of “junk” food, dubbed “The Big Two”, are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold. PMID:22183119

  19. China’s rise as a major contributor to science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor’s. China’s research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China’s rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top–down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward. PMID:24979796

  20. Beyond fast food and slow motion: weighty contributors to the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, G; Rother, K I

    2012-02-01

    Decreased physical activity and marketing-driven increased consumption of "junk" food, dubbed "The Big Two", are generally regarded as the most important contributors to the obesity epidemic. However, the full picture contains many more pieces of the puzzle. We address several additional issues and review current clinical developments in obesity research. In spite of dramatic advancements in our understanding of the adipose organ and its endocrine and immune products, the ultimate causes of the obesity epidemic remain elusive. Treatment is plagued by poor adherence to life style modifications, and available pharmacological options are marginally effective, often also associated with major side effects. Surgical treatments, albeit effective in decreasing body weight, are invasive and expensive. Thus, our approaches to finding the causes, improving the existing treatments, and inventing novel therapies must be manifold.

  1. Inequalities in Open Source Software Development: Analysis of Contributor's Commits in Apache Software Foundation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełkowski, Tadeusz; Gloor, Peter; Jemielniak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    While researchers are becoming increasingly interested in studying OSS phenomenon, there is still a small number of studies analyzing larger samples of projects investigating the structure of activities among OSS developers. The significant amount of information that has been gathered in the publicly available open-source software repositories and mailing-list archives offers an opportunity to analyze projects structures and participant involvement. In this article, using on commits data from 263 Apache projects repositories (nearly all), we show that although OSS development is often described as collaborative, but it in fact predominantly relies on radically solitary input and individual, non-collaborative contributions. We also show, in the first published study of this magnitude, that the engagement of contributors is based on a power-law distribution.

  2. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  3. Lightning-triggered electroporation and electrofusion as possible contributors to natural horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-09-01

    Phylogenetic studies show that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a significant contributor to genetic variability of prokaryotes, and was perhaps even more abundant during the early evolution. Hitherto, research of natural HGT has mainly focused on three mechanisms of DNA transfer: conjugation, natural competence, and viral transduction. This paper discusses the feasibility of a fourth such mechanism--cell electroporation and/or electrofusion triggered by atmospheric electrostatic discharges (lightnings). A description of electroporation as a phenomenon is followed by a review of experimental evidence that electroporation of prokaryotes in aqueous environments can result in release of non-denatured DNA, as well as uptake of DNA from the surroundings and transformation. Similarly, a description of electrofusion is followed by a review of experiments showing that prokaryotes devoid of cell wall can electrofuse into hybrids expressing the genes of their both precursors. Under sufficiently fine-tuned conditions, electroporation and electrofusion are efficient tools for artificial transformation and hybridization, respectively, but the quantitative analysis developed here shows that conditions for electroporation-based DNA release, DNA uptake and transformation, as well as for electrofusion are also present in many natural aqueous environments exposed to lightnings. Electroporation is thus a plausible contributor to natural HGT among prokaryotes, and could have been particularly important during the early evolution, when the other mechanisms might have been scarcer or nonexistent. In modern prokaryotes, natural absence of the cell wall is rare, but it is reasonable to assume that the wall has formed during a certain stage of evolution, and at least prior to this, electrofusion could also have contributed to natural HGT. The concluding section outlines several guidelines for assessment of the feasibility of lightning-triggered HGT. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. An Evaluation of Industry Relationships Among Contributors to AAOS Clinical Practice Guidelines and Appropriate Use Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checketts, Jake X; Cook, Courtney; Vassar, Matt

    2018-01-17

    A long-standing relationship between orthopaedic surgeons and industry has made financial conflicts of interest a concerning issue. Research supports that financial conflicts of interest can influence both medical research and clinical practice. Financial conflicts of interest may also influence clinical practice guideline recommendations and their corresponding appropriate use criteria. Because of the influential nature of these guidelines, it is imperative that care be taken to minimize bias during guideline development. We retrieved clinical practice guidelines and their corresponding appropriate use criteria from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgery that were published or revised between 2013 and 2016. We extracted industry payments received by physicians using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Open Payments database. We then evaluated the value and types of these payments. We also used these data to determine whether disclosure statements were accurate and whether guideline development was in adherence with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) standards. Of the 106 physicians that were evaluated, 85 (80%) received at least 1 industry payment, 56 (53%) accepted >$1,000, and 35 (33%) accepted >$10,000. Financial payments amounted to a mean of $93,512 per physician. Total reimbursement for the 85 clinical practice guideline and appropriate use criteria contributors was $9,912,309. We found that disclosure statements disagreed with the Open Payments data and that the IOM standards were not completely enforced. Clinical practice guideline and appropriate use criteria contributors received substantial payments from industry, many disclosure statements were inaccurate, and the IOM standards were not completely met. Clinical practice guidelines and appropriate use criteria are critical for practicing evidence-based medicine. If financial conflicts of interest are present during their development, it is possible that patient care may be compromised.

  5. Challenges in process marginality for advanced technology nodes and tackling its contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Samy, Aravind; Schiwon, Roberto; Seltmann, Rolf; Kahlenberg, Frank; Katakamsetty, Ushasree

    2013-10-01

    Process margin is getting critical in the present node shrinkage scenario due to the physical limits reached (Rayleigh's criterion) using ArF lithography tools. K1 is used to its best for better resolution and to enhance the process margin (28nm metal patterning k1=0.31). In this paper, we would like to give an overview of various contributors in the advanced technology nodes which limit the process margins and how the challenges have been tackled in a modern foundry model. Advanced OPC algorithms are used to make the design content at the mask optimum for patterning. However, as we work at the physical limit, critical features (Hot-spots) are very susceptible to litho process variations. Furthermore, etch can have a significant impact as well. Pattern that still looks healthy at litho can fail due to etch interactions. This makes the traditional 2D contour output from ORC tools not able to predict accurately all defects and hence not able to fully correct it in the early mask tapeout phase. The above makes a huge difference in the fast ramp-up and high yield in a competitive foundry market. We will explain in this paper how the early introduction of 3D resist model based simulation of resist profiles (resist top-loss, bottom bridging, top-rounding, etc.,) helped in our prediction and correction of hot-spots in the early 28nm process development phase. The paper also discusses about the other overall process window reduction contributors due to mask 3D effects, wafer topography (focus shifts/variations) and how this has been addressed with different simulation efforts in a fast and timely manner.

  6. Under 5 mortality rate and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Wen; Yang, Ru-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Objective By analyzing the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009, we tried to understand the trend of U5MR change in Zhejiang Province and thus propose strategies to reduce child mortality. Methods Thirty cities/counties/districts from Zhejiang Province were selected using stratified cluster sampling approach. Children under five years in these areas were enrolled as the subjects. The U5MR and its contributors were analyzed in terms of age, migration status of mothers, and other indicators using classic descriptive methods and Chi square test. Results The U5MR in Zhejiang Province showed a declining trend from 14.83‰ in 2000 to 9.49‰ in 2009. In 2009, the U5MR was significantly higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas (9.14‰ vs.6.50‰, Pbirth/low birth weight was the leading cause of U5MR in 2009. More specifically, preterm birth/low birth weight, congenital heart disease, and birth asphyxia were the top three causes of deaths among infants (falls were the leading causes of deaths among children (1-4 years). Conclusion The U5MR in Zhejiang Province in 2009 differed between urban areas and rural areas and between floating populations and local residents. The main causes of death differ between infants and young children. Prevention of preterm birth/low birth weight and congenital anomalies will reduce infant death, while the main intervention for young children is to avoid accidental injuries. PMID:26835282

  7. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. Frigault

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  8. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigault, Jacques J; Lang-Ouellette, Daneck; Morin, Pier

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAsH19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1-HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of plant species composition after thirteen years post coal mining rehabilitation in East Kutai District of East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komara, L. L.; Murtinah, V.; Arbain

    2018-04-01

    Coal mining leaving large overburden which needs to be rehabilitated by conducting reclamation and re-vegetation. This study objective was to evaluate plant species composition after thirteen years of re-vegetation activities in a coal mining rehabilitation site in KutaiTimur District, East Kalimantan, with coordinate 00º33’23”-00º38’17” NL and 117º23’55”-117º23’20” EL. This study compared rehabilitation site with the natural forest conditions sites. There were found 28 plant species in the rehabilitation site, consisting of 19 wood species (Cassia siamea and Ficus uncinata) and 9 non-wood species (Nephrolepis biserata and Miscanthus javanica).In comparison, 36 species were found in the natural forest condition, consisting of 25 woody species (Nephelium eriopetalum and Macaranga hypoleuca)and 11 non-wood species (Fordia splendidisima and Saurauia umbellata). Woody species diversity indices in the rehabilitation site after 13 years post mining (i.e., 2,21) was lower than in the natural forest sites (3,01); while the diversity indices for non-wood species were relatively similar (1,48 and 1,96 in the rehabilitation and natural forest sites respectively). Species richness of non-wood species was low, but it has a high coverage per species in this site.To restore rehabilitation site woody species to its assumed natural conditions, 22woody species should be planted.

  10. Issues regarding Risk Effect Analysis of Digitalized Safety Systems and Main Risk Contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors of safety-critical digital systems affect overall plant risk. In order to assess this risk effect, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required. This article aims to provide an overview of the issues when developing a risk model and demonstrate their effect on plant risk quantitatively. Research activities in Korea for addressing these various issues, such as the software failure probability and the fault coverage of self monitoring mechanism are also described. The main risk contributors related to the digitalized safety system were determined in a quantitative manner. Reactor protection system and engineered safety feature component control system designed as part of the Korean Nuclear I and C System project are used as example systems. Fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function which is designed to generate an automated signal for actuating both of the reactor trip and the complicated accident-mitigation actions. The developed fault trees were combined with a plant risk model to evaluate the effect of a digitalized system's failure on the plant risk. (authors)

  11. The personal and contextual contributors to school belongingness among primary school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available School belongingness has gained currency among educators and school health professionals as an important determinant of adolescent health. The current cross-sectional study presents the 15 most significant personal and contextual factors that collectively explain 66.4% (two-thirds of the variability in 12-year old students' perceptions of belongingness in primary school. The study is part of a larger longitudinal study investigating the factors associated with student adjustment in the transition from primary to secondary school. The study found that girls and students with disabilities had higher school belongingness scores than boys, and their typically developing counterparts respectively; and explained 2.5% of the variability in school belongingness. The majority (47.1% out of 66.4% of the variability in school belongingness was explained by student personal factors, such as social acceptance, physical appearance competence, coping skills, and social affiliation motivation; followed by parental expectations (3% out of 66.4%, and school-based factors (13.9% out of 66.4% such as, classroom involvement, task-goal structure, autonomy provision, cultural pluralism, and absence of bullying. Each of the identified contributors of primary school belongingness can be shaped through interventions, system changes, or policy reforms.

  12. Translational control is a major contributor to hypoxia induced gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beucken, Twan van den; Magagnin, Michael G.; Jutten, Barry; Seigneuric, Renaud; Lambin, Philippe; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors that is associated with an aggressive phenotype, resistance to therapy and poor prognosis. Major contributors to these adverse effects are the transcriptional program activated by the HIF family of transcription factors as well as the translational response mediated by PERK-dependent phosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibition of mTORC1 activity. In this study we determined the relative contribution of both transcriptional and translational responses to changes in hypoxia induced gene expression. Material and methods: Total and efficiently translated (polysomal) mRNA was isolated from DU145 prostate carcinoma cells that were exposed for up to 24 h of hypoxia ( 2 ). Changes in transcription and translation were assessed using affymetrix microarray technology. Results: Our data reveal an unexpectedly large contribution of translation control on both induced and repressed gene expression at all hypoxic time points, particularly during acute hypoxia (2-4 h). Gene ontology analysis revealed that gene classes like transcription and signal transduction are stimulated by translational control whereas expression of genes involved in cell growth and protein metabolism are repressed during hypoxic conditions by translational control. Conclusions: Our data indicate that translation influences gene expression during hypoxia on a scale comparable to that of transcription.

  13. Unique Contributors to the Curriculum: From Research to Practice for Speech-Language Pathologists in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachel K

    2018-04-05

    This lead article of the Clinical Forum focuses on the research that supports why speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are an integral part of the overarching curriculum for all students in schools. Focus on education has shifted to student performance in our global world, specifically in college and career readiness standards. This article reviews recommendations on best practice from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association on SLPs' roles in schools, as well as data on school-based services. Implementation of these practices as it is applicable to school initiatives will be explored. Methods of interventions available in schools, from general education to special education, will be discussed based on national guidelines for a Response to Intervention and Multi-Tiered System of Support. Research regarding teacher knowledge of the linguistic principles of reading instruction will be explored, as well as correlation between teacher knowledge and student performance. The implications for how SLPs as the linguistic experts offer unique roles in curriculum and the evidence available to support this role will be explored. Implications for future research needs will be discussed. The demands of a highly rigorous curriculum allow SLPs a unique opportunity to apply their knowledge in linguistic principles to increase student performance and achievement. With the increased focus on student achievement, growth outcome measures, and value-added incentives, it is critical that SLPs become contributors to the curriculum for all students and that data to support this role are gathered through focused research initiatives.

  14. Retrosplenial cortical thinning as a possible major contributor for cognitive impairment in HIV patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Na-Young; Hong, Jinwoo; Yoon, Uicheul; Choi, Jun Yong; Lee, Seung-Koo; Lim, Soo Mee

    2017-01-01

    To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices. When directly comparing HIV-IC and HAND, HAND showed cortical thinning in the left retrosplenial cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortices, right temporoparietal junction and left hippocampus, and cortical thickening in the left middle occipital cortex. Left retrosplenial cortical thinning showed significant correlation with slower information processing, declined verbal memory and executive function, and impaired fine motor skills. This study supports previous research suggesting the selective vulnerability of the primary sensorimotor cortices and associations between cortical thinning in the prefrontal and parietal cortices and cognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Furthermore, for the first time, we propose retrosplenial cortical thinning as a possible major contributor to HIV-associated cognitive impairment. (orig.)

  15. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-06-01

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Retrosplenial cortical thinning as a possible major contributor for cognitive impairment in HIV patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Na-Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jinwoo; Yoon, Uicheul [Catholic University of Daegu, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Health and Medical Science, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Koo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soo Mee [Ewha Womans University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To identify brain cortical regions relevant to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) in HIV patients. HIV patients with HAND (n = 10), those with intact cognition (HIV-IC; n = 12), and age-matched, seronegative controls (n = 11) were recruited. All participants were male and underwent 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Both vertex-wise and region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to analyse cortical thickness. Compared to controls, both HIV-IC and HAND showed decreased cortical thickness mainly in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas, extending to the prefrontal and parietal cortices. When directly comparing HIV-IC and HAND, HAND showed cortical thinning in the left retrosplenial cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left inferior parietal lobule, bilateral superior medial prefrontal cortices, right temporoparietal junction and left hippocampus, and cortical thickening in the left middle occipital cortex. Left retrosplenial cortical thinning showed significant correlation with slower information processing, declined verbal memory and executive function, and impaired fine motor skills. This study supports previous research suggesting the selective vulnerability of the primary sensorimotor cortices and associations between cortical thinning in the prefrontal and parietal cortices and cognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Furthermore, for the first time, we propose retrosplenial cortical thinning as a possible major contributor to HIV-associated cognitive impairment. (orig.)

  17. Association of NOS3 gene variants and clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmanić Šamija, R. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Primorac, D. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Osijek, Osijek (Croatia); Eberly College of Science, Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States); St. Catherine Speciality Hospital, Zabok (Croatia); Rešić, B. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Pavlov, V. [Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Čapkun, V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Punda, H. [School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia); Lozić, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Split (Croatia); Zemunik, T. [Department of Medical Biology, School of Medicine Split, University of Split, Split (Croatia)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children.

  18. Impact Analysis of Economic Contributors on Knowledge Creation Activity by Using the Symmetric Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunam Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies using various methods for analysis have tried to evaluate factors affecting knowledge creation activity, but few analyses quantitatively account for the impact that economic determinants have on them. This paper introduces a non-parametric method to structurally analyze changes in information and communication technology (ICT patenting trends as representative outcomes of knowledge creation activity with economic indicators. For this, the authors established a symmetric model that enables several economic contributors to be decomposed through the perspective of ICTs’ research and development (R&D performance, industrial change, and overall manufacturing growth. Additionally, an empirical analysis of some countries from 2001 to 2009 was conducted through this model. This paper found that all countries except the United States experienced an increase of 10.5–267.4% in ICT patent applications, despite fluctuations in the time series. It is interesting that the changes in ICT patenting of each country generally have a negative relationship with the intensity of each country’s patent protection system. Positive determinants include ICT R&D productivity and overall manufacturing growth, while ICT industrial change is a negative determinant in almost all countries. This paper emphasizes that each country needs to design strategic plans for effective ICT innovation. In particular, ICT innovation activities need to be promoted by increasing ICT R&D investment and developing the ICT industry, since ICT R&D intensity and ICT industrial change generally have a low contribution to ICT patenting.

  19. Association of NOS3 gene variants and clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanić Šamija, R.; Primorac, D.; Rešić, B.; Pavlov, V.; Čapkun, V.; Punda, H.; Lozić, B.; Zemunik, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of different clinical contributors of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with NOS3 gene polymorphisms. A total of 110 children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and 128 control children were selected for this study. Association of gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, cranial ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings with genotypic data of six haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms and the most commonly investigated rs1800779 and rs2070744 polymorphisms was analyzed. The TGT haplotype of rs1800783, rs1800779, and rs2070744 polymorphisms was associated with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Children with the TGT haplotype were infants below 32 weeks of gestation and they had the most severe brain damage. Increased incidence of the TT genotype of the NOS3 rs1808593 SNP was found in the group of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy patients with medium and severe brain damage. The probability of brain damage was twice as high in children with the TT genotype than in children with the TG genotype of the same polymorphism. Furthermore, the T allele of the same polymorphism was twice as frequent in children with lower Apgar scores. This study strongly suggests associations of NOS3 gene polymorphism with intensity of brain damage and severity of the clinical picture in affected children

  20. Kinematic analysis of hip and knee rotation and other contributors to ballet turnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Amy E; Russell, Jeffrey A; Handley, Sara C; Quanbeck, Deborah S

    2017-02-01

    Turnout, or external rotation (ER) of the lower extremities, is essential in ballet. The purpose of this study was to utilise physical examination and a biomechanical method for obtaining functional kinematic data using hip and knee joint centres to identify the relative turnout contributions from hip rotation, femoral anteversion, knee rotation, tibial torsion, and other sources. Ten female dancers received a lower extremity alignment assessment, including passive hip rotation, femoral anteversion, tibial torsion, weightbearing foot alignment, and Beighton hypermobility score. Next, turnout was assessed using plantar pressure plots and three-dimensional motion analysis; participants performed turnout to ballet first position on both a plantar pressure mat and friction-reducing discs. A retro-reflective functional marker motion capture system mapped the lower extremities and hip and knee joint centres. Mean total turnout was 129±15.7° via plantar pressure plots and 135±17.8° via kinematics. Bilateral hip ER during turnout was 49±10.2° (36% of total turnout). Bilateral knee ER during turnout was 41±5.9° (32% of total turnout). Hip ER contribution to total turnout measured kinematically was less than expected compared to other studies, where hip ER was determined without functional kinematic data. Knee ER contributed substantially more turnout than expected or previously reported. This analysis method allows precise assessment of turnout contributors.

  1. Recurrent variants in OTOF are significant contributors to prelingual nonsydromic hearing loss in Saudi patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almontashiri, Naif A M; Alswaid, Abdulrahman; Oza, Andrea; Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Elrehim, Omnia; Tayoun, Ahmad Abou; Rehm, Heidi L; Amr, Sami S

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Hearing loss is more prevalent in the Saudi Arabian population than in other populations; however, the full range of genetic etiologies in this population is unknown. We report the genetic findings from 33 Saudi hearing-loss probands of tribal ancestry, with predominantly prelingual severe to profound hearing loss. Methods Testing was performed over the course of 2012–2016, and involved initial GJB2 sequence and GJB6-D13S1830 deletion screening, with negative cases being reflexed to a next-generation sequencing panel with 70, 71, or 87 hearing-loss genes. Results A “positive” result was reached in 63% of probands, with two recurrent OTOF variants (p.Glu57* and p.Arg1792His) accountable for a third of all “positive” cases. The next most common cause was pathogenic variants in MYO7A and SLC26A4, each responsible for three “positive” cases. Interestingly, only one “positive” diagnosis had a DFNB1-related cause, due to a homozygous GJB6-D13S1830 deletion, and no sequence variants in GJB2 were detected. Conclusion Our findings implicate OTOF as a potential major contributor to hearing loss in the Saudi population, while highlighting the low contribution of GJB2, thus offering important considerations for clinical testing strategies for Saudi patients. Further screening of Saudi patients is needed to characterize the genetic spectrum in this population. PMID:29048421

  2. Dietary contributors to glycemic load in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and selected cancers. We sought to identify the main food and food group contributors to dietary GL in a representative sample of US adults to inform future interventions. Methods Participants were from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study, a longitudinal cohort of 30,239 community-dwelling black and white women and men age ≥45 years across the US. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The amount of each carbohydrate food, and its glycemic index, were used to calculate GL values for each carbohydrate food reported. These were totaled to estimate the mean total daily GL for each participant. Individual carbohydrate foods also were collapsed into 18 carbohydrate food groups, and the portion of the total GL contributed by each carbohydrate food and food group was determined. Analyses were conducted overall, by race/sex groups, and by region. Results Sweetened beverages were the main contributors to GL overall (12.14 median % of daily GL), by far the largest contributors in black men (17.79 median %) and black women (16.43 median %), and major contributors in white men (12.02 median %) and white women (11.22 median %). Other important contributors to GL overall and in all race/sex groups and regions included breads, starchy side dishes, and cereals. Conclusions In this US cohort of white and black adults, sweetened beverages were major contributors to GL overall, and especially in black participants. This information may help to inform future interventions targeting reduction in dietary GL. PMID:25837217

  3. Claudin-11 and occludin are major contributors to Sertoli cell tight junction function, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J McCabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ is the key component of the blood-testis barrier, where it sequesters developing germ cells undergoing spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules. Hormonally regulated claudin-11 is a critical transmembrane protein involved in barrier function and its murine knockout results in infertility. We aimed to assess quantitatively the significance of the contribution of claudin-11 to TJ function, in vitro, using siRNA-mediated gene silencing. We also conducted an analysis of the contribution of occludin, another intrinsic transmembrane protein of the TJ. Silencing of claudin-11 and/or occludin was conducted using siRNA in an immature rat Sertoli cell culture model. Transepithelial electrical resistance was used to assess quantitatively TJ function throughout the culture. Two days after siRNA treatment, cells were fixed for immunocytochemical localization of junction proteins or lyzed for RT-PCR assessment of mRNA expression. Silencing of claudin-11, occludin, or both resulted in significant decreases in TJ function of 55% (P < 0.01, 51% (P < 0.01, and 62% (P < 0.01, respectively. Data were concomitant with significant decreases in mRNA expression and marked reductions in the localization of targeted proteins to the Sertoli cell TJ. We provide quantitative evidence that claudin-11 contributes significantly (P < 0.01 to Sertoli cell TJ function in vitro. Interestingly, occludin, which is hormonally regulated but not implicated in infertility until late adulthood, is also a significant (P < 0.01 contributor to barrier function. Our data are consistent with in vivo studies that clearly demonstrate a role for these proteins in maintaining normal TJ barrier structure and function.

  4. Ice/Bedrock Feedbacks as a Principle Contributor to Glacial-Interglacial Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, J.; Lee, K.; Jackson, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the mid-Pleistocene, the oscillation between glacial and interglacial climate states occurs with a period of approximately 100 kyr. Each cycle is comprised of a slow glaciation with a subsequent rapid deglaciation. While the solar forcing is clearly an important driver for these transitions, the power spectrum of the solar forcing is quite different from the subsequent climate response and, in general, does not have a noticeable correlation with global ice volume. Instead, previous studies have shown that internal climate processes and their interactions (e.g., CO2, water vapor, isostatic bed response) play a significant role in producing these global climate cycles. The rapid retreat of large ice sheets at the start of an interglacial is often attributed to the interaction between surface and atmospheric processes. While calving is thought to amplify this retreat, it is not typically considered a principle driver of the ice sheet response. Our study investigates the potential for ice/bedrock feedbacks to be a principle contributor in shaping the glacial-interglacial climate oscillation -- particularly the rapid deglaciation that precedes an interglacial. The ice sheet model we develop includes a piecewise linear ice/bedrock feedback while atmospheric and surface processes are taken to be as simple as possible. Due to the long timescale of the bedrock response and the rapid mass loss due to calving, the model ice sheet exhibits rapid deglaciation from a stable maximum when it retreats through an overdeepening. However, ice sheet advance is also shown to be as rapid unless a more complex bedrock response is considered. In particular, we show that a forebulge created by the displacement of the mantle adds a new stable branch to the volume/equilibrium line bifurcation diagram that results in slower growth of the ice sheet during glaciation.

  5. Contributors to ozone episodes in three US/Mexico border twin-cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chune; Fernando, H J S; Yang, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The Process Analysis tools of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system together with back-trajectory analysis were used to assess potential contributors to ozone episodes that occurred during June 1-4, 2006, in three populated U.S.-Mexico border twin cities: San Diego/Tijuana, Imperial/Mexicali and El Paso/Ciudad Juárez. Validation of CMAQ output against surface ozone measurements indicates that the predictions are acceptable with regard to commonly recommended statistical standards and comparable to other reported studies. The mean normalized bias test (MNBT) and mean normalized gross error (MNGE) for hourly ozone fall well within the US EPA suggested range of +/-15% and 35%, respectively, except MNBT for El Paso. The MNBTs for maximum 8-h average ozone are larger than those for hourly ozone, but all the simulated maximum 8-h average ozone are within a factor of 2 of those measured in all three regions. The process and back-trajectory analyses indicate that the main sources of daytime ground-level ozone are the local photochemical production and regional transport. By integrating the effects of each process over the depth of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL), it is found that in the San Diego area (SD), chemistry and vertical advection contributed about 36%/48% and 64%/52% for June 2 and 3, respectively. This confirms the previous finding that high-altitude regional transport followed by fumigation contributes significantly to ozone in SD. The back-trajectory analysis shows that this ozone was mostly transported from the coastal area of southern California. For the episodes in Imperial Valley and El Paso, respectively, ozone was transported from the coastal areas of southern California and Mexico and from northern Texas and Oklahoma.

  6. Additions to our monograph on Psathyrella. Thirteen new species, some revised keys, comments on other recently described species, and corrections and additions to our monograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kits van Waveren, E.

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen new species and a new variety of Psathyrella are described: P. badia, P. bernhardii, P. borgensis, P. capitatocystis, P. dennyensis, P. minutissima, P. mookensis, P. multicystidiata, P. perpusilla, P. ploddensis, P. romseyensis, P. twickelensis, P. vyrnwyensis, and P. obtusata var.

  7. S3 HMBC: Spin-State-Selective HMBC for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants. Application to strychnine yielding thirteen hitherto unreported JHH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Louise; Benie, Andrew J.; Hoeck, Casper

    2016-01-01

    A novel method, Spin-State-Selective (S3) HMBC, for accurate measurement of homonuclear coupling constants is introduced. As characteristic for S3 techniques, S3 HMBC yields independent subspectra corresponding to particular passive spin states and thus allows determination of coupling constants ...... are demonstrated by an application to strychnine where thirteen JHH coupling constants not previously reported could be measured....

  8. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna M Palipudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate a

  9. Evaluation of thirteen haloacetic acids and ten trihalomethanes formation by peracetic acid and chlorine drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos C; Adams, Craig D; Eichholz, Todd

    2017-12-01

    Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection. In this study, the formations of thirteen HAAs and ten THMs, including the iodinated forms, have been investigated during PAA disinfection and chlorination as the comparison. The DBP formations under different iodide concentrations, pHs, and contact times were systematically investigated. Two types of commercial PAAs containing different concentrations of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were studied. A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was upgraded for THM analysis including I-THMs. HAAs were analyzed by following a recently developed high performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that the ratio of PAA and H 2 O 2 concentration significantly affect the formation of I-THMs and I-HAAs. During PAA disinfection with lower PAA than H 2 O 2 , no detectable levels of THMs and HAAs were observed. During PAA disinfection with higher PAA than H 2 O 2 , low levels of monoiodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and iodoform were formed, and these levels were enhanced with the increase of iodide concentration. No significant quantities of chloro- or bromo-THMs and HAAs were formed during PAA disinfection treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Andes, Linda J; Asma, Samira; McAfee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted during 2008-2010 in 13 low-and-middle income countries: Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Viet Nam. These surveys provided information on 209,027 respondent's aged 15 years and above and the country datasets were analyzed individually for estimating current tobacco use across various socio-demographic factors (gender, age, place of residence, education, wealth index, and knowledge on harmful effects of smoking). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict the impact of these determinants on current tobacco use status. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco, either daily or occasionally. Former smokers were excluded from the analysis. Adjusted odds ratios for current tobacco use after controlling other cofactors, was significantly higher for males across all countries and for urban areas in eight of the 13 countries. For educational level, the trend was significant in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Philippines and Thailand demonstrating decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing levels of education. For wealth index, the trend of decreasing prevalence of tobacco use with increasing wealth was significant for Bangladesh, India, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Viet Nam. The trend of decreasing prevalence with increasing levels of knowledge on harmful effects of smoking was significant in China, India, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Thailand, Ukraine and Viet Nam. These findings demonstrate a significant but varied role of social determinants on current tobacco use within and

  11. Development of Simultaneous Analysis of Thirteen Bioactive Compounds in So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang Using UPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Jeong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang, which is a standardized Korean medicine of the National Health Insurance, is a traditional prescription for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma. Simultaneous analysis and development of SCRT is essential for its stability, efficacy, and risk management. In this study, a simple, reliable, and accurate method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC fingerprinting with a diode array detector (DAD was developed for the simultaneous analysis. The chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed by an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (1.7 μM, 2.1 × 100 mm, Waters with a mobile phase of water containing 0.01% (v/v phosphoric acid and acetonitrile containing 0.01% (v/v phosphoric acid. The flow rate and detection wavelength were set at 0.4 mL/min and 215, 230, 254, and 280 nm. All calibration curves of the thirteen components showed good linearity (R2 > 0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantification ranged 0.001–0.360 and 0.004–1.200 µg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD of intra- and interday was less than 2.60%, and the recoveries were within the range 76.08–103.79% with an RSD value of 0.03–1.50%. The results showed that the developed method was simple, reliable, accurate, sensitive, and precise for the quantification of bioactive components of SCRT.

  12. Using dissolved gases to observe the evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Baseflows in snowmelt-dominated mountain streams are critical for sustaining ecosystems and water resources during periods of greatest demand. Future climate predictions for mountainous areas throughout much of the western U.S. include increasing temperatures, declining snowpacks, and earlier snowmelt periods. The degree to and rate at which these changes will affect baseflows in mountain streams remains unknown, largely because baseflows are groundwater-fed and the relationship between climate and groundwater recharge/discharge rates in mountain watersheds is uncertain. We use groundwater age determinations from multiple dissolved gas tracers (CFCs, SF6, and 3H/3He) to track changes in groundwater age over a period of thirteen years in the Sagehen Creek watershed, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA. Data were collected from springs and wells in 2009 and 2010 and combined with those obtained in prior studies from 1997 to 2003. Apparent ages range from 0 to >60 years. Comparison between variations in age and variations in snow water equivalent (SWE) and mean annual air temperature reveals the degree of correlation between these climate variables and recharge rate. Further, comparison of apparent ages from individual springs obtained at different times and using different tracers helps constrain the age distribution in the sampled waters. The age data are generally more consistent with an exponential age distribution than with piston-flow. However, many samples, even those with relatively old mean ages, must have a disproportionately large very young fraction that responds directly to annual SWE variations. These findings have important implications for how future baseflows may respond to decreasing SWE.

  13. Contributors to young drivers' driving styles - A comparison between Israel and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvirsky, Vera; Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Greenbury, Timothy J; Prato, Carlo G

    2017-12-01

    variables on multi-levels when referring to young drivers' driving styles, is confirmed. The findings attest to the universal utility of the MDSI, together with the understanding that only a wider examination of personal and environmental contributors enables true insights into the complex behavior of driving among young drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributors to suicidality in rural communities: beyond the effects of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Rural populations experience a higher suicide rate than urban areas despite their comparable prevalence of depression. This suggests the identification of additional contributors is necessary to improve our understanding of suicide risk in rural regions. Investigating the independent contribution of depression, and the impact of co-existing psychiatric disorders, to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a rural community sample may provide clarification of the role of depression in rural suicidality. Methods 618 participants in the Australian Rural Mental Health Study completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, providing assessment of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-use disorders. Logistic regression analyses explored the independent contribution of depression and additional diagnoses to suicidality. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to illustrate the benefit of assessing secondary psychiatric diagnoses when determining suicide risk. Results Diagnostic criteria for lifetime depressive disorder were met by 28% (174) of the sample; 25% (154) had a history of suicidal ideation. Overall, 41% (63) of participants with lifetime suicidal ideation and 34% (16) of participants with a lifetime suicide attempt had no history of depression. When lifetime depression was controlled for, suicidal ideation was predicted by younger age, being currently unmarried, and lifetime anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder. In addition to depression, suicide attempts were predicted by lifetime anxiety and drug use disorders, as well as younger age; being currently married and employed were significant protective factors. The presence of comorbid depression and PTSD significantly increased the odds of reporting a suicide attempt above either of these conditions independently. Conclusions While depression contributes significantly to suicidal ideation, and is a key

  15. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  16. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  17. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 - 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Desai

    Full Text Available Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences.We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category.We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets. Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797.The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this PageRank is far fewer than that

  18. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for individuals transitioning across age groups.

  19. Flow-by-flow chemical stratigraphy and evolution of thirteen Serra Geral Group basalt flows from Vista Alegre, southernmost Brazil

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    Viter M Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical characterization of thirteen Serra Geral Group flows in the Vista Alegre region (RS-SC, southern Brazil, displays the homogeneous basaltic composition near 50 wt.% SiO2. Each of the five basal flows (Pitanga-type, high-Ti/Y ~600, TiO2 > 3 wt.% and eight upper flows (Paranapanema-type, medium Ti/Y ~400, TiO2 > 2 wt.% can be identified from their chemical composition; sets of flows have parallel variation in chemical composition. The flow-by-flowcorrelation in four sections shows the horizontal position of the flows in three profiles and an approximately 200-m downdrop of the Itapiranga block with respect to the Frederico Westphalen block. The world-class amethyst geode mineralization and the systematic presence of native copper in the basalts make the correlation of great geological and economic significance.A caracterização geoquímica de treze derrames do Grupo Serra Geral na região de Vista Alegre (RS e SC, sul do Brasil, exibe uma composição basáltica homogênea próxima a 50% de SiO2. Os cinco derrames basais são classificados quimicamente como tipo Pitanga (alto Ti/Y ~600 e TiO2 > 3 em peso percentual, os demais oito derrames possuem médio Ti/Y ~400 com TiO2 ~2.5 em peso percentual, sendo classificados como magma tipo Paranapanema. Cada derrame pode ser identificado através de sua composição química e correlacionado, com variação paralela entre os perfis estudados. A correlação derrame a derrame nos quatro perfis demonstra uma posição horizontal em três perfis e um rejeito vertical de aproximadamente 200 m do bloco Itapiranga em relação ao bloco Frederico Westphalen. A presença de jazidas de ametista em geodos e a sistemática ocorrência de cobre nativo nos basaltos da região tornam a correlação de grande significado geológico e econômico.

  20. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 – 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. Methods We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. Results We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). Conclusion The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this Page

  1. Quantifying the Twitter Influence of Third Party Commercial Entities versus Healthcare Providers in Thirteen Medical Conferences from 2011 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Tejas; Dhingra, Vibhu; Shariff, Afreen; Shariff, Aabid; Lerma, Edgar; Singla, Parteek; Kachare, Swapnil; Syed, Zoheb; Minhas, Deeba; Madanick, Ryan; Fang, Xiangming

    Twitter channels are increasingly popular at medical conferences. Many groups, including healthcare providers and third party entities (e.g., pharmaceutical or medical device companies) use these channels to communicate with one another. These channels are unregulated and can allow third party commercial entities to exert an equal or greater amount of Twitter influence than healthcare providers. Third parties can use this influence to promote their products or services instead of sharing unbiased, evidence-based information. In this investigation we quantified the Twitter influence that third party commercial entities had in 13 major medical conferences. We analyzed tweets contained in the official Twitter hashtags of thirteen medical conferences from 2011 to 2013. We placed tweet authors into one of four categories based on their account profile: healthcare provider, third party commercial entity, none of the above and unknown. We measured Twitter activity by the number of tweet authors per category and the tweet-to-author ratio by category. We measured Twitter influence by the PageRank of tweet authors by category. We analyzed 51159 tweets authored by 8778 Twitter account holders in 13 conferences that were sponsored by 5 medical societies. A quarter of all authors identified themselves as healthcare providers, while only 18% could be identified as third party commercial entities. Healthcare providers had a greater tweet-to-author ratio than their third party commercial entity counterparts (8.98 versus 6.93 tweets). Despite having less authors and composing less tweets, third party commercial entities had a statistically similar PageRank as healthcare providers (0.761 versus 0.797). The Twitter influence of third party commercial entities (PageRank) is similar to that of healthcare providers. This finding is interesting because the number of tweets and third party commercial entity authors required to achieve this PageRank is far fewer than that needed by

  2. Simultaneous determination of thirteen flavonoids from Xiaobuxin-Tang extract using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Meifeng; Ruan, Jinxiu; Huang, Lihua; Zhang, Zhenqing; Yu, Nengjiang; Zhang, Youzhi; Cheng, Xuange; Xiong, Xiaohong; Wang, Guixiang; Zang, Linquan; Wang, Sujun

    2015-11-10

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analysis method was established to simultaneously determine thirteen flavonoids of Xiaobuxing-Tang in intestine perfusate, namely onpordin, 3'-O-methylorobol, glycitein, patuletin, genistein, luteolin, quercetin, nepitrin, quercimeritrin, daidzin, patulitrin, quercetagitrin and 3-glucosylisorhamnetin. Detection was performed on a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source operating in negative ionization mode. Negative ion ESI was used to form deprotonated molecules at m/z 315 for onpordin, m/z 299 for 3'-O-methylorobol, m/z 283 for glycitein, m/z 331 for patuletin, m/z 269 for genistein, m/z 285 for luteolin, m/z 301 for quercetin, m/z 477 for nepitrin, m/z 463 for quercimeritrin, m/z 461 for daidzin, m/z 493 for patulitrin, m/z 479 for quercetagitrin, m/z 477 for 3-glucosylisorhamnetin and m/z 609.2 for rutin. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect of the assay were evaluated. The proposed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of these thirteen flavonoids, and using this method, the intestinal absorption profiles of thirteen flavonoids were preliminarily predicted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vegetables and Mixed Dishes Are Top Contributors to Phylloquinone Intake in US Adults: Data from the 2011-2012 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, Stephanie G; Finnan, Emily G; Barger, Kathryn J; Bailey, Regan L; Haytowitz, David B; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-07-01

    Background: Phylloquinone is the most abundant form of vitamin K in US diets. Green vegetables are considered the predominant dietary source of phylloquinone. As our food supply diversifies and expands, the food groups that contribute to phylloquinone intake are also changing, which may change absolute intakes. Thus, it is important to identify the contributors to dietary vitamin K estimates to guide recommendations on intakes and food sources. Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate 1 ) the amount of phylloquinone consumed in the diet of US adults, 2 ) to estimate the contribution of different food groups to phylloquinone intake in individuals with a high or low vegetable intake (≥2 or vegetables/d), and 3 ) to characterize the contribution of different mixed dishes to phylloquinone intake. Methods: Usual phylloquinone intake was determined from NHANES 2011-2012 (≥20 y old; 2092 men and 2214 women) and the National Cancer Institute Method by utilizing a complex, stratified, multistage probability-cluster sampling design. Results: On average, 43.0% of men and 62.5% of women met the adequate intake (120 and 90 μg/d, respectively) for phylloquinone, with the lowest self-reported intakes noted among men, especially in the older age groups (51-70 and ≥71 y). Vegetables were the highest contributor to phylloquinone intake, contributing 60.0% in the high-vegetable-intake group and 36.1% in the low-vegetable-intake group. Mixed dishes were the second-highest contributor to phylloquinone intake, contributing 16.0% in the high-vegetable-intake group and 28.0% in the low-vegetable-intake group. Conclusion: Self-reported phylloquinone intakes from updated food composition data applied to NHANES 2011-2012 reveal that fewer men than women are meeting the current adequate intake. Application of current food composition data confirms that vegetables continue to be the primary dietary source of phylloquinone in the US diet. However, mixed dishes and convenience

  4. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of thirteen drugs collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010(Ch.P2010 on cellulose ramification chiral stationary phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomers separation of thirteen drugs collected in Ch.P2010 was performed on chiral stationary phase of cellulose ramification (chiralpak OD and chiralpak OJ by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC methods, which included ibuprofen (C1, ketoprofen (C2, nitrendipine (C3, nimodipine (C4, felodipine (C5, omeprazole (C6, praziquantel (C7, propranolol hydrochloride (C8, atenolol (C9, sulpiride (C10, clenbuterol hydrochloride (C11, verapamil hydrochloride (C12, and chlorphenamine maleate (C13. The mobile phase consisted of isopropanol and n-hexane. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm and the flow rate was 0.7 mL/min. The enantiomers separation of these thirteen racemates on chiralpak OD column and chiralpak OJ column was studied, while the effects of proportion of organic additives, alcohol displacer and temperature on the separation were studied. And the mechanism of some of racemates was discussed. The results indicated that thirteen chiral drugs could be separated on chiral stationary phase of cellulose ramification in normal phase chromatographic system. The chromatographic retention and resolution of enantiomers could be adjusted by factors including column temperature and the concentration of alcohol displacer and organic alkaline modifier in mobile phase. It was shown that the resolution was improved with reducing concentration of alcohol displacer. When concentration of organic alkaline modifier was 0.2% (v/v, the resolution and the peak shape were fairly good. Most racemates mentioned above had better resolution at column temperature of 25 °C. When racemates were separated, the temperature should be kept so as to obtain stable separation results. Keywords: HPLC, Chiral stationary phase, Optical enantiomers, Cellulose ramification

  5. Responses to the contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Barden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of responses to the papers on Garrett Barden's and Tim Murphy's book Law and Justice in Community (Oxford: OUP, 2010 published in this special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum.

  6. Notice to Contributors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Manuscript should be typewritten in English, with double spacing and with wide margins. The original manuscript and two duplicates are required. Words to be italicized should be underlined and footnote should be avoided. A running head of not more than 40 letters should be supplied. Written style should be concise,

  7. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He is a Fellow of the Cambridge Commonwealth Society and member of the International Society for Third Sector Research (ISTR). Daniel Eseme Gberevbie, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science and International Relations, Covenant University, Ota Ogun State, Nigeria. AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Notes on Contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notes on Contributors

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Ackland is a teacher educator at the School of Education, University of Aberdeen, Scotland. From 2006 to 2012 she was the Curriculum and Research Leader for the Scottish Consortium which developed and delivered the first professional qualification for Scottish Adult Literacies practitioners. Prior to joining the university, she worked in Adult and Community Education, mainly in the voluntary sector.

  9. Notes on Contributors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Muzaffar Alam is George V. Bobrinskoy Professor in South Asian Languages and Civilizations at the University of Chicago. He is the author of, among others, The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India (1986) and The Languages of Political Islam in India: c. 1200-1800 (2004); and, with Sanjay Subrahmanyam, of Writing the Mughal World: Studies on Culture and Politics (2011). Imre Bangha is Associate Professor of Hindi at the University of Oxford. He studied Indology in Budapest and holds a PhD in...

  10. The Second Factory of Havana before the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies 1760-1779. A Reading from the Spanish Estanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago de LUXÁN MELÉNDEZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our main objective is to verify the Spanish problems of Spanish estanco relative to its main supplier, the Island of Cuba. The return to direct management by the Monarchy of the production, sale and export of Cuban tobacco as a leading provider of Metropolitan estanco, once passed the accident of taking of Havana by the English, was accompanied by the expansion of culture in the Island, but not the increase in longterm consumption of the product in the Metropolitan estanco. Two types of tobacco, the Virginian, and especially the Brazilian one, continued to maintain a privileged position in the Spanish market. On the other hand, the more opening of Havana to American market coincides with the creation of estancos in the rest of America. According to the known estimations, at least until the period of the War of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies, the solution to the problems of excess production did not take place in the Antillean Island

  11. An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbricht, Thomas; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Verchot, Louis; Herold, Martin; Wittmann, Florian; Householder, Ethan; Herold, Nadine; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, interannual flood variability and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: (1) long-term water supply exceeding atmospheric water demand; (2) annually or seasonally water-logged soils; and (3) a geomorphological position where water is supplied and retained. Tropical and subtropical wetlands estimates reach 4.7 million km 2 (Mkm 2 ). In line with current understanding, the American continent is the major contributor (45%), and Brazil, with its Amazonian interfluvial region, contains the largest tropical wetland area (800,720 km 2 ). Our model suggests, however, unprecedented extents and volumes of peatland in the tropics (1.7 Mkm 2 and 7,268 (6,076-7,368) km 3 ), which more than threefold current estimates. Unlike current understanding, our estimates suggest that South America and not Asia contributes the most to tropical peatland area and volume (ca. 44% for both) partly related to some yet unaccounted extended deep deposits but mainly to extended but shallow peat in the Amazon Basin. Brazil leads the peatland area and volume contribution. Asia hosts 38% of both tropical peat area and volume with Indonesia as the main regional contributor and still the holder of the deepest and most extended peat areas in the tropics. Africa hosts more peat than previously reported but climatic and topographic contexts leave it as the least peat-forming continent. Our results suggest large biases in our current understanding of

  12. Thirteen Secrets of the Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Whether one is on Wall Street, in Congress, or working in an IT shop on campus, negotiating a good deal is hard work. As higher education enters its purchasing season, "Campus Technology" talks to deal makers who have "been there and done that." This article presents their tips for getting the most value from vendors the next time one buys…

  13. Sexual Violence as a Key Contributor to Poor Mental Health Among Japanese Women Subjected to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoko; Wynter, Karen; Yokota, Jinko; Tran, Thach; Ujiie, Yuri; Niwa, Madoka; Nakayama, Michi; Ito, Fumie; Kim, Yoshiharu; Fisher, Jane; Kamo, Toshiko

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence. Mental health problems were compared, including anxiety, depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative experiences. The results demonstrated a higher incidence and severity of somatic symptoms, insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression and suicidality, PTSD, and dissociative experiences among women in the sexual IPV group than in the women who experienced IPV without sexual violence. In analyzing the relative contribution of sexual, physical, and psychological violence to the severity of mental health problems of the survivors, results indicated that sexual violence was an independent predictor of both PTSD and dissociative experiences. The present research showed that significant adverse effects on mental health were observed among women who experienced IPV with sexual violence compared with the ones without. These findings provide important implications for considering the specific approaches to meet the needs of those women experiencing sexual IPV and the need for timely and effective interventions, including healthcare, social services, and primary prevention.

  14. Tumour cell dormancy as a contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients who received standard therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Luqing; Yi, Li; Liu, Peidong; Abeysekera, Iruni Roshanie; Hai, Long; Li, Tao; Tao, Zhennan; Ma, Haiwen; Xie, Yang; Huang, Yubao; Yu, Shengping; Li, Jiabo; Yuan, Feng; Yang, Xuejun

    2018-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a fatal cancer with varying life expectancy, even for patients undergoing the same standard therapy. Identification of differentially expressed genes in GBM patients with different survival rates may benefit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, key pathways and genes correlated with survival in GBM patients were screened with bioinformatic analysis. Included in the study were 136 eligible patients who had undertaken surgical resection of GBM followed by temozolomide (TMZ) chemoradiation and long-term therapy with TMZ. A total of 383 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to GBM survival were identified. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis as well as hub gene screening and module analysis were performed. As expected, angiogenesis and migration of GBM cells were closely correlated with a poor prognosis. Importantly, the results also indicated that cell dormancy was an essential contributor to the reduced survival of GBM patients. Given the lack of specific targeted genes and pathways known to be involved in tumour cell dormancy, we proposed enriched candidate genes related to the negative regulation of cell proliferation, signalling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, and 3 hub genes (FTH1, GRM1 and DDIT3). Maintaining persistent cell dormancy or preventing tumour cells from entering dormancy during chemoradiation should be a promising therapeutic strategy.

  15. Mechanical Ventilation–associated Lung Fibrosis in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome A Significant Contributor to Poor Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Benitez, Nuria E.; Laffey, John G.; Parotto, Matteo; Spieth, Peter M.; Villar, Jesús; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in critical care medicine is the management of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggests that mechanical ventilation, which is necessary for life support in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, can cause lung fibrosis, which may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. The role of mechanical stress as an inciting factor for lung fibrosis versus its role in lung homeostasis and the restoration of normal pulmonary parenchymal architecture is poorly understood. In this review, the authors explore recent advances in the field of pulmonary fibrosis in the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome, concentrating on its relevance to the practice of mechanical ventilation, as commonly applied by anesthetists and intensivists. The authors focus the discussion on the thesis that mechanical ventilation—or more specifically, that ventilator-induced lung injury—may be a major contributor to lung fibrosis. The authors critically appraise possible mechanisms underlying the mechanical stress–induced lung fibrosis and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to mitigate this fibrosis. PMID:24732023

  16. Effects of Food Additives on Immune Cells As Contributors to Body Weight Gain and Immune-Mediated Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Neto, Heitor A; Ausina, Priscila; Gomez, Lilian S; Leandro, João G B; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Food additives are compounds used in order to improve food palatability, texture, and shelf life. Despite a significant effort to assure safety of use, toxicological analysis of these substances, generally, rely on their direct toxicity to target organs (liver and kidney) or their genotoxic effects. Much less attention is paid to the effects of these compounds on cells of the immune system. This is of relevance given that metabolic dysregulation and obesity have a strong immune-mediated component. Obese individuals present a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the establishment of insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities known as the metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are currently recognized as worldwide epidemics that pose a profound socioeconomic impact and represent a concern to public health. Cells of the immune system contribute to both the maintenance of "lean homeostasis" and the metabolic dysregulation observed in obese individuals. Although much attention has been drawn in the past decades to obesity and metabolic syndrome as a result of ingesting highly processed food containing large amounts of fat and simple sugars, mounting evidence suggest that food additives may also be important contributors to metabolic derangement. Herein, we review pieces of evidence from the literature showing that food additives have relevant effects on cells of the immune system that could contribute to immune-mediated metabolic dysregulation. Considering their potential to predispose individuals to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome, their use should be taken with caution or maybe revisited.

  17. Effects of Food Additives on Immune Cells As Contributors to Body Weight Gain and Immune-Mediated Metabolic Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor A. Paula Neto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are compounds used in order to improve food palatability, texture, and shelf life. Despite a significant effort to assure safety of use, toxicological analysis of these substances, generally, rely on their direct toxicity to target organs (liver and kidney or their genotoxic effects. Much less attention is paid to the effects of these compounds on cells of the immune system. This is of relevance given that metabolic dysregulation and obesity have a strong immune-mediated component. Obese individuals present a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the establishment of insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities known as the metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are currently recognized as worldwide epidemics that pose a profound socioeconomic impact and represent a concern to public health. Cells of the immune system contribute to both the maintenance of “lean homeostasis” and the metabolic dysregulation observed in obese individuals. Although much attention has been drawn in the past decades to obesity and metabolic syndrome as a result of ingesting highly processed food containing large amounts of fat and simple sugars, mounting evidence suggest that food additives may also be important contributors to metabolic derangement. Herein, we review pieces of evidence from the literature showing that food additives have relevant effects on cells of the immune system that could contribute to immune-mediated metabolic dysregulation. Considering their potential to predispose individuals to develop obesity and metabolic syndrome, their use should be taken with caution or maybe revisited.

  18. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A; Giraud, T; Bellard, C; Tellier, A; Le Cam, B; Smulders, M J M; Kleinschmit, J; Roldan-Ruiz, I; Gladieux, P

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination of genetic data and ecological niche models to investigate the historical patterns of biogeographic range expansion of a wild fruit tree, the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple. Both climatic predictions for the last glacial maximum and analyses of microsatellite variation indicated that M. sylvestris experienced range contraction and fragmentation. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed a clear pattern of genetic structure, with one genetic cluster spanning a large area in Western Europe and two other genetic clusters with a more limited distribution range in Eastern Europe, one around the Carpathian Mountains and the other restricted to the Balkan Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian computation appeared to be a powerful technique for inferring the history of these clusters, supporting a scenario of simultaneous differentiation of three separate glacial refugia. Admixture between these three populations was found in their suture zones. A weak isolation by distance pattern was detected within each population, indicating a high extent of historical gene flow for the European crabapple. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong; Zhou, Zhixiong; Liu, Wenxi Kevin; Wang, Xiujiang; Yin, Zenong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) outside school hours and obesity in Chinese primary school students. We also explored the influence of gender on those relationships. The study sample was a cross-sectional cohort of 5032 Chinese children who were enrolled in grades 1-6 in primary schools in five Chinese cities and whose mean ages ranged from seven years and three months to 11.9 years. The children's parents completed a survey on their child's height, weight and EBRBs outside school hours. The response rate was 97%, and the reported rates of overweight and obesity were 13.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The obesity rates were higher in boys and lower grade children. Most EBRBs varied between boys and girls and with increased grade levels. The amount of time spent on academic-related activities, screen viewing, outdoor activities and sleep was mostly associated with obesity on weekdays and varied by gender. Rate of obesity was alarmingly high in the primary school Chinese children in this cohort, especially in younger children. Excessive time spent on academic-related activities outside school hours, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and higher levels of screen viewing were major contributors to obesity in these Chinese children. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    This study examines patterns of lifetime victimization within the family, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a sample of 198 high-risk young women who are pregnant or parenting. We used cluster analysis to identify 5 profiles of cumulative victimization, based on participants' levels of witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), physical abuse by an adult caregiver, and sexual victimization, all beginning by age 12. Hierarchical regression was used to examine these 5 clusters (ranging from a High All Victimization cluster characterized by high levels of all 3 forms of violence, to a Low All Victimization cluster characterized by low levels of all 3 forms), along with community violence exposure and stigma, as predictors of PTSD symptoms. We found that 3 of the cumulative victimization clusters, in comparison with Low All Victimization, were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms, as was stigma, while community violence exposure was not a significant predictor. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Excessive by-product formation: A key contributor to low isobutanol yields of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, N; Wahl, S A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2016-12-01

    It is theoretically possible to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which isobutanol is the predominant catabolic product and high-yielding isobutanol-producing strains are already reported by industry. Conversely, isobutanol yields of engineered S. cerevisiae strains reported in the scientific literature typically remain far below 10% of the theoretical maximum. This study explores possible reasons for these suboptimal yields by a mass-balancing approach. A cytosolically located, cofactor-balanced isobutanol pathway, consisting of a mosaic of bacterial enzymes whose in vivo functionality was confirmed by complementation of null mutations in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, was expressed in S. cerevisiae . Product formation by the engineered strain was analysed in shake flasks and bioreactors. In aerobic cultures, the pathway intermediate isobutyraldehyde was oxidized to isobutyrate rather than reduced to isobutanol. Moreover, significant concentrations of the pathway intermediates 2,3-dihydroxyisovalerate and α-ketoisovalerate, as well as diacetyl and acetoin, accumulated extracellularly. While the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, micro-aerobic cultivation resulted in isobutanol formation at a yield of 0.018±0.003 mol/mol glucose. Simultaneously, 2,3-butanediol was produced at a yield of 0.649±0.067 mol/mol glucose. These results identify massive accumulation of pathway intermediates, as well as overflow metabolites derived from acetolactate, as an important, previously underestimated contributor to the suboptimal yields of 'academic' isobutanol strains. The observed patterns of by-product formation is consistent with the notion that in vivo activity of the iron-sulphur-cluster-requiring enzyme dihydroxyacid dehydratase is a key bottleneck in the present and previously described 'academic' isobutanol-producing yeast strains.

  2. There are multiple contributors to the verbal short-term memory deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y

    2009-09-01

    Prior research has put forth at least four possible contributors to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in children with developmental reading disabilities (RD): poor phonological awareness that affects phonological coding into VSTM, a less effective phonological store, slow articulation rate, and fewer/poorer quality long-term memory (LTM) representations. This project is among the first to test the four suppositions in one study. Participants included 18 children with RD and 18 controls. VSTM was assessed using Baddeley's model of the phonological loop. Findings suggest all four suppositions are correct, depending upon the type of material utilized. Children with RD performed comparably to controls in VSTM for common words but worse for less frequent words and nonwords. Furthermore, only articulation rate predicted VSTM for common words, whereas Verbal IQ and articulation rate predicted VSTM for less frequent words, and phonological awareness and articulation rate predicted VSTM for nonwords. Overall, findings suggest that the mechanism(s) used to code and store items by their meaning is intact in RD, and the deficit in VSTM for less frequent words may be a result of fewer/poorer quality LTM representations for these words. In contrast, phonological awareness and the phonological store are impaired, affecting VSTM for items that are coded phonetically. Slow articulation rate likely affects VSTM for most material when present. When assessing reading performance, VSTM predicted decoding skill but not word identification after controlling Verbal IQ and phonological awareness. Thus, VSTM likely contributes to reading ability when words are novel and must be decoded.

  3. Surface-layer protein A (SlpA is a major contributor to host-cell adherence of Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Merrigan

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and a significant etiologic agent of healthcare-associated infections. The mechanisms of attachment and host colonization of C. difficile are not well defined. We hypothesize that non-toxin bacterial factors, especially those facilitating the interaction of C. difficile with the host gut, contribute to the initiation of C. difficile infection. In this work, we optimized a completely anaerobic, quantitative, epithelial-cell adherence assay for vegetative C. difficile cells, determined adherence proficiency under multiple conditions, and investigated C. difficile surface protein variation via immunological and DNA sequencing approaches focused on Surface-Layer Protein A (SlpA. In total, thirty-six epidemic-associated and non-epidemic associated C. difficile clinical isolates were tested in this study, and displayed intra- and inter-clade differences in attachment that were unrelated to toxin production. SlpA was a major contributor to bacterial adherence, and individual subunits of the protein (varying in sequence between strains mediated host-cell attachment to different extents. Pre-treatment of host cells with crude or purified SlpA subunits, or incubation of vegetative bacteria with anti-SlpA antisera significantly reduced C. difficile attachment. SlpA-mediated adherence-interference correlated with the attachment efficiency of the strain from which the protein was derived, with maximal blockage observed when SlpA was derived from highly adherent strains. In addition, SlpA-containing preparations from a non-toxigenic strain effectively blocked adherence of a phylogenetically distant, epidemic-associated strain, and vice-versa. Taken together, these results suggest that SlpA plays a major role in C. difficile infection, and that it may represent an attractive target for interventions aimed at abrogating gut colonization by this pathogen.

  4. Neuromuscular strain as a contributor to cognitive and other symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Hypothesis and conceptual model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Rowe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS have heightened sensitivity and increased symptoms following various physiologic challenges, such as orthostatic stress, physical exercise, and cognitive challenges. Similar heightened sensitivity to the same stressors in fibromyalgia (FM has led investigators to propose that these findings reflect a state of central sensitivity. A large body of evidence supports the concept of central sensitivity in FM. A more modest literature provides partial support for this model in CFS, particularly with regard to pain. Nonetheless, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction have not been explained by the central sensitivity data thus far. Peripheral factors have attracted attention recently as contributors to central sensitivity. Work by Brieg, Sunderland, and others has emphasized the ability of the nervous system to undergo accommodative changes in length in response to the range of limb and trunk movements carried out during daily activity. If that ability to elongate is impaired—due to movement restrictions in tissues adjacent to nerves, or due to swelling or adhesions within the nerve itself—the result is an increase in mechanical tension within the nerve. This adverse neural tension, also termed neurodynamic dysfunction, is thought to contribute to pain and other symptoms through a variety of mechanisms. These include mechanical sensitization and altered nociceptive signaling, altered proprioception, adverse patterns of muscle recruitment and force of muscle contraction, reduced intra-neural blood flow, and release of inflammatory neuropeptides. Because it is not possible to differentiate completely between adverse neural tension and strain in muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues, we use the more general term neuromuscular strain. In our clinical work, we have found that neuromuscular restrictions are common in CFS, and that many symptoms of CFS can be reproduced by selectively adding neuromuscular strain

  5. Effect of multiple alcohol-based hand rub applications on the tensile properties of thirteen brands of medical exam nitrile and latex gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Horvatin, Matthew; Niezgoda, George; Weible, Robyn; Shaffer, Ronald

    2016-12-01

    Current CDC guidance for the disinfection of gloved hands during the doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) following the care of a patient with Ebola recommends for multiple applications of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) on medical exam gloves. To evaluate possible effects of ABHR applications on glove integrity, thirteen brands of nitrile and latex medical exam gloves from five manufacturers and two different ABHRs were included in this study. A pair of gloves were worn by a test operator and the outside surfaces of the gloves were separately treated with an ABHR for 1-6 applications. Tensile strength and ultimate elongation of the gloves without any ABHR treatments (control gloves) and gloves after 1-6 ABHR applications were measured based on the ASTM D412 standard method. In general, tensile strength decreased with each ABHR application. ABHRs had more effect on the tensile strength of the tested nitrile than latex gloves, while ethanol-based ABHR (EBHR) resulted in lesser changes in tensile strength compared to isopropanol-based ABHR (IBHR). The results show that multiple EBHR applications on the latex gloves and some of the nitrile gloves tested should be safe for Ebola PPE doffing based on the CDC guidance. Appropriate hospital staff practice using ABHR treatment and doffing gloves is recommended to become more familiar with changes in glove properties.

  6. Heart and/or soul : reality and fiction in the association between the two strongest contributors to the global burden of disease - ischemic heart disease and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter

    Depression and heart disease are the strongest contributors to the global burden of disease and are often intertwined: depression is a risk factor for heart disease and vice versa. Moreover, depression in patients with established heart disease is associated with cardiovascular disease progression.

  7. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie.wang2@osumc.edu [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Osei, Kwame [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-07-22

    to insulin despite the levels of PC1/3 and PC2 proteins were not reduced somehow. The findings demonstrate that the perturbation of PIHO results in defects in the subsequent conversion process of proinsulin and is a contributor to the occurrence of disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in diabetes.

  8. KCNJ10 may not be a contributor to nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA in Chinese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic enlargement of vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA is an autosomal recessive hearing loss disorder that is associated with mutations in SLC26A4. However, not all patients with NSEVA carry biallelic mutations in SLC26A4. A recent study proposed that single mutations in both SLC26A4 and KCNJ10 lead to digenic NSEVA. We examined whether KCNJ10 excert a role in the pathogenesis of NSEVA in Chinese patients. METHODS: SLC26A4 was sequenced in 1056 Chinese patients with NSEVA. KCNJ10 was screened in 131 patients who lacked mutations in either one or both alleles of SLC26A4. Additionally, KCNJ10 was screened in 840 controls, including 563 patients diagnosed with NSEVA who carried biallelic SLC26A4 mutations, 48 patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss due to inner ear malformations that did not involve enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA, 96 patients with conductive hearing loss due to various causes, and 133 normal-hearing individuals with no family history of hereditary hearing loss. RESULTS: 925 NSEVA patients were found carrying two-allele pathogenic SLC26A4 mutations. The most frequently detected KCNJ10 mutation was c.812G>A (p.R271H. Compared with the normal-hearing control subjects, the occurrence rate of c.812G>A in NSEVA patients with lacking mutations in one or both alleles of SLC26A4 had no significant difference(1.53% vs. 5.30%, χ(2 = 2.798, p = 0.172, which suggested that it is probably a nonpathogenic benign variant. KCNJ10 c.1042C>T (p.R348C, the reported EVA-related mutation, was not found in patients with NSEVA who lacked mutations in either one or both alleles of SLC26A4. Furthermore, the normal-hearing parents of patients with NSEVA having two SLC26A4 mutations carried the KCNJ10 c.1042C>T or c.812G>A mutation and a SLC26A4 pathogenic mutation. CONCLUSION: SLC26A4 is the major genetic cause in Chinese NSEVA patients, accounting for 87.59%. KCNJ10 may not be a contributor to NSEVA in Chinese population. Other

  9. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie; Osei, Kwame

    2011-01-01

    somehow. The findings demonstrate that the perturbation of PIHO results in defects in the subsequent conversion process of proinsulin and is a contributor to the occurrence of disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia in diabetes.

  10. CT Scan of Thirteen Natural Mummies Dating Back to the XVI-XVIII Centuries: An Emerging Tool to Investigate Living Conditions and Diseases in History.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Petrella

    Full Text Available To correlate the radiologic findings detected with computed tomography scan with anthropological data in 13 naturally mummified bodies discovered during works of recovery of an ancient church in a crypt in Roccapelago, in the Italian Apennines.From a group of about sixty not-intentionally mummified bodies, thirteen were selected to be investigated with volumetric computed tomography (CT. Once CT scan was performed, axial images were processed to gather MPR and Volume Rendering reconstructions. Elaborations of these images provided anthropometric measurements and a non-invasive analysis of the residual anatomical structures. For each body the grade of preservation and the eventual pathological changes were recorded. Furthermore, in order to identify nutritional and occupational markers, radiologic signs of bone tropism and degenerative changes were analysed and graded.Mummies included seven females and six males, with an estimated age ranging from 20 to 60 years. The first relevant finding identified was a general low grade of preservation, due to the lack of anatomic tissues different from bones, tendons and dehydrated skin. The low grade of preservation was related to the natural process of mummification. Analysing bone degenerative changes on CT scan, the majority of the bodies had significant occupational markers consisting of arthritis in the spine, lower limbs and shoulders even in young age. Few were the pathological findings identified. Among these, the most relevant included a severe bilateral congenital hip dysplasia and a wide osteolytic lesion involving left orbit and petrous bone that was likely the cause of death.Although the low grade of preservation of these mummies, the multidisciplinary approach of anthropologists and radiologists allowed several important advances in knowledge for the epidemiology of Roccapelago. First of all, a profile of living conditions was delineated. It included occupational and nutritional conditions

  11. Taking Care of Our Own: A Multispecialty Study of Resident and Program Director Perspectives on Contributors to Burnout and Potential Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily G; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Putnam, Karen T; Penaskovic, Kenan M; Denniston, Clark R; Clark, Leslie H; Rubinow, David R; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha

    2017-04-01

    Rates of resident physician burnout range from 60 to 76 % and are rising. Consequently, there is an urgent need for academic medical centers to develop system-wide initiatives to combat burnout in physicians. Academic psychiatrists who advocate for or treat residents should be familiar with the scope of the problem and the contributors to burnout and potential interventions to mitigate it. We aimed to measure burnout in residents across a range of specialties and to describe resident- and program director-identified contributors and interventions. Residents across all specialties at a tertiary academic hospital completed surveys to assess symptoms of burnout and depression using the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Residents and program directors identified contributors to burnout and interventions that might mitigate its risk. Residents were asked to identify barriers to treatment. There were 307 residents (response rate of 61 %) who completed at least one question on the survey; however, all residents did not respond to all questions, resulting in varying denominators across survey questions. In total, 190 of 276 residents (69 %) met criteria for burnout and 45 of 263 (17 %) screened positive for depression. Program directors underestimated rates of burnout, with only one program director estimating a rate of 50 % or higher. Overall residents and program directors agreed that lack of work-life balance and feeling unappreciated were major contributors. Forty-two percent of residents reported that inability to take time off from work was a significant barrier to seeking help, and 25 % incorrectly believed that burnout is a reportable condition to the medical board. Resident distress is common and most likely due to work-life imbalance and feeling unappreciated. However, residents are reluctant to seek help. Interventions that address work-life balance and increase access to support are urgently needed in academic

  12. Thirteen Iron Meteorites Found at Gale Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gusev Crater — Exogenic Witnesses to Weathering Processes Near the Martian Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J.

    2014-12-01

    At least 20 meteorites and meteorite candidates have now been found by science teams at three Mars rover landing sites, all within 15 degrees of the martian equator. Thirteen of these are iron meteorites, comprising 65% of the population — an order of magnitude greater abundance than found among witnessed iron falls in Earth-based collections (~6%). Chondritic meteorites, which comprise some 86% of Earth-based falls, are conspicuously absent from the Mars inventory. The reasons for this disproportion may involve a) post-fall environmental resistance differences favoring iron survivability; b) fragmentation from impact shock (and possibly internal weathering stresses associated with oxide production in desert environments [1]); combined with c) selection biases arising from residual chondritic fragments appearing less conspicuous. Impact features along rover traverses often show evidence of dark materials likely to be impactor fragments [e.g., 2], which could represent the missing chondritic fraction. The reactivity of reduced (metallic) iron to aqueous alteration, combined with the near equatorial and widely distributed locations of these rocks, makes them particularly useful to the assessment of climate models arguing for geologically recent ice at the martian equator. Exposure histories involving alternating wind/water cycles are imprinted on several Meridiani irons, for example [3]. Evidence for oxide coating removal demonstrates the current epoch to be one of coating destruction, not production, showing that atmospheric exposure alone is insufficient to produce the coating. Cavernous weathering is likely associated with acidic corrosion, while evidence of aeolian scouring is found in Widmanstätten patterns, sharp-crested scallops, regmaglypt enlargement, and abundant pitting. Further study of these features could help constrain wind direction and velocity during epochs of sculpting [e.g., 4], and assist in exposure age estimation. References: [1] Ashley J. W

  13. Honorary authorship epidemic in scholarly publications? How the current use of citation-based evaluative metrics make (pseudo)honorary authors from honest contributors of every multi-author article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    The current use of citation-based metrics to evaluate the research output of individual researchers is highly discriminatory because they are uniformly applied to authors of single-author articles as well as contributors of multi-author papers. In the latter case, these quantitative measures are counted, as if each contributor were the single author of the full article. In this way, each and every contributor is assigned the full impact-factor score and all the citations that the article has received. This has a multiplication effect on each contributor's citation-based evaluative metrics of multi-author articles, because the more contributors an article has, the more undeserved credit is assigned to each of them. In this paper, I argue that this unfair system could be made fairer by requesting the contributors of multi-author articles to describe the nature of their contribution, and to assign a numerical value to their degree of relative contribution. In this way, we could create a contribution-specific index of each contributor for each citation metric. This would be a strong disincentive against honorary authorship and publication cartels, because it would transform the current win-win strategy of accepting honorary authors in the byline into a zero-sum game for each contributor.

  14. Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M. Z.

    2012-04-01

    horizon. Our results indicate that winter Rs of BSCs-dominated areas are the main contributor to the total carbon released by soil respiration and, therefore, which we should considered when estimating carbon budgets in desert ecosystems. Key words: Winter Soil Respiration; Biological Soil Crust (BSCs); Q10

  15. Superior mesenteric venous thrombosis: a retrospective study of thirteen cases Trombosis de vena mesentérica superior: estudio retrospectivo de trece casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muñoz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the epidemiology, associated risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods, treatment, and evolution of patients diagnosed with superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (SMVT at an university hospital in Madrid. Experimental design: retrospective and descriptive study. We review the medical records of patients with this diagnosis in our hospital from January 1998 to December 2002. Data were processed by using the SPSS vs. 11 software. Patients: all thirteen subjects diagnosed with SMVT in that period were included. Results: associated risk factors included tumoral conditions (5 patients, acute abdominal pathology (2, polyglobulia (1, prothrombin gene mutation (1, and anticardiolipin antibodies (1. No predisposing factor was found in 3 patients. Clinical presentation for all patients was abdominal pain, with nausea and vomiting being the second symptom in frequency (7. The diagnosis was reached by abdominal CT (9, arteriography (2, ultrasounds (1, and histology after intestinal resection (1. Treatment with only anticoagulation was initiated in 4 patients, whereas anticoagulation and surgery were performed in 5 cases. In 4 subjects no specific treatment was prescribed and only palliative measures were established due to a baseline end-stage condition. Five patients died, and four of them had a neoplasic condition as associated risk factor. Mortality in our series was 38.5%. Conclusions: SMVT is a very rare disease that is often associated with neoplasic pathology, which influences its high mortality. Due to non specific symptoms, imaging is essential for the diagnosis and the detection of associated risk factors. In our series, computed tomography imaging was the most profitable test.Objetivo: analizar la epidemiología, factores de riesgo asociados, presentación clínica, métodos diagnósticos, tratamiento y evolución en pacientes diagnosticados de trombosis de vena mesentérica superior (TVMS en un hospital

  16. Malnutrition at Hospital Admission-Contributors and Effect on Length of Stay: A Prospective Cohort Study From the Canadian Malnutrition Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Johane P; Keller, Heather; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed N; Laporte, Manon; Duerksen, Don R; Gramlich, Leah; Payette, Helene; Bernier, Paule; Vesnaver, Elisabeth; Davidson, Bridget; Teterina, Anastasia; Lou, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    In hospitals, length of stay (LOS) is a priority but it may be prolonged by malnutrition. This study seeks to determine the contributors to malnutrition at admission and evaluate its effect on LOS. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in 18 Canadian hospitals from July 2010 to February 2013 in patients ≥ 18 years admitted for ≥ 2 days. Excluded were those admitted directly to the intensive care unit; obstetric, psychiatry, or palliative wards; or medical day units. At admission, the main nutrition evaluation was subjective global assessment (SGA). Body mass index (BMI) and handgrip strength (HGS) were also performed to assess other aspects of nutrition. Additional information was collected from patients and charts review during hospitalization. One thousand fifteen patients were enrolled: based on SGA, 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42%-48%) were malnourished, and based on BMI, 32% (95% CI, 29%-35%) were obese. Independent contributors to malnutrition at admission were Charlson comorbidity index > 2, having 3 diagnostic categories, relying on adult children for grocery shopping, and living alone. The median (range) LOS was 6 (1-117) days. After controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and disease-related factors and treatment, malnutrition at admission was independently associated with prolonged LOS (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62-0.86). Other nutrition-related factors associated with prolonged LOS were lower HGS at admission, receiving nutrition support, and food intake Malnutrition at admission is prevalent and associated with prolonged LOS. Complex disease and age-related social factors are contributors. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. EuroForMix: An open source software based on a continuous model to evaluate STR DNA profiles from a mixture of contributors with artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleka, Øyvind; Storvik, Geir; Gill, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We have released a software named EuroForMix to analyze STR DNA profiles in a user-friendly graphical user interface. The software implements a model to explain the allelic peak height on a continuous scale in order to carry out weight-of-evidence calculations for profiles which could be from a mixture of contributors. Through a properly parameterized model we are able to do inference on mixture proportions, the peak height properties, stutter proportion and degradation. In addition, EuroForMix includes models for allele drop-out, allele drop-in and sub-population structure. EuroForMix supports two inference approaches for likelihood ratio calculations. The first approach uses maximum likelihood estimation of the unknown parameters. The second approach is Bayesian based which requires prior distributions to be specified for the parameters involved. The user may specify any number of known and unknown contributors in the model, however we find that there is a practical computing time limit which restricts the model to a maximum of four unknown contributors. EuroForMix is the first freely open source, continuous model (accommodating peak height, stutter, drop-in, drop-out, population substructure and degradation), to be reported in the literature. It therefore serves an important purpose to act as an unrestricted platform to compare different solutions that are available. The implementation of the continuous model used in the software showed close to identical results to the R-package DNAmixtures, which requires a HUGIN Expert license to be used. An additional feature in EuroForMix is the ability for the user to adapt the Bayesian inference framework by incorporating their own prior information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years...... of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. RESULTS: Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2...

  19. Housing choice and control, housing quality, and control over professional support as contributors to the subjective quality of life and community adaptation of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Sylvestre, John; Aubry, Tim; George, Lindsey; Trainor, John

    2007-03-01

    This research examined two premises of supported housing: (a) that consumer choice/control over housing and support and the quality of housing are important contributors to the subjective quality of life and adaptation to community living of people with mental illness, and (b) that apartments provide mental health consumers with more choice/control over housing and support than group living arrangements. To test these two hypotheses, we collected data from participants with mental illness housed through a government initiative in Ontario, Canada. A total of 130 participants completed a baseline interview, and 91 of those participants also completed a follow-up interview 9-months later. Support was found for both hypotheses. The results were discussed in terms of the paradigm of supported housing, previous research, and implications for housing policy and program development in the community mental health sector.

  20. Trachoma, cataracts and uncorrected refractive error are still important contributors to visual morbidity in two remote indigenous communities of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heathcote R; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2009-08-01

    To assess the contribution of trachoma, cataract and refractive error to visual morbidity among Indigenous adults living in two remote communities of the Northern Territory. Cross-sectional survey of all adults aged 40 and over within a desert and coastal community. Visual acuity, clinical signs of trachoma using the simplified WHO grading system and assessment of cataract through a non-dilated pupil. Two hundred and sixty individuals over the age of 40 years participated in the study. The prevalence of visual impairment (coastal community (P coastal community. Trachoma, cataract and uncorrected refractive error remain significant contributors to visual morbidity in at least two remote indigenous communities. A wider survey is required to determine if these findings represent a more widespread pattern and existing eye care services may need to be re-assessed to determine the cause of this unmet need.

  1. Being a valuable contributor on the frontline: The self-perception of staff in group homes for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Claire; Bigby, Christine; Douglas, Jacinta

    2018-05-01

    Group home frontline staff have a critical role in implementing service policies, yet research typically examines implementation issues from an organisational perspective. The aim of this study was to explore the self-perception of frontline staff about their role in group homes for people with intellectual disability. Constructivist grounded theory methodology guided the study. Data were collected with frontline staff through semistructured interviews and participant observations. Coding and sorting methods were used to analyse participants' self-perception. Frontline staff felt they were valuable contributors who knew the service setting and residents well. Despite this staff felt powerless in their roles, excluded from organisational dialogue, stressed and exhausted. Frontline staff have critical insight into service implementation although disability service organisations may limit their capacity to contribute to this. Further action could explore new ways to better nurture frontline staff engagement in organisational dialogue. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Modelling micro- and macrophysical contributors to the dissipation of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Loewe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic climate is changing; temperature changes in the Arctic are greater than at midlatitudes, and changing atmospheric conditions influence Arctic mixed-phase clouds, which are important for the Arctic surface energy budget. These low-level clouds are frequently observed across the Arctic. They impact the turbulent and radiative heating of the open water, snow, and sea-ice-covered surfaces and influence the boundary layer structure. Therefore the processes that affect mixed-phase cloud life cycles are extremely important, yet relatively poorly understood. In this study, we present sensitivity studies using semi-idealized large eddy simulations (LESs to identify processes contributing to the dissipation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds. We found that one potential main contributor to the dissipation of an observed Arctic mixed-phase cloud, during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS field campaign, was a low cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC of about 2 cm−3. Introducing a high ice crystal concentration of 10 L−1 also resulted in cloud dissipation, but such high ice crystal concentrations were deemed unlikely for the present case. Sensitivity studies simulating the advection of dry air above the boundary layer inversion, as well as a modest increase in ice crystal concentration of 1 L−1, did not lead to cloud dissipation. As a requirement for small droplet numbers, pristine aerosol conditions in the Arctic environment are therefore considered an important factor determining the lifetime of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.

  3. Ten Years of Medicinal Chemistry (2005-2014) in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry: Country of Contributors, Topics, and Public-Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Luca; Barlocco, Daniela

    2016-08-25

    This review analyzes the articles that have appeared during the past 10 years in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, the leading journal in the field of medicinal chemistry, to provide a picture of the changing trends in this research area. Our analysis involved the country of the corresponding author, assuming that he/she was the leader of the research group, the interaction between private and public sectors, and the research topics. This analysis provides information on the contributions to the journal of authors from each country and highlights the differences between the public and private sectors regarding the research topics pursued. Moreover, changes in the number of articles that describe work on hits, leads, or clinical candidates during these years have been correlated with the affiliation of the contributors (public or private). An analysis of top-cited articles that have appeared in the journal has also been included. The data will provide the basis for understanding the evolution that is taking place in medicinal chemistry.

  4. Retroconversion is a minor contributor to increases in eicosapentaenoic acid following docosahexaenoic acid feeding as determined by compound specific isotope analysis in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) not only increases blood and tissue levels of DHA, but also eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3). It is generally believed that this increase is due to DHA retroconversion to EPA, however, a slower conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) derived EPA to downstream metabolic products (i.e. slower turnover of EPA) is equally plausible. In this study, 21-day old Long Evans rats were weaned onto an ALA only or DHA + ALA diet for 12 weeks. Afterwards, livers were collected and the natural abundance 13 C-enrichment was determined by compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of liver EPA by isotope ratio mass-spectrometry and compared to dietary ALA and DHA 13 C-enrichment. Isotopic signatures (per mil, ‰) for liver EPA were not different ( p  > 0.05) between the ALA only diet (-25.89 ± 0.39 ‰, mean ± SEM) and the DHA + ALA diet (-26.26 ± 0.40 ‰), suggesting the relative contribution from dietary ALA and DHA to liver EPA did not change. However, with DHA feeding estimates of absolute EPA contribution from ALA increased 4.4-fold (147 ± 22 to 788 ± 153 nmol/g) compared to 3.2-fold from DHA (91 ± 14 to 382 ± 13 nmol/g), respectively. In conclusion, CSIA of liver EPA in rats following 12-weeks of dietary DHA suggests that retroconversion of DHA to EPA is a relatively small contributor to increases in EPA, and that this increase in EPA is largely coming from elongation/desaturation of ALA.

  5. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-03-01

    Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2.4 (1.9-2.9) for remnant cholesterol of ≥1.5 mmol/L (58 mg/dL) (P for trend LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol of 3-3.99 mmol/L (115.8-154 mg/dL) to 2.3 (1.9-2.8) for LDL cholesterol of ≥5 mmol/L (193 mg/dL) (P cholesterol (P LDL cholesterol (P cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with all-cause mortality ranging from hazard ratio 1.0 (0.9-1.1) to 1.6 (1.4-1.9) (P LDL cholesterol concentrations were associated with decreased all-cause mortality risk in a U-shaped pattern, with hazard ratios from 0.8 (0.7-0.8) to 0.9 (0.8-1.0) (P = 0.002). After mutual adjustment, LDL cholesterol best predicted MI, and remnant cholesterol best predicted all-cause mortality. Both lipoproteins were associated equally with risk of IHD and MI; however, only nonfasting remnant cholesterol concentrations were associated stepwise with increased all-cause mortality risk. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Monika M; Engwall, Magnus; Denison, Michael S; Larsson, Maria

    2018-02-01

    In the present study 42 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were investigated for their estrogenic potential using the VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay. Relative potencies were determined for mass-balance analysis. In addition, compounds were tested in combination with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182,780 (ICI) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone. Luciferase induction and CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured to assess whether the estrogenic activity was elicited by the compound itself and/or by its metabolites. Relative potencies ranged between 10 -7 and 10 -4 . The ability of ICI to decrease luciferase activity stimulated by all compounds indicated that the induction responses were ER-dependent. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone decreased luciferase induction and EROD activity by several compounds, including the methylated chrysenes, suggesting that metabolites of these chemicals contributed to ER activation. Several PACs, such as acridine and its derivatives, appear to directly activate the ER. Furthermore, extracts of soils from industrial areas were examined using this bioassay, and estrogenic activity was detected in all soil samples. Mass-balance analysis using a combination of relative potencies and chemical analysis of the samples suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, such as 1- and 3-methylchrysene, are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity. However, these results revealed that a considerable proportion of the estrogenic activity in the soil remained unexplained, indicating the presence of other significant estrogenic compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:385-397. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. The thirteen books of Euclid's elements

    CERN Document Server

    Euclid

    2012-01-01

    Volume 3 of three-volume set containing complete English text of all 13 books of the Elements plus critical apparatus analyzing each definition, postulate, and proposition in great detail. Covers textual and linguistic matters; mathematical analyses of Euclid's ideas; classical, medieval, Renaissance and modern commentators; refutations, supports, extrapolations, reinterpretations and historical notes. Vol. 3 includes Books 10-13: Commensurable magnitudes, solids, cones, cylinders.

  8. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  9. Thirteen international workshop on nuclear theory. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This brochure contains the abstracts of reports delivered by 40 participants at the 13. International Workshop on Nuclear Theory organized by the Nuclear Theory Group in the Institute for Nuclear research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian academy of Sciences. The main topics treated in the lectures were nucleon correlation effects in nuclei, collective nuclear motions, Wigner quantum systems, pre-equilibrium neutron and photon emission from nuclei, particle-nuclei collision processes at high energies, few-body states, optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering, relativistic generator coordinate calculations and variational nuclear structure calculations. All reports are included in INIS separately

  10. Tests on thirteen navy type model propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, W F

    1927-01-01

    The tests on these model propellers were undertaken for the purpose of determining the performance coefficients and characteristics for certain selected series of propellers of form and type as commonly used in recent navy designs. The first series includes seven propellers of pitch ratio varying by 0.10 to 1.10, the area, form of blade, thickness, etc., representing an arbitrary standard propeller which had shown good results. The second series covers changes in thickness of blade section, other things equal, and the third series, changes in blade area, other things equal. These models are all of 36-inch diameter. Propellers A to G form the series on pitch ratio, C, N. I. J the series on thickness of section, and K, M, C, L the series on area. (author)

  11. Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J.V.; Barber, S.M.; Fretz, P.B.; Jacobs, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).

  12. Thirteen proves lucky number at Ipswich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppard, Mark

    2008-10-01

    At one of East Anglia's largest hospitals, OCS Healthcare claims to have contributed to a "remarkable climate of change" with 13 specialist services, bringing tangible benefits to the half million people served by The Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust. The head of OCS Healthcare, Mark Coppard, describes what the company dubs an "exemplar of private sector expertise supporting public healthcare excellence".

  13. Thirteen is the lucky number for doublecortin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Anna; Severin, Fedor

    2004-07-01

    Doublecortin is a microtubule-associated protein that is essential for normal brain development. A recent report published in Molecular Cell shows that doublecortin associates preferentially with microtubules made of 13 protofilaments, by recognizing a novel site between the protofilaments. These findings explain how doublecortin stabilizes microtubules and provide clues about its function during neuronal migration.

  14. French petroleum demand stable since thirteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvot, M.

    2005-01-01

    The French union of petroleum industries (Ufip) has presented a globally satisfactory status of the French petroleum situation. However, the refining capacities are not always well adapted to the evolution of the demand and the production of diesel fuels remains insufficient while France exports gasoline. Short paper. (J.S.)

  15. Treze passos para o juízo final: a nova era do desarmamento nuclear dos Estados Unidos e da Rússia Thirteen steps to judgement day: the new era of Russian and North American nuclear disarmament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura explicar por que os líderes dos EUA e da Rússia não implementaram total e efetivamente o plano de ação de treze pontos práticos para o desarmamento nuclear, estabelecido na Conferência de Revisão do Tratado de Não-Proliferação Nuclear em 2000. As decisões relacionadas aos treze pontos, tomadas pelos membros dos Executivos das duas maiores potências nucleares, são vistas como resultado da conciliação de imperativos internos e externos por esses indivíduos, que enfrentam oportunidades e dilemas estratégicos distintos simultaneamente nos âmbitos doméstico e internacional. São consideradas as escolhas políticas de membros dos Executivos nacionais e estrangeiros, Legislativos e principais grupos de interesse desses países, bem como a distribuição de poder sobre a formulação da decisão nacional, estabelecida pelas instituições políticas domésticas. As hipóteses apontam que os membros dos Executivos desses países - apoiados por grande parte dos membros dos Legislativos e dos principais grupos de interesse envolvidos, como as Forças Armadas - procuraram garantir autonomia para definir a estrutura e a composição de forças estratégicas e táticas, modernizar arsenais atômicos e operar uma força capaz de lidar com contingências que envolvam não apenas potências nucleares tradicionais, mas principalmente novos Estados detentores de armas de destruição em massa e organizações terroristas.This article aims to explain why U.S. and Russian leaders have not implemented totally and effectively the thirteen practical-step plan of action on nuclear disarmament agreed at the 2000 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. The decisions with regard to the thirteen steps, taken by members of U.S. and Russian Executives, are seen as the result of the conciliation of internal and external imperatives by those individuals, who face distinctive strategic opportunities and dilemmas simultaneously

  16. Lithofacies and Diagenetic Controls on Formation-scale Mechanical, Transport, and Sealing Behavior of Caprocks: A Case Study of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone, Farnsworth Unit, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, N. A.; Heath, J. E.; Mozley, P.; Dewers, T. A.; Cather, M.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of caprock sealing behavior for secure CO2 storage is a multiscale endeavor. Sealing behavior arises from the nano-scale capillarity of pore throats, but sealing lithologies alone do not guarantee an effective seal since bypass systems, such as connected, conductive fractures can compromise the integrity of the seal. We apply pore-to-formation-scale data to characterize the multiscale caprock sealing behavior of the Morrow shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone. This work is part of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration's Phase III project at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. The caprock formations overlie the Morrow sandstone, the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of over one million metric tons of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. Methods include: focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; electron and optical petrography; multi-stress path mechanical testing and constitutive modeling; core examinations of sedimentary structures and fractures; and a noble gas profile for formation-scale transport of the sealing lihologies and the reservoir. We develop relationships between diagenetic characteristics of lithofacies to mechanical and petrophysical measurements of the caprocks. The results are applied as part of a caprock sealing behavior performance assessment. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Users as essential contributors to spatial cyberinfrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Barbara S

    2011-04-05

    Current accounts of spatial cyberinfrastructure development tend to overemphasize technologies to the neglect of critical social and cultural issues on which adoption depends. Spatial cyberinfrastructures will have a higher chance of success if users of many types, including nonprofessionals, are made central to the development process. Recent studies in the history of infrastructures reveal key turning points and issues that should be considered in the development of spatial cyberinfrastructure projects. These studies highlight the importance of adopting qualitative research methods to learn how users work with data and digital tools, and how user communities form. The author's empirical research on data sharing networks in the Pacific Northwest salmon crisis at the turn of the 21st century demonstrates that ordinary citizens can contribute critical local knowledge to global databases and should be considered in the design and construction of spatial cyberinfrastructures.

  18. Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers, the underappreciated contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Lucy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Contributing reviewers We and the Editorial Board acknowledge and thank all reviewers for their active participation and contribution during 2012. We greatly appreciate their dedication and behind the scenes contribution. It is largely due to their support and expertise that we have been able to publish high-standard manuscripts. We would also like to thank authors for choosing Nutrition & Metabolism and contributing their cherished work.

  19. Job resources as contributors to wellbeing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; van den Heuvel, Machteld; Xanthopoulou, D.; Dubbelt, L.; Gordon, H.J.; Cooper, C.L.; Leiter, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Protecting employees from the unfavorable consequences of work-related, psychosocial risk factors and enhancing their motivation at work should be a main priority, since healthy and happy employees are important assets for organizations (for a review, see Demerouti & Cropanzano, 2010). Work

  20. Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C P; Dyrbye, L N; Shanafelt, T D

    2018-06-01

    Physician burnout, a work-related syndrome involving emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a sense of reduced personal accomplishment, is prevalent internationally. Rates of burnout symptoms that have been associated with adverse effects on patients, the healthcare workforce, costs and physician health exceed 50% in studies of both physicians-in-training and practicing physicians. This problem represents a public health crisis with negative impacts on individual physicians, patients and healthcare organizations and systems. Drivers of this epidemic are largely rooted within healthcare organizations and systems and include excessive workloads, inefficient work processes, clerical burdens, work-home conflicts, lack of input or control for physicians with respect to issues affecting their work lives, organizational support structures and leadership culture. Individual physician-level factors also play a role, with higher rates of burnout commonly reported in female and younger physicians. Effective solutions align with these drivers. For example, organizational efforts such as locally developed practice modifications and increased support for clinical work have demonstrated benefits in reducing burnout. Individually focused solutions such as mindfulness-based stress reduction and small-group programmes to promote community, connectedness and meaning have also been shown to be effective. Regardless of the specific approach taken, the problem of physician burnout is best addressed when viewed as a shared responsibility of both healthcare systems and individual physicians. Although our understanding of physician burnout has advanced considerably in recent years, many gaps in our knowledge remain. Longitudinal studies of burnout's effects and the impact of interventions on both burnout and its effects are needed, as are studies of effective solutions implemented in combination. For medicine to fulfil its mission for patients and for public health, all stakeholders in healthcare delivery must work together to develop and implement effective remedies for physician burnout. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. Environmental & Psychosocial Contributors to Learning Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Studies suggest early traffic-related pollution exposures (TRPEs) adversely impact cognitive development (COGDEV). Since racial differences do not explain the widening achievement gap, determining TRPE contributions is warranted. Study objectives were to (1) assess the...

  2. BWR flood risk - The human contributor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragola, J.R.; Paccione, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of approaches to address the human contribution to nuclear plant risk has come a long way since the days of WASH-1400. More systematic approaches to procedural error evaluation now exist, and promising techniques for addressing errors in decision making have been proposed. Human interaction with the development, progress, and mitigation of accident sequences are now addressed directly if not routinely in many current Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) projects. No longer is the Human Reliability Analyst relegated only to the minor role of supporting fault tree models developed by others, now he is often a member of the team who participates early on in the development of the initiating events sets, and the construction of the event tree. This integrated involvement which has come about recently has led to a greater understanding of how the human might participate in the initiation of an accident, in the enabling or disabling of mitigating systems subsequent to its initiation (thereby either ameliorating or exacerbating its development), or in the recovery efforts once it has developed

  3. Acute pediatric stroke: contributors to institutional cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Colin M; Wang, Wei; Seiber, Eric; Lo, Warren

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies examined the overall cost of pediatric stroke, but there are little data regarding the sources of these costs. We examined an administrative database that collected charges from 24 US children's hospitals to determine the sources of costs for acute hospital care of stroke. We used International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes to search the Pediatric Health Information System. From 2003 to 2009 there were 1667 patients who had a primary diagnosis of stroke, 703 of which were hemorrhagic and 964 were ischemic. Individual costs, excluding physician charges, were gathered under 7 categories that were ranked to determine which contributed the most to total cost. Individual costs were ranked within their categories. We analyzed costs based on stroke type. Total costs were adjusted using the US Consumer Price Index to compare increases with the rate of inflation. Median total cost for any stroke was $19,548 (interquartile range, $10,764-$40,721). The category "other/nursing" contributed the most to hospital costs followed by imaging, laboratory, and pharmacy. Brain MRI and CT contributed the most to imaging costs. Hemorrhagic strokes (median $24,843) were more expensive than ischemic strokes (median $16,954). Total cost increased from 2003 to 2009, but no overall annual trend emerged after controlling for gender, age, race, and hospital. This is the first in-depth analysis of cost for pediatric stroke care. The highest cost categories are potential targets for cost containment but are also crucial for effective diagnosis and treatment. Necessary yet prudent use of imaging technologies and inpatient stays may be strategies for cost containment.

  4. Users as essential contributors to spatial cyberinfrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Current accounts of spatial cyberinfrastructure development tend to overemphasize technologies to the neglect of critical social and cultural issues on which adoption depends. Spatial cyberinfrastructures will have a higher chance of success if users of many types, including nonprofessionals, are made central to the development process. Recent studies in the history of infrastructures reveal key turning points and issues that should be considered in the development of spatial cyberinfrastructure projects. These studies highlight the importance of adopting qualitative research methods to learn how users work with data and digital tools, and how user communities form. The author's empirical research on data sharing networks in the Pacific Northwest salmon crisis at the turn of the 21st century demonstrates that ordinary citizens can contribute critical local knowledge to global databases and should be considered in the design and construction of spatial cyberinfrastructures.

  5. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  6. Certain Grain Foods Can Be Meaningful Contributors to Nutrient Density in the Diets of U.S. Children and Adolescents: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Papanikolaou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain foods may play an important role in delivering nutrients to the diet of children and adolescents. The present study determined grain food sources of energy/nutrients in U.S. children and adolescents using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a 24-h recall in participants 2–18 years old (N = 6109. Sources of nutrients contained in grain foods were determined using U.S. Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and excluded mixed dishes. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain foods were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 14% ± 0.2% kcal/day (263 ± 5 kcal/day, 22.5% ± 0.3% (3 ± 0.1 g/day dietary fiber, 39.3% ± 0.5% (238 ± 7 dietary folate equivalents (DFE/day folate and 34.9% ± 0.5% (5.6 ± 0.1 mg/day iron in the total diet in children and adolescents. The current analyses showed that certain grain foods, in particular breads, rolls and tortillas, ready-to-eat cereals and quick breads and bread products, are meaningful contributors of folate, iron, thiamin, niacin and dietary fiber, a nutrient of public health concern as outlined by the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Thus, specific grain foods contribute to nutrient density and have the potential to increase the consumption of several under-consumed nutrients in children and adolescents.

  7. MODERN LANGUAGES AND DISTANCE EDUCATION: Thirteen Days in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfe DONA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study documents the journey of two modern language faculty (Spanish and German from their original beliefs that teaching foreign languages can only be conducted in a face-to-face format to their eventual development of an online class using Web 2.0 technologies to encourage their students’ active skills of reading and speaking in their target language. The research study shows how the instructors incorporated Web 2.0 technologies and used the Communities of Inquiry (CoI framework to design their online class to ensure their class had the essential elements of teaching presence, social presence and cognitive presence. Web 2.0 technologies used to build strong levels of CoI were BB-Collaborate web conferencing, Voki, VoiceThread, ANVILL, Fakebook, Bubble,us, Mindmapping, Flashcard Exchange, Glogster, Zunal, and Weebly.

  8. 29 CFR 780.316 - Thirteen week provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consisting of seven consecutive 24-hour periods during which the employee worked at least 1 “man-day.” Section 3(u) of the Act defines a man-day as “any day during which an employee performs any agricultural... 13(a)(6)(C) (as well as section 3(e)(2)) comports with the traditional definition of week used in...

  9. Thirteen years of the fight against doping in figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Millán; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Plata, María Del Mar; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Every year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes the main statistics reported by the accredited laboratories, which provide very valuable information for assessing changes in the patterns of doping in sports over time. Using the information provided since 2003 as the basis for the analysis, the evolution of doping/anti-doping figures over the last decade can be examined in reasonable detail, at least in reference to samples analyzed and categories of substances more commonly found in athletes' samples. This brief analysis of the WADA statistical reports leads us to the following outcomes: the increase in anti-doping pressure from 2003 to 2015, as evidenced by increased numbers of samples analyzed and banned substances, has not directly produced a higher frequency of adverse/atypical findings. Although this could be interpreted as steady state in the capacity to detect doping through this whole period, it also resulted in a significant increase in the absolute number of samples catalogued as doping (from 2247 in 2003 to 5912 in 2015). Anabolic agents have been the most common doping substances detected in all statistics reports while the remaining groups of substances are much less frequently found in doping control samples. Given that one might have expected the enhancement of the anti-doping programme led by WADA over this last decade to have increased the percentage of adverse/atypical findings, the fact that it did not might indicate the need to take another step in sampling strategies, such as 'more intelligent testing' based on the differences in the prevalence of doping substances among sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Total Knee Replacement: a Preliminary Report Thirteen (13) Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a major technical procedure. Since its introduction it has become a successful procedure for treating various forms of pathologies in the knee associated with severe pain and disabling deformities such as severe osteoarthritis. Although various systems exist, they are broadly ...

  11. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford

    2009-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  12. Thirteen[th] European TRIGA users conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference covers topic related to TRIGA reactor, such as reactor operation and maintenance experience - safety aspects; research activities and applications; boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) projects and other design operational and safety issues

  13. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Casjens, S. R.; Qiu, W.-G.; Mongodin, E. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  14. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabila

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... 1Laboratory of Physiology of Nutrition and Food Safety, Department of Biology, University of Oran,. El Menaouer 31000 Oran, Algeria. 2Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Oran, El Menaouer 31000 Oran, Algeria. ... synthetic colorants in food product samples was also.

  15. Severe hypertriglyceridemia with pancreatitis: thirteen years' treatment with lomitapide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Stanesa, Maxine; Hegele, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Recurrent pancreatitis is a potentially fatal complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic defects and lifestyle risk factors may render this condition unresponsive to current treatments. We report this first case of long-term management of intractable near-fatal recurrent pancreatitis secondary to severe hypertriglyceridemia by a novel use of lomitapide, an inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, recently approved for treatment of familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia. The patient had been hospitalized many times for pancreatitis since age 15 years. Her serum triglyceride level averaged 3900 mg/dL while she received therapy with approved lipid drugs. She is homozygous for a coding mutation (P234L) in lipoprotein lipase, leaving her unable to metabolize triglycerides in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). Lomitapide reduces the secretion of chylomicrons and VLDL. Lomitapide, which was started when she was 44 years old after near-fatal pancreatitis, lowered her fasting triglyceride level from greater than 3000 mg/dL to a mean (SD) of 903 (870) mg/dL while she received 30 mg/d and to 524 (265) mg/dL while she received 40 mg/d; eliminated chronic abdominal pain; and prevented pancreatitis. However, fatty liver, present before treatment, progressed to steatohepatitis and fibrosis after 12 to 13 years. Lomitapide prevented pancreatitis in severe intractable hypertriglyceridemia but at a potential long-term cost of hepatotoxicity.

  16. Fitting and Reconstruction of Thirteen Simple Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Nada; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Savani, Neel P.; Lugaz, Noé; Roussev, Ilia I.

    2018-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main drivers of geomagnetic disturbances, but the effects of their interaction with Earth's magnetic field depend on their magnetic configuration and orientation. Fitting and reconstruction techniques have been developed to determine important geometrical and physical CME properties, such as the orientation of the CME axis, the CME size, and its magnetic flux. In many instances, there is disagreement between different methods but also between fitting from in situ measurements and reconstruction based on remote imaging. This could be due to the geometrical or physical assumptions of the models, but also to the fact that the magnetic field inside CMEs is only measured at one point in space as the CME passes over a spacecraft. In this article we compare three methods that are based on different assumptions for measurements by the Wind spacecraft for 13 CMEs from 1997 to 2015. These CMEs are selected from the interplanetary coronal mass ejections catalog on https://wind.nasa.gov/ICMEindex.php https://wind.nasa.gov/ICMEindex.php" TargetType="URL"/> because of their simplicity in terms of: 1) slow expansion speed throughout the CME and 2) weak asymmetry in the magnetic field profile. This makes these 13 events ideal candidates for comparing codes that do not include expansion or distortion. We find that for these simple events, the codes are in relatively good agreement in terms of the CME axis orientation for six of the 13 events. Using the Grad-Shafranov technique, we can determine the shape of the cross-section, which is assumed to be circular for the other two models, a force-free fitting and a circular-cylindrical non force-free fitting. Five of the events are found to have a clear circular cross-section, even when this is not a precondition of the reconstruction. We make an initial attempt at evaluating the adequacy of the different assumptions for these simple CMEs. The conclusion of this work strongly suggests that attempts at reconciling in situ and remote-sensing views of CMEs must take into consideration the compatibility of the different models with specific CME structures to better reproduce flux ropes.

  17. Modern Languages and Distance Education: Thirteen Days in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Elfe; Stover, Sheri; Broughton, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This research study documents the journey of two modern language faculty (Spanish and German) from their original beliefs that teaching foreign languages can only be conducted in a face-to-face format to their eventual development of an online class using Web 2.0 technologies to encourage their students' active skills of reading and speaking in…

  18. Thirteen and two fairy tales on the energy turning point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the choices and changes in the German energy policy, the author proposes controversial texts under the form of tales on the German policy and situation regarding energy. These tales ironically address the German energy model, the uselessness of the seven stopped nuclear power plants, the low cost of the energy turnaround made by the German government, the environmental benefit of renewable energies, the high potential of energy savings, the new means of electricity storage, the electric car as means to store electricity, the low cost of solar energy ('Sun does not send any bill'), the wind energy (the wind turbine fleet in such place can supply so much households), the geothermal energy, the so-called technological leap, the benefit of decentralized energy production, the numerous jobs created by renewable energies, the ecologic electric current, and the search for a final nuclear waste disposal site

  19. Relation between temperature and mortality in thirteen Spanish cities

    OpenAIRE

    Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran; Ferrándiz, Juan; Pérez Hoyos, Santiago; Sáez Zafra, Marc; López Estudillo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT) and the slopes before and after the turning point (MMT) were calculated. Most cities showed a V-shaped temperature-mortality relationship. MMTs were generally higher in cities with warmer climates. Cold and heat effects also depended on climate: effects wer...

  20. Relation between Temperature and Mortality in Thirteen Spanish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sáez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT and the slopes before and after the turning point (MMT were calculated. Most cities showed a V-shaped temperature-mortality relationship. MMTs were generally higher in cities with warmer climates. Cold and heat effects also depended on climate: effects were greater in hotter cities but lesser in cities with higher variability. The effect of heat was greater than the effect of cold. The effect of cold and MMT was, in general, greater for cardio-respiratory mortality than for total mortality, while the effect of heat was, in general, greater among the elderly.

  1. A thirteen week ad libitum administration toxicity study of tartrazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tartrazine is a colorant widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The current study evaluates the effect of sub-chronic ingestion of tartrazine in drinking water at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.45, 1 and 2.5% for 13 weeks in mice. Our results show that female body weight gain and food consumption decreased in all treated ...

  2. Thirteen years electro-reclamation in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lageman, R.; Pool, W. [Hak Milieutechniek b.v., Geldermalsen (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The suggestion that electrochemical techniques and more in general the use of electricity could compete with traditional methods of land clean up seemed somewhat ludicrous during the nineteen-eighties. Especially in the Netherlands, where at that time soil remediation was synonymous with digging, dumping or incinerating contaminated soil and pumping and treating hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of mostly just lightly polluted groundwater. At the end of the 1990's, however, the situation changed dramatically and in-situ remediation was much sought after and so were in-situ technologies. One of those is electroreclamation, but publications and symposia prolong the suggestion that it is still an emerging technology, or a development of recent years. Nothing is farther from the truth. (orig.)

  3. Thirteen years of exploitation with constant oilfield pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dontov-Danu, Gh

    1966-12-01

    The paper describes a restoring and maintaining reservoir pressure by gas injection in two blocks of the Dacian stratum at Buscani. At the beginning of gas injection, the wells produced in gas lift and the crude oil flows were markedly decreasing. After about 6 months of injection the reservoir pressure has been restored, the wells flowed. This system allows constant crude oil flows for long periods. The oilfield recovery factor until December 31, 1965, is 51% i.e. by 150% higher than expected in the case of an exploitation without gas injection. This increase represents the extra crude oil and gasoline production obtained as a result of the application of the reservoir pressure maintenance process. The average consumption of working agent has been of 382 cu m gas per ton of additionally extracted crude oil.

  4. Thirteen nuclear microsatellite loci for butternut (Juglans cinerea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Sean; Anderson, Robert; McCleary, Tim; Schlarbaum, Scott; Romero-Severson, Jeanne

    2008-05-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is an eastern North American forest tree severely threatened by an exotic fungal pathogen, Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum. We report here 13 nuclear microsatellites for genetic evaluation of the remaining natural populations. Summary statistics are reported for individuals from a population of butternuts in central Kentucky (N = 63). All markers were polymorphic, with an average of 13.7 alleles per locus observed. Four loci exhibited significantly fewer heterozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05). © 2007 The Authors.

  5. Thirteen textbooks of basic chemistry and their treatment of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.; Navarrete, M.; Martinez, T.; Cabrera, L.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear chemistry is usually associated with great disasters, especially the atomic bomb; this without reflecting that knowledge of nuclear chemistry has also had many benefits in the field of medicine and health. Whereas in technologically advanced countries, nuclear chemistry is considered to be an important part of the syllabus, including topics such as radioactivity with the emphasis in making conscience in the common citizen of the inherent benefits. (author)

  6. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-11

    dogs will have been vaccinated against canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, parvo, oral papilloma, and...Leukocytes NIT = Nitrite EPI = Epithelial SQ = Squamous TRANS z Transitional NA z Not Applicable TP z Triple Phosphate QNS = Quantity Not...documented on the Clinical Veterinarian Log by the veterinarian prior to study initiation. Food: Purina Certified Canine Diet No. 5007 (Ralston

  7. Estratégias anatômicas foliares de treze espécies de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude no Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB: MG, Brasil Strategies anatomy from thirteen Orchidaceae species occurring in a "high altitude grasslands" in the State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro (PESB: Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Vieira da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou caracterizar, anatomicamente, as folhas de Orchidaceae ocorrentes em um campo de altitude (PESB, identificando caracteres anatômicos úteis na interpretação das estratégias adaptativas. As treze espécies estudadas vivem em condições ambientais extremas tendo sido estudados apenas indivíduos terrestres, exceto Pleurothallis teres Lindl. espécie exclusivamente rupícola. Avaliando os caracteres anatômicos adaptativos, dois grupos podem ser distinguidos, os das espécies perenes (Epidendrum secundum Jacq., Epidendrum xanthinum Lindl., Oncidium barbaceniae Lindl., Oncidium blancheti Rchb. F., Pleurothallis prolifera Lindl., Pleurothallis teres Lindl., Zygopetalum brackypetalum Lindl. e Zygopetalum mackaii Hook. e os das espécies com redução das partes aéreas no período seco (Cleistes gracilis Schdl., Habenaria hydrophila Barb. Rodr., Habenaria janeirensis Kraenzl, Habenaria macronectar Hoehne e Prescottia montana Barb. Rodr.. As espécies perenes apresentam caracteres xeromórficos: folhas coriáceas ou coriáceas suculentas, cutícula espessa e estriada, hipoderme, grupos de fibras esparsas no mesofilo homogêneo, parênquima aqüífero com espessamento em barras ou espiralados nas paredes, idioblastos de ráfides e feixes vasculares colaterais circundados e com calotas de fibras. Nas espécies com redução das partes aéreas ocorrem investimentos diferenciados e os caracteres xeromórficos não são acentuados. As folhas são delgadas, com células epidérmicas adaxiais altas sendo a cutícula delgada geralmente desprovida de estriamentos e a presença de idioblastos de ráfides freqüentes no mesofilo. Não ocorre hipoderme e os feixes vasculares são reduzidos e sem associações com fibras.The purpose of this work was to characterize the leaf anatomy of thirteen Orchidaceae species in a "high altitude grasslands", located at State Park of Serra do Brigadeiro, and identify anatomical characteristics helpful to

  8. Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellisch, M.; Jungmeier, G.; Karbowski, A.; Patel, M.K.; Rogulska, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using

  9. Cortical thickness as a contributor to abnormal oscillations in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Christopher Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Left STG low-frequency and steady-state gamma abnormalities distinguish SZ and HC. Disease-associated damage to STG gray matter in schizophrenia may disrupt the age-related left STG gamma-band function–structure relationships observed in controls.

  10. d-Ribose as a Contributor to Glycated Haemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c is the most important marker of hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. We show that d-ribose reacts with haemoglobin, thus yielding HbA1c. Using mass spectrometry, we detected glycation of haemoglobin with d-ribose produces 10 carboxylmethyllysines (CMLs. The first-order rate constant of fructosamine formation for d-ribose was approximately 60 times higher than that for d-glucose at the initial stage. Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rat, a common model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, had high levels of d-ribose and HbA1c, accompanied by a decrease of transketolase (TK in the liver. The administration of benfotiamine, an activator of TK, significantly decreased d-ribose followed by a decline in HbA1c. In clinical investigation, T2DM patients with high HbA1c had a high level of urine d-ribose, though the level of their urine d-glucose was low. That is, d-ribose contributes to HbA1c, which prompts future studies to further explore whether d-ribose plays a role in the pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM.

  11. Important TQM Implementation Contributors in Pakistani Petrochemical Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Latif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses quality practices in Pakistani Petrochemical sector to understand TQM practices and their implementation in Pakistan. It helps to understand the role of leadership, vision & plan statement, employee participation and education & training as important constructs of TQM. It shows how these constructs help to speed up the TQM implementation in petrochemical sector like other constructs of TQM and finally company moves towards quality approach. The responses of executives, managerial staff and workers were received using questionnaire and online surveys which are sent through Google Drive. Data of 106 respondents was taken in this study and analyzed by SPSS18. Study shows that Total Quality Management culture is less understood by employees, thus less adopted and implemented in Pakistan. Petrochemical companies fail to adopt the TQM philosophy and processes, hence reducing productivity and profits. This research paper is very helpful for executives for TQM implementation in petrochemical sector.

  12. Employment, Academic and Extracurricular Contributors to College Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Jacki

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been many studies on college entrance and aspirations, little attention has been paid to post-high school adults (who enter the workworld rather than college). it is possible that post-high school adults still have college aspirations, and it would be valuable to identify the factors that foster such aspirations. This study…

  13. Animal Proteins as Important Contributors to a Healthy Human Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2017-02-08

    Adequate protein intake is critical for health and development. Generally, protein of animal origin is of higher quality for humans owing to its amino acid pattern and good digestibility. When administered in mixtures it can enhance the quality of plant proteins, but its availability is often low in low-income communities, especially in young children, the elderly, and pregnant and lactating women, who have increased requirements and in whom high-quality protein also stimulates (bone) growth and maintenance. Although high protein intake was associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk, milk and seafood are good sources of branched chain amino acids and taurine, which act beneficially on glucose metabolism and blood pressure. However, high consumption of protein-rich animal food is also associated with adverse health effects and higher risk for noncommunicable diseases, partly related to other components of these foods, like saturated fatty acids and potential carcinogens in processed meat but also the atherogenic methionine metabolite homocysteine. In moderation, however, animal proteins are especially important for health maintenance in vulnerable persons.

  14. Macrophages: contributors to allograft dysfunction, repair, or innocent bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Roslyn B

    2012-02-01

    Macrophages are members of the innate immune response. However, their role in the adaptive immune response is not known. The purpose of this review is to highlight our current understanding of macrophage structure and function and how they may participate in allograft injury. Studies in acute kidney injury models identify macrophages as key mediators of inflammatory injury, while more recent studies indicate that they may play a reparative role, depending on phenotype - M1 or M2 type macrophages. Mregs, generated in vitro, appear to have immune suppressive abilities and a unique phenotype. In solid-organ transplant, the emphasis of studies has been on acute or chronic injury. These data are derived from animal models using depletion of macrophages or antagonizing their activation and inflammatory responses. The relative contribution of macrophage phenotype in transplantation has not been explored. These studies suggest that macrophages play an injurious role in acute cellular allograft rejection, as well as in chronic injury. Infiltration of an allograft with macrophages is also associated with worse graft function and poor prognosis. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of macrophage-mediated injury, explore their potential reparative role, and determine if they or their functional products are biomarkers of poor graft outcomes.

  15. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, T.P.; Loft, Steffen Huitfeldt; Nyyssonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration...... with daily urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine excretion, a marker of oxidative stress, in 48 mildly dyslipidemic men in East Finland. In multivariate linear regression analyses allowing for age, smoking, body mass index and physical exercise, serum ferritin concentration predicted the excretion rate at B = 0.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  16. HIV antiretroviral medication stock-outs in Ghana: contributors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although using ARVs produced in-country could reduce supply problems, the domestically-manufactured product currently does not meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We recommend focused efforts to produce WHO standard ARVs in Ghana, and a review of current supply chain management to identify and ...

  17. Complementary Hypotheses on Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel A H; Plaisance, Eric P; Allison, David B

    2018-01-01

    Increased rates of obesity have occurred within virtually every race, age, sex, ethnicity, and economic group. Despite substantial punditry on the issue, the exact reasons are incompletely known. The two most common factors cited as contributing to the obesity epidemic, and those whose causal influence on increasing obesity levels in the population are often presumed unequivocally, are food marketing practices and institutionally driven reductions in physical activity. These have been called "the big two." This Perspective builds on previous writings in this area to introduce additional factors that may contribute to the obesity epidemic. It is emphasized that there may be other factors working in combination with the big two, influencing body fatness through effects on energy intake, energy expenditure, and/or nutrient partitioning. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Professor Zalman Makhover. A relevant contributor to early tropopause studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antuna, Juan C. [Camagueey Lidar Station, Camagueey (Cuba); Anel, Juan A. [CESAM, Univ. de Aveiro, Campus Univ. de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Sterin, Alexander [Russian Research Inst. for Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gimeno, Luis [EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We present an assessment of the work of Zalman Meerovich Makhover (1922-99), a leading expert on tropopause studies in the former USSR. Although a much-respected scientist among his peers, his work remains unknown, possibly as a result of much of never having been translated into English. His most important contributions were on the subject of the spatial and temporal structure of the altitude and temperature of the tropopause, as well as its variability over a range of different time scales from annual to daily. We describe the determination of the seasonal features of the tropopause and note his achievements in determining the roles of synoptic conditions and the annual cycle on tropopause characteristics. Recent tropopause research has confirmed much of his earlier work and provided important results for, among other things, stratospheretroposphere exchange processes, climate change indicator studies, and the climatology of aircraft exhaust traces. The legacy of Makhover includes his own research on tropopause phenomena, as well as a synthesis of the numerous studies conducted by former Soviet and other researchers. Here we provide a brief biography, citation data, as well as graphical material taken from his monographs and papers. (orig.)

  19. Cell of Origin: Exploring an Alternative Contributor to Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of 60 mice). We previously reported that we conducted simple preliminary studies to assess the potential impact of the retroviral infections on...using primers designed to specifically detect exogenous TP53 gene expression. 12. Simple preliminary studies assessing the potential impact of exogenous...Award was ending and we were delinquent with respect to submission of the Closure report and no longer had access to the funds. Since there was such a

  20. Nuclear power. A key contributor to a decarbonised European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-12-15

    The European energy sector is currently facing a new set of challenges in the light of the COP21 Paris agreement, the Energy Union initiative and new market design projections. Nuclear energy sector understands the post COP21 constellation as a unique opportunity for all low carbon technologies which will be basic for transition towards COP21 commitments. A new policy outlook for Europe is needed in order to provide low carbon capacity, lead to the modernisation of technical processes and contribute to the prosperity of Europeans. The benefits of nuclear are highlighted for a low carbon future and for the security of supply and recommend actions for supporting new investments.

  1. Interrelation of Entropic Contributors to π -Stacking in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Maria A.; Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Evstigneev, Vladislav P.; Golovchenko, Igor V.; Mykhina, Yulia V.; Savin, Valery V.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2016-08-01

    The recently published most complete set of thermodynamical data on self- and hetero-complexation of aromatic molecules measured under comparable experimental conditions were analyzed. The main aim of this study is to get insights into contribution of various entropic factors to π -stacking in aqueous solution. It was found that the experimental entropy change on π -stacking is determined by counterbalancing effects of two principal factors, i.e., the hydrophobic interaction (positive contribution) and the loss of degrees of freedom (negative contribution) modulated by the electrostatic contribution. Other factors, including the mixing entropy contribution, were shown to be less important.

  2. Quality of Life Revolution: Labor and Leisure, Joint Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzik, Louis F.

    1976-01-01

    If the characteristics generally ascribed to recreation--pleasure, enjoyment, and fulfillment--can be made available during the work experience, the quality of all life experiences will be improved. (JD)

  3. Contributors to this Issue | Chief | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... of some phenomena such as personal names, language games, reduplication, etc. His other areas of research interest include language use in the Ghanaian media.

  4. Body iron is a contributor to oxidative damage of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Loft, Steffen; Nyyssönen, Kristiina

    2007-01-01

    The transition metal iron is catalytically highly active in vitro, and not surprisingly, body iron has been suggested to promote oxidative stress in vivo. In the current analysis we studied the association of serum ferritin concentration and serum soluble transferrin receptor concentration.......17 (95% CI 0.08-0.26, P = 0.001), and serum soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin concentration ratio (TfR/ferritin) predicted the excretion rate at B = - 0.13 (95% CI - 0.21 to - 0.05, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non-iron overload...

  5. Police as contributors to Healthy Communities: Aiken, South Carolina.

    OpenAIRE

    Frommer, P; Papouchado, K

    2000-01-01

    In Aiken, South Carolina, community policing has led to numerous innovative programs that have contributed to a healthy community. The MOMS and COPS (Managing Our Maternity System with Community Oriented Policing System) program has played a significant part in the county's 50% decrease in infant mortality since 1989 and contributed to Aiken's designation as an All-America City in 1997. Other programs include a mentoring program for at-risk teen girls; instant crime reporting with donated cel...

  6. Interpersonal violence as a major contributor towards the skewed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma secondary to interpersonal violence (IPV) predominated. A disproportionately high level of pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) in relation to total road traffic collisions was noted. Blunt force trauma secondary to motor vehicle collisions was the leading cause of death, while blunt force trauma secondary to ...

  7. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  8. Antibiotic misuse in the community--a contributor to resistance?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, B

    2012-02-03

    The problem of antibiotic resistance is associated with the indiscriminate usage of antibiotics. Efforts have been directed at encouraging the rational use of these drugs to reduce the volume of antibiotic consumption and decrease resistance rates. There is evidence to suggest that the misuse of antibiotics by patients may also contribute to the problem. We describe a survey of a random selection of patients attending a General Practitioners\\' surgery over a six week period in an effort to estimate the level of non-compliance to antibiotic therapy in the community. The results suggest that there may be a significant level of antibiotic misuse prevalent in the local community. We discuss these results and present evidence in the literature suggesting how antibiotic misuse may affect resistance in the community. The factors affecting patient compliance to therapy are outlined along with suggested measures to improve compliance among patients.

  9. The privatization of EEB: From cash drain to major contributor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, Christianne; Larsen, Erik R.; Dyner, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the successful part-privatization of Empresa de Energia de Bogota (EEB), the city-owned electricity company in Bogota, Colombia. We describe the reason, the preparation and the actual sale process as well as the outcome following the part-privatization. EEB went from being a company on the edge of bankruptcy to one of the most financially secure electricity companies in South America. We also place the case in relation to the standard views on direct foreign investment and their social benefit. Finally, we aim to generalize the experience to see what other organizations in a similar position can learn

  10. THE MILITARY AS A CONTRIBUTOR TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential as soldiers in a modern army than. Western Jews. ... economic, diplomatic and military', as one definition of 'total war' puts it,6 it would seem logical that the military authorities who have been entrusted with the task of defending a country should try to ..... contributed, agriculture seems to be the field where armed ...

  11. Ergonomics design and operator training as contributors to human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.R.G.; Madden, V.J.; Umbers, I.G.; Williams, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear reactors depends not only on good physical safety engineering but on the human operators as well. The Central Electricity Generating Board's approach to human reliability includes the following aspects: ergonomics design (task analysis and the development of man-machine interfaces), analysis of human reliability, operational feedback, staff training and assessment, maintenance management, research programmes and management. This paper describes how these combine to achieve the highest practicable level of human reliability, not only for the Sizewell-B pressurized water reactor, but also for the Board's gas-cooled reactors. Examples are used to illustrate the topics considered. (UK)

  12. Thank You to All JOSPT Contributors for 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, J Haxby

    2017-12-01

    On behalf of the many stakeholders in the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT), including the Sections and international partners, readers, Editorial Board, and authors, Editor-in-Chief J. Haxby Abbott gives thanks and recognizes all of the many individuals who have contributed to the editorial process and content of JOSPT this past year. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):889-891. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0110.

  13. Fuel cells - a new contributor to stationary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Angelo U.

    Stationary power generation historically started as distributed generation near the user, with the configuration of a very open market, where a lot of small competing utilities were offering electricity to the customers. At a second time it became a `monopolistic' business because of technical reasons. Big steam turbines and electric generators, allowing better efficiencies, were more conveniently installed in very large power plants, necessarily located in sites far away from where the power was needed, and the transmission losses were bounded by AC high voltage technology. The Governments were, therefore, trying to balance the power of monopolies, that were limiting the economical development of the countries, by strengthening the concept of electrical energy price public control and, alternatively, by establishing rules to allow a free flow of electricity from one region to the other, or taking direct control through ownership of big and small utilities. The most effective way of making the electric energy system competitive has proved to be the opening of a partial competition in the generation field by forcing the utilities to compare the cost of their energy, produced with new centralised plants, to the price of the available energy, coming from combined heat and power dispersed generators. In fact, with reference to this cost, all the peculiar features of large central stations and dispersed generators were taken into account, like the widespread use of natural gas, the investment risk reduction with single smaller increments of capacity, the transmission and distribution siting difficulties and high costs, the improved system reliability, and, finally, the high quality electric power. Fuel Cells are a recently become available technology for distributed electrical energy production, because they share the main typical aspects, relevant for a distributed power system, like compatibility with other modular subsystem packages, fully automation possibility, very low noise and emissions release, high efficiency both directly as fuel cell (38-55%) and in integrated cycles (50-65% with fossil fuels), delivered `power quality' and reliability. Focus is principally kept on the impact fuel cells could have on electrical grid management and control, for their voltage support and active filtering capabilities, for their response speed and for quick load connection capabilities. The cost for the moment is high, but some technology, like phosphoric acid, is in the market entry phase. Cost analysis for the main subsystems, that is fuel cell stacks, fuel processors, and power electronics and controls, indicates that the prices will be driven down to the required levels both through technology refinements and increase of production volumes. Anyhow, a new phase is beginning, where centralised power plants are facing the competition of distributed generators, like fuel cells, small gas turbines and internal combustion engines, and of other renewable energy generators, like photovoltaics and wind generators. They all are modular, dispersed throughout the utility distribution system to provide power closer to end user, and are not in competition with existing transmission and distribution systems, but they improve the systems' utilisation. The plants will initially be directly owned and operated by gas or energy distributors, and the customers could easily supersede their mistrusts by only paying for the energy they are really utilising, leaving away the worries about the investment costs and the risks of a bad operation. An `intelligent grid', delivering high quality electrical energy to millions of electrical household consumers, which, a second later, become non-polluting energy producers, appears to be giving a very relevant contribution to `the town of the future', envisaged also by the European Commission, where the quality of our lives is mainly depending on the quality of the energy.

  14. Mechanical contributors to sex differences in idiopathic knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolella Daniel P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The occurrence of knee osteoarthritis (OA increases with age and is more common in women compared with men, especially after the age of 50 years. Recent work suggests that contact stress in the knee cartilage is a significant predictor of the risk for developing knee OA. Significant gaps in knowledge remain, however, as to how changes in musculoskeletal traits disturb the normal mechanical environment of the knee and contribute to sex differences in the initiation and progression of idiopathic knee OA. To illustrate this knowledge deficit, we summarize what is known about the influence of limb alignment, muscle function, and obesity on sex differences in knee OA. Observational data suggest that limb alignment can predict the development of radiographic signs of knee OA, potentially due to increased stresses and strains within the joint. However, these data do not indicate how limb alignment could contribute to sex differences in either the development or worsening of knee OA. Similarly, the strength of the knee extensor muscles is compromised in women who develop radiographic and symptomatic signs of knee OA, but the extent to which the decline in muscle function precedes the development of the disease is uncertain. Even less is known about how changes in muscle function might contribute to the worsening of knee OA. Conversely, obesity is a stronger predictor of developing knee OA symptoms in women than in men. The influence of obesity on developing knee OA symptoms is not associated with deviation in limb alignment, but BMI predicts the worsening of the symptoms only in individuals with neutral and valgus (knock-kneed knees. It is more likely, however, that obesity modulates OA through a combination of systemic effects, particularly an increase in inflammatory cytokines, and mechanical factors within the joint. The absence of strong associations of these surrogate measures of the mechanical environment in the knee joint with sex differences in the development and progression of knee OA suggests that a more multifactorial and integrative approach in the study of this disease is needed. We identify gaps in knowledge related to mechanical influences on the sex differences in knee OA.

  15. Thirteen Years after Rio: The State of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shahram

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions are adversely affecting the earth's climate, a global common and a public good. The contribution of individual countries has a limited effect on the biosphere, implying that only globally coordinated efforts may result in significant climate improvements. The Rio Earth Summit (1992) and Kyoto Protocol (1997) are…

  16. Assessment of hospitalization and mortality of scleroderma in-patients: a thirteen-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Shenavandeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an uncommon non-hereditary sporadic disease that increases the risk of premature death, especially in diffuse type. We determined the prevalence of SSc in the last 13 years in our rheumatologic hospitals as a referral center for southern Iranian patients, the causes of hospitalization, the average length of stay (LOS, the mortality rate, and the reason for their mortality. Material and methods : A cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The studied population included all patients diagnosed with systemic sclerosis. We calculated the hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality rates, and mean LOS. Results: There were 446 admissions by 181 patients with SSc. The female to male ratio was about 10.7 : 1. The overall mean LOS was 5.95 days. Digital ulcer and interstitial lung disease (ILD were the most common causes of hospitalizations among the SSc-related events. For those with a non-SSc-related condition, infection was the most prevalent event. Most of the deaths were due to ILD and pulmonary artery hypertension(PAH, and the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 16.5%. Conclusions : Women with SSc had higher rates of hospitalization but lower in-hospital mortality than men.There were some differences between our study and other similar studies in the causes of hospitalization and in-hospital death among SSc patients, especially the lower age of death. The patients with digital ulcers and those with intestinal lung disease or pulmonary hipertension were most commonly admitted to the hospital in our study group. Probably, increasing the skin care of these patients and asking other specialty groups to cooperate will decrease the high rate of hospitalizations in our population.

  17. 77 FR 14596 - Supplemental Identification Information for Thirteen Individuals and One Entity Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ..., Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Jamia Masjid, Sulaiman Park, Begum Pura, Lahore, Pakistan; Office Dha'rb-i-M'unin, Z.R... Khyber Bank, Abbottabad Road, Mansehra, Pakistan; University Road, Opposite Baitul Mukaram, Gulshan-e Iqbal, Karachi, Pakistan; Opposite Jang Press, I.I. Chundrigar Road, Karachi, Pakistan; TE-365, 3rd...

  18. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-glutamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuku, Shoji; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Mawatari, Kazunori; Smriga, Miro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    L-Glutamine (Gln) is a semiessential amino acid used in enteral feeding in critically ill patients, and is contained in numerous dietary supplements available to the general public. This study evaluated toxicological effects of Gln in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Gln produced by Ajinomoto Co. (Tokyo, Japan) was incorporated into a standard diet at doses equal to 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w), respectively. A control group of rats received only a standard diet. All diets were administered ad libitum for 13 consecutive weeks. To examine recoverability of any potential effects, the administration period was followed by a 5-week recovery period, during which only the standard diet was provided to all animals. Throughout the administration and recovery periods, no deaths were observed, and no changes in diet consumption, ophthalmologic findings, gross pathology, and histopathology were detected. Several changes in urine parameters (total protein, urine pH, and a positive incidence (+/-) of ketone bodies) were observed in the 2.5% and 5.0% groups at the end of the administration period. Minor increases were found in hematology parameters for the 5.0% group (platelet count, gamma-globulin, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), but all changes were within physiological range. No effects of administration were observed in the 1.25% group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Gln was estimated at 1.25% for both genders (males 0.83 +/- 0.01 g/kg/day; females, 0.96 +/- 0.06 g/kg/day).

  19. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-arginine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuku, Shoji; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Mawatari, Kazunori; Smriga, Miro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) has been used extensively in dietary and pharmacological products. This study evaluated toxicological and behavioral effects of Arg produced by Ajinomoto Co. (Tokyo, Japan) during a dosing study with male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The amino acid was incorporated into a standard diet at doses equal to 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w). A control group of rats received only a standard diet. All diets were administered ad libitum for 13 continuous weeks. To examine recoverability of any potential effects, the administration period was followed by a 5-week-long recovery, during which only a standard diet was provided. In male and female rats in each concentration group, treatment-related changes were not observed for clinical signs, body weights, diet consumption, ophthalmology, gross pathology, organ weight, or histopathology. An elevated level of plasma glucose was detected in some male rats (5.0%, w/w) during the analysis conducted in the fifth week of administration; however, the degree of the change was within the physiological range, and no changes were observed at the end of the administration period. In the same group, an increase in hemoglobin, together with a tendency toward an increase in the red blood cell counts, was found, but the change was considered toxicologically insignificant. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Arg was estimated at 5.0% (w/w) for both genders (males, 3.3 +/- 0.1 g/kg/day; females, 3.9 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day).

  20. Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Objective: Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. Method: During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska. All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. Results: All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2% upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004, 196 (66% out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34% was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%. Conclusion: War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  1. The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System: Its Impact on Air Force Acquisition Thirteen Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    PAROCHIALISM : OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE REQUIREMENTS GENERATION SYSTEM (RGS) ........................................................ 15 2003...SERVICE STOVEPIPES AND PAROCHIALISM : OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE REQUIREMENTS GENERATION SYSTEM (RGS) According to a 1974 General Accounting...The time had come to put aside service parochialism and self-interest and begin the march to joint capability development, joint concepts and

  2. Early implant placement for a patient with ectodermal dysplasia: Thirteen years of clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Lisa A; Larsen, Peter E; Saponaro, Paola C; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie

    2017-11-29

    Patients with ectodermal dysplasia have abnormalities of 2 or more structures that originate from the ectoderm. The oral manifestations often include the congenital absence of teeth and malformed teeth. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary care from childhood through the definitive dental rehabilitation completed at skeletal maturation to replace the missing teeth in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment began at 9 years of age with an implant-assisted mandibular overdenture to improve function and replace the missing mandibular teeth. Orthodontic treatment for the consolidation of space, composite resin restorations, and interim removable dental prostheses were provided to improve esthetics and replace the missing maxillary teeth. Skeletal growth was monitored, and orthognathic surgery was performed at the cessation of growth. The definitive rehabilitation consisted of a mandibular fixed dental prosthesis supported by dental implants and a maxillary removable dental prosthesis to restore the patient to esthetics and function. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thirteen years of integrated precipitable water derived by GPS at Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierguido Sarti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Italian Antarctic Programme has been funding space geodetic activities based on the use of episodic and permanent global positioning system (GPS observations. As well as their exploitation in geodynamics, these data can be used to sense the atmosphere and to retrieve and monitor its water vapor content and variations. The surface pressure p and temperature Ts at the GPS tracking sites are necessary to compute the zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD, and consequently, the precipitable water. At sites where no surface information is recorded, the p and Ts values can be retrieved from, e.g., global numerical weather prediction models. Alternatively, the site-specific ZHD values can be computed by interpolation of the ZHD values provided in a grid model (2.5° × 2.0°. We have processed the data series of the permanent GPS site TNB1 (Mario Zucchelli Station, Antarctica from 1998 to 2010, with the purpose of comparing the use of grid ZHD values as an alternative to the use of real surface records. With these approaches, we estimate almost 7 × 104 hourly values of precipitable water over 13 years, and we find discrepancies that vary between 1.8 (±0.2 mm in summer and 3.3 (±0.5 mm in winter. In addition, the discrepancies of the two solutions show a clear seasonal dependency. Radiosounding measurements were used to derive an independent series of precipitable water. These agree better with the GPS precipitable water derived from real surface data. However, the GPS precipitable water time series is dry biased, as it is ca. 77% of the total moisture measured by the radiosoundings. Both the GPS and radiosounding observations are processed through the most up-to-date strategies, to reduce known systematic errors.

  4. Rabi Rashidi (Rashidi Quarters): a late thirteen to early fourteenth century Middle Eastern Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Alakbarli, Farid; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2012-11-01

    Following the Mongolian invasion of the Middle East in the thirteenth century, a regional power called the Ilkhanid emerged and was ruled by the heirs of Temujin from Mongolia. Embracing present-day Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, areas of Russia, Turkey, and Pakistan, and nearby Middle Eastern territories, the Ilkhanid state patronized medicine and various other professions. Centered in Tabriz (Tauris), a city in the northwest of present-day Iran, was a non-profit-making educational and medical complex founded by Grand Minister Rashid al-Din Fazlollah Hamadani. This paper reviews the literature regarding the rise and fall of the thirteenth century university and the Rabi Rashidi, emphasizing the structure of its medical school. The background training of Rashid al-Din and his keen interest in science turned this complex, Rabi Rashidi (literally meaning the Rashidi Quarters), into a cosmopolitan university that freely trained medical scholars nationally and internationally. The possibility that Rashid al-Din was inspired by university developments in Europe is discussed.

  5. Nutritional quality of the seed oil in thirteen Asphodeline species (Xanthorrhoeaceae from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengin, G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from 13 Turkish Asphodeline species was analyzed. The seed oil content ranged between 0.9% and 4.6%, and included 26 different fatty acids from C12:0to C22:5. The most abundant saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 (5.7% to 23.7% of their total fatty acid content, C18:1ω9 (11.3% to 30.3%, and C18:2ω6 (49.2% to 66.1%. A. tenuior subsp. tenuiflora, which had the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids, also had the best fatty acid profile from a nutritional point of view. Asphodeline seed oil composition was similar to that of local, related vegetables such as onion seeds. Asphodeline species, which are most frequently grown to use the leaves in salads, may also be a good source of seed oil with good nutritional properties. Results of a cluster analysis using data on the fatty acid composition are consistent with the taxonomic classification of genus Asphodeline.Se ha analizado la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de las semillas de 13 especies de Asphodeline de Turquía. El contenido en aceite de las semillas osciló entre el 0.9% y el 4.6% e incluyó 26 ácidos grasos distintos entre C12:0y C22:5. Los ácidos grasos saturados, monoinsaturados y poliinsaturados más abundantes fueron C16:0 (5.7% a 23.7%, C18:1ω9 (11.3% a 30.3% y C18:2ω6 (49.2% a 66.1%. A. tenuior subsp. tenuiflora, que presentó el contenido más alto en ácidos grasos insaturados, también tenía el mejor perfil en ácidos grasos desde un punto de vista nutricional. La composición del aceite de las semillas de Asphodeline fue similar a la de vegetales relacionados como la cebolla. Asphodeline, cuyas hojas son consumidas en ensaladas, puede representar también una buena fuente de aceite de las semillas con buenas propiedades nutricionales. Los resultados del análisis de grupos usando los datos de la composición en ácidos grasos son consistentes con la clasificación taxonómica del género Asphodeline.

  6. Thirteen years of oxcarbazepine exposures reported to US poison centers: 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Strauch, J; Essing-Spiller, S J; Burns, G

    2016-10-01

    Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is a 10-keto analogue of carbamazepine used in patients with partial and secondary generalized seizures. We evaluated ingestions of OXC reported to US poison centers for adverse effects from supratherapeutic doses and/or overdose. Retrospective analysis of data reported to National Poison Data System from single-substance OXC ingestions between January 2000 and December 2012. There were 18,867cases with a mean of 1451 exposures/year. The patients were predominantly adults with 5464 exposures in children effects were drowsiness (n = 4703, 25%), vomiting (n = 1559, 8%), tachycardia (n = 590, 3%), agitated (n = 342, 1.8%), hypotension (n = 178, 0.9%), electrolyte disturbance (n = 153, 0.8%), coma (n = 156, 0.8%), and seizures (n = 121, 0.6%). There were 176 patients with a major effect of which 31 involved were children and 1728 (9%) patients with moderate effects of which 300 involved were children. Five deaths were reported in adults. Intentional exposure (e.g. suicide) was the reason for exposure in 68% of patients with major effects and in all fatalities. Fifty-three percent of adults and 38% of children were managed in a health-care facility (HCF). HCF utilization levels remained consistent. Severe outcomes appear to be infrequent (<1%). Unlike other anticonvulsants OXC does not appear to be proconvulsant in overdose. Serious outcomes for OXC overdoses are unlikely in the pediatric patient. With only mild symptoms likely, observation at home may be appropriate for the majority of cases. In the adult population there appears to be few neurologic and cardiovascular complications even in the intentional exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Craig; Carlson, Sandra; Butler, Michelle; Cassano, Daniel; Clarke, Stephen; Fejsa, John; Durrheim, David

    2017-08-17

    Flutracking is a weekly Web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Australia that has grown from 400 participants in 2006 to over 26,000 participants every week in 2016. Flutracking monitors both the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia by documenting symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior. Recruitment of Flutrackers commenced via health department and other organizational email systems, and then gradually incorporated social media promotion and invitations from existing Flutrackers to friends to enhance participation. Invitations from existing participants typically contribute to over 1000 new participants each year. The Flutracking survey link was emailed every Monday morning in winter and took less than 10 seconds to complete. To reduce the burden on respondents, we collected only a minimal amount of demographic and weekly data. Additionally, to optimize users' experiences, we maintained a strong focus on "obvious design" and repeated usability testing of naïve and current participants of the survey. In this paper, we share these and other insights on recruitment methods and user experience principles that have enabled Flutracking to become one of the largest online participatory surveillance systems in the world. There is still much that could be enhanced in Flutracking; however, we believe these principles could benefit others developing similar online surveillance systems. ©Craig Dalton, Sandra Carlson, Michelle Butler, Daniel Cassano, Stephen Clarke, John Fejsa, David Durrheim. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 17.08.2017.

  8. Nutritional quality of the seed oil in thirteen Asphodeline species (Xanthorrhoeaceae) from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, G.; Aktumsek, A.; Giron-Calle, J.; Vioque, J.; Megias, C.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from 13 Turkish Asphodeline species was analyzed. The seed oil content ranged between 0.9% and 4.6%, and included 26 different fatty acids from C12:0 to C22:5. The most abundant saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 (5.7% to 23.7% of their total fatty acid content), C18:1ω9 (11.3% to 30.3%), and C18:2ω6 (49.2% to 66.1%). A. tenuior subsp. tenuiflora, which had the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids, also had the best fatty acid profile from a nutritional point of view. Asphodeline seed oil composition was similar to that of local, related vegetables such as onion seeds. Asphodeline species, which are most frequently grown to use the leaves in salads, may also be a good source of seed oil with good nutritional properties. Results of a cluster analysis using data on the fatty acid composition are consistent with the taxonomic classification of genus Asphodeline. [es

  9. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR242511 in Rats. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia seen in high dose females, as previously discussed. Heptatobiliary changes were suggested by significant elevations in...lung (alveolar histiocytosis) lesions. Severe thymic lymphocyte depletion was also observed in these animals where the thymus could be identified...this animal, but it was attributed to the severe and diffuse chronic-active inflammation. As indicated above, treatment-related histopathologic

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. A revision of thirteen species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae vectors of Chagas disease in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar-Schettino Paz Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, parasite responsible for Chagas disease, are divided in intradomestic, peridomestic and sylvatic. The intradomestic are Triatoma barberi and Triatoma dimidiata, two species that represent the highest health risk among the Mexican population. Triatoma dimidiata is a species found mainly inside human habitats, but in Yucatan, it corresponds to the peridomicile vectors. Also in the peridomicile most of Chagas disease vectors are found: Meccus bassolsae, M. longipennis, M. mazzottii, M pallidipennis, M. phyllosomus, M picturata, Triatoma gerstaeckeri, T mexicana, T rubida, Dipetalogaster máxima (the last two are in the process of becoming adapted to the domicile, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus which occasionally enters the domicile in its adult stage, and Rhodnius prolixus, which is practically controlled in the country. Peridomestic vectors are of lower risk in the transmission dynamics, as compared to the intradomestic ones. For the control of the intradomestic vectors, health education programs, improvements of housing, and the use of pesticides are essential To control the peridomestic vectors, health education programs are required, as well as the use of mosquito nets on doors and windows and around beds, aside from cementing the stone wall fences.

  12. A distilled fire of thirteen hells – Jens Baggesen between the Germans and the Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Henrik

    Venskabet mellem Carl Friedrich Cramer og Jens Baggesen blev et politisk anliggende for første gang under den såkaldte Tyskerfejde i 1789, da latente spændinger mellem en indflydelsesrig tysk gruppering i København en og en større nationalt orienteret gruppe borgere blev til åben konflikt. Jens B...... tyske aristokrati i København. Det prekære forhold har sat sig indirekte, men tydelige spor i rejseskildringen Labyrinten (bd. 1-2, 1792-93), der på denne baggrund fremstår som en apologi for Jens Baggesens position....

  13. [Meals consumption among thirteen years olds and selected family socio-economic correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzycka-Stalmach, Magdalena; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria; Wojdan-Godek, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the influence of selected family socioeconomic factors on the regularity of meals consumption among 13-years aged adolescents. Group of 605 13-years olds identified in the prospective cohort study in 2008 was analysed. Data was gathered with use of posted questionnaires. On the basis of information given by children the regularity (4-5 times a week) of meals consumption on school days and eating meals with parents were correlated with parents' educational level, occupational status and perceived family wealth. The study also recognised the distinction between urban and rural residents. Most questionnaires were filled out by mothers (95%), only 5% by fathers. In urban area, the mother's occupation and the perceived family wealth, correlate with children meals consumption and eating meals with parents. Children whose mothers have a job eat breakfast 1.5 times and supper 3 times less regularly, than children whose mothers don't work. Children from poor families eat breakfast 14 times less regularly than children from rich families as well as eat supper 3 times less regularly than children from average wealthy families. In the rural area, the regularity of meals consumption significantly influence the mother's education. Children whose mothers have a secondary education, compared with children of mothers with basic education, are 4 times more likely to eat dinner and supper regularly. The family socioeconomic factors significantly correlate with regularity of 13-years olds meals consumption and regularity of family meals. The place of residence involve the different factors influencing meals consumption habits. It was shown that children and fathers were too little engaged in family life, including family meals preparation and consumption.

  14. Thirteen million years of silicic magma production in Iceland: Links between petrogenesis and tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-04-01

    The origin of the Quaternary silicic rocks in Iceland is thought to be linked to the thermal state of the crust, which in turn depends on the regional tectonic settings. This simple model is tested here on rocks from the Miocene to present, both to suggest an internally consistent model for silicic magma formation in Iceland and to constrain the link between tectonic settings and silicic magma petrogenesis. New major and trace-element compositions together with O-, Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios have been obtained on silicic rocks from 19 volcanic systems ranging in age from 13 Ma to present. This allows us to trace the spatial and temporal evolution of both magma generation and the corresponding sources. Low δ18O (geothermal gradient. But later than 5.5 Ma they were produced in a flank zone environment by fractional crystallisation alone, probably due to decreasing geothermal gradient, of basalts derived from a mantle source with lower 143Nd/ 144Nd. This is in agreement with an eastwards rift-jump, from Snæfellsnes towards the present Reykjanes Rift Zone, between 7 and 5.5 Ma. In the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (SIVZ), the intermediate Nd-signature observed in silicic rocks from the Torfajökull central volcano reflects the transitional character of the basalts erupted at this propagating rift segment. Therefore, the abundant evolved rocks at this major silicic complex result from partial melting of the transitional alkaline basaltic crust (Iceland can, therefore, be used for deciphering past geodynamic settings characterized by rift- and off-rift zones resulting from interaction of a mantle plume and divergent plate boundaries.

  15. A Thirteen-Year Comparison in Patterns of Attitudes toward Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Warren R.; Gandy, Gerald L.

    1994-01-01

    Administered survey of attitudes toward counseling to college students in 1976 and 1989, rating likelihood of seeking counseling, likelihood of seeking help from professional and nonprofessional helpers, likelihood of seeking help for differing problems, degree of responsibility professional should assume, and preferences for five counseling…

  16. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Institutional Barriers for Adults' Participation in Higher Education in Thirteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Ellu; Täht, Kadri; Roosalu, Triin

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on institutional barriers that adult learners experience while participating in higher education programmes. We developed a holistic measure of diversification, accessibility, flexibility and affordability of higher education for adults. Based on pre-economic-crisis data across Europe we then explored the impact of macro-level…

  18. A Retrospective Examination of a University's Thirteen Years in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ronald E.; And Others

    The context of educational reform within which U.S. higher education has worked in selected Latin American countries is examined, with attention directed to the specific experience of the University of New Mexico. The evolution of the Latin American Programs in Education office (LAPE) in the university setting, the organizational milieu in which…

  19. Partnering for long-term management of radioactive waste. Evolution and current practice in thirteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade. (authors)

  20. Thirteen years and counting: Outcomes of a concurrent ASN/BSN enrollment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heglund, Stephen; Simmons, Jessica; Wink, Diane; D'Meza Leuner, Jean

    In their 2011 report, The Future of Nursing, the Institute of Medicine called for 80% of the nursing workforce to be comprised of baccalaureate prepared Registered Nurses by the year 2020. One suggested approach to achieve this goal is the creation of programs that allow students to progress through associate and baccalaureate nursing preparation simultaneously. This paper describes the University of Central Florida's 13-year experience after implementing a Concurrent Enrollment Program. Development and structure of the program, advisement and curriculum details, facilitators and barriers are described. Data on National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses pass rates, completion rates, comparison with traditional RN-BSN students, and progression to graduate school are also included. The Concurrent Program model described here between a specific university and state college partners, demonstrated positive outcomes that support achievement of the Institute of Medicine's goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and characterization of thirteen microsatellite loci in Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Castoe, Todd A.; Tomback, Diana F.; Wunder, Michael B.; Schaming, Taza D.

    2013-01-01

    Clark’s nutcrackers are important seed dispersers for two widely-distributed western North American conifers, whitebark pine and limber pine, which are declining due to outbreaks of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust. Because nutcracker seed dispersal services are key to maintaining viable populations of these imperiled pines, knowledge of movement patterns of Clark’s nutcrackers helps managers understand local extinction risks for these trees. To investigate population structure within Clark’s nutcracker, we developed primers for and characterized 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In a screen of 22 individuals from one population, levels of variability ranged from 6 to 15 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although 4 loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and evidence of null alleles. These microsatellite loci will enable population genetic analyses of Clark’s nutcrackers, which could provide insights into the spatial relationships between nutcrackers and the trees they help disperse.

  2. Thirteen years test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.; Leufkens, P.P.; Fogelberg, T.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to withstand a short circuit is recognised more and more as an essential characteristic of power transformers. IEC and IEEE Standards, as well as other national standards specify short-circuit testing and how to check the withstand capability. Unfortunately, however, there is extensive

  3. Thirteen-year trends in child and adolescent fundamental movement skills: 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Barnett, Lisa; Espinel, Paola; Okely, Anthony D

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe 13-yr trends in children's fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency. Secondary analysis of representative, cross-sectional, Australian school-based surveys was conducted in 1997, 2004, and 2010 (n = 13,752 children age 9-15 yr). Five FMS (sprint run, vertical jump, catch, kick, and overarm throw) were assessed using process-oriented criteria at each survey and children's skills classified as competent or not competent. Covariates included sex, age, cardiorespiratory endurance (20-m shuttle run test), body mass index (kg·m), and socioeconomic status (residential postcode). At each survey, the children's FMS competency was low, with prevalence rarely above 50%. Between 1997 and 2004, there were significant increases in all students' competency in the sprint run, vertical jump, and catch. For boys, competency increased in the kick (primary) and the overarm throw (high school), but among high school girls, overarm throw competency decreased. Between 2004 and 2010, competency increased in the catch (all students), and in all girls, competency increased in the kick, whereas competency in the vertical jump decreased. Overall, students' FMS competency was low especially in the kick and overarm throw in girls. The observed increase in FMS competency in 2004 was attributed to changes in practice and policy to support the teaching of FMS in schools. In 2010, competency remained low, with improvements in only the catch (all) and kick (girls) and declines in vertical jump. Potentially, the current delivery of FMS programs requires stronger positioning within the school curriculum. Strategies to improve children's physical activity should consider ensuring children are taught FMS to competency level, to enjoy being physically active.

  4. 75 FR 54697 - Unblocking of Thirteen Specially Designated Nationals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... (individual) [SDGT]. PARKA TRADING COMPANY, P.O. Box 3313, Deira, Dubai, United Arab Emirates [SDGT]. SOMALI..., Minneapolis, MN 55408 [SDGT]. AL-NUR HONEY PRESS SHOPS (a.k.a. AL-NUR HONEY CENTER), Sanaa, Yemen [SDGT]. AL...]. BARAKAAT CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, P.O. Box 3313, Dubai, United Arab Emirates [SDGT]. BARAKAAT INTERNATIONAL...

  5. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Swanson, D.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  6. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity

  7. Trace elements in two Oxisols after annual application of sewage sludge for thirteen years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gomes de Andrade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aim was to evaluate the contamination of the trace elements (TE arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc considered in the CONAMA resolution 375 after 13 years long using sewage sludge (SS as fertilizer in two soils: an Eutroferric Clayed Red Latosol (Rhodic Eutrudox – RE and a Dystrophic Red Latosol (Typic Haplorthox – TH. Experiment in the field under maize cultivation had four treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 t of SS ha-1, dry weight, five replications and an experimental design in randomized blocks. The agrochemicals (dolomitic limestone, single superphosphate, and potassium chloride, SS, soils, and the certified reference materials were digested according to the USEPA 3051A method and the chemical elements were quantified by ICP OES. The TE contents found in the agrochemicals used should not cause immediate environmental impact. The higher TE values were found in the RE and they did not reach the agricultural (more stringent Investigation Level (IL yet, according to 420 CONAMA resolution. Persisting the actual SS fertilization amount applied in the soil and the TE concentration in the SS is foreseen that Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn will be the first elements to reach the IL in the RE.

  8. Scientific and normative foundations for the valuation of alien species impacts: thirteen core principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Hulme, P. E.; Jeschke, J.M.; Saul, W.-C.; Keller, R. P.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.; Bacher, S.; Dullinger, S.; Estévez, R. A.; Kueffer, C.; Roy, H. E.; Seebens, H.; Rabitsch, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2017), s. 166-178 ISSN 0006-3568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biologival invasions * impact * time lags Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Biodiversity conservation Impact factor: 5.378, year: 2016

  9. Analysis of thirteen predatory publishers: a trap for eager-to-publish researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshete, Pravin

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate a strategy employed by predatory publishers to trap eager-to-publish authors or researchers into submitting their work. This was a case study of 13 potential, possible, or probable predatory scholarly open-access publishers with similar characteristics. Eleven publishers were included from Beall's list and two additional publishers were identified from a Google web search. Each publisher's site was visited and its content analyzed. Publishers publishing biomedical journals were further explored and additional data was collected regarding their volumes, details of publications and editorial-board members. Overall, the look and feel of all 13 publishers was similar including names of publishers, website addresses, homepage content, homepage images, list of journals and subject areas, as if they were copied and pasted. There were discrepancies in article-processing charges within the publishers. None of the publishers identified names in their contact details and primarily included only email addresses. Author instructions were similar across all 13 publishers. Most publishers listed journals of varied subject areas including biomedical journals (12 publishers) covering different geographic locations. Most biomedical journals published none or very few articles. The highest number of articles published by any single biomedical journal was 28. Several editorial-board members were listed across more than one journals, with one member listed 81 times in different 69 journals (i.e. twice in 12 journals). There was a strong reason to believe that predatory publishers may have several publication houses with different names under a single roof to trap authors from different geographic locations.

  10. A thirteen-year comparison in patterns of attitudes toward counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, W R; Gandy, G L

    1994-01-01

    Two comparable samples of college students were administered the same survey of attitudes toward counseling in 1976 and 1989. Ratings were obtained for (1) likelihood of seeking counseling, (2) likelihood of seeking help from professional and nonprofessional helpers, (3) likelihood of seeking help for differing types of problems, (4) degree of responsibility the professional should assume, and (5) preferences for five of the major counseling approaches (Adlerian, Behavioral, Gestalt, Person-Centered, Rational-Emotive). Consistencies and changing patterns were noted within each year and between years. Findings are discussed in relation to existing research as well as to possible gender and societal determinants.

  11. Thirteen- and Sixteen-Month-Olds' Long-Term Recall of Event Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsgaard, L.; Bauer, P. J.

    In two experiments, the ability of children younger than 20 months to engage in delayed ordered recall was investigated. In the first experiment, 13- and 16-month-old children were presented with 2-step event sequences and tested for recall, first, immediately following the event and second, after a one-week delay. Sequences were novel-causal,…

  12. An Account of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Thirteen Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Murray Wilford [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has built and operated 13 nuclear reactors in its 66-year history. The first was the graphite reactor, the world's first operational nuclear reactor, which served as a plutonium production pilot plant during World War II. It was followed by two aqueous-homogeneous reactors and two red-hot molten-salt reactors that were parts of power-reactor development programs and by eight others designed for research and radioisotope production. One of the eight was an all-metal fast burst reactor used for health physics studies. All of the others were light-water cooled and moderated, including the famous swimming-pool reactor that was copied dozens of times around the world. Two of the reactors were hoisted 200 feet into the air to study the shielding needs of proposed nuclear-powered aircraft. The final reactor, and the only one still operating today, is the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) that was built particularly for the production of californium and other heavy elements. With the world's highest flux and recent upgrades that include the addition of a cold neutron source, the 44-year-old HFIR continues to be a valuable tool for research and isotope production, attracting some 500 scientific visitors and guests to Oak Ridge each year. This report describes all of the reactors and their histories.

  13. Is Thirteen a Lucky Number?: Finance and Control of California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Audrey James

    A survey by the Los Angeles Times indicated that only 18% of the 64% of the Californians who voted for Proposition 13 did so with the hope that expenditures for education would be reduced. However, because financial support for both kindergarten through twelfth grades and community colleges have come largely from local sources, these two segments…

  14. Thirteen pump-probe resonances of the sodium D1 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Vincent; Boyd, Robert W.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Marino, Alberto M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a pump-probe laser spectroscopic investigation of the Doppler-broadened sodium D1 resonance line. We find 13 resonances in the resulting spectra. These observations are well described by the numerical predictions of a four-level atomic model of the hyperfine structure of the sodium D1 line. We also find that many, but not all, of these features can be understood in terms of processes originating in a two-level or three-level subset of the full four-level model. The processes we observed include forward near-degenerate four-wave mixing and saturation in a two-level system, difference-frequency crossing and nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a three-level V system, electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping in a three-level lambda system, cross-transition resonance in a four-level double-lambda system, and conventional optical pumping. Most of these processes lead to sub-Doppler or even subnatural linewidths. The dependence of these resonances on the pump intensity and pump detuning from atomic resonance are also studied

  15. Comparison of outcomes from smoking and nonsmoking donors: thirteen-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marius; Goldsmith, Kim; Jenkins, David; Sudarshan, Catherine; Catarino, Pedro; Sukumaran, Nair; Dunning, John; Sharples, Linda D; Tsui, Steven; Parmar, Jasvir

    2010-12-01

    Lung transplantation remains the best treatment option for a variety of end-stage lung diseases. Pressure on the limited donor pool has led to the use of extended criteria donors. One aspect of this has been the liberalization of the use of smoking donors (SmD). This study is a retrospective review of lung transplants performed between April 1995 and August 2008 at a single institute. We examined the impact of donor smoking on short-term and long-term survival in relationship to recipient and donor demographics such as ischemic time, cytomegalovirus status, rates of rejection and infection, ventilation, and intensive care stay. Endpoints were survival, infection, and rejection. During this 13-year period, 454 lung transplants were performed. Smoking history was available on 424 (93.4%) of these (SmD, n = 184; NSmD, n = 240). Seventy-one patients died within 3 months of transplant leaving 353 alive at 3 months posttransplant. Fatalities within the first 3 months were significantly higher in the SmD group (21% vs 13%, odds ratio 1.9, hazard ratio 3.3, p = 0.04). No significant difference in rejection and infection rates between recipients of lungs from SmD and NSmD at 3 months and at 1 year posttransplantation (p = 0.51 and 0.09) was found. Although recipients of lungs from SmD had higher odds of ventilation for more than 10 hours, the odds were only increased by 20%, which was not statistically significant. Recipients from SmD had significantly longer stays in the intensive care (odds ratio 1.9, p = 0.002). There was little evidence for an effect of SmD on the development of bronchiolitis obliterans. In this large cohort of patients, donor smoking history has an effect on early survival but no effect on long-term survival. The cause of this early mortality is independent of infection and rejection. However, these data suggest that overall outcomes from the use of donor lungs from smokers are acceptable, particularly in the current era with limited donor organs. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coronary Revascularization in Children at a Mexican Cardiac Center: Thirteen-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Marroquín, Samuel E; Iturriaga-Hernández, Alejandra; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Benita-Bordes, Antonio; Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge L

    2017-09-01

    The indications for pediatric coronary revascularization are diverse. There are a large proportion of patients with sequelae of severe inflammatory diseases such as Kawasaki disease, and other less common causes. Retrospective review of ten pediatric patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery from January 2004 to December 2016. Ten children and adolescents ranging in age from 2 to 17 (median, 6) years at operation were followed up for as long as 13 years with a median follow-up of 2 years. The surgical indications include ischemia symptoms and/or coronary stenosis angiographically documented. Diagnoses include Kawasaki disease, anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, and iatrogenic lesion of the right coronary artery. All the surgical procedures were performed with cardiopulmonary bypass with crystalloid cardioplegic arrest. The number of distal anastomoses was 1.6 per patient, and the left internal thoracic artery was used in one patient, the right internal thoracic artery in four patients, bilateral internal thoracic artery in four patients, and bilateral internal thoracic artery plus left radial artery in one patient, most frequently for right coronary artery revascularization. The patients underwent noninvasive diagnostic study during follow-up to evaluate their coronary status. The ten patients had no symptoms, and there was no mortality. Although survival was excellent after pediatric coronary bypass in our center, we need to continue the follow-up. Coronary revascularization by means of arterial grafting is a safe and reliable surgical modality for coronary disease in children.

  17. [Management of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis in thirteen-year follow-up period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukosavljević, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of unilateral morbidity and blindness in the world today. Frequency of penetrating ocular injuries and endophthalmitis after injuries caused by explosive weapons during the war in former Yugoslavia in the period 1991-1999 as well as eye injuries in the period 2000-2004 was examined. During 1991-1999, 647 patients with eye injuries were hospitalized at Eye Clinic, MMA, out of whom 500 cases with penetrating eye injuries. In 2000-2004 period, 601 patients with eye injuries were treated, out of whom 297 had penetrating eye injuries (including patients from Montenegro and Republica Srpska). All patients underwent thorough ophthalmological examination, antibiotic treatment and VPP or other required surgical interventions. All 500 patients from the first period had severe penetrating eye injuries. Intrabulbar foreign bodies (IFB) were detected in 286 cases, while 214 cases with penetrating eye injuries had no intrabulbar foreign bodies. Almost all patients had multiple head and body injuries as well. Endophthalmitis was observed in 29 eyes (5.2%) upon admission to hospital. In the second observed period (2000-2004), 196 (66%) out of 297 penetrating eye injuries had IOFB, and 101 (34%) was without IOFB. Endophthalmitis was observed in 34 eyes (8.4%). War eye injuries are a special group of injuries. Relatively low percent of posttraumatic endophthalmitis is definitely worth attention, especially in comparison with peacetime eye penetrating injuries.

  18. Immunological effects in acute radiation sickness reconvalescents - results of thirteen years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Belyaeva, N.V.; Azarskova, M.B.; Minchenko, Zh.N.; Pleskach, O.Ya.; Mishchenko, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    For immunological follow-up of people who had suffered from acute radiation sickness in 1986 connected with the Chernobyl NPP accident different immunological reactions were used. Both in the period of early recovery and remote reconvalescence period people had changes in expression of lymphocytes surface antigens, suggesting that even in the cases of satisfactory compensations functional reserves of immune system was narrow. Correlations with absorbed doses and somatic mutations in the locus of T-cell receptor were found. Results of the study suggested that individual characteristics of postirradiation recovery depended both on absorbed doses and genetically determined responses on the radiation hazard

  19. Facial nerve palsy in a thirteen-year-old male youth with Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biezeveld, Maarten H.; Voorbrood, Bas S.; Clur, Sally-Ann B.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2002-01-01

    A 13-year-old male youth was hospitalized with Kawasaki disease. In the course of the disease he developed a facial nerve palsy and an aneurysm of the right coronary artery. After treatment with immunoglobulins both complications disappeared within 10 days and 1 month, respectively

  20. The Relationship between Leadership Behavior, the Thirteen Core Competencies, and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Detris Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine if teacher job satisfaction is enhanced when principals value and exhibit behaviors informed by the 13 core competencies. Principals and teachers from 70 elementary, middle, and high schools in the southeast United States participated in the study. The "Leadership Behavior…

  1. Language matters: thirteen-month-olds understand that the language a speaker uses constrains conventionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica C; Henderson, Annette M E

    2013-11-01

    Object labels are valuable communicative tools because their meanings are shared among the members of a particular linguistic community. The current research was conducted to investigate whether 13-month-old infants appreciate that object labels should not be generalized across individuals who have been shown to speak different languages. Using a visual habituation paradigm, Experiment 1 tested whether infants would generalize a new object label that was taught to them by a speaker of a foreign language to a speaker from the infant's own linguistic group. The results suggest that infants do not expect 2 individuals who have been shown to speak different languages to use the same label to refer to the same object. The results of Experiment 2 reveal that infants do not generalize a new object label that was taught to them by a speaker of their native language to an individual who had been shown to speak a foreign language. These findings offer the first evidence that by the end of the 1st year of life, infants are sensitive to the fact that the conventional nature of language is constrained by the language that a person has been shown to speak.

  2. Unexpected course of treatment in a thirteen-year-old boy with unilateral vision disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobisz, A.T.; Rucinski, A.; Ujma-Czapska, B.; Grotowska, M.; Zaleska-Dorobisz, U.

    2005-01-01

    Monocular vision disorder is a characteristic symptom of brain ischemia of the second to fourth stage of Milikan's scale. Partial occipital epilepsy, where optic symptoms are usually bilateral and convulsion or automatisms appear later, is seldom the cause. In this paper the authors present a special case of a vision disorder in a 13-year-old boy in whom kinking of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was recognized in the first stage of diagnostic examination and treatment as the basic cause of the disorder. Other causes were not affirmed. Surgical angioplasty of the carotid artery was performed with the restoration of proper circulation. Despite the treatment, the symptoms persisted. In the further course of the disease, after repeated diagnostic imaging, childhood epilepsy with occipital spikes was recognized as the cause of the monocular anopsy. All the symptoms disappeared after pharmacological treatment. The surgeon must prove that the neurological symptoms are caused by kinking of the internal carotid artery and that no other etiology exists. (author)

  3. The Study of the Role of Contributor Factors in Addiction Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Kianipour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present paper investigated the factors contributing to addiction withdrawal so as to it would be possible to set preventive and rehabilitative programs for addicts. Method: The study was ex-post facto and causal-comparative one. Population included all addicts referred to addiction withdrawal centers of Kahnouj city and the sample was selected of addicts of Yaran addiction withdrawal Center by voluntary sampling. Bar-on emotional intelligence inventory, family boundary questionnaire and demographic information were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that normal family boundaries, higher emotional intelligence and opium use in comparison of crack and crystal glass are effective on addiction withdrawal. But disengaged family boundaries, crack and crystal glass use can be led to addiction recursion. Age, addiction duration, marital status, and education level are not effective on addiction withdrawal. Conclusion: Altogether, the results represented the role and importance of variables namely: family, emotional intelligence, and the kind of used material in addiction withdrawal.

  4. [Vladimir Zederbaum" (1883-1942): Physician, journalist, contributor to the Russian "Jewish, Encyclopedia". A research report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Vol. 15 o f the "Jewish Encyclopedia" (St. Petersburg 1908-1913) contains an article on Freud, signed by Vladimir Zederbaum. The data for the article were provided by Max Eitingon. This paper addresses the question of whether Zederbaum himself was Eitingon's contact. Several archives produced a lot of information about Zederbaum's medical and journalistic activities in St. Petersburg. However, to date no connection between the two men could be established.

  5. Jatropha Suppliers as Contributors to the Sustainability of the Production of Bioelectricity in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A. Muñoz Mayorga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Jatropha for Galápagos” (JFG project in Ecuador aims to progressively replace diesel with jatropha oil in the generation of electricity in The Galápagos Islands. Thus, understanding and motivating the participation of jatropha suppliers is a priority for the sustainability of JFG. For this reason, the factors influencing their decision-making to participate in the project have been identified and analyzed using a binomial logit model. The results show that factors found to positively influence the likelihood of participation include, amongst others, the supplier’s experience within the project, their participation in local organizations, and the degree of satisfaction with the price of jatropha oil. In addition, children from producer families’ collaboration in the harvest of jatropha increases the overall likelihood of participation within the project. Similarly, the distance to the collection center positively influences the chances of participation. Conversely, those suppliers with higher wages and those who declared that jatropha harvest starts in April have a reduced likelihood of participating in the project. The findings obtained from this project can help decision-makers develop new measures to improve the sustainability of the project through initiatives to motivate the participation of jatropha suppliers in the program.

  6. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Atmosphere and ocean dynamics: contributors to the European Little Ice Age?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palastanga, V.; Schrier, G. van der; Weber, S.L. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Kleinen, T. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Briffa, K.R.; Osborn, T.J. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The role of a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning and that of a persistently negative North Atlantic Oscillation in explaining the coldness of the European Little Ice Age (LIA) has been assessed in two sets of numerical experiments. These experiments are performed using an intermediate complexity climate model and a full complexity GCM. The reduction in the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) of ca. 25% is triggered by a conventional fresh-water hosing set-up. A persistently negative NAO winter circulation, at NAO-index value -0.5, is imposed using recently developed data-assimilation techniques applicable on paleoclimatic timescales. The hosing experiments lead to a reduction in oceanic meridional heat transport and cooler sea-surface temperatures. Next to a direct cooling effect on European climate, the change in ocean surface temperatures feedback on the atmospheric circulation modifying European climate significantly. The data-assimilation experiments showed a reduction of winter temperatures over parts of Europe, but there is little persistence into the summer season. The output of all model experiments are compared to reconstructions of winter and summer temperature based on the available temperature data for the LIA period. This demonstrates that the hypothesis of a persistently negative NAO as an explanation for the European LIA does not hold. The hosing experiments do not clearly support the hypothesis that a reduction in the MOC is the primary driver of LIA climate change. However, a reduction in the Atlantic overturning might have been a cause of the European LIA climate, depending on whether there is a strong enough feedback on the atmospheric circulation. (orig.)

  8. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.

  9. Reciprocal Peer Coaching: A Critical Contributor to Implementing Individual Leadership Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen; Wesner, Marilyn; Karnchanomai, Ornpawee

    2013-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent annually on programs to develop organizational leaders, yet the effectiveness of these programs is poorly understood. Scholars advise that value is enhanced by the development of individual leadership plans at program completion, followed by implementation experience with subsequent coaching and reflection. The…

  10. Differentiation between non-neural and neural contributors to ankle joint stiffness in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooijer-van de Groep, Karin L; de Vlugt, Erwin; de Groot, Jurriaan H; van der Heijden-Maessen, Hélène C M; Wielheesen, Dennis H M; van Wijlen-Hempel, Rietje M S; Arendzen, J Hans; Meskers, Carel G M

    2013-07-23

    Spastic paresis in cerebral palsy (CP) is characterized by increased joint stiffness that may be of neural origin, i.e. improper muscle activation caused by e.g. hyperreflexia or non-neural origin, i.e. altered tissue viscoelastic properties (clinically: "spasticity" vs. "contracture"). Differentiation between these components is hard to achieve by common manual tests. We applied an assessment instrument to obtain quantitative measures of neural and non-neural contributions to ankle joint stiffness in CP. Twenty-three adolescents with CP and eleven healthy subjects were seated with their foot fixated to an electrically powered single axis footplate. Passive ramp-and-hold rotations were applied over full ankle range of motion (RoM) at low and high velocities. Subject specific tissue stiffness, viscosity and reflexive torque were estimated from ankle angle, torque and triceps surae EMG activity using a neuromuscular model. In CP, triceps surae reflexive torque was on average 5.7 times larger (p = .002) and tissue stiffness 2.1 times larger (p = .018) compared to controls. High tissue stiffness was associated with reduced RoM (p therapy.

  11. Differentiation between non-neural and neural contributors to ankle joint stiffness in cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Gooijer-van de Groep, K.L.; De Vlugt, E.; De Groot, J.H.; Van der Heijden-Maessen, H.C.M.; Wielheesen, D.H.M.; Van Wijlen-Hempel, R.M.S.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spastic paresis in cerebral palsy (CP) is characterized by increased joint stiffness that may be of neural origin, i.e. improper muscle activation caused by e.g. hyperreflexia or non-neural origin, i.e. altered tissue viscoelastic properties (clinically: “spasticity” vs. “contracture”).

  12. Ludwik Zamenhof: a major contributor to world culture, on the 150(th) anniversary of his birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    More than 200 universal languages have been proposed to replace the nearly 3,000 existing languages. Esperanto, developed by the Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist Ludwik Zamenhof in 1887, became the most widely used artificial language of the 20(th) century. It is estimated that between one million and 15 million people in the world can speak or read Esperanto. Zamenhof was nominated 14 times for the Nobel Peace Prize, and also received the French Legion of Honor, and the Medal of Isabelle of Spain the Catholic. Ludwik Zamenhof started his professional training in ophthalmology at the Jewish Hospital in Warsaw, later spent several months in Vienna, and finally started a private ophthalmology practice in Warsaw, where he remained for most of his life. His son Adam was an associate professor of ophthalmology at the University of Warsaw and head of ophthalmology in the Jewish Hospital in Czyste, the biggest and most modern hospital in Warsaw at that time. Some lesser known aspects of Zamenhof's life and work drawn from the original 19(th) century Russian and 20(th) century Esperanto documents are described. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. N2-fixing tropical legume evolution: a contributor to enhanced weathering through the Cenozoic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar Z; Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; Leake, Jonathan R; Smith, Lisa M; Beerling, David J

    2017-08-16

    Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N 2 ) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N 2 -fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity. We suggest the high CO 2 early Cenozoic atmosphere further amplified legume weathering. Evolution of legumes with high weathering rates was probably driven by their high demand for phosphorus and micronutrients required for N 2 -fixation and nodule formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Incense, sparklers and cigarettes are significant contributors to indoor benzene and particle levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Tirler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The increased use of incense, magic candles and other flameless products often produces indoor pollutants that may represent a health risk for humans. Today, in fact, incense and air fresheners are used inside homes as well as in public places including stores, shopping malls and places of worship. As a source of indoor contamination, the impact of smoke, incense and sparklers on human health cannot be ignored. Aim. In the present work, we report the results of an emission study regarding particles (PM10 and particle number concentration, PNC and benzene, produced by various incense sticks and sparklers. Results and discussion.The results obtained for benzene, PM10 and PNC, showed a strong negative influence on air quality when these products were used indoors. Various incense sticks gave completely different benzene results: from a small increase of the benzene concentration in the air, just slightly above the background levels of ambient air, to very high concentrations, of more than 200 µg/m³ of benzene in the test room after the incense sticks had been tested.

  15. Incense, sparklers and cigarettes are significant contributors to indoor benzene and particle levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirler, Werner; Settimo, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of incense, magic candles and other flameless products often produces indoor pollutants that may represent a health risk for humans. Today, in fact, incense and air fresheners are used inside homes as well as in public places including stores, shopping malls and places of worship. As a source of indoor contamination, the impact of smoke, incense and sparklers on human health cannot be ignored. In the present work, we report the results of an emission study regarding particles (PM10 and particle number concentration, PNC) and benzene, produced by various incense sticks and sparklers. The results obtained for benzene, PM10 and PNC, showed a strong negative influence on air quality when these products were used indoors. Various incense sticks gave completely different benzene results: from a small increase of the benzene concentration in the air, just slightly above the background levels of ambient air, to very high concentrations, of more than 200 µg/m of benzene in the test room after the incense sticks had been tested.

  16. Social Support as a Contributor to Student Teachers' Experienced Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Sanna; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the social support system adopted in teacher education and its significance for the student teachers' experienced well-being. The focus was on exploring the extent to which empowering "emotional," "informational" or "instrumental" support is…

  17. Light is an active contributor to the vital effects of coral skeleton proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet-Leclerc, Anne; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Dissard, Delphine; Tisserand, Guillaume; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2014-09-01

    Symbiotic colonies of the coral Acropora sp. were cultured in a factorial design of three temperatures (21, 25 and 28 °C) and two light intensities (200 and 400 μmol photon m-2 s-1), under constant conditions. A temperature of 25 °C and a light intensity of 200 μmol photon m-2 s-1 was the starting culture condition. Metabolic (photosynthesis, respiration, calcification and surface expansion rate) and geochemical measurements (δ18O, δ13C, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) were conducted on 6 colonies for each experimental condition. Metabolic measurements confirmed that respiration, photosynthesis, calcification and surface expansion rate responded to the combined effect of temperature and light. Under each light intensity, mean calcification rate was linearly correlated with mean photosynthetic activity. Geochemical measurements were also influenced by temperature and, to a lesser degree, by light. All geochemical proxies measured on 6 nubbins showed a wide scattering of values, regardless of the environmental condition. Compared to the other proxies, δ18O exhibited a different behavior. It was the only proxy exhibiting temperature tracer behavior. However, while mean values of Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca and δ13C were well correlated, the correlation between the later and mean δ18O differed with light level. This suggests that both skeleton deposition and temperature oxygen fractionation differs according to light intensity. Overall, the effect of light on geochemical values seems to compromise the use of proxy calibrations solely based on temperature influence. Under high light conditions, the great amplitude shown by individual net photosynthesis is directly proportional to the highly variable zooxanthellae density. As light is affecting all of the proxies, we thus assume that the strong geochemical variability observed could be explained by various algae densities, each nubbin responding according to its zooxanthellae amount. Accordingly, we suggest that each symbiosome (the assemblage of few corallites with their symbionts) presents its own vital effect influence over time. Therefore, at a bulk sample scale, light could be considered as one of the major causes of what is commonly referred to as the 'vital effect'. The meaning of δ18O calibration versus temperature established from distinct colonies differs from calibration calculated from samples collected following the growth axis of a single coral head. Finally, in order to quantitatively reconstruct climatic condition, we suggest a new paradigm based on the statistical treatment of the combination of time-series information from several proxies, all measured on the same sample from a continuous symbiosome.

  18. A hybrid study of multiple contributors to per capita household CO2 emissions (HCEs) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiansheng; Qin, Shanshan; Liu, Lina; Zeng, Jingjing; Bian, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Given the large expenditures by households on goods and services that contribute a large proportion of global CO2 emissions, increasing attention has been paid to household CO2 emissions (HCEs). However, compared with industrial CO2 emissions, efforts devoted to mitigating HCEs are relatively small. A good understanding of the effects of some driving factors (i.e., urbanization rate, per capita GDP, per capita income/disposable income, Engel coefficient, new energy ratio, carbon intensity, and household size) is urgently needed prior to considering policies for reducing HCEs. Given this, in the study, the direct and indirect per capita HCEs were quantified in rural and urban areas of China over the period 2000-2012. Correlation analysis and gray correlation analysis were initially used to identify the prime drivers of per capita HCEs. Our results showed that per capita income/disposable income, per capita GDP, urbanization rate, and household size were the most significantly correlated with per capita HCEs in rural areas. Moreover, the conjoint effects of the potential driving factors on per capita HCEs were determined by performing principal component regression analysis for all cases. Based on the combined analysis strategies, alternative polices were also examined for controlling and mitigating HCEs growth in China.

  19. Identifying Contributors of DNA Mixtures by Means of Quantitative Information of STR Typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2012-01-01

    identified using polymorphic genetic markers. However, modern typing techniques supply additional quantitative data, which contain very important information about the observed evidence. This is particularly true for cases of DNA mixtures, where more than one individual has contributed to the observed......Abstract Estimating the weight of evidence in forensic genetics is often done in terms of a likelihood ratio, LR. The LR evaluates the probability of the observed evidence under competing hypotheses. Most often, probabilities used in the LR only consider the evidence from the genomic variation...... biological stain. This article presents a method for including the quantitative information of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA mixtures in the LR. Also, an efficient algorithmic method for finding the best matching combination of DNA mixture profiles is derived and implemented in an on-line tool for two...

  20. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of allergens which can be life threatening to some people that are highly sensitive is the priority of food chemical control. Other chemical properties of food such as vitamin and mineral content are also important and affect the overall quality of the food but are not as significant in terms of food safety.Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  2. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-01-01

    The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1). Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safet...

  3. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  4. Methanogens Are Major Contributors to Nitrogen Fixation in Soils of the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hee-Sung; Morrison, Elise; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Ogram, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of the nitrogen (N) cycle with methane production in the Florida Everglades, a large freshwater wetland. This study provides an initial analysis of the distribution and expression of N-cycling genes in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), a section of the marsh that underwent phosphorus (P) loading for many years due to runoff from upstream agricultural activities. The elevated P resulted in increased primary productivity and an N limitation in P-enriched areas. Results from quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that the N cycle in WCA-2A was dominated by nifH and nirK / S , with an increasing trend in copy numbers in P-impacted sites. Many nifH sequences (6 to 44% of the total) and nifH transcript sequences (2 to 49%) clustered with the methanogenic Euryarchaeota , in stark contrast to the proportion of core gene sequences representing Archaea (≤0.27% of SSU rRNA genes) for the WCA-2A microbiota. Notably, archaeal nifH gene transcripts were detected at all sites and comprised a significant proportion of total nifH transcripts obtained from the unimpacted site, indicating that methanogens are actively fixing N 2 Laboratory incubations with soils taken from WCA-2A produced nifH transcripts with the production of methane from H 2 plus CO 2 and acetate as electron donors and carbon sources. Methanogenic N 2 fixation is likely to be an important, although largely unrecognized, route through which fixed nitrogen enters the anoxic soils of the Everglades and may have significant relevance regarding methane production in wetlands. IMPORTANCE Wetlands are the most important natural sources of the greenhouse gas methane, and much of that methane emanates from (sub)tropical peatlands. Primary productivity in these peatlands is frequently limited by the availability of nitrogen or phosphorus; however, the response to nutrient limitations of microbial communities that control biogeochemical cycling critical to ecosystem function may be complex and may be associated with a range of processes, including methane production. We show that many, if not most, of the methanogens in the peatlands of the Florida Everglades possess the nifH gene and actively express it for N 2 fixation coupled with methanogenesis. These findings indicate that archaeal N 2 fixation would play crucial role in methane emissions and overall N cycle in subtropical wetlands suffering N limitation. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although African Americans (AAs are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs, they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities in breast cancer aggressiveness among 809 invasive breast cancer patients who responded to a survey on their lifestyle. Multivariable regressions and mediation analyses were performed to assess the effect of sleep duration on the association of race with tumor grade. AAs reported shorter average sleep (mean [standard deviation] 6.57 [1.47] h than EAs (mean [standard deviation] 7.11 [1.16] h; P<0.0001 and were almost twice as likely to report less than 6 h of sleep per night (48.0% vs. 25.3%, P<0.0001. AA patients were more likely to have high-grade tumors (52.6% vs. 28.7% in EAs, P=0.0002. In multivariate analysis, race was associated with tumor grade (P<0.0001. On adjustment for sleep duration, the effect of race was reduced by 7.1%, but remained statistically significant (P=0.0006. However, the Sobel test did not indicate statistical significance (z=1.69, P=0.091. In other models accounting for these and additional confounders, we found similar results. Because of the conservative nature of the mediation analysis and smaller sample size, replication of our results in larger studies with more AA patients is warranted.

  6. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Brand-Miller, J.; Fogelholm, M.; Raben, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

  7. Land radiative management as contributor to regional-scale climate adaptation and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Phipps, Steven J.; Pitman, Andrew J.; Hirsch, Annette L.; Davin, Edouard L.; Donat, Markus G.; Hirschi, Martin; Lenton, Andrew; Wilhelm, Micah; Kravitz, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions urgently need to be reduced. Even with a step up in mitigation, the goal of limiting global temperature rise to well below 2 °C remains challenging. Consequences of missing these goals are substantial, especially on regional scales. Because progress in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions has been slow, climate engineering schemes are increasingly being discussed. But global schemes remain controversial and have important shortcomings. A reduction of global mean temperature through global-scale management of solar radiation could lead to strong regional disparities and affect rainfall patterns. On the other hand, active management of land radiative effects on a regional scale represents an alternative option of climate engineering that has been little discussed. Regional land radiative management could help to counteract warming, in particular hot extremes in densely populated and important agricultural regions. Regional land radiative management also raises some ethical issues, and its efficacy would be limited in time and space, depending on crop growing periods and constraints on agricultural management. But through its more regional focus and reliance on tested techniques, regional land radiative management avoids some of the main shortcomings associated with global radiation management. We argue that albedo-related climate benefits of land management should be considered more prominently when assessing regional-scale climate adaptation and mitigation as well as ecosystem services.

  8. Surface water change as a significant contributor to global evapotranspiration change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, S.; Song, C.

    2017-12-01

    Water comprises a critical component of global/regional hydrological and biogeochemical cycles and is essential to all organisms including humans. In the past several decades, climate change has intensified the hydrological cycle, with significant implications for ecosystem services and feedback to regional and global climate. Evapotranspiration (ET) as a linking mechanism between land surface and atmosphere is central to the water cycle and an excellent indicator of the intensity of water cycle. Knowledge of the temporal changes of ET is crucial for accurately estimating global or regional water budgets and better understanding climate and hydrological interactions. While studies have examined changes in global ET, they were conducted using a constant land and surface water (SW) area. However, as many studies have found that global SW is very dynamic and their surface areas have generally been increasing since the 1980s. The conversion from land to water and vice versa significantly changes the local ET since water bodies evaporate at a rate that can be much higher than that of the land. Here, we quantify the global changes in ET caused by such land-water conversion using remotely-sensed SW area and various ET and potential ET products. New SW and lost SW between circa-1985 and circa-2015 were derived from remote sensing and were used to modify the local ET estimates. We found an increase in ET in all continents as consistent with the net increase in SW area. The increasing SW area lead to a global increase in ET by 30.38 ± 5.28 km3/yr. This is a significant contribution when compared to the 92.95 km3/yr/yr increase in ET between 1982-1997 and 103.43 km3/yr/yr decrease between 1998-2008 by Jung et al., (2010) assuming a constant SW. The results enhance our understanding of the water fluxes between the land and atmosphere and supplement land water budget estimates. We conclude that changes in SW lead to a significant change in global ET that cannot be neglected in global ET trend studies and should also be included in global water budget studies.

  9. Contrast monitoring techniques in CT pulmonary angiography: An important and underappreciated contributor to breast dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.P., E-mail: dpmmitchell@gmail.com; Rowan, M., E-mail: mrowan@mater.ie; Loughman, E., E-mail: eloughman@mater.ie; Ridge, C.A., E-mail: cridge@mater.ie; MacMahon, P.J., E-mail: pmacmahon@mater.ie

    2017-01-15

    Objective: The aims of our study were to evaluate the contribution of contrast-monitoring techniques to breast dose in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to investigate the effect of a reduced peak kilovoltage (kV) monitoring scan protocol on breast dose and Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography (CTPA) diagnostic quality. Materials and methods: Single center retrospective study of 221 female patients undergoing a reduced kV 80 kV contrast-monitoring CTPA protocol compared to 281 patients using the conventional 120 kV contrast-monitoring protocol (Siemens Somatom Definition AS + ). 99 pregnant patients analyzed separately. ImPACT dosimetry software was used to calculate dose. Group subsets were evaluated to assess CTPA diagnostic quality. Results: The contrast-monitoring component of a CTPA study constituted 27% of the overall breast dose when using a standard 120 kV protocol compared to only 7% of the overall breast dose in the 80 kV study group. The dose to the breast from the contrast-monitoring component alone was reduced by 79% in the non-pregnant patients (0.36mGy ± 0.37 versus 1.7mGy ± 1.02; p < 0.001), and by 88% in the pregnant population (0.25 mGy ± 0.67 versus 2.24mGy ± 1.61; p < 0.001). There was no statistical difference in CTPA diagnostic quality or timing. Conclusion: Despite a short scan length and relatively small DLP, contrast-monitoring techniques (test-bolus or bolus-tracked) set at 120 kV can account for 27% of the overall breast dose accrued from a CTPA study. By decreasing the kilovoltage of the contrast-monitoring component, a significant reduction in breast dose for pregnant and non-pregnant female patients can be achieved without affecting CTPA quality or timing.

  10. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.

  11. Investigation of the contributors to wrong unit or wrong train events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinko, D.; Ramey-Smith, A.

    1986-04-01

    This report presents information on human error in nuclear power plants causing actions to be performed on the wrong train of systems with redundant trains or on the wrong unit of a multi-unit facility. 10 refs

  12. Maternal and Infant Temperament Characteristics as Contributors to Parenting Stress in the First Year Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Kate B.; Murdock, Kyle W.; Vadnais, Sarah; Bridgett, David J.; Gartstein, Maria A.

    2013-01-01

    Although prominent models emphasize that maternal, child, and situational variables are associated with parenting stress, previous research has often neglected to examine associations between maternal and infant temperament characteristics and stress experienced in the parenting role. Additionally, while predictors of global parenting stress have…

  13. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO......, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar...

  14. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P ratio differed (P < 0.03), supposedly because of differences in thermoneutrality, and therefore maintenance requirements. Reduced postweaning ADG appears to be driven by a combination of poor nutrient digestibility, energy intake, and, possibly, cold stress, which may provide avenues for more directed pig management strategies in the future to minimize variation within a group.

  15. Coal and nuclear wastes: both potential contributors to environmental and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy Conservation and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, asked GAO to answer eight questions regarding waste produced by coal and nuclear fuels during the generation of electricity. This report primarily discusses the first two items in the Chairman's request: what are the types and quantities of wastes generated at each step of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. What are the health and environmental problems associated with these wastes. Based on a comprehensive literature search GAO found that wastes produced by both the coal and nuclear fuel cycles present the potential for significant environmental and health hazards. Because the waste types present different types of hazards, however, it is not possible to determine if either waste type is more of a hazard than the other. Nonetheless, most of the hazards from both fuel cycles can be lessened, or in some cases eliminated, if properly controlled and regulated

  16. PDZD7 is a modifier of retinal disease and a contributor to digenic Usher syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebermann, Inga; Phillips, Jennifer B.; Liebau, Max C.; Koenekoop, Robert K.; Schermer, Bernhard; Lopez, Irma; Schäfer, Ellen; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Dafinger, Claudia; Bernd, Antje; Zrenner, Eberhart; Claustres, Mireille; Blanco, Bernardo; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Ruland, Rebecca; Westerfield, Monte; Benzing, Thomas; Bolz, Hanno J.

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disease characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). It frequently presents with unexplained, often intrafamilial, variability of the visual phenotype. Although 9 genes have been linked with Usher syndrome, many patients do not have mutations in any of these genes, suggesting that there are still unidentified genes involved in the syndrome. Here, we have determined that mutations in PDZ domain–containing 7 (PDZD7), which encodes a homolog of proteins mutated in Usher syndrome subtype 1C (USH1C) and USH2D, contribute to Usher syndrome. Mutations in PDZD7 were identified only in patients with mutations in other known Usher genes. In a set of sisters, each with a homozygous mutation in USH2A, a frame-shift mutation in PDZD7 was present in the sister with more severe RP and earlier disease onset. Further, heterozygous PDZD7 mutations were present in patients with truncating mutations in USH2A, G protein–coupled receptor 98 (GPR98; also known as USH2C), and an unidentified locus. We validated the human genotypes using zebrafish, and our findings were consistent with digenic inheritance of PDZD7 and GPR98, and with PDZD7 as a retinal disease modifier in patients with USH2A. Pdzd7 knockdown produced an Usher-like phenotype in zebrafish, exacerbated retinal cell death in combination with ush2a or gpr98, and reduced Gpr98 localization in the region of the photoreceptor connecting cilium. Our data challenge the view of Usher syndrome as a traditional Mendelian disorder and support the reclassification of Usher syndrome as an oligogenic disease. PMID:20440071

  17. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, R. J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Venables, Dean S.; Ceburnis, D.; Ho, K. F.; Chen, Jun; Vogel, A. L.; Küpper, F. C.; Smyth, P. P. A.; Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, D. B.; Berresheim, H.; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high sour...

  18. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-J. Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2 above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland, we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time: after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (offline of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in a chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to those of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20–30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new-particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low tide and their widespread distribution.

  19. Prospects of and requirements for nuclear power as a contributor toward managing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Schock, R.N.; Isaacs, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    The world's population, energy demand, and rate of carbon emissions are increasing, but the rates of increase are uncertain. Even modest growth rates present significant challenges to existing and developing technologies for reducing carbon and greenhouse gas emissions while meeting growing energy demands. Nuclear power is currently the most developed alternative to fossil fuel combustion and is one of the options for meeting these challenges. However, there remain significant technical, economic and institutional barriers inhibiting growth of nuclear capacity in the U.S. and slowing implementation worldwide. In the near-term, the major barriers to nuclear power, especially in the U.S., appear to be economic and institutional, with the risks such as safety, waste management and proliferation having reasonably acceptable limits considering the current installed capacity. Future growth of nuclear power, however, may well hinge on continuous evolutionary and perhaps revolutionary reduction of these risks such that the overall risk of nuclear power, aggregated over the entire installed capacity, remains at or below today's risks

  20. Is thrombosis a contributor to heart failure pathophysiology? Possible mechanisms, therapeutic opportunities, and clinical investigation challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannad, F.; Stough, W.G.; Regnault, V.; Gheorghiade, M.; Deliargyris, E.; Gibson, C.M.; Agewall, S.; Berkowitz, S.D.; Burton, P.; Calvo, G.; Goldstein, S.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Koglin, J.; O'Connor, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombotic events (coronary thrombosis, venous thromboembolism, intraventricular thrombosis, intracranial and systemic thromboembolism) occur frequently in patients with heart failure. These events may be precipitated by several mechanisms including hypercoagulability through enhancement of

  1. Timing and Targeting of PSS Methods and Tools: An Empirical Study amongst Academic Contributors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr Hinz, Hector; Bey, Niki; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of product/service-systems has meant that development methods for such systems have emerged from academia. This paper investigates existing methods that are aimed at developing product/service-systems. Two aspects are determined for each examined method. The first aspect that has been...... surveyed is when a given method is meant to be used in the development of a product/service-system. This aspect has been determined through a qualitative assessment of each method. The second aspect surveyed is which persons in an organisation who are seen as the main drivers in the use of the methods....... To gain this insight a questionnaire for each method has been conducted with the authors of the methods as participants. The main finding indicates that current PSS methods cannot thoroughly support the development of product/ service-systems as their specificity is too low and that the methods need...

  2. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  3. HIV antiretroviral medication stock-outs in Ghana: contributors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poku, Rebecca A; Owusu, Adobea Yaa; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Markham, Christine; McCurdy, Sheryl A

    2017-09-01

    Drug stock-outs are an unfortunate yet common reality for patients living in low and middle income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where trouble with consistent stock of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) continues. Our study takes a snapshot of this problem in Ghana. Although the country launched its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2003, progress toward realising the full benefit of ART for treated individuals has been limited, in part, because of stock-outs. In Ghana's Greater Accra region, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women living with HIV (WLHIV) and 15 individuals with a history of HIV-related work in government or non-governmental organisations, or healthcare facilities. We used repeated review with coding and mapping techniques to analyse the transcripts and identify common themes. Stock-outs of ARVs result in inconsistent administration of therapy, increased indirect medical costs for WLHIV, and negative labelling of patients. Inefficiencies in drug supply, poor coordination with port authorities, inadequate government funding and dependence on international aid contribute to the stock-outs experienced in Ghana. Although using ARVs produced in-country could reduce supply problems, the domestically-manufactured product currently does not meet World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We recommend focused efforts to produce WHO standard ARVs in Ghana, and a review of current supply chain management to identify and mend pitfalls in the system.

  4. Enhanced UV Absorption in Carbonaceous Aerosols during MILAGRO and Identification of Potential Organic Contributors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangu, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kilaparty, S.; Gunawan, G.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) during the month of March, 2006 by using a 7- channel aethalometer (Thermo-Anderson). These measurements, obtained at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm at a 5 minute time resolution, showed an enhanced absorption in the UV over that expected from carbon soot alone. Samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (less than 0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. The samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. The samples have been characterized for total carbon content (stable isotope ratio mass spectroscopy) and natural radionuclide tracers (210Pb, 210Po, 210Bi, 7Be, 13C, 14C, 40K, 15N). Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV-visible spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples (1). The continuous spectra also show an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from carbon soot and the general profiles are quite similar to those observed for humic and fulvic acids found as colloidal materials in surface and groundwaters (2), indicating the presence of humic-like substances (HULIS) in the fine aerosols. The spectra also show evidence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm typical of polycyclic aromatics (PAH) and nitrated aromatic compounds. Spectra were also obtained on NIST standard diesel soot (SRM 2975), NIST standard air particulate matter (SRM 8785), and nitrated PAH compounds for comparison. Potential organic aerosol components are identified which contribute to the enhanced absorption observed in the field. The wavelength dependence of the mass specific absorption is obtained from these spectra and total carbon measurements. The wavelength dependence of the aerosol complex refractive index (m = n +ik) in the UV-visible spectral region is determined by application of the Kramers Kronig function. The importance of the aerosol absorption in the infrared spectral region to radiative forcing will be discussed. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). 2. N.A. Marley, J.S. Gaffney, and K.A. Orlandini, Chapter 7 in Humic/Fulvic Acids and Organic Colloidal Materials in the Environment, ACS Symposium Series 651, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 96-107, 1996. This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  5. New Teachers' Perspectives of Informal Mentoring: Quality of Mentoring and Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fengning; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    As an individual socialization initiative, informal mentoring has often been lauded as an effective tool to provide spontaneous and immediate social-emotional and career-related assistance to new teachers. Little is known about how informal mentoring is perpetuated in workplace. Through the conceptual lens of dynamic process theory of mentoring,…

  6. List of Institutes who have agreed to send material on loan to contributors of Flora Malesiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1947-01-01

    The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, Mass. The Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. U.S. National Herbarium, Smithonian Institution, Washington, DC. New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx Park, Fordham Br.P.O., N.Y. Bot. Gardens, Ann. Arbor, Mich. University of

  7. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  8. Contributors to patient engagement in primary health care: perceptions of patients with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, Mary; Risdon, Cathy; Solomon, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Patients with obesity are at risk for treatment avoidance and nonadherence. Factors that contribute to engagement in primary health care for patients with obesity are not fully understood. The purpose of this pilot study was to identify issues associated with engagement in primary health care for patients with obesity. Using qualitative methodology, 11 patients with a mean body mass index of 40.8 kg/m(2) registered with a primary health care practice were interviewed. Conventional content analysis was used to identify factors that contribute to engagement in primary health care. Barriers and facilitators to engagement in primary health care were categorized into the following themes: availability of resources, importance of the relationship, meaningful communication, feeling judged, lack of privacy, poor communication and limited provider knowledge about obesity. Obesity was identified as a health condition that requires additional considerations for patient engagement in their health care.

  9. Physical Attractiveness, Attitude Similarity, and Length of Acquaintance as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavior, Norman; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Tenth and twelfth grade males and females who knew each other judged, within grade levels, their classmates on physical attractiveness (PA), perceived attitude similarity (PAS), and interpersonal attraction (IA). Regression analyses supported the hypotheses that PA and PAS are positively correlated. (Author)

  10. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Garratt, Michael P D; Howlett, Brad G; Winfree, Rachael; Cunningham, Saul A; Mayfield, Margaret M; Arthur, Anthony D; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Chacoff, Natacha P; Entling, Martin H; Foully, Benjamin; Freitas, Breno M; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Griffin, Sean R; Gross, Caroline L; Herbertsson, Lina; Herzog, Felix; Hipólito, Juliana; Jaggar, Sue; Jauker, Frank; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleijn, David; Krishnan, Smitha; Lemos, Camila Q; Lindström, Sandra A M; Mandelik, Yael; Monteiro, Victor M; Nelson, Warrick; Nilsson, Lovisa; Pattemore, David E; Pereira, Natália de O; Pisanty, Gideon; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Rundlöf, Maj; Sheffield, Cory S; Scheper, Jeroen; Schüepp, Christof; Smith, Henrik G; Stanley, Dara A; Stout, Jane C; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Taki, Hisatomo; Vergara, Carlos H; Viana, Blandina F; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-05

    Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25-50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines.

  11. Biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of palmitoleate production, an important contributor to human health and sustainable industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmei; Li, Runzhi; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-10-01

    Palmitoleate (cis-Δ9-16:1) shows numerous health benefits such as increased cell membrane fluidity, reduced inflammation, protection of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of oncogenesis. Plant oils containing this unusual fatty acid can also be sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important and high-demand 1-octene. Vegetable oils rich in palmitoleate are the ideal candidates for biodiesel production. Several wild plants are known that can synthesize high levels of palmitoleate in seeds. However, low yields and poor agronomic characteristics of these plants limit their commercialization. Metabolic engineering has been developed to create oilseed crops that accumulate high levels of palmitoleate or other unusual fatty acids, and significant advances have been made recently in this field, particularly using the model plant Arabidopsis as the host. The engineered targets for enhancing palmitoleate synthesis include overexpression of Δ9 desaturase from mammals, yeast, fungi, and plants, down-regulating KASII, coexpression of an ACP-Δ9 desaturase in plastids and CoA-Δ9 desaturase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and optimizing the metabolic flux into triacylglycerols (TAGs). This review will mainly describe the recent progress towards producing palmitoleate in transgenic plants by metabolic engineering along with our current understanding of palmitoleate biosynthesis and its regulation, as well as highlighting the bottlenecks that require additional investigation by combining lipidomics, transgenics and other "-omics" tools. A brief review of reported health benefits and non-food uses of palmitoleate will also be covered. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. False Positive Functional Analysis Results as a Contributor of Treatment Failure during Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Amanda J.; Mueller, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that functional analysis results are beneficial for treatment selection because they identify reinforcers for severe behavior that can then be used to reinforce replacement behaviors either differentially or noncontingently. Theoretically then, if a reinforcer is identified in a functional analysis erroneously, a well researched…

  13. Midwest Growers’ Mail Survey of Contributors to Migrant Health and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilanowski, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solicit information from farm owners (growers), as representatives of their farm businesses, regarding descriptive information on migrant camp housing that may contribute to the health and nutritional status of employed workers and their families. This cross–sectional descriptive mail survey was sent to 802 growers in Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Pennsylvania via the US Postal Service. The growers were identified by an Internet search for licensed agricultural work camps in Midwest departments of agriculture. Response rate was 34%. Overall, growers reported a median of one migrant camp with 23 residents, employing workers seasonally for either 10 weeks or 6 months, with seven accompanying children on site. Individual kitchen appliances varied across the states, potentially influencing the preparation of healthy meals. Three themes were identified from the results. First, over one third of owners lacked or had limited knowledge about the health services available to migrant families. Second, migrant workers may have limited access to a variety of fresh produce for household meal preparation. Third, migrant children were unable to easily access public play areas, and families lacked recreational spaces in agricultural work camps. Play areas in migrant camps were mostly identified as open fields with little play equipment on site. Knowledge learned can influence future agricultural camp practices and the design of future research studies, and provide direction for grower education topics presented at agricultural conferences and by extension services. PMID:22994639

  14. Visuomotor correction is a robust contributor to force variability during index finger abduction by older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Tracy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined aging-related differences in the contribution of visuomotor correction to force fluctuations during index finger abduction via the analysis of two datasets from similar subjects. Study 1 Young (N= 27, 23+/-8 yrs and older adults (N=14, 72+/- 9 yrs underwent assessment of maximum voluntary contraction force (MVC and force steadiness during constant-force (CF index finger abduction (2.5, 30, 65% MVC. For each trial, visual feedback of the force (VIS was provided for 8-10 s and removed for 8-10s (NOVIS. Visual gain of the force feedback at 2.5% MVC was high; 12- and 26-fold greater than the 30% and 65% MVC targets. Mean force, standard deviation (SD of force, and coefficient of variation (CV of force was calculated for detrended (<0.5Hz drift removed VIS and NOVIS data segments. Study 2 A similar group of 14 older adults performed discrete, randomly-ordered VIS or NOVIS trials at low target forces (1-3% MVC and high visual gain. Study 1 For young adults the CV of force was similar between VIS and NOVIS for the 2.5% (4.8 vs. 4.3%, 30% (3.2 vs. 3.2% and 65% (3.5 vs. 4.2% target forces. In contrast, for older adults the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS for 2.5% MVC (6.6 vs. 4.2%, P<0.001, but not for the 30% (2.4 vs. 2.4% and 65% (3.1 vs. 3.3% target forces. At 2.5% MVC, the increase in CV of force for VIS compared with NOVIS was significantly greater (age x visual condition P=0.008 for older than young adults. Study 2 Similarly, for older adults performing discrete, randomly ordered trials the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS (6.04 vs. 3.81%, P=0.01. When visual force feedback was a dominant source of information at low forces, normalized force variability was ~58% greater for older adults, but only 11% greater for young adults. The significant effect of visual feedback for older adults was not dependent on the order of presentation of visual conditions. The results indicate that impaired processing of visuomotor information underlies the greater motor variability observed in older adults during lab-based isometric contractions

  15. Greater Engagement among Members of Gay-Straight Alliances: Individual and Structural Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2016-01-01

    Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, M[subscript age] =16.07).…

  16. Discovery of CDH23 as a Significant Contributor to Progressive Postlingual Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Jik Kim

    Full Text Available CDH23 mutations have mostly been associated with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL in either syndromic or nonsyndromic SNHL (DFNB12. Herein, we demonstrate the contribution of CDH23 mutations to postlingual nonsyndromic SNHL (NS-SNHL. We screened 32 Korean adult probands with postlingual NS-SNHL sporadically or in autosomal recessive fashion using targeted panel or whole exome sequencing. We identified four (12.5%, 4/32 potential postlingual DFNB12 families that segregated the recessive CDH23 variants, qualifying for our criteria along with rapidly progressive SNHL. Three of the four families carried one definite pathogenic CDH23 variant previously known as the prelingual DFNB12 variant in a trans configuration with rare CDH23 variants. To determine the contribution of rare CDH23 variants to the postlingual NS-SNHL, we checked the minor allele frequency (MAF of CDH23 variants detected from our postlingual NS-SNHL cohort and prelingual NS-SNHL cohort, among the 2040 normal control chromosomes. The allele frequency of these CDH23 variants in our postlingual cohort was 12.5%, which was significantly higher than that of the 2040 control chromosomes (5.53%, confirming the contribution of these rare CDH23 variants to postlingual NS-SNHL. Furthermore, MAF of rare CDH23 variants from the postlingual NS-SNHL group was significantly higher than that from the prelingual NS-SNHL group. This study demonstrates an important contribution of CDH23 mutations to poslingual NS-SNHL and shows that the phenotypic spectrum of DFNB12 can be broadened even into the presbycusis, depending on the pathogenic potential of variants. We also propose that pathogenic potential of CDH23 variants and the clinical fate of DFNB12 may be predicted by MAF.

  17. Perturbation of the Human Microbiome as a Contributor to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan Missaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human microbiome consist of the composite genome of native flora that have evolved with humanity over millennia and which contains 150-fold more genes than the human genome. A “healthy” microbiome plays an important role in the maintenance of health and prevention of illness, inclusive of autoimmune disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD is a prevalent spectrum of disorders, most notably defined by Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, which are associated with considerable suffering, morbidity, and cost. This review presents an outline of the loss of a normal microbiome as an etiology of immune dysregulation and IBD pathogenesis initiation. We, furthermore, summarize the knowledge on the role of a healthy microbiome in terms of its diversity and important functional elements and, lastly, conclude with some of the therapeutic interventions and modalities that are now being explored as potential applications of microbiome-host interactions.

  18. Corporate venture capital as a contributor of corporation’s innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Elomaa, J. (Jonna)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In today’s ever-changing and chaotic world corporations are forced to develop themselves continuously to be able to survive (Kessler et al. 2007). Companies have had a need to develop new services and products to follow the evolution for a long time (Tushman & Nadler 1986), but especially during the past decades the need to innovate has become a necessary and innovating has increased its role as a critical driver o...

  19. D90: The Strongest Contributor to Setting Time in Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, William N; Bentz, Dale P; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence J

    2015-07-01

    The setting times of commercial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cements vary. It was hypothesized that much of this variation was caused by differences in particle size distribution. Two gram samples from 11 MTA-type cements were analyzed by laser diffraction to determine their particle size distributions characterized by their percentile equivalent diameters (the 10th percentile, the median, and the 90th percentile [d90], respectively). Setting time data were received from manufacturers who performed indentation setting time tests as specified by the standards relevant to dentistry, ISO 6786 (9 respondents) or ISO 9917.1 (1 respondent), or not divulged to the authors (1 respondent). In a parallel experiment, 6 samples of different size graded Portland cements were produced using the same cement clinker. The measurement of setting time for Portland cement pastes was performed using American Society for Testing and Materials C 191. Cumulative heat release was measured using isothermal calorimetry to assess the reactions occurring during the setting of these pastes. In all experiments, linear correlations were assessed between setting times, heat release, and the 3 particle size parameters. Particle size varied considerably among MTA cements. For MTA cements, d90 was the particle size characteristic showing the highest positive linear correlation with setting time (r = 0.538). For Portland cement, d90 gave an even higher linear correlation for the initial setting time (r = 0.804) and the final setting time (r = 0.873) and exhibited a strong negative linear correlation for cumulative heat release (r = 0.901). Smaller particle sizes result in faster setting times, with d90 (the largest particles) being most closely correlated with the setting times of the samples. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrations as a contributor to the cracking of PGV-1000 steam generator cold collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verezemskij, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    The results of multiple investigations of cold collector ruptures at NPPs with WWER-1000 reactor as a complex and multi-parameter process are generalized. It is shown that the temperature of cold collector operation (280-290 deg C) at which environment corrosion effects are maximum has an important role for revealing the factors causing the damage. When the reactor plant operates under stationary and transient conditions the primary coolant circuit equipment, main circulation pipelines and main steam lines become involved into vibrations with different intensities as a result of pressure pulsations at reverse and multiple frequencies of the main circulation pumps connected with formation of standing pressure waves in the primary circuit and steam lines. The analysis made gives an opportunity to conclude that dynamic loads (vibrations) play the leading part in reaching the limits of cold collector metal cyclic strength and its cracking. It means that the measures for cold collector service life increasing should be directed on vibration amplitude lowering and cyclic stress decreasing

  1. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  2. Alberto Urrets-Zavalía Jr (1920-2010): An Argentinian contributor to ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Urrets-Zavalía, Julio A; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    Alberto Urrets-Zavalía Jr was born in Córdoba (Argentina) in 1920. Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology of the National University of Córdoba and founder of the Cornea and Glaucoma Surgical Center in the same city, in 1956 he created the first residency programme in Ophthalmology in his country. He founded the first Eye Bank and introduced one of the first argon laser photocoagulators in South America. He authored around 200 scientific presentations and publications, describing new findings and clinical entities. Thus, his individualisation of the cyclovertical component in strabismus contributed to important evolution of ideas concerning pathogenesis and therapy in oculomotor disorders of infancy. He was the first to propose the dehydration of the vitreous body in glaucoma patients before ocular surgery and developed a fixation pick and scleral depressor for retinal detachment surgery. He also described a new technique, the V-Z procedures for the correction of senile ectropion. In 1968, he published his Décollement de la rétine, considered a masterpiece in retinal detachment literature for many years. Urrets-Zavalía died in his native city at the age of 89. His prolific scientific and educational contributions make him one of the most brilliant and influential ophthalmologists of the 20th-century. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Temperamental, Parental, and Contextual Contributors to Early-Emerging Internalizing Problems: A New Integrative Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Hastings, Paul D.; Helm, Jonathan; Serbin, Lisa A.; Etezadi, Jamshid; Stack, Dale M.; Schwartzman, Alex E.; Li, Hai Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a comprehensive model of factors associated with internalizing problems (IP) in early childhood, hypothesizing direct, mediated, and moderated pathways linking child temperamental inhibition, maternal overcontrol and rejection, and contextual stressors to IP. In a novel approach, three samples were integrated to form a large…

  4. A Tool for Determining the Number of Contributors: Interpreting Complex, Compromised Low-Template Dna Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Ph.D. Catherine Grgicak Phone: (617) 638-1968 STEM Degrees: STEM Participants: RPPR Final Report as of 17-Oct-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-14-C...to degrade into increasingly smaller fragments over time. The mechanism inducing DNA damage can include strand breakage, formation of pyrimidine...in this example ⌊(7.8⁡10−4)(48⁡103) 63⁄ ⌋ = ⌊5.94⌋ = 5. Note that 48 µL stems from the knowledge that typically 2 of 50 µL of the extract is

  5. Yeast Tok1p channel is a major contributor to membrane potential maintenance under chemical stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahumenský, J.; Jančíková, I.; Drietomská, A.; Švenkrtová, Andrea; Hlaváček, Otakar; Hendrych, T.; Plášek, J.; Sigler, Karel; Gášková, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1859, č. 10 (2017), s. 1974-1985 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08225S; GA MŠk LH13049; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chemical stress * Depolarization * Fluorescent probe diS-C-3(3) Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  6. PDZD7 is a modifier of retinal disease and a contributor to digenic Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebermann, Inga; Phillips, Jennifer B; Liebau, Max C; Koenekoop, Robert K; Schermer, Bernhard; Lopez, Irma; Schäfer, Ellen; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Dafinger, Claudia; Bernd, Antje; Zrenner, Eberhart; Claustres, Mireille; Blanco, Bernardo; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Ruland, Rebecca; Westerfield, Monte; Benzing, Thomas; Bolz, Hanno J

    2010-06-01

    Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disease characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). It frequently presents with unexplained, often intrafamilial, variability of the visual phenotype. Although 9 genes have been linked with Usher syndrome, many patients do not have mutations in any of these genes, suggesting that there are still unidentified genes involved in the syndrome. Here, we have determined that mutations in PDZ domain-containing 7 (PDZD7), which encodes a homolog of proteins mutated in Usher syndrome subtype 1C (USH1C) and USH2D, contribute to Usher syndrome. Mutations in PDZD7 were identified only in patients with mutations in other known Usher genes. In a set of sisters, each with a homozygous mutation in USH2A, a frame-shift mutation in PDZD7 was present in the sister with more severe RP and earlier disease onset. Further, heterozygous PDZD7 mutations were present in patients with truncating mutations in USH2A, G protein-coupled receptor 98 (GPR98; also known as USH2C), and an unidentified locus. We validated the human genotypes using zebrafish, and our findings were consistent with digenic inheritance of PDZD7 and GPR98, and with PDZD7 as a retinal disease modifier in patients with USH2A. Pdzd7 knockdown produced an Usher-like phenotype in zebrafish, exacerbated retinal cell death in combination with ush2a or gpr98, and reduced Gpr98 localization in the region of the photoreceptor connecting cilium. Our data challenge the view of Usher syndrome as a traditional Mendelian disorder and support the reclassification of Usher syndrome as an oligogenic disease.

  7. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard A; Young, Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    "Unintended-acceleration" automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications - where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended - have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993) which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park). But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997), and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92%) (a) occurred during the driving cycle, (b) were generally in "unhurried" conditions, and (c) were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009-2010) surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s).

  8. Standing genetic variation as a major contributor to adaptation in the Virginia chicken lines selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zheya; Pettersson, Mats E; Honaker, Christa F; Siegel, Paul B; Carlborg, Örjan

    2015-10-01

    Artificial selection provides a powerful approach to study the genetics of adaptation. Using selective-sweep mapping, it is possible to identify genomic regions where allele-frequencies have diverged during selection. To avoid false positive signatures of selection, it is necessary to show that a sweep affects a selected trait before it can be considered adaptive. Here, we confirm candidate, genome-wide distributed selective sweeps originating from the standing genetic variation in a long-term selection experiment on high and low body weight of chickens. Using an intercross between the two divergent chicken lines, 16 adaptive selective sweeps were confirmed based on their association with the body weight at 56 days of age. Although individual additive effects were small, the fixation for alternative alleles across the loci contributed at least 40 % of the phenotypic difference for the selected trait between these lines. The sweeps contributed about half of the additive genetic variance present within and between the lines after 40 generations of selection, corresponding to a considerable portion of the additive genetic variance of the base population. Long-term, single-trait, bi-directional selection in the Virginia chicken lines has resulted in a gradual response to selection for extreme phenotypes without a drastic reduction in the genetic variation. We find that fixation of several standing genetic variants across a highly polygenic genetic architecture made a considerable contribution to long-term selection response. This provides new fundamental insights into the dynamics of standing genetic variation during long-term selection and adaptation.

  9. Genetic Contributors to Intergenerational CAG Repeat Instability in Huntington's Disease Knock-In Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, João Luís; Lee, Jong-Min; Afridi, Ali; Gillis, Tammy; Guide, Jolene R; Dempsey, Stephani; Lager, Brenda; Alonso, Isabel; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro

    2017-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Longer repeat sizes are associated with increased disease penetrance and earlier ages of onset. Intergenerationally unstable transmissions are common in HD families, partly underlying the genetic anticipation seen in this disorder. HD CAG knock-in mouse models also exhibit a propensity for intergenerational repeat size changes. In this work, we examine intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat in over 20,000 transmissions in the largest HD knock-in mouse model breeding datasets reported to date. We confirmed previous observations that parental sex drives the relative ratio of expansions and contractions. The large datasets further allowed us to distinguish effects of paternal CAG repeat length on the magnitude and frequency of expansions and contractions, as well as the identification of large repeat size jumps in the knock-in models. Distinct degrees of intergenerational instability were observed between knock-in mice of six background strains, indicating the occurrence of trans-acting genetic modifiers. We also found that lines harboring a neomycin resistance cassette upstream of Htt showed reduced expansion frequency, indicative of a contributing role for sequences in cis, with the expanded repeat as modifiers of intergenerational instability. These results provide a basis for further understanding of the mechanisms underlying intergenerational repeat instability. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic contributors to defective CD8+ T cell responses with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergović, Mladen; Smithey, Megan J; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2018-05-01

    Aging has a profound effect on the immune system, and both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system show functional decline with age. In response to infection with intracellular microorganisms, old animals mobilize decreased numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with reduced production of effector molecules and impaired cytolytic activity. However, the CD8+ T cell-intrinsic contribution to, and molecular mechanisms behind, these defects remain unclear. In this review we will discuss the mechanistic contributions of age related changes in the CD8+ T cell pool and the relative roles of intrinsic functional defects in aged CD8+ T cells vs. defects in the aged environment initiating the CD8+ T cell response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychological contributors to noncompletion of an adolescent preoperative bariatric surgery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Megan J; Curran, Jennifer L; Phan, Thao-Ly T; Reichard, Kirk; Datto, George A

    2017-01-01

    Noncompletion of preoperative bariatric programs is a significant problem among adolescents. Adult studies suggest that psychological factors contribute to noncompletion of preoperative bariatric programs. The aim of this study was to determine the association between adolescent psychological functioning and completion of the preoperative phase of a bariatric program. The study was conducted at a tertiary care children's hospital affiliated with a university medical center. Seventy-four adolescents and their parents completed an assessment measure of psychological functioning with the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition. We compared these scores between adolescents who completed the preoperative phase of the bariatric program and proceeded to surgery (completers) to those who did not (noncompleters) using multivariate analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for demographic characteristics and baseline body mass index. The mean age was 16.0 (1.1) years, most were female (79.8%), and the group was diverse (48.6%, Caucasian; 33.8%, black; 17.6%, other, including Hispanic, Asian, and biracial). Average body mass index was 50.5 (7.6) kg/m 2 . Forty-two percent of participants were noncompleters. Noncompleters were reported by parents to have more clinically significant externalizing and internalizing behaviors and fewer adaptive behaviors. Noncompleters self-reported more clinically significant internalizing symptoms, emotional problems, and poor personal adjustment. Adolescents who did not complete the preoperative phase of a bariatric surgery program had more clinically significant psychological symptoms across multiple domains compared with those who successfully proceeded to bariatric surgery. Early identification and treatment of psychological symptoms may be important in helping adolescents successfully proceed to surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of siblings on early development: a potential contributor to personality differences in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Robyn; Bautista, Amando; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Montor, Jorge Morales; Rödel, Heiko G

    2011-09-01

    Although most mammals grow up in the company of same or different age sibs (or half sibs), surprisingly little attention has been given to how relations among them might influence the development of individual differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Here we review evidence from our work on domestic and wild European rabbits, and more recently on laboratory rats, mice, and domestic cats, supporting the proposition that in mammals early sibling relations contribute to the development of individual differences in these three domains and thereby to long-term behavioral differences of the kind we might consider part of an animal's behavioral style or personality. First we report a consistent and marked negative relation between litter size and individuals' body mass at birth and weaning, as well as marked within-litter differences in prenatal body mass and placental efficiency. We then report individual differences in preweaning behaviors associated with these morphological variables such as position occupied in the litter huddle and development of motor ability, as well as physiological differences in thermoregulation, immune parameters, and endocrine indicators of stress. Finally, we report first evidence from wild rabbits that early relations among littermates may have long-term consequences for individual differences in behavioral style. We conclude that in mammals, individual differences in early growth, physiology and behavior potentially important for the development of animal personality, are shaped to an appreciable extent by early sibling relations and that this little-researched field deserves closer attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enhanced A-FABP expression in visceral fat: potential contributor to the progression of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yong Yoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsAdipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes various metabolically important substances including adipokines, which represent a link between insulin resistance and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. The factors responsible for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis remain elusive, but adipokine imbalance may play a pivotal role. We evaluated the expressions of adipokines such as visfatin, adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding protein (A-FABP, and retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4 in serum and tissue. The aim was to discover whether these adipokines are potential predictors of NASH.MethodsPolymerase chain reaction, quantification of mRNA, and Western blots encoding A-FABP, RBP-4, and visfatin were used to study tissue samples from the liver, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The tissue samples were from biopsy specimens obtained from patients with proven NASH who were undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to gallbladder polyps.ResultsPatients were classified into two groups: NASH, n=10 and non-NASH, n=20 according to their nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Activity Score. Although serum A-FABP levels did not differ between the two groups, the expressions of A-FABP mRNA and protein in the visceral adipose tissue were significantly higher in NASH group than in non-NASH group (104.34 vs. 97.05, P<0.05, and 190.01 vs. 95.15, P<0.01, respectively. Furthermore, the A-FABP protein expression ratio between visceral adipose tissue and liver was higher in NASH group than in non-NASH group (4.38 vs. 1.64, P<0.05.ConclusionsNASH patients had higher levels of A-FABP expression in their visceral fat compared to non-NASH patients. This differential A-FABP expression may predispose patients to the progressive form of NASH.

  14. Mechanisms in endocrinology: vitamin D as a potential contributor in endocrine health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Mitri, Joanna; Mathieu, Chantal; Badenhoop, Klaus; Tamer, Gonca; Orio, Francesco; Mezza, Teresa; Vieth, Reinhold; Colao, Annamaria; Pittas, Anastassios

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine diseases, such as hyperparathyroidism, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases, Addison's disease and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this review, we debate the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of endocrine diseases. Narrative overview of the literature synthesizing the current evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases, hand searches and authoritative texts. Evidence from basic science supports a role for vitamin D in many endocrine conditions. In humans, inverse relationships have been reported not only between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations but also with risk of T1DM, T2DM, and PCOS. There is less evidence for an association with Addison's disease or autoimmune thyroid disease. Vitamin D supplementation may have a role for prevention of T2DM, but the available evidence is not consistent. Although observational studies support a potential role of vitamin D in endocrine disease, high quality evidence from clinical trials does not exist to establish a place for vitamin D supplementation in optimizing endocrine health. Ongoing randomized controlled trials are expected to provide insights into the efficacy and safety of vitamin D in the management of endocrine disease. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Haemodialysis work environment contributors to job satisfaction and stress: a sequential mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Douglas, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis nurses form long term relationships with patients in a technologically complex work environment. Previous studies have highlighted that haemodialysis nurses face stressors related to the nature of their work and also their work environments leading to reported high levels of burnout. Using Kanters (1997) Structural Empowerment Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to satisfaction with the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and burnout in haemodialysis nurses. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, the first phase involved an on-line survey comprising demographic and work characteristics, Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM), Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS), Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The second phase involved conducting eight semi-structured interviews with data thematically analyzed. From the 417 nurses surveyed the majority were female (90.9 %), aged over 41 years of age (74.3 %), and 47.4 % had worked in haemodialysis for more than 10 years. Overall the work environment was perceived positively and there was a moderate level of job satisfaction. However levels of stress and emotional exhaustion (burnout) were high. Two themes, ability to care and feeling successful as a nurse, provided clarity to the level of job satisfaction found in phase 1. While two further themes, patients as quasi-family and intense working teams, explained why working as a haemodialysis nurse was both satisfying and stressful. Nurse managers can use these results to identify issues being experienced by haemodialysis nurses working in the unit they are supervising.

  16. Epiphytic Cyanobacteria on Chara vulgaris Are the Main Contributors to N2 Fixation in Rice Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariosa, Yoanna; Quesada, Antonio; Aburto, Juan; Carrasco, David; Carreres, Ramón; Leganés, Francisco; Fernández Valiente, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of nitrogenase activity in the rice-soil system and the possible contribution of epiphytic cyanobacteria on rice plants and other macrophytes to this activity were studied in two locations in the rice fields of Valencia, Spain, in two consecutive crop seasons. The largest proportion of photodependent N2 fixation was associated with the macrophyte Chara vulgaris in both years and at both locations. The nitrogen fixation rate associated with Chara always represented more than 45% of the global nitrogenase activity measured in the rice field. The estimated average N2 fixation rate associated with Chara was 27.53 kg of N ha−1 crop−1. The mean estimated N2 fixation rates for the other parts of the system for all sampling periods were as follows: soil, 4.07 kg of N ha−1 crop−1; submerged parts of rice plants, 3.93 kg of N ha−1 crop−1; and roots, 0.28 kg of N ha−1 crop−1. Micrographic studies revealed the presence of epiphytic cyanobacteria on the surface of Chara. Three-dimensional reconstructions by confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed no cyanobacterial cells inside the Chara structures. Quantification of epiphytic cyanobacteria by image analysis revealed that cyanobacteria were more abundant in nodes than in internodes (on average, cyanobacteria covered 8.4% ± 4.4% and 6.2% ± 5.0% of the surface area in the nodes and internodes, respectively). Epiphytic cyanobacteria were also quantified by using a fluorometer. This made it possible to discriminate which algal groups were the source of chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a measurements confirmed that cyanobacteria were more abundant in nodes than in internodes (on average, the chlorophyll a concentrations were 17.2 ± 28.0 and 4.0 ± 3.8 μg mg [dry weight] of Chara−1 in the nodes and internodes, respectively). These results indicate that this macrophyte, which is usually considered a weed in the context of rice cultivation, may help maintain soil N fertility in the rice field ecosystem. PMID:15345425

  17. Female Citizen Soldiers and Airmen: Key Contributors to Worldwide Peaceand Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    employment that balance well with military duties. Guardsmen who are airline pilots, attorneys , doctors, dentists, nurses, school teachers, corporate...Guard to rise from the enlisted ranks to serving as Adjutants General (known as TAGs) for the 54 states, territories, and the District of Columbia.4...Senator Joni Ernst from Iowa is another former Guardsman who exemplifies the diverse background of our leaders in the National Guard. She was elected to

  18. Diet-Gene Interactions and PUFA Metabolism: A Potential Contributor to Health Disparities and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd H. Chilton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The “modern western” diet (MWD has increased the onset and progression of chronic human diseases as qualitatively and quantitatively maladaptive dietary components give rise to obesity and destructive gene-diet interactions. There has been a three-fold increase in dietary levels of the omega-6 (n-6 18 carbon (C18, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6, with the addition of cooking oils and processed foods to the MWD. Intense debate has emerged regarding the impact of this increase on human health. Recent studies have uncovered population-related genetic variation in the LCPUFA biosynthetic pathway (especially within the fatty acid desaturase gene (FADS cluster that is associated with levels of circulating and tissue PUFAs and several biomarkers and clinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Importantly, populations of African descent have higher frequencies of variants associated with elevated levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, CVD biomarkers and disease endpoints. Additionally, nutrigenomic interactions between dietary n-6 PUFAs and variants in genes that encode for enzymes that mobilize and metabolize ARA to eicosanoids have been identified. These observations raise important questions of whether gene-PUFA interactions are differentially driving the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases in diverse populations, and contributing to health disparities, especially in African American populations.

  19. Australian Rotary Health: a major contributor to mental illness research and mental health awareness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy

    2012-08-01

    Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.

  20. TRPV3 and TRPV4 ion channels are not major contributors to mouse heat sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Juan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV ion channels provided a potential molecular explanation for the perception of innocuous and noxious heat stimuli. TRPV1 has a significant role in acute heat nociception and inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Yet, substantial innocuous and noxious heat sensitivity remains in TRPV1 knockout animals. Here we investigated the role of two related channels, TRPV3 and TRPV4, in these capacities. We studied TRPV3 knockout animals on both C57BL6 and 129S6 backgrounds, as well as animals deficient in both TRPV3 and TRPV4 on a C57BL6 background. Additionally, we assessed the contributions of TRPV3 and TRPV4 to acute heat nociception and inflammatory heat hyperalgesia during inhibition of TRPV1. Results TRPV3 knockout mice on the C57BL6 background exhibited no obvious alterations in thermal preference behavior. On the 129S6 background, absence of TRPV3 resulted in a more restrictive range of occupancy centered around cooler floor temperatures. TRPV3 knockout mice showed no deficits in acute heat nociception on either background. Mice deficient in both TRPV3 and TRPV4 on a C57BL6 background showed thermal preference behavior similar to wild-type controls on the thermal gradient, and little or no change in acute heat nociception or inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Masking of TRPV1 by the TRPV1 antagonist JNJ-17203212 did not reveal differences between C57BL6 animals deficient in TRPV3 and TRPV4, compared to their wild-type counterparts. Conclusions Our results support the notion that TRPV3 and TRPV4 likely make limited and strain-dependent contributions to innocuous warm temperature perception or noxious heat sensation, even when TRPV1 is masked. These findings imply the existence of other significant mechanisms for heat perception.

  1. Estimating how extra calories from alcohol consumption are likely an overlooked contributor to youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Kate; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-06-01

    Youth obesity rates in Canada continue to rise. In this study, we produced conservative estimates of the potential excess calories from alcohol use across different alcohol consumption patterns common among Canadian youth to assess whether alcohol use should be considered in future obesity prevention strategies. Using data from 10 144 Grade 12 students participating in the COMPASS study (2013/14), we estimated the number of calories consumed per year from alcohol consumption. Our estimates were based on three different generic types of alcoholic beverages, which were grouped according to average calorie content (vodka coolers; beer [5%]; and beer [4%], wine and liquor) across different frequencies of alcohol use and binge drinking. Results indicated high potential caloric intake for students who binge drank, as well as high variability in the estimates for calories consumed based on common consumption patterns for the different beverage types. For instance, 27.2% of students binge drank once per month, meaning they consumed between 6000 and 13 200 calories in one year (equivalent to 0.78 - 1.71 kg of fat). For the 4.9% of students who binge drank twice per week, the total calories in one year would range from 52 000 to 114 400 (equivalent to 6.74 - 14.83 kg of fat). Current recommendations for preventing youth obesity do not generally include any consideration of alcohol use. The high prevalence of frequent alcohol consumption and binge drinking by youth in this study and the substantial number of calories contained in alcoholic beverages suggest alcohol use among youth may warrant consideration in relation to youth obesity prevention.

  2. Empathy-Related Responding in Chinese Toddlers: Factorial Structure and Cognitive Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heqing; Su, Yanjie; Jin, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The critical role of the second year of life in the development of empathy is well accepted by psychologists. However, the developmental trends of the different components of empathy and the potential factors underlying these components during this critical period remain unclear. Eighty-four Chinese toddlers in the second year of life participated…

  3. Are organizations shooting themselves in the foot? : workplace contributors to family-to-work conflict

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Beauregard

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To examine 1) the direct effects of work domain variables on family-to-work conflict (FWC), beyond their indirect effects via the mediating variable of work-to-family conflict (WFC), and 2) sex differences in the effects of work role expectations and supervisor support on FWC. \\ud \\ud Methodology/Approach - A survey was conducted among 208 UK public sector employees. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis tested main and moderating effects of work domain variables and sex on FWC....

  4. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Kleijn, David; Scheper, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Wild andmanaged bees arewell documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change.

  5. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve: evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Ware, Jenna; Fischer, Corinne E; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Much of the research on delaying the onset of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on pharmacotherapy, but environmental factors have also been acknowledged to play a significant role. Bilingualism may be one factor contributing to 'cognitive reserve' (CR) and therefore to a delay in symptom onset. If bilingualism is protective, then the brains of bilinguals should show greater atrophy in relevant areas, since their enhanced CR enables them to function at a higher level than would be predicted from their level of disease. We analyzed a number of linear measurements of brain atrophy from the computed tomography (CT) scans of monolingual and bilingual patients diagnosed with probable AD who were matched on level of cognitive performance and years of education. Bilingual patients with AD exhibited substantially greater amounts of brain atrophy than monolingual patients in areas traditionally used to distinguish AD patients from healthy controls, specifically, the radial width of the temporal horn and the temporal horn ratio. Other measures of brain atrophy were comparable for the two groups. Bilingualism appears to contribute to increased CR, thereby delaying the onset of AD and requiring the presence of greater amounts of neuropathology before the disease is manifest. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  6. Deciduous birch canopy as unexpected contributor to stand level atmospheric reactivity in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Jaana; Taipale, Ditte; Aalto, Juho

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forests, deciduous trees such as birches may in future climate become more abundant due to their large biomass production capacity, relatively good resource use ability and large acclimation potential to elevated CO2 levels and warmer climate. Increase in birch abundance may lead to unpredicted consequences in atmospheric composition. Currently it is acknowledged that conifers such as Scots pine and Norway spruce are important sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially monoterpenes, throughout the year, although the strong temperature relationships implies that emissions are highest in summertime. However, the dynamics of the deciduous birch foliage VOC emissions and their relationship with environmental drivers during the development, maturation and senescence of foliage has not been well analyzed. Long-term measurements of birch, which are unfortunately very sparse, can provide very useful information for the development of biosphere-atmosphere models that simulate boreal and subarctic forested areas where birch is often a sub-canopy species, occurs as a mixture among conifers or forms even pure stands in the higher latitudes. We measured the branch level VOC emissions from a mature Silver birch with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer during 2014 and 2015 at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), southern Finland. Our results showed that the Silver birch foliage is a huge source for both short-chained volatiles such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone, as well as for monoterpenes. The mean emission rates from birch leaves were 5 to 10 times higher than the corresponding emissions from Scots pine shoots. We compared several semi-empirical model approaches for determining the birch foliage monoterpene standardized emission potentials, and utilized the continuous emission measurements from the two growing seasons for development of a novel algorithm which accounts for the leaf development and senescence in addition to prevailing temperature and light conditions. With these improvements and inputs to the 1D biosphere-atmosphere model SOSAA (model to Simulate Organic vapours, Sulphuric Acid and Aerosols), we showed that the contribution of Silver birch to stand scale atmospheric reactivity may exceed the ones from conifers, and therefore specific land use and species distribution patterns should be accounted for in biosphere-atmosphere models describing the surface-atmosphere exchange of reactive gases.

  7. Soft tissue conduction as a possible contributor to the limited attenuation provided by hearing protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Chordekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Damage to the auditory system by loud sounds can be avoided by hearing protection devices (HPDs such as earmuffs, earplugs, or both for maximum attenuation. However, the attenuation can be limited by air conduction (AC leakage around the earplugs and earmuffs by the occlusion effect (OE and by skull vibrations initiating bone conduction (BC. Aims: To assess maximum attenuation by HPDs and possible flanking pathways to the inner ear. Subjects and Methods: AC attenuation and resulting thresholds were assessed using the real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT procedure on 15 normal-hearing participants in four free-field conditions: (a unprotected ears, (b ears covered with earmuffs, (c ears blocked with deeply inserted customized earplugs, and (d ears blocked with both earplugs and earmuffs. BC thresholds were assessed with and without earplugs to assess the OE. Results: Addition of earmuffs to earplugs did not cause significantly greater attenuation than earplugs alone, confirming minimal AC leakage through the external meatus and the absence of the OE. Maximum REATs ranged between 40 and 46 dB, leading to thresholds of 46–54 dB HL. Furthermore, calculation of the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and bone predicted at least 60 dB attenuation of BC. Conclusion: Results do not support the notion that skull vibrations (BC contributed to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. An alternative explanation, supported by experimental evidence, suggests transmission of sound to inner ear via non-osseous pathways such as skin, soft tissues, and fluid. Because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and soft tissues is smaller than that between air and bone, air-borne sounds would be transmitted to soft tissues more effectively than to bone, and therefore less attenuation is expected through soft tissue sound conduction. This can contribute to the limited attenuation provided by traditional HPDs. The present study has practical implications for hearing conservation protocols.

  8. Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Gravely, Amy A; Roseth, Cary J

    2009-01-01

    Self-determination theory emphasizes the importance of school-based autonomy and belongingness to academic achievement and psychological adjustment, and the theory posits a model in which engagement in school mediates the influence of autonomy and belongingness on these outcomes. To date, this model has only been evaluated on academic outcomes. Utilizing short-term longitudinal data (5-month timeframe) from a set of secondary schools in the rural Midwest (N = 283, M age = 15.3, 51.9% male, 86.2% White), we extend the model to include a measure of positive adjustment (i.e., hope). We also find a direct link between peer-related belongingness (i.e., peer support) and positive adjustment that is not mediated by engagement in school. A reciprocal relationship between academic autonomy, teacher-related belongingness (i.e., teacher support) and engagement in learning is supported, but this reciprocal relationship does not extend to peer-related belongingness. The implications of these findings for secondary schools are discussed.

  9. Oral mucosal lesions in a Chilean elderly population: A retrospective study with a systematic review from thirteen countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Droguett, Daniel; Arenas-Márquez, María-Jesús

    2017-02-01

    The oral examination is an essential part of the multidisciplinary medical care in elderly people. Oral mucosal lesions and normal variations of oral anatomy (OMLs) are very common in this people, but few studies have examined the frequency and prevalence of these conditions worldwide and less in Chile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the frequency of OMLs in a Chilean elderly population. It was conducted a retrospective study (Talca, Chile). Two hundred seventy-seven OMLs were classified in groups and anatomical sites. In order to contextualize our numbers, we made a systematic review using Publish or Perish software, Google Scholar and InteractiVenn. The most prevalent OMLs groups were soft tissue tumors, epithelial pathology, facial pain and neuromuscular diseases, and dermatologic diseases. The most frequent OMLs included irritation fibroma (30 patients, 10.8%), hemangioma (20, 7.2%), burning mouth syndrome (20 cases, 7.2%), oral lichen planus (12, 4.3%) and epulis fissuratum (12, 4.3%). In the systematic review, 75 OMLs were relevant and the more studied pathologies were traumatic ulcerations (11 of 15 articles), oral lichen planus (10/15), irritation fibroma, melanotic pigmentations, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (9/10, respectively). Considering all included articles, most frequent OMLs in elderly people included denture-related stomatitis (13.3%), irritation fibroma (8.7%) and fissured tongue (6.3%). The results reflect the frequency of OMLs diagnosed in a specialized service in south of Chile and many countries around the world. These numbers will allow the establishment of preventive politics and adequacy of the clinical services. Key words: Oral mucosal lesions, elderly people, Chilean population, frequency, systematic review.

  10. Variability in surface infrared reflectance of thirteen nitrile rubber gloves at key wavelengths for analysis of captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface variability of 13 powder-free, unlined, and unsupported nitrile rubber gloves using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrophotometry at key wavelengths for analysis of captan contamination. The within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was measured at 740, 1124, 1252, and 1735 cm(-1), the characteristic captan reflectance minima wavelengths. Three glove brands were assessed after conditioning overnight at relative humidity (RH) values ranging from 2 +/- 1 to 87 +/- 4% and temperatures ranging from -8.6 +/- 0.7 to 59.2 +/- 0.9 degrees C. For all gloves, 1735 cm(-1) provided the lowest background absorbance and greatest potential sensitivity for captan analysis on the outer glove surface: absorbances ranged from 0.0074 +/- 0.0005 (Microflex) to 0.0195 +/- 0.0024 (SafeSkin); average within-glove coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from 2.7% (Best, range 0.9-5.3%) to 10% (SafeSkin, 1.2-17%); within-glove CVs greater than 10% were for one brand (SafeSkin); within-lot CVs ranged from 2.8% (Best N-Dex) to 28% (SafeSkin Blue); and between-lot variation was statistically significant (p < or = 0.05) for all but two SafeSkin lots. The RH had variable effects dependent on wavelength, being minimal at 1735, 1252, and 1124 cm(-1) and highest at 3430 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). There was no significant effect of temperature conditioning. Substantial within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was observed. Thus, surface analysis using ATR-FT-IR must treat glove brands and lots as different. ATR-FT-IR proved to be a useful real-time analytical tool for measuring glove variability, detecting surface humidity effects, and choosing selective and sensitive wavelengths for analysis of nonvolatile surface contaminants.

  11. Litter size of Danish crossbred sows increased without changes in sow body dimensions over a thirteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Kristensen, A. R.; Moustsen, V. Aa

    2018-01-01

    dimensions and litter size was also investigated. Depth, width, length and height were measured from 405 Danish crossbred sows in 10 different herds, classified in groups of parity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and ≥ 7. By Linear Mixed-Effects Models with depth, width, length and height in turn as response variable......The purpose of this study was to investigate if body dimensions of Danish crossbred sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) had increased compared to a previous Danish study from 2004. In addition, and as an expected potential benefit of increased body dimensions, a potential correlation between body...... and parity and herd as explanatory variables, estimated means, 5th and 95th percentiles, minimum and maximum observation were recorded. Furthermore, a weighted index for litter size (denoted as the “litter size potential”) was used as response variable with depth, width, length, height and parity...

  12. Gender Disparities in Medical Student Research Awards: A Thirteen-Year Study From the Yale School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph T; Angoff, Nancy R; Forrest, John N; Justice, Amy C

    2017-11-14

    Instruction in research conduct is currently required, and many U.S. medical schools require students to complete a research project. Each year all Yale School of Medicine (YSM) graduating students submit a research thesis, and ~5% are awarded highest honors. Gender disparities exist in areas related to physician research productivity, including academic rank, research funding, and publications. The authors asked whether gender disparities exist for medical student research. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 1,120 theses submitted by graduating medical students from 2003-2015 at YSM and collected data on gender, mentoring, research type, sponsoring department, and other characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression modeling examined gender differences in medical student research awards. Women authored 50.9% of theses, but earned only 30.9% of highest honors awards (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74). Among factors associated with increased receipt of highest honors that differed by gender, men were more likely than women to work with a mentor with a history of 3 or more thesis honorees, take a fifth year of study, secure competitive research funding, undertake an MD-Master of Health Science degree, and conduct laboratory research (for all, P < .001). After adjustment for these factors, and for underrepresented in medicine status and sponsoring department, women remained less likely to receive highest honors (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.98). Women medical students at YSM were less likely to receive highest honors for medical research. Gender disparities in postgraduate biomedical research success may start during undergraduate medical education.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not extend to the contributions of employees of the Federal Government.

  13. A survey of new temperature-sensitive, embryonic-lethal mutations in C. elegans: 24 alleles of thirteen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M O'Rourke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To study essential maternal gene requirements in the early C. elegans embryo, we have screened for temperature-sensitive, embryonic lethal mutations in an effort to bypass essential zygotic requirements for such genes during larval and adult germline development. With conditional alleles, multiple essential requirements can be examined by shifting at different times from the permissive temperature of 15°C to the restrictive temperature of 26°C. Here we describe 24 conditional mutations that affect 13 different loci and report the identity of the gene mutations responsible for the conditional lethality in 22 of the mutants. All but four are mis-sense mutations, with two mutations affecting splice sites, another creating an in-frame deletion, and one creating a premature stop codon. Almost all of the mis-sense mutations affect residues conserved in orthologs, and thus may be useful for engineering conditional mutations in other organisms. We find that 62% of the mutants display additional phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature as L1 larvae, in addition to causing embryonic lethality after L4 upshifts. Remarkably, we also found that 13 out of the 24 mutations appear to be fast-acting, making them particularly useful for careful dissection of multiple essential requirements. Our findings highlight the value of C. elegans for identifying useful temperature-sensitive mutations in essential genes, and provide new insights into the requirements for some of the affected loci.

  14. A review of the South Pacific Manota Williston (Diptera, Mycetophilidae), with the description of thirteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Olavi; Hippa, Heikki

    2015-09-22

    The genus Manota is found to consist of 37 species in the South Pacific region. The following 13 species are described as new: M. acris sp. n. (Papua New Guinea (PNG)), M. alulata sp. n. (PNG), M. apentachaeta sp. n. (PNG), M. clivicola sp. n. (PNG), M. cordata sp. n. (PNG), M. feminea sp. n. (PNG), M. kaindiensis sp. n. (PNG), M. lunata sp. n. (PNG), M. nimia sp. n. (Solomon Is.), M. pentachaeta sp. n. (PNG), M. siciliculata sp. n. (PNG), M. sigma sp. n. (PNG) and M. unisetata sp. n. (Solomon Is.). New records of the following 11 species are presented: M. bicuspis Hippa, 2007 (PNG, Solomon Is.), M. biunculata Hippa, 2007 (PNG), M. evexa Hippa, 2007 (PNG), M. explicans Hippa, 2007 (PNG), M. hamulata Colless, 1966 (PNG), M. pacifica Edwards, 1928 (Samoa), M. parilis Hippa, 2007 (PNG, Vanuatu), M. perissochaeta Hippa, 2007 (PNG), M. serawei Hippa, 2007 (PNG), M. spathula Hippa, 2007 (PNG) and M. subspathula Hippa, 2007 (Australia). The latter is the first described species of Manota recorded from continental Australia. A redescription of M. pacifica Edwards, 1928 is given.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of thirteen endogenous steroid hormones by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to endocrine active chemicals can lead to perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, ultimately leading to adverse reproductive effects. To evaluate potential reproductive effects, many aquatic toxicity assessments still rely on radioimmunoassay (RIA...

  16. The COSMOS2015 galaxy stellar mass function . Thirteen billion years of stellar mass assembly in ten snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidzon, I.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Coupon, J.; McCracken, H. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Masters, D.; Capak, P.; Hsieh, B. C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tresse, L.; Bethermin, M.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Faisst, A. L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Toft, S.; Aussel, H.; Dubois, C.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    We measure the stellar mass function (SMF) and stellar mass density of galaxies in the COSMOS field up to z 6. We select them in the near-IR bands of the COSMOS2015 catalogue, which includes ultra-deep photometry from UltraVISTA-DR2, SPLASH, and Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. At z> 2.5 we use new precise photometric redshifts with error σz = 0.03(1 + z) and an outlier fraction of 12%, estimated by means of the unique spectroscopic sample of COSMOS ( 100 000 spectroscopic measurements in total, more than one thousand having robust zspec> 2.5). The increased exposure time in the DR2, along with our panchromatic detection strategy, allow us to improve the completeness at high z with respect to previous UltraVISTA catalogues (e.g. our sample is >75% complete at 1010 ℳ⊙ and z = 5). We also identify passive galaxies through a robust colour-colour selection, extending their SMF estimate up to z = 4. Our work provides a comprehensive view of galaxy-stellar-mass assembly between z = 0.1 and 6, for the first time using consistent estimates across the entire redshift range. We fit these measurements with a Schechter function, correcting for Eddington bias. We compare the SMF fit with the halo mass function predicted from ΛCDM simulations, finding that at z> 3 both functions decline with a similar slope in thehigh-mass end. This feature could be explained assuming that mechanisms quenching star formation in massive haloes become less effective at high redshifts; however further work needs to be done to confirm this scenario. Concerning the SMF low-mass end, it shows a progressive steepening as it moves towards higher redshifts, with α decreasing from -1.47+0.02-0.02 at z ≃ 0.1 to -2.11+0.30-0.13 at z ≃ 5. This slope depends on the characterisation of the observational uncertainties, which is crucial to properly remove the Eddington bias. We show that there is currently no consensus on the method to quantify such errors: different error models result in different best-fit Schechter parameters. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium (http://ultravista.org/). Based on data produced by the SPLASH team from observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope (http://splash.caltech.edu).

  17. All thirteen building projects OK? Comparison of exemplary building projects; Alle dertien goed? Wat zijn de besten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lony, R.J.M. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Molenaar, D.J. [Techniplan Adviseurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rietkerk, J. [Royal Haskoning, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schuiling, D.J.B.W. [BAM Techniek regio West, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Zeiler, W. [Installatietechnologie, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUe, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    In 2003 the Netherlands Organization for Energy and the Environment (now SenterNovem) published the report 'Alle dertien goed' in which 13 non-residential buildings were described as examples for the HVAC sector. In this article attention is paid to the criteria to evaluate such buildings. The so-called 6 S method (Site, Shell, Skin, Services, Space plan, Stuff) is used to assess the buildings, after which a comparison is made for 12 of the 13 buildings. [Dutch] Novem publiceerde in 2003 de publicatie 'Alle dertien goed' waarin dertien utiliteitsgebouwen werden gepresenteerd als voorbeelden voor de branche. Dit roept de vraag op hoe goed is goed, hoe kun je dit bepalen en zijn ze werkelijk goed? Aan de hand van de 6 S- methode (Site, Shell, Skin, Services, Space plan, Stuff) van Stewart Brand is een beoordeling van de gebouwen gemaakt, waarna er een vergelijking is gemaakt tussen twaalf van de dertien gebouwen. Uiteindelijk zijn de vier beste gebouwen bepaald. In het artikel worden de beoordeelde gebouwen kort gepresenteerd en de resultaten weergegeven.

  18. A CASE REPORT OF THE PATIENT WITH EXTRAOVARIAN PRIMARY PERITONEAL CARCINOMA AFTER BILATERAL SALPINGO-OOPHORECTOMY THIRTEEN YEARS AGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Sredanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present a rare case of extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma in 65-year-old female with a history of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for larger symptomatic leiomyoma 13 years ago. In October 2005 the patient had abdominal swelling, ascites with positive cytology peritonal adenocarcinoma and significantly elevated serum Ca-125 was 500 U/ml. Clinical examinations were performed, but could not identify a unique origin of disease. Background: Aproximatly 3.2 % to 21 % of extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma patients have a history bilateral oophorectomy for benign disease or prophylaxis – family history of ovar- ian carcinoma.1 Patients and methods: A 65-year old woman with a history of total abdominal hysterectomy and bileteral salpin- go-oophorectomy was operated for larger symptomatic leiomyoma 13 years ago. In Octobre 2005 the patient had abdominal swelling, ascites with positive cytology peritonal adeno- carcinoma and significantly elevated serum Ca-125 was 500 U/ml. Radiologic imaging, gastroscopy, colonoscopy, mammography were performed, but couldn`t identify a unique origin of disease. Patient was treated for two years at the Oncology Institute Ljubljana. Significantly elevated serum Ca-125 and citology with immunohistochemical analysis pre- sented correct diagnosis of extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma. The patient was treated with combination systemic chemotherapy (Paclitaxel and Carboplatin with initial good response. In year 2006 and 2007 because of the progression of disease, the treatment was repeated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: Look like in other similar cases we have confirmed our disease with three cytologic punction procedures, with significant elevated valves of Ca-125 and with several other directed proce- dures.1–3 Our patient has survived the characteristic critical period for this form of cancer of 7 to 27.8 months because of well orientated direction of diagnosis and chemotherapy. The patient survived 27 months. Peritoneal carcinomas were diagnosed at later ages (mean, 67 years.

  19. The relationship between parental presence and child sexual violence: Evidence from thirteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia

    2015-01-01

    There are compelling reasons to believe that orphans – many millions due to the AIDS epidemic – are more likely to be sexually victimized during childhood. Few studies have empirically investigated sexual violence disparities, and those that do suffer from methodological limitations and limited geographic scope. We used nationally-representative data on female adolescents (15-17 years) from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We built multilevel logistic models to test for an association between the dependent variables (orphanhood and parental absence) and sexual violence, both within countries and pooled across all countries. Approximately 10% of adolescent girls reported past experiences of sexual violence; a third of those victimized were 14 years or younger at the time of their first forced encounter. Paternal orphaning (OR 1.36, p ≤ .01), double orphaning (OR 1.47, p ≤ .05), and paternal absence (OR 1.28; p ≤.05) were significantly associated with experiencing sexual violence in pooled analyses. Fewer findings reached significance within individual countries. Our findings suggest that the lack of a father in the home (due to death or absence) places girls at heightened risk for childhood sexual abuse; further research identifying pathways of vulnerability and resilience specific to this population is needed. Our findings also indicate that abuse often starts at an early age; thus promising programs should be adapted for younger age groups and rigorously tested. PMID:26631421

  20. The relationship between parental presence and child sexual violence: Evidence from thirteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kidman, Rachel; Palermo, Tia

    2015-01-01

    There are compelling reasons to believe that orphans – many millions due to the AIDS epidemic – are more likely to be sexually victimized during childhood. Few studies have empirically investigated sexual violence disparities, and those that do suffer from methodological limitations and limited geographic scope. We used nationally-representative data on female adolescents (15-17 years) from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We built multilevel logistic models to test for an association betw...

  1. A Review of the Extraction and Determination Methods of Thirteen Essential Vitamins to the Human Body: An Update from 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Wei-E; Yan, Jia-Qing; Liu, Min; Zhou, Yu; Shen, Xin; Ma, Ying-Lin; Feng, Xue-Song; Yang, Jun; Li, Guo-Hui

    2018-06-19

    Vitamins are a class of essential nutrients in the body; thus, they play important roles in human health. The chemicals are involved in many physiological functions and both their lack and excess can put health at risk. Therefore, the establishment of methods for monitoring vitamin concentrations in different matrices is necessary. In this review, an updated overview of the main pretreatments and determination methods that have been used since 2010 is given. Ultrasonic assisted extraction, liquid⁻liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid⁻liquid microextraction are the most common pretreatment methods, while the determination methods involve chromatography methods, electrophoretic methods, microbiological assays, immunoassays, biosensors and several other methods. Different pretreatments and determination methods are discussed.

  2. A Review of the Extraction and Determination Methods of Thirteen Essential Vitamins to the Human Body: An Update from 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are a class of essential nutrients in the body; thus, they play important roles in human health. The chemicals are involved in many physiological functions and both their lack and excess can put health at risk. Therefore, the establishment of methods for monitoring vitamin concentrations in different matrices is necessary. In this review, an updated overview of the main pretreatments and determination methods that have been used since 2010 is given. Ultrasonic assisted extraction, liquid–liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction are the most common pretreatment methods, while the determination methods involve chromatography methods, electrophoretic methods, microbiological assays, immunoassays, biosensors and several other methods. Different pretreatments and determination methods are discussed.

  3. A survey of severe visual impairment and blindness in children attending thirteen schools for the blind in sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zoe; Muecke, James; Edussuriya, Kapila; Dayawansa, Ranasiri; Hammerton, Michael; Kong, Aimee; Sennanayake, Saman; Senaratne, Tissa; Marasinghe, Nirosha; Selva, Dinesh

    2011-02-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending schools for the blind in Sri Lanka, and to provide optical devices and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and six children under 16 years from 13 schools for the blind in Sri Lanka were examined by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Data were entered in the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). Of the 206 children, 83.5% were blind (BL = Visual acuity [VA] schools for the blind in Sri Lanka had potentially avoidable causes of BL/SVI. Vision could also be improved in a third of children. The data support the need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services, particularly in the face of advancing neonatal life support in Sri Lanka, and the need for increased provision of optical support.

  4. The dynamics of single protein molecules is non-equilibrium and self-similar over thirteen decades in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaohu; Hong, Liang; Dean Smith, Micholas; Neusius, Thomas; Cheng, Xiaolin; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2016-02-01

    Internal motions of proteins are essential to their function. The time dependence of protein structural fluctuations is highly complex, manifesting subdiffusive, non-exponential behaviour with effective relaxation times existing over many decades in time, from ps up to ~102 s (refs ,,,). Here, using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that, on timescales from 10-12 to 10-5 s, motions in single proteins are self-similar, non-equilibrium and exhibit ageing. The characteristic relaxation time for a distance fluctuation, such as inter-domain motion, is observation-time-dependent, increasing in a simple, power-law fashion, arising from the fractal nature of the topology and geometry of the energy landscape explored. Diffusion over the energy landscape follows a non-ergodic continuous time random walk. Comparison with single-molecule experiments suggests that the non-equilibrium self-similar dynamical behaviour persists up to timescales approaching the in vivo lifespan of individual protein molecules.

  5. Higher levels of masculine gender role stress in masculine than in feminine nations. A thirteen-nations study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Barelds, D.P.H.; Oei, T.P.S.; Lau, P.Y.

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  6. Higher Levels of Masculine Gender Role Stress in Masculine than in Feminine Nations : A Thirteen-Nations Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W. A.; van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M.; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Lau, Pui Yi

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  7. Calculations on thirteen Λ–S states of PO radical: Electronic structure, spectroscopy and spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hui; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the potential energy curves (PECs) of X 2 Π, B 2 Σ + , B′ 2 Π, C 2 Σ − , C′ 2 Δ, 3 2 Π, a 4 Π, b 4 Σ − , 1 4 Δ, 2 4 Δ, 1 4 Σ + , 1 6 Σ + and 1 6 Π Λ–S states and the PECs of 16 Ω states generated from the eight bound Λ–S states of PO radical. All the PECs are calculated by the CASSCF method, which is followed by the internally contracted MRCI approach with the Davidson modification. The spin–orbit coupling is included by the state interaction approach with the Breit–Pauli Hamiltonian. The convergent behavior is observed and discussed with respect to the correlation-consistent basis set and level of theory. The effect on the energy splitting by core-electron correlations is studied. To improve the quality of PECs, core-valence correlation corrections are included by a cc-pCVTZ basis set. Scalar relativistic correction calculations are made by the third-order Douglas–Kroll Hamiltonian approximation at the level of a cc-pV5Z basis set. All the PECs are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. With these PECs, the spectroscopic parameters of 10 Λ–S and 16 Ω bound states are evaluated. The vibrational manifolds of the first 16 vibrational states are evaluated for each Λ–S and Ω state of non-rotation radical. With the PECs obtained by the MRCI+Q/CV+DK+56+SO calculations, the SO coupling splitting energy of X 2 Π Λ–S state is determined as 225.18 cm −1 , which agrees well with the measurements of 224.17 cm −1 . Moreover, other spectroscopic parameters and molecular constants calculated here are also in excellent agreement with the available measurements. It shows that the spectroscopic parameters and molecular constants reported here can be expected to be reliable predicted ones. -- Highlights: ► Convergent behavior is observed with respect to the basis set and level of theory. ► Effect on the PECs by core-valence correlation and relativistic corrections is included. ► PECs are extrapolated to the CBS limit. ► Effect on the spectroscopic parameters by the SO coupling is discussed. ► Spectroscopic parameters of 10 Λ–S and 16 Ω states are obtained

  8. Thirteen new patients with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency and functional characterization of nineteen novel missense variants in the GAMT gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Ndika, Joseph; Kanhai, Warsha

    2014-01-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT-D) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of creatine biosynthesis. Creatine deficiency on cranial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and elevated guanidinoacetate levels in body fluids are the biomarkers of GAMT-D. In 74 patients 5...

  9. Algiers Point: Historical Ambience and Property Analysis of Squares Ten, Thirteen, and Twenty, with a View Toward Their Archaeological Potential,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-14

    34It had been said that the party headed by Mr. Flanders [their opponent] was in favor of extending to those disenthralled of their bondage all the...legal fees . Whatever the outcome of the controversy, the APSC kept running the ferry franchise. And Frank Duvic was still president of the board, with R...her husband had been dead since 1871 [C.D.C. 35,494]. During her last illness, Mrs. Carter had been unable to pay her debts , and Drs. Gaudet and Reilly

  10. Thirteen-year prospective study between fish consumption, long-chain n-3 fatty acids intakes and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, E; Péneau, S; Ferry, M; Jeandel, C; Hercberg, S; Galan, P

    2011-02-01

    Because of their structural, anti-inflammatory and antithrombic properties, long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be key factors in the aging process. We sought to elucidate the association between intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and/or fish and cognitive function evaluated 13 years after dietary assessment. Prospective population-based study. 3,294 adults from the SU.VI.MAX study (Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals study). MEASUREMENTS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subjects underwent a standardized clinical examination which included cognitive tests and self-reported cognitive difficulties scale (2007-2009). Poor scores were defined using percentiles as cut-off. Dietary data were assessed through repeated 24-h dietary records. Odd ratio (OR), comparing the fourth (Q4) to the first quartile (Q1), of having a poor score were calculated using adjusted logistic regression. Self-reported cognitive difficulties were less frequent among subjects with higher intakes of total n-3 long chain fatty acids (OR = 0.72, CI 95%=0.56-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.74, CI 95%=0.58-0.95), even after adjustment for depressive symptoms. A borderline significant association was also found with high fish consumption (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.80, CI 95%=0.63-1.01). Cognitive complaints, which may be an early indicator of cognitive decline, are less frequent among the elderly who have a high long-chain n-3 acids intake, as assessed 13 years earlier.

  11. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Thirteen. Mastery Testing Program. [Mastery Tests Series 5.] Tests M51-M65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 51 through 65 include: (51) interpreting atomic and mass numbers; (52) extrapolating from a geological map; (53) matching geological sections and maps; (54) identifying parts of the human eye; (55) identifying the functions of parts of a…

  12. Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for Thirteen Cancer Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampson, Joshua N; Wheeler, William A; Yeager, Meredith; Panagiotou, Orestis; Wang, Zhaoming; Berndt, Sonja I; Lan, Qing; Abnet, Christian C; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Figueroa, Jonine D; Landi, Maria Teresa; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A; Taylor, Philip R; Vivo, Immaculata De; McGlynn, Katherine A; Purdue, Mark P; Rajaraman, Preetha; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Amary, Maria Fernanda; An, She-Juan; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M; Arici, Cecilia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Arslan, Alan A; Austin, Melissa A; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A; Bassig, Bryan A; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Benhamou, Simone; Berg, Christine; Van Den Berg, David; Bernstein, Leslie; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Birmann, Brenda M; Black, Amanda; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chan, John K C; Chang, Ellen T; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang, Jiang; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chu; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Hongyan; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Ying; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Choi, Jin Eun; Choi, Yi Young; Chow, Wong-Ho; Chung, Charles C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cocco, Pierluigi; Colt, Joanne S; Comperat, Eva; Conde, Lucia; Connors, Joseph M; Conti, David; Cortessis, Victoria K; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; Crous-Bou, Marta; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G; Ding, Ti; Diver, W Ryan; Dorronsoro, Miren; Dossus, Laure; Duell, Eric J; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Erickson, Ralph L; Feychting, Maria; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Foretova, Lenka; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Freedman, Neal D; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Fuchs, Charles; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Gascoyne, Randy D; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giffen, Carol; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Glimelius, Bengt; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gorlick, Richard; Gross, Myron; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Gunter, Marc; Guo, Huan; Habermann, Thomas M; Haiman, Christopher A; Halai, Dina; Hallmans, Goran; Hassan, Manal; Hattinger, Claudia; He, Qincheng; He, Xingzhou; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Henderson, Brian; Henriksson, Roger; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holford, Theodore R; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Hosain, G M Monawar; Hosgood, H Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Hung, Jen-Yu; Hutchinson, Amy; Inskip, Peter D; Jackson, Rebecca D; Jacobs, Eric J; Jenab, Mazda; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Ji, Bu-Tian; Jin, Guangfu; Jin, Li; Johansen, Christoffer; Johnson, Alison; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kamineni, Aruna; Kane, Eleanor; Kang, Chang Hyun; Karagas, Margaret R; Kelly, Rachel S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Jun Suk; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Young-Chul; Kitahara, Cari M; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert J; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kricker, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C; Kweon, Sun-Seog; LaCroix, Andrea; Lawrence, Charles; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Li, Donghui; Li, Haixin; Li, Jihua; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Yuqing; Liao, Linda M; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lin, Dongxin; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S; Link, Brian K; Liu, Chenwei; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Li; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lollo, Simonetta Di; Lu, Daru; Lund, Eiluv; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marchand, Loic Le; Marina, Neyssa; Masala, Giovanna; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Melbye, Mads; Melin, Beatrice S; Michaud, Dominique S; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Monnereau, Alain; Montalvan, Rebecca; Moore, Lee E; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E; Novak, Anne J; Oberg, Ann L; Offit, Kenneth; Oh, In-Jae; Olson, Sara H; Palli, Domenico; Pao, William; Park, In Kyu; Park, Jae Yong; Park, Kyong Hwa; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H M; Perng, Reury-Perng; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Qian, Biyun; Qiao, You-Lin; Rais, Marco; Riboli, Elio; Riby, Jacques; Risch, Harvey A; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Rodabough, Rebecca; Roman, Eve; Roupret, Morgan; Ruder, Avima M; Sanjose, Silvia de; Scelo, Ghislaine; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K; Shanafelt, Tait D; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Wei; Shin, Min-Ho; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Skibola, Christine F; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Staines, Anthony; Stampfer, Meir; Stern, Marianna C; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Su, Jian; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Jae Sook; Sung, Sook Whan; Tan, Wen; Tang, Wei; Tardón, Adonina; Thomas, David; Thompson, Carrie A; Tinker, Lesley F; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Villano, Danylo J; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chih-Liang; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Junwen; Wei, Fusheng; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiner, George J; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; White, Emily; Witzig, Thomas E; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Guoping; Wu, Junjie; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ping; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Ye, Yuanqing; Yin, Zhihua; Yokota, Jun; Yoon, Ho-Il; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Zhenhong; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Zhu, Meng; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Boca, Simina M; Cerhan, James R; Ferri, Giovanni M; Hartge, Patricia; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Magnani, Corrado; Miligi, Lucia; Morton, Lindsay M; Smedby, Karin E; Teras, Lauren R; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Sophia S; Brennan, Paul; Caporaso, Neil E; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T; Slager, Susan L; Chanock, Stephen J; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.

  13. Prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to the anterior teeth among three to thirteen-year-old school children of Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Govindarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental trauma has become an important attribute of dental public health. The primary requisite before actively dealing with such problems is to describe the extent, distribution, and associated variables with the specific condition. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of traumatic dental injuries (TDI to anterior teeth among 3 to 13 years old Chidambaram school children. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was collected through a survey form and clinical examination. Materials and Methods: A total of 3200 school children in the age group of 3-13 years were selected from 10 schools of Chidambaram, Tamilnadu. Information concerning sex, age, cause of trauma, number of injured teeth, type of the teeth, lip competence, terminal plane relationship and the molar relationship were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical software EPIINFO (Version 6.0 was used for statistical analysis. In the present study, P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: The trauma prevalence in the present study was 10.13%. Children with class I type 2 and mesial step molar relationship exhibited more number of dental injuries. Enamel fracture was the most common injury recorded. Only 3.37% of the children had undergone treatment. Conclusion: The high level of dental trauma and low percentage of children with trauma seeking treatment stresses the need for increased awareness in Chidambaram population.

  14. The digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy content of dietary fat sources in thirteen- and fifty-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Patience, J F

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine the energy concentration of a diverse array of dietary fat sources and, from these data, develop regression equations that explain differences based on chemical composition. A total of 120 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) individually housed barrows were studied for 56 d. These barrows (initial BW of 9.9 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet plus 5% either corn starch or 1 of 14 dietary fat sources. The 14 dietary fat sources (animal-vegetable blend, canola oil, choice white grease source A, choice white grease source B, coconut oil, corn oil source A, corn oil source B, fish oil, flaxseed oil, palm oil, poultry fat, soybean oil source A, soybean oil source B, and tallow) were selected to provide a diverse and robust range of unsaturated fatty acid:SFA ratios (U:S). Pigs were limit-fed experimental diets from d 0 to 10 and from d 46 to 56, providing a 7-d adaption for fecal collection on d 7 to 10 (13 kg BW) and d 53 to 56 (50 kg BW). At 13 kg BW, the average energy content of the 14 sources was 8.42 Mcal DE/kg, 8.26 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.27 Mcal NE/kg. At 50 kg BW, the average energy content was 8.45 Mcal DE/kg, 8.28 Mcal ME/kg, and 7.29 Mcal NE/kg. At 13 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 9.363 + [0.097 × (FFA, %)] - [0.016 × omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids ratio] - [1.240 × (arachidic acid, %)] - [5.054 × (insoluble impurities, %)] + [0.014 × (palmitic acid, %)] ( = 0.008, = 0.82). At 50 kg BW, the variation of dietary fat DE content was explained by DE (Mcal/kg) = 8.357 + [0.189 × U:S] - [0.195 × (FFA, %)] - [6.768 × (behenic acid, %)] + [0.024 × (PUFA, %)] ( = 0.002, = 0.81). In summary, the chemical composition of dietary fat explained a large degree of the variation observed in the energy content of dietary fat sources at both 13 and 50 kg BW.

  15. Derivation of Grad’s Thirteen Regularized Moment Equations Using a Hermite Polynomial Representation of Velocity Distribution Function (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    B4) Substituting tui  / and tVT  /2 from the momentum and energy conservation law equations, Eqs...B9) Substituting tui  / and tVT  /2 from the momentum and energy conservation law equations, Eqs. (15...Substituting tui  / and tVT  /2 from the momentum and energy conservation law equations, Eqs. (15) and (16), into Eq. (B13) and then dropping all

  16. Diffusion and Perfusion Characteristics of MELAS (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episode) in Thirteen Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Eo, Hong; Yoo, So Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Rha, Jung Ho; Shu, Chang Hae

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of acute MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode) lesions in a large series to investigate the controversial changes of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that were reported in prior studies. We analyzed 44 newly appearing lesions during 28 stroke-like episodes in 13 patients with MELAS. We performed a visual assessment of the MR images including the ADC and perfusion maps, comparison of the ADC between the normal and abnormal areas, comparison of % ADC between the 44 MELAS lesions and the 30 acute ischemic infarcts. In addition, the patterns of evolution on follow-up MR images were analyzed. Decreased, increased, and normal ADCs were noted in 16 (36%), 16 (36%), and 12 (27%) lesions, respectively. The mean % ADC was 102 ± 40.9% in the MELAS and 64 ± 17.8% in the acute vascular infarcts (p < 0.001), while perfusion imaging demonstrated hyper-perfusion in six acute MELAS lesions. On follow-up images, resolution, progression, and tissue loss were noted in 10, 4, and 17 lesions, respectively. The cytotoxic edema gradually evolves following an acute stroke-like episode in patients with MELAS, and this may overlap with hyper-perfusion and vasogenic edema. The edematous swelling may be reversible or it may evolve to encephalomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage

  17. Diffusion and Perfusion Characteristics of MELAS (Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episode) in Thirteen Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Jeon, Tae Yeon; Rha, Jung Ho; Eo, Hong; Yoo, So-Young; Shu, Chang Hae

    2011-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of acute MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode) lesions in a large series to investigate the controversial changes of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) that were reported in prior studies. Materials and Methods We analyzed 44 newly appearing lesions during 28 stroke-like episodes in 13 patients with MELAS. We performed a visual assessment of the MR images including the ADC and perfusion maps, comparison of the ADC between the normal and abnormal areas, comparison of % ADC between the 44 MELAS lesions and the 30 acute ischemic infarcts. In addition, the patterns of evolution on follow-up MR images were analyzed. Results Decreased, increased, and normal ADCs were noted in 16 (36%), 16 (36%), and 12 (27%) lesions, respectively. The mean % ADC was 102 ± 40.9% in the MELAS and 64 ± 17.8% in the acute vascular infarcts (p MELAS lesions. On follow-up images, resolution, progression, and tissue loss were noted in 10, 4, and 17 lesions, respectively. Conclusion The cytotoxic edema gradually evolves following an acute stroke-like episode in patients with MELAS, and this may overlap with hyper-perfusion and vasogenic edema. The edematous swelling may be reversible or it may evolve to encephalomalacia, suggesting irreversible damage. PMID:21228936

  18. Thirteen week toxicity study of dietary l-tryptophan in rats with a recovery period of 5 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Hideki; Masuzawa, Yoko; Ohishi, Takumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Sakai, Ryosei

    2018-04-01

    Although l-tryptophan is nutritionally important and widely used in medical applications, toxicity data for its oral administration are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of an experimental diet containing added l-tryptophan at doses of 0 (basal diet), 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% when administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 13 weeks. There were no toxicological changes in clinical signs, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology between control rats and those fed additional l-tryptophan. Body weight gain and food consumption significantly decreased throughout the administration period in males in the 2.5% group and in both sexes in the 5.0% group. At the end of the dosing period, decreases in water intake in males in the 5.0% group and in serum glucose in females in the 5.0% group were observed. The changes described above were considered toxicologically significant; however, they were not observed after a 5 week recovery period, suggesting reversibility. Consequently, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of l-tryptophan in the present study was 1.25% for males and 2.5% for females (mean intake of l-tryptophan: 779 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [males] and 1765 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 [females]). As the basal diet used in this study contained 0.27% of proteinaceous l-tryptophan, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of overall l-tryptophan was 1.52% for males and 2.77% for females (mean intake of overall l-tryptophan: 948 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (males) and 1956 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 (females)). We conclude that l-tryptophan has a low toxicity profile in terms of human use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. L'expression orale apres treize ans d'immersion francaise (Oral Expression After Thirteen Years of French Immersion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Micheline; Hammerly, Hector

    1986-01-01

    Conversations with six twelfth graders who had been in French immersion since kindergarten found a high rate of incorrect sentences, suggesting a faulty interlanguage fossilized at grade six and a need for immersion program revision. (MSE)

  20. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Onset of Cardiovascular Diseases: a CALIBER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Stable Angina; Unstable Angina; Myocardial Infarction; Unheralded Coronary Heart Disease Death; Heart Failure; Cardiac Arrest; Transient Ischaemic Attack; Ischemic Stroke; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Intracerebral Hemorrhage; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Atrial Fibrillation

  1. Heart Rate and Initial Presentation of Cardiovascular Diseases (Caliber)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Coronary Heart Disease NOS; Unheralded Coronary Death; Intracerebral Haemorrhage; Heart Failure; Ischemic Stroke; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Stable Angina Pectoris; Subarachnoid Haemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Unstable Angina; Cardiac Arrest, Sudden Cardiac Death

  2. Ideas That Work in College Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Robert L., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As members of the faculty of the same college, the State University of New York at Potsdam, the fifteen contributors to this book have the unique experience of working from the same pool of students in order to explore how to improve teaching, enhance learning, and make the classroom more interesting. Together professors from thirteen different…

  3. Fatty fish and supplements are the greatest modifiable contributors to the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in a multiethnic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, I.M.; Boeke, A.J.P.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Grootjans-Geerts, I.; Wuister, J.D.; Deville, W.L.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Because vitamin D synthesis is lower in a heavily pigmented skin than in a lighter skin, the relative contribution of determinants to the vitamin D concentration might differ between ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the relative

  4. Fatty fish and supplements are the greatest modifiable contributors to the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in a multiethnic population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, I.M. van der; Boeke, A.J.P.; Lips, P.; Grootjans-Geerts, I.; Wuister, J.D.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Because vitamin D synthesis is lower in a heavily pigmented skin than in a lighter skin, the relative contribution of determinants to the vitamin D concentration might differ between ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the relative

  5. Leading Contributors to the Research Consortium's Annual Program, 1992-2011: High-Visibility Institutions, Researchers, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Lee, Hyo

    2013-01-01

    Between 1992-2011, peer-reviewed research on the Research Consortium's annual program has been published in abstract form in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport". On the basis of frequency, high-visibility institutions, researchers, and sub-disciplinary categories were identified. Data were extracted from each abstract (N =…

  6. Is the absence or intermittent YF vaccination the major contributor to its persistent outbreaks in eastern Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Marycelin Mandu; Ikusemoran, Mayomi

    2017-10-28

    Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious yellow fever vaccine since 1937, yellow fever remains a public health threat as a re-emerging disease in Africa and South America. We reviewed the trend of reported yellow fever outbreaks in eastern African countries, identified the risk epidemiological factors associated with the outbreaks and assessed the current situation of Yellow Fever vaccination in Africa. Surveillance and case finding for yellow fever in Africa are insufficient primarily due to lack of appropriate diagnostic capabilities, poor health infrastructure resulting in under-recognition, underreporting and underestimation of the disease. Despite these challenges, Ethiopia reported 302,614 cases (30,505 deaths) in 1943-2015, Kenya had 207 cases (38 deaths) in 1992-2016, Sudan experienced 31,750 suspected cases (1855 deaths) from 1940 to 2012 and Uganda had 452 cases (65 deaths) in 1941-2016. Major risk factors associated with past yellow fever outbreaks include climate, human practices and virus genetics. Comparisons between isolates from different outbreaks after 45 years have revealed the genetic stability of the structural proteins of YFV which are the primary targets of the host immune cells. This probably explains why yellow fever 17D vaccine is considered as outstandingly efficacious and safe after being used for 75 years. However, the 14 amino-acid changes among these isolates may have a greater impact on the changing disease epidemiology, virulence and transmission rate. Low population immunity against YF influences outbreak frequency especially in countries where the incorporation of YF vaccination is not combined with mass vaccination campaigns or vaccination is limited to international travellers. Understanding Yellow fever virus epidemiology as determined by its evolution underscores appropriate disease mitigation strategies and immunization policies. Mobilizing scarce resources to enhance population immunity through sufficient vaccination, promoting environmental sanitation/hygienic practices, driving behavioral change and community-based vector control are significant to preventing future epidemics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Poor sitting posture and a heavy schoolbag as contributors to musculoskeletal pain in children: an ergonomic school education intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan1, MN Mohamad Azhar1, AR Anita1, HS Azizan1, MS Shaharuddin2, J Muhamad Hanafiah3, AA Muhaimin4, AM Nizar5, B Mohd Rafee1,6, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Adam Kasani71Environmental and Occupational Medicine Unit, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Environmental and Occupational Health Unit, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Health Services Management Unit, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Ergonomic Division, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, MalaysiaObjectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multidisciplinary, interventional, ergonomic education program designed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems by reducing schoolbag weight and correcting poor sitting posture.Methods: Data were collected twice before and twice following intervention using the Standardized Nordic Body Map Questionnaire, a rapid upper limb assessment for posture evaluation, and schoolbag weight measurement in children aged 8 and 11 years attending two schools within the central region of Malaysia.Results: Students who received the ergonomic intervention reported significant improvements in their sitting posture in a classroom environment and reduction of schoolbag weight as compared with the controls.Conclusion: A single-session, early intervention, group ergonomics education program for children aged 8 and 11 years is appropriate and effective, and should be considered as a strategy to reduce musculoskeletal pain among schoolchildren in this age group.Keywords: ergonomic, education, intervention, assessment, musculoskeletal pain, school children, awareness

  8. DUST IN THE POLAR REGION AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO THE INFRARED EMISSION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, S. F.; Antonucci, R. [Department of Physics, University of California in Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Kishimoto, M.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Asmus, D.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Prieto, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burtscher, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Duschl, W. J., E-mail: shoenig@physics.ucsb.edu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, D-24098, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    Dust around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is distributed over a wide range of spatial scales and can be observed in the infrared (IR). It is generally assumed that the distribution on parsec scales forms a geometrically and optically thick entity in the equatorial plane around the accretion disk and broad-line region-dubbed {sup d}ust torus{sup -}that emits the bulk of the subarcsecond-scale IR emission and gives rise to orientation-dependent obscuration. However, recent IR interferometry studies with unprecedented position angle (P.A.) and baseline coverage on these small scales in two obscured (type 2) AGNs have revealed that the majority of the mid-IR emission in these objects is elongated in the polar direction. These observations are difficult to reconcile with the standard interpretation that most of the parsec-scale mid-IR emission in AGNs originate from the torus and challenges the justification of using simple torus models to model the broadband IR emission. Here, we report detailed interferometry observations of the unobscured (type 1) AGN in NGC 3783 that allow us to constrain the size, elongation, and direction of the mid-IR emission with high accuracy. The mid-IR emission is characterized by a strong elongation toward position angle P.A. -52 Degree-Sign , closely aligned with the polar axis (P.A. -45 Degree-Sign ). We determine half-light radii along the major and minor axes at 12.5 {mu}m of (20.0 {+-} 3.0) mas Multiplication-Sign (6.7 {+-} 1.0) mas or (4.23 {+-} 0.63) pc Multiplication-Sign (1.42 {+-} 0.21) pc, which corresponds to intrinsically scaled sizes of (69.4 {+-} 10.8) r{sub in} Multiplication-Sign (23.3 {+-} 3.5) r{sub in} for the inner dust radius of r{sub in} = 0.061 pc as inferred from near-IR reverberation mapping. This implies an axis ratio of 3:1, with about 60%-90% of the 8-13 {mu}m emission associated with the polar-elongated component. It is quite likely that the hot-dust emission as recently resolved by near-IR interferometry is misaligned with the mid-IR emitting source, which also finds a correspondence in the two distinct 3-5 {mu}m and 20 {mu}m bumps seen in the high angular resolution spectral energy distribution (SED). Based on this SED, we determine covering factors for the hot and warm dust components of C{sub hot}= 0.42{sup +0.42}{sub -0.21} and C{sub warm}= 0.92{sup +0.92}{sub -0.46}, respectively. We conclude that these observations support a scenario where the majority of the mid-IR emission in Seyfert AGNs originate from a dusty wind in the polar region of the AGN.

  9. Dairy Products as Essential Contributors of (Micro-) Nutrients in Reference Food Patterns: An Outline for Elderly People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    he nutrient richness of dairy products is widely recognized, but mainly low fat or skimmed versions are generally advocated given the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat. The question arises how to appraise this nutrient richness relative to the contribution of the saturated fraction of

  10. A tribute to Dr. Paul A. J. Janssen: entrepreneur extraordinaire, innovative scientist, and significant contributor to anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Theodore H; Egan, Talmage D; Van Aken, Hugo

    2008-02-01

    Dr. Paul Janssen was the founder of Janssen Pharmaceutica and the developer of over 80 pharmaceutical compounds that proved useful in human, botanical, and veterinary medicine. He and his coworkers synthesized the fentanyl family of drugs, many other potent analgesics, droperidol, etomidate, and numerous other important medicines that were extremely useful in psychiatry, parasitology, gastroenterology, cardiology, virology, and immunology. Anesthesiology and medicine as a whole have benefited a great deal from his resourcefulness, creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit.

  11. Altered Mitochondria, Protein Synthesis Machinery, and Purine Metabolism Are Molecular Contributors to the Pathogenesis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoleaga, Belén; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Llorens, Franc; Hernández-Ortega, Karina; Carmona Tech, Margarita; Antonio Del Rio, José; Zerr, Inga; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-06-12

    Neuron loss, synaptic decline, and spongiform change are the hallmarks of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), and may be related to deficiencies in mitochondria, energy metabolism, and protein synthesis. To investigate these relationships, we determined the expression levels of genes encoding subunits of the 5 protein complexes of the electron transport chain, proteins involved in energy metabolism, nucleolar and ribosomal proteins, and enzymes of purine metabolism in frontal cortex samples from 15 cases of sCJD MM1 and age-matched controls. We also assessed the protein expression levels of subunits of the respiratory chain, initiation and elongation translation factors of protein synthesis, and localization of selected mitochondrial components. We identified marked, generalized alterations of mRNA and protein expression of most subunits of all 5 mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in sCJD cases. Expression of molecules involved in protein synthesis and purine metabolism were also altered in sCJD. These findings point to altered mRNA and protein expression of components of mitochondria, protein synthesis machinery, and purine metabolism as components of the pathogenesis of CJD. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Excessive by-product formation : A key contributor to low isobutanol yields of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, N.S.W.; Wahl, S.A.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    It is theoretically possible to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which isobutanol is the predominant catabolic product and high-yielding isobutanol-producing strains are already reported by industry. Conversely, isobutanol yields of engineered S. cerevisiae strains reported in the

  13. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  14. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke De Bock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury.

  15. Psychometrics of the AAN Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire and contributors to caregiver concern about driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Springate, Beth; Bernier, Rachel A; Davis, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated their practice parameters in the evaluation of driving risk in dementia and developed a Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire, detailed in their original manuscript (Iverson Gronseth, Reger, Classen, Dubinsky, & Rizzo, 2010). They described four factors associated with decreased driving ability in dementia patients: history of crashes or citations, informant-reported concerns, reduced mileage, and aggressive driving. An informant-reported AAN Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire was designed with these elements, and the current study was the first to explore the factor structure of this questionnaire. Additionally, we examined associations between these factors and cognitive and behavioral measures in patients with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer's disease and their informants. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-component structure, consistent with the theory behind the AAN scale composition. These four factor scores also were significantly associated with performance on cognitive screening instruments and informant reported behavioral dysfunction. Regressions revealed that behavioral dysfunction predicted caregiver concerns about driving safety beyond objective patient cognitive dysfunction. In this first known quantitative exploration of the scale, our results support continued use of this scale in office driving safety assessments. Additionally, patient behavioral changes predicted caregiver concerns about driving safety over and above cognitive status, which suggests that caregivers may benefit from psychoeducation about cognitive factors that may negatively impact driving safety.

  16. The Abundance of Toxic Genotypes Is a Key Contributor to Anatoxin Variability in Phormidium-Dominated Benthic Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of benthic proliferations of the anatoxin-producing cyanobacterium Phormidium are increasing in cobble-bed rivers worldwide. Studies to date have shown high spatial and temporal variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats. In this study we determined anatoxin quotas (toxins per cell in field samples and compared these results to the conventionally-used concentrations (assessed per dry weight of mat. Three mats were selected at sites in two rivers and were sampled every 2–3 h for 24–26 h. The samples were lyophilized and ground to a fine homogenous powder. Two aliquots of known weights were analyzed for anatoxin congeners using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or digital droplet PCR with Phormidium-specific anaC primers to measure absolute quantities of gene copies. Anatoxin concentrations in the mats varied 59- and 303-fold in the two rivers over the study periods. A similar pattern was observed among gene copies (53- and 2828-fold. When converted to anatoxin quotas there was markedly less variability (42- and 16-fold, but significantly higher anatoxin quotas were observed in mats from the second river (p < 0.001, Student’s t-test. There were no obvious temporal patterns with high and low anatoxin concentrations or quotas measured at each sampling time and across the study period. These results demonstrate that variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats is primarily due to the abundance of toxic genotypes. No consistent modulation in anatoxin production was observed during the study, although significant differences in anatoxin quotas among rivers suggest that site-specific physiochemical or biological factors may influence anatoxin production.

  17. Excessive scleral shrinkage, rather than choroidal thickening, is a major contributor to the development of hypotony maculopathy after trabeculectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Sakamoto

    Full Text Available We previously reported that eyes with hypotony maculopathy (HM after trabeculectomy (TLE exhibited more reduction of axial length (AL than those without HM, suggesting that inward collapse of the scleral wall may contribute to the development of HM after TLE. However, we did not evaluate change in choroidal thickness (CT, which could influence AL measures. We compared the magnitude and rate of AL and CT changes in eyes with and without HM by simultaneously measuring these parameters before and after TLE.We enrolled 77 eyes of 77consecutive patients with glaucoma, who underwent TLE between March 2014 and March 2016. Intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness, keratometry, AL, and CT were measured pre- and postoperatively, up to 6 months. These biometrics were compared in eyes with and without HM.The 14 patients who developed HM were significantly younger than those who did not. The eyes with HM exhibited significantly reduced AL (2.8% compared to those without HM (0.7%. There was no significant difference in CT change between the two groups. The rate of AL reduction was significantly correlated with age, postoperative IOP, and preoperative AL. Post-adjustment logistic regression analysis revealed that eyes with AL reduction rate ≥ 2% had 11.67 higher risk for developing HM (95% confidence interval, 1.28-106.6; P = 0.03.AL reduction rates ≥ 2% were significantly associated with HM. Excessive reduction in AL, which was seen in eyes with HM, was not an artificial measure resulting from choroidal thickening but rather reflected reductions in the anterior-posterior diameter of the eyeball. Inward collapse of the scleral wall leads to redundancy of the chorioretinal tissue, contributing to the development of HM after TLE.

  18. Isoprenaline: A Potential Contributor in Sick Sinus Syndrome—Insights from a Mathematical Model of the Rabbit Sinoatrial Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of isoprenaline exerting its effects on cardiac pacemaking and driving in sick sinus syndrome is controversial and unresolved. In this paper, mathematical models for rabbit sinoatrial node cells were modified by incorporating equations for the known dose-dependent actions of isoprenaline on various ionic channel currents, the intracellular Ca2+ transient, and iNa changes induced by SCN5A gene mutations; the cell models were also incorporated into an intact SAN-atrium model of the rabbit heart that is based on both heterogeneities of the SAN electrophysiology and histological structure. Our results show that, in both central and peripheral cell models, isoprenaline could not only shorten the action potential duration, but also increase the amplitude of action potential. The mutation impaired the SAN pacemaking. Simulated vagal nerve activity amplified the bradycardic effects of the mutation. However, in tissue case, the pacemaker activity may show temporal, spatial, or even spatiotemporal cessation caused by the mutation. Addition of isoprenaline could significantly diminish the bradycardic effect of the mutation and the SAN could restart pacing and driving the surrounding tissue. Positive effects of isoprenaline may primarily be attributable to an increase in iNa and iCa,T which were reduced by the mutation.

  19. Cultural Contributors to Smoking Susceptibility Outcomes Among Latino Youth: The Padres Informados/Jovenes Preparados Participatory Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Hurtado, G Ali; Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Davey, Cynthia; Forster, Jean; Reynoso, Ursula; Alvarez de Davila, Silvia; Linares, Roxana; Gonzales, Nancy; Veronica Svetaz, María

    Padres Informados/Jovenes Preparados is a community-based participatory, family-focused tobacco prevention intervention for immigrant Latino families of adolescents. We conducted a participatory randomized controlled trial including 352 Latino families. Parents and youth in the intervention condition engaged in eight family skill building sessions. Participants completed baseline and 6-month postintervention surveys assessing smoking susceptibility and contextual factors. While the intervention did not affect smoking susceptibility overall, it resulted in lower smoking susceptibility among youth in families with less adherence to traditional Latino cultural values. This family cultural orientation is a key consideration for tobacco prevention interventions focused on Latino youth.

  20. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  1. Unlocking the Potential of Web Localizers as Contributors to Image Accessibility: What Do Evaluation Tools Have to Offer?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Vazquez, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Creating appropriate text alternatives to render images accessible in the web is a shared responsibility among all actors involved in the web development cycle, including web localization professionals. However, they often lack the knowledge needed to correctly transfer image accessibility across different website language versions. In this paper, we provide insight into translators' performance as regards their accessibility achievements during text alternatives adaptation from English into ...

  2. Causes of and contributors to infant mortality in a rural community of North India: evidence from verbal and social autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Priti; Misra, Puneet; Pandav, Chandrakant Sambhaji; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2017-08-11

    To identify the medical causes of death and contribution of non-biological factors towards infant mortality by a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data using verbal and social autopsy tools. The study site was Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), Ballabgarh, North India PARTICIPANTS: All infant deaths during the years 2008-2012 were included for verbal autopsy and infant deaths from July 2012 to December 2012 were included for social autopsy. Cause of death ascertained by a validated verbal autopsy tool and level of delay based on a three-delay model using the INDEPTH social autopsy tool were the main outcome measures. The level of delay was defined as follows: level 1, delay in identification of danger signs and decision making to seek care; level 2, delay in reaching a health facility from home; level 3, delay in getting healthcare at the health facility. The infant mortality rate during the study period was 46.5/1000 live births. Neonatal deaths contributed to 54.3% of infant deaths and 39% occurred on the first day of life. Birth asphyxia (31.5%) followed by low birth weight (LBW)/prematurity (26.5%) were the most common causes of neonatal death, while infection (57.8%) was the most common cause of post-neonatal death. Care-seeking was delayed among 50% of neonatal deaths and 41.2% of post-neonatal deaths. Delay at level 1 was most common and occurred in 32.4% of neonatal deaths and 29.4% of post-neonatal deaths. Deaths due to LBW/prematurity were mostly followed by delay at level 1. A high proportion of preventable infant mortality still exists in an area which is under continuous health and demographic surveillance. There is a need to enhance home-based preventive care to enable the mother to identify and respond to danger signs. Verbal autopsy and social autopsy could be routinely done to guide policy interventions aimed at reduction of infant mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Fucus and Ascophyllum seaweeds are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    OpenAIRE

    H. Berresheim; C. D. O'Dowd; F. C. Küpper; P. P. A. Smyth; J. Chen; A. L. Vogel; D. Ceburnis; D. S. Venables; M. Kundel; U. R. Thorenz; R.-J. Huang; T. Hoffmann

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. I2 mixing ratios from 104 to 393 ppt were found above the macroalgae beds, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are suffic...

  4. Human, animal and environmental contributors to antibiotic resistance in low-resource settings: integrating behavioural, epidemiological and One Health approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousham, Emily K; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    2018-04-11

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is recognized as a One Health challenge because of the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria and genes among humans, animals and the environment on a global scale. However, there is a paucity of research assessing ABR contemporaneously in humans, animals and the environment in low-resource settings. This critical review seeks to identify the extent of One Health research on ABR in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing research has highlighted hotspots for environmental contamination; food-animal production systems that are likely to harbour reservoirs or promote transmission of ABR as well as high and increasing human rates of colonization with ABR commensal bacteria such as Escherichia coli However, very few studies have integrated all three components of the One Health spectrum to understand the dynamics of transmission and the prevalence of community-acquired resistance in humans and animals. Microbiological, epidemiological and social science research is needed at community and population levels across the One Health spectrum in order to fill the large gaps in knowledge of ABR in low-resource settings. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. k0-INAA as a contributor in nutrition and health. Multielemental determination in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, leaves and stevioside product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.S.; Ubillus, M.S.; Mendoza, P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Concerned about food safety and considering the advantages that bring the use of the powerful INAA technique based in k 0 method, we have decided to perform a complete multi element determination in the leaves and in the product stevioside, of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, which use as a sweetener has increased in the last decade. Using Stevia leaves from different origin, thirty seven elements were determined using k 0 -INAA; copper was quantified using ontoFAAS, while sixteen elements were determined in the stevioside product from different manufacturers. The results indicated that it is necessary to make a strict quality control on the content of elements in leaves, which are used both as a raw material of the stevioside product, as a sweetener. (author)

  6. Vection is the main contributor to motion sickness induced by visual yaw rotation: Implications for conflict and eye movement theories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne A E Nooij

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of vection (i.e., a visually induced sense of self-motion, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN, and inadvertent head movements in visually induced motion sickness (VIMS, evoked by yaw rotation of the visual surround. These three elements have all been proposed as contributing factors in VIMS, as they can be linked to different motion sickness theories. However, a full understanding of the role of each factor is still lacking because independent manipulation has proven difficult in the past. We adopted an integrative approach to the problem by obtaining measures of potentially relevant parameters in four experimental conditions and subsequently combining them in a linear mixed regression model. To that end, participants were exposed to visual yaw rotation in four separate sessions. Using a full factorial design, the OKN was manipulated by a fixation target (present/absent, and vection strength by introducing a conflict in the motion direction of the central and peripheral field of view (present/absent. In all conditions, head movements were minimized as much as possible. Measured parameters included vection strength, vection variability, OKN slow phase velocity, OKN frequency, the number of inadvertent head movements, and inadvertent head tilt. Results show that VIMS increases with vection strength, but that this relation varies among participants (R2 = 0.48. Regression parameters for vection variability, head and eye movement parameters were not significant. These results may seem to be in line with the Sensory Conflict theory on motion sickness, but we argue that a more detailed definition of the exact nature of the conflict is required to fully appreciate the relationship between vection and VIMS.

  7. Historical inability to control Aedes aegypti as a main contributor of fast dispersal of chikungunya outbreaks in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ulloa, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Marina, Carlos F; Lopez-Ordóñez, Teresa; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando; Torres-Monzón, Jorge A; Díaz-González, Esteban E

    2015-12-01

    The arrival of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in Latin American countries has been expected to trigger epidemics and challenge health systems. Historically considered as dengue-endemic countries, abundant Aedes aegypti populations make this region highly vulnerable to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulation. This review describes the current dengue and CHIKF epidemiological situations, as well as the role of uncontrolled Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus vectors in spreading the emerging CHIKV. Comments are included relating to the vector competence of both species and failures of surveillance and vector control measures. Dengue endemicity is a reflection of these abundant and persistent Aedes populations that are now spreading CHIKV in the Americas. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevoo Lucy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and appropriate treatment in Dodowa HDSS, there were severe challenges to prompt and adequate case management in the health system in both study sites in Ghana and Uganda. Meanwhile, caretaker awareness of danger signs needs to improve in both countries to promote early care seeking and to reduce the number of children needing referral. Social autopsy methods can improve this understanding, which can assist health planners to prioritize scarce resources appropriately.

  9. Seasonality of service provision in hip and knee surgery: a possible contributor to waiting times? A time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Ross E G; Moineddin, Rahim; Crighton, Eric J; Mamdani, Muhammad

    2006-03-01

    The question of how best to reduce waiting times for health care, particularly surgical procedures such as hip and knee replacements is among the most pressing concern of the Canadian health care system. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that significant seasonal variation exists in the performance of hip and knee replacement surgery in the province of Ontario. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional time series analysis examining all hip and knee replacement surgeries in people over the age of 65 in the province of Ontario, Canada between 1992 and 2002. The main outcome measure was monthly hospitalization rates per 100,000 population for all hip and knee replacements. There was a marked increase in the rate of hip and knee replacement surgery over the 10-year period as well as an increasing seasonal variation in surgeries. Highly significant (Fisher Kappa = 16.05, p Holidays and utilization caps appear to exert a significant influence on the rate of service provision. It is expected that waiting times for hip and knee replacement could be reduced by reducing seasonal fluctuations in service provision and benchmarking services to peak delivery. The results highlight the importance of system behaviour in seasonal fluctuation of service delivery.

  10. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Advanced glycation end-products produced systemically and by macrophages: A common contributor to inflammation and degenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyunghee; Yoo, YongCheol; Son, Myeongjoo; Lee, Jaesuk; Jeong, Goo-Bo; Park, Young Mok; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Lee, Bonghee

    2017-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor have been implicated in the progressions of many intractable diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, and are also critical for pathologic changes in chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and alcoholic brain damage. Recently activated macrophages were found to be a source of AGEs, and the most abundant form of AGEs, AGE-albumin excreted by macrophages has been implicated in these diseases and to act through common pathways. AGEs inhibition has been shown to prevent the pathogenesis of AGEs-related diseases in human, and therapeutic advances have resulted in several agents that prevent their adverse effects. Recently, anti-inflammatory molecules that inhibit AGEs have been shown to be good candidates for ameliorating diabetic complications as well as degenerative diseases. This review was undertaken to present, discuss, and clarify current understanding regarding AGEs formation in association with macrophages, different diseases, therapeutic and diagnostic strategy and links with RAGE inhibition. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Bellard, C.; Tellier, A.; Cam, le B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Kleinschmit, J.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past

  13. The Mobilome; A Major Contributor to Escherichia coli stx2-Positive O26:H11 Strains Intra-Serotype Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Delannoy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2-positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2-positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2-positive and stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 genomes obtained from Genbank indicates the existence of four clonal complexes (SNP-CCs separated in two distinct lineages, one of which comprises the “new French clone” (SNP-CC1 that appears genetically closely related to stx-negative attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC strains. Interestingly, the whole genome SNP (wgSNP phylogeny is summarized in the cas gene phylogeny, and a simple qPCR assay targeting the CRISPR array specific to SNP-CC1 (SP_O26-E can distinguish between the two main lineages. The PacBio sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the mobile genetic elements (MGEs of the strains. Numerous MGEs were identified in each strain, including a large number of prophages and up to four large plasmids, representing overall 8.7–19.8% of the total genome size. Analysis of the prophage pool of the strains shows a considerable diversity with a complex history of recombination. Each clonal complex (SNP-CC is characterized by a unique set of plasmids and phages, including stx-prophages, suggesting evolution through separate acquisition events. Overall, the MGEs appear to play a major role in O26:H11 intra-serotype clonal diversification.

  14. The Mobilome; A Major Contributor to Escherichia coli stx2-Positive O26:H11 Strains Intra-Serotype Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Sabine; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Webb, Hattie E; Bonacorsi, Stephane; Fach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli of serotype O26:H11/H- constitute a diverse group of strains and several clones with distinct genetic characteristics have been identified and characterized. Whole genome sequencing was performed using Illumina and PacBio technologies on eight stx2 -positive O26:H11 strains circulating in France. Comparative analyses of the whole genome of the stx2 -positive O26:H11 strains indicate that several clones of EHEC O26:H11 are co-circulating in France. Phylogenetic analysis of the French strains together with stx2 -positive and stx -negative E. coli O26:H11 genomes obtained from Genbank indicates the existence of four clonal complexes (SNP-CCs) separated in two distinct lineages, one of which comprises the "new French clone" (SNP-CC1) that appears genetically closely related to stx -negative attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC) strains. Interestingly, the whole genome SNP (wgSNP) phylogeny is summarized in the cas gene phylogeny, and a simple qPCR assay targeting the CRISPR array specific to SNP-CC1 (SP_O26-E) can distinguish between the two main lineages. The PacBio sequencing allowed a detailed analysis of the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of the strains. Numerous MGEs were identified in each strain, including a large number of prophages and up to four large plasmids, representing overall 8.7-19.8% of the total genome size. Analysis of the prophage pool of the strains shows a considerable diversity with a complex history of recombination. Each clonal complex (SNP-CC) is characterized by a unique set of plasmids and phages, including stx -prophages, suggesting evolution through separate acquisition events. Overall, the MGEs appear to play a major role in O26:H11 intra-serotype clonal diversification.

  15. Prolactin fragmentation by trophoblastic matrix metalloproteinases as a possible contributor to peripartum cardiomyopathy and pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuwer, Anne Q.; Reuwer, Paul J. H. M.; van der Post, Joris A.; Cramer, Maarten J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Twickler, Marcel Th B.

    2010-01-01

    Although peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare disease, it has very serious consequences for both mother and child. No single cause has been held responsible for the pathogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that increased proteolytic cathepsin D activity in cardiomyocytes results in 16 kDa

  16. Biological nitrogen fixation is not a major contributor to the nitrogen demand of a commercially growth South African sugarcane cultivar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, G.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Watt, D.A.; Cramer, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    It has previously been reported that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria contribute significantly to the nitrogen budgets of some graminaceous species. In this study the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation to the N-budget of a South African sugarcane cultivar was evaluated using 15N natural

  17. Lake fish as the main contributor of internal dose to lakeshore residents in the Chernobyl contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.G.; Bazjukin, A.N.; Bruk, G.Ja.; Shutov, V.N.; Balonov, M.I.; Skuterud, L.; Mehli, H.; Strand, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two field expeditions in 1996 studied 137 Cs intake patterns and its content in the bodies of adult residents from the village Kozhany in the Bryansk region, Russia, located on the shore of a drainless peat lake in an area subjected to significant radioactive contamination after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The 137 Cs contents in lake water and fish were two orders of magnitude greater than in local rivers and flow-through lakes, 10 years after Chernobyl radioactive contamination, and remain stable. The 137 Cs content in lake fish and a mixture of forest mushrooms was between approximately 10-20 kBq/kg, which exceeded the temporary Russian permissible levels for these products by a factor of 20-40. Consumption of lake fish gave the main contribution to internal doses (40-50%) for Kozhany village inhabitants Simple countermeasures, such as Prussian blue doses for dairy cows and pre-boiling mushrooms and fish before cooking, halved the 137 Cs internal dose to inhabitants, even 10 years after the radioactive fallout

  18. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Jiang, Xiaolu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Jingwen; Sun, Guoqing

    2017-03-23

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewable resource industrial park in mainland China. With a discrete site investigation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) concentrations, the continuous surfaces of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by these heavy metals were estimated and mapped. Source apportionment analysis using geographical detector methods further revealed that these risks were primarily attributed to As, according to the power of the determinant and its associated synergic actions with other heavy metals. Concentrations of critical As and Cd, and the associated exposed CRs are closed to the safe thresholds after remediating the risk areas identified by the integrated H-G scheme. Therefore, the integrated H-G scheme provides an effective approach to support decision-making for regional contaminated soil remediation at fine spatial resolution with limited sampling data over a large geographical extent.

  19. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zou; Xiaolu Jiang; Xiaoli Duan; Xiuge Zhao; Jing Zhang; Jingwen Tang; Guoqing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewabl...

  20. Contributors to Frequent Telehealth Alerts Including False Alerts for Patients with Heart Failure: A Mixed Methods Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, K.; Bowles, K.; Zettek-Sumner, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Telehealth data overload through high alert generation is a significant barrier to sustained adoption of telehealth for managing HF patients. Objective To explore the factors contributing to frequent telehealth alerts including false alerts for Medicare heart failure (HF) patients admitted to a home health agency. Materials and Methods A mixed methods design that combined quantitative correlation analysis of patient characteristic data with number of telehealth alerts and qualitative analysis of telehealth and visiting nurses’ notes on follow-up actions to patients’ telehealth alerts was employed. All the quantitative and qualitative data was collected through retrospective review of electronic records of the home heath agency. Results Subjects in the study had a mean age of 83 (SD = 7.6); 56% were female. Patient co-morbidities (ppatient characteristics along with establishing patient-centered telehealth outcome goals may allow meaningful generation of telehealth alerts. Reducing avoidable telehealth alerts could vastly improve the efficiency and sustainability of telehealth programs for HF management. PMID:24454576

  1. Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

    2011-01-01

    In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

  2. Childhood adversities as specific contributors to the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mario; Vandeleur, Caroline; Rodgers, Stephanie; Rössler, Wulf; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-08-30

    There is much evidence that alcohol use disorders (AUD) often co-occur with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), and that the comorbid condition is associated with a more severe clinical profile than that of PTSD without AUD. However, little is known about the role of childhood adversities as specific risk factors for the development of AUD in individuals presenting with PTSD. The aim of the study was to explore whether specific stressors from the spectrum of trauma and childhood adversities contribute to the development of AUD among subjects with PTSD. From a large community sample, of N=140 individuals with PTSD, N=24 (17.14%) received an additional diagnosis of AUD with an onset after the onset of PTSD. Those with comorbid PTSD/AUD and those with PTSD only were compared regarding type and features of their trauma, childhood adversities and psychiatric comorbidity. Compared to PTSD alone, PTSD/AUD was associated with higher levels of stress in terms of childhood adversities; in particular, sexual abuse below the age of 16, but also with having been brought up in a foster home. PTSD/AUD was also associated with an earlier age of adverse events. Treatment of AUD should include standardized assessments of trauma, especially of trauma experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The cardiac cycle is a major contributor to variability in size measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysms by ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndal, Nikolaj Fibiger; Bramsen, Morten; Thomsen, Marie Dahl

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the cardiac cycle on ultrasound measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameters.......The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the cardiac cycle on ultrasound measurements of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameters....

  4. Green roofs as contributors for water management schemes within urban areas – a pilot study in Porto

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, C. M.; Calheiros, C. S. C.; Pimentel-Rodrigues, C.; Palha, P.; Silva-Afonso, A.; Castro, P. M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern and a holistic approach to water management is needed to overcome the potential threats that climate change brings to water availability and security in many parts of the globe. Societal and economic challenges need to be addressed when implementing technological solutions to environmental problems. The fact that green areas in the cities have been reduced and replaced by impervious buildings and paved streets has caused a number of problems, su...

  5. Poor sitting posture and a heavy schoolbag as contributors to musculoskeletal pain in children: an ergonomic school education intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Anita, AR; Azizan, HS; Shaharuddin, MS; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Muhaimin, AA; Nizar, AM; Rafee, B Mohd; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Kasani, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multidisciplinary, interventional, ergonomic education program designed to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems by reducing schoolbag weight and correcting poor sitting posture. Methods Data were collected twice before and twice following intervention using the Standardized Nordic Body Map Questionnaire, a rapid upper limb assessment for posture evaluation, and schoolbag weight measurement in children aged 8 and 11 years attending two schools within the central region of Malaysia. Results Students who received the ergonomic intervention reported significant improvements in their sitting posture in a classroom environment and reduction of schoolbag weight as compared with the controls. Conclusion A single-session, early intervention, group ergonomics education program for children aged 8 and 11 years is appropriate and effective, and should be considered as a strategy to reduce musculoskeletal pain among schoolchildren in this age group. PMID:22003301

  6. Copy number variation of human AMY1 is a minor contributor to variation in salivary amylase expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Mitchell, Laura M; Armour, John A L

    2017-02-20

    Salivary amylase in humans is encoded by the copy variable gene AMY1 in the amylase gene cluster on chromosome 1. Although the role of salivary amylase is well established, the consequences of the copy number variation (CNV) at AMY1 on salivary amylase protein production are less well understood. The amylase gene cluster is highly structured with a fundamental difference between odd and even AMY1 copy number haplotypes. In this study, we aimed to explore, in samples from 119 unrelated individuals, not only the effects of AMY1 CNV on salivary amylase protein expression and amylase enzyme activity but also whether there is any evidence for underlying difference between the common haplotypes containing odd numbers of AMY1 and even copy number haplotypes. AMY1 copy number was significantly correlated with the variation observed in salivary amylase production (11.7% of variance, P structure may affect expression, but this was not significant in our data.

  7. Poor medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: recognizing the scope of the problem and its key contributors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonsky WH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available William H Polonsky,1,2 Robert R Henry2,3 1Behavioral Diabetes Institute, San Diego, 2University of California, San Diego, 3Center for Metabolic Research, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: At least 45% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D fail to achieve adequate glycemic control (HbA1c <7%. One of the major contributing factors is poor medication adherence. Poor medication adherence in T2D is well documented to be very common and is associated with inadequate glycemic control; increased morbidity and mortality; and increased costs of outpatient care, emergency room visits, hospitalization, and managing complications of diabetes. Poor medication adherence is linked to key nonpatient factors (eg, lack of integrated care in many health care systems and clinical inertia among health care professionals, patient demographic factors (eg, young age, low education level, and low income level, critical patient beliefs about their medications (eg, perceived treatment inefficacy, and perceived patient burden regarding obtaining and taking their medications (eg, treatment complexity, out-of-pocket costs, and hypoglycemia. Specific barriers to medication adherence in T2D, especially those that are potentially modifiable, need to be more clearly identified; strategies that target poor adherence should focus on reducing medication burden and addressing negative medication beliefs of patients. Solutions to these problems would require behavioral innovations as well as new methods and modes of drug delivery. Keywords: glycemic control, HbA1c, hypoglycemia, medication adherence, psychosocial, type 2 diabetes

  8. Two overlooked contributors to abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in Kenya: parents' social network and experiences with hospital retention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; Langat, S C; Slot, A J M; Skiles, J; Sitaresmi, M N; van de Ven, P M; Musimbi, J; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-06-01

    The principal reason for childhood cancer treatment failure in low-income countries is treatment abandonment, the most severe form of nonadherence. Two often neglected factors that may contribute to treatment abandonment are as follows: (a) lack of information and guidance by doctors, along with the negative beliefs of family and friends advising parents, which contributes to misconceptions regarding cancer and its treatment, and (b) a widespread policy in public hospitals by which children are retained after doctor's discharge until medical bills are settled. This study explored parents' experiences with hospital retention policies in a Kenyan academic hospital and the impact of attitudes of family and friends on parents' decisions about continuing cancer treatment for their child. Home visits were conducted to interview parents of childhood cancer patients who had been diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and who had abandoned cancer treatment. Retrospective chart review revealed 98 children diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 whose parents had made the decisions to abandon treatment. During 2011-2012, 53 families (54%) could be reached, and 46 (87%) of these agreed to be interviewed. Parents reported the attitudes of community members (grandparents, relatives, friends, villagers, and church members); 61% believed that the child had been bewitched by some individual, and 74% advised parents to seek alternative treatment or advised them to stop medical treatment (54%). Parents also reported that they were influenced by discussions with other parents who had a child being treated, including that their child's life was in God's hands (87%), the trauma to the child and family of forced hospital stays (84%), the importance of completing treatment (81%), the financial burden of treatment (77%), and the incurability of cancer (74%). These discussions influenced their perceptions of cancer treatment and its usefulness (65%). Thirty-six families (78%) had no health insurance, and 19 of these parents (53%) could not pay their medical bills and were not allowed to take their child home when treatment ended. Parents reported feelings of desperation (95%), powerlessness (95%), and sadness (84%) and that their child has been imprisoned (80%), during the period of retention. The majority of parents (87%) felt that hospital retention of children must cease. The attitudes and beliefs of parents of children with cancer are impacted by those close to them and their community and may influence their perceptions of cancer treatment and decisions to stop treatment. Hospital retention policies are highly distressing for parents and may contribute to both treatment delays and treatment abandonment. These factors jeopardize treatment outcomes for young patients and require attention and modification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Seasonality of service provision in hip and knee surgery: A possible contributor to waiting times? A time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how best to reduce waiting times for health care, particularly surgical procedures such as hip and knee replacements is among the most pressing concern of the Canadian health care system. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that significant seasonal variation exists in the performance of hip and knee replacement surgery in the province of Ontario. Methods We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional time series analysis examining all hip and knee replacement surgeries in people over the age of 65 in the province of Ontario, Canada between 1992 and 2002. The main outcome measure was monthly hospitalization rates per 100 000 population for all hip and knee replacements. Results There was a marked increase in the rate of hip and knee replacement surgery over the 10-year period as well as an increasing seasonal variation in surgeries. Highly significant (Fisher Kappa = 16.05, p 2Autoreg = 0.85 seasonality was identified in the data. Conclusion Holidays and utilization caps appear to exert a significant influence on the rate of service provision. It is expected that waiting times for hip and knee replacement could be reduced by reducing seasonal fluctuations in service provision and benchmarking services to peak delivery. The results highlight the importance of system behaviour in seasonal fluctuation of service delivery.

  10. Hypervariable Region 1 Shielding of Hepatitis C Virus Is a Main Contributor to Genotypic Differences in Neutralization Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentoe, Jannick; Velazquez-Moctezuma, Rodrigo; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2016-01-01

    protective HCV vaccines. Using cultured viruses expressing the E1/E2 complex of isolates H77 (genotype 1a), J6 (2a), or S52 (3a), with and without HVR1, we tested HVR1-mediated neutralization occlusion in vitro against a panel of 12 well-characterized human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) targeting diverse E1...... correlation for HVR1-deleted viruses but not for parental viruses retaining HVR1. The intergenotype neutralization sensitivity of the parental viruses to HMAb antigenic region (AR) 2A, AR3A, AR4A, AR5A, HC84.26, and HC33.4 varied greatly (>24-fold to >130-fold differences in 50% inhibitory concentration...... values). However, except for AR5A, these differences decreased to less than 6.0-fold when comparing the corresponding HVR1-deleted viruses. Importantly, this simplified pattern of neutralization sensitivity in the absence of HVR1 was also demonstrated in a panel of HVR1-deleted viruses of genotypes 1a, 2...

  11. Contributors to Women's Leadership Development in Christian Higher Education: A Model and Emerging Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlvig, Jolyn; Longman, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    A theory of women's leadership development within the context of Christian higher education is proposed, based on qualitative research involving 16 participants. Motivators to advance into leadership roles were: (a) a sense of relational responsibility; (b) awareness of calling and giftedness for leadership, and (c) a mentoring relationship…

  12. Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Malcolm P; Cambridge, Heather; Foster, Susan F; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatially dependent seismic anisotropy in the Tonga subduction zone: A possible contributor to the complexity of deep earthquakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 155, 1/2 (2006), s. 63-72 ISSN 0031-9201 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012309; GA ČR GA205/02/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : deep-focus earthquakes * seismic anisotropy * subduction zones Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2006

  14. An Overlooked Contributor to a Unique Colombian Periodical. Enrique Pérez and the revista Hispania (1912-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Rausch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hispania, a cultural periodical published in London between 1912 and 1916, was an important Colombian endeavor that reflected widely-shared Latin American concerns before and during the outbreak of the First World War. After a brief review of the role of literary periodicals in Colombian humanities, this essay analyzes the numerous contributions published by Enrique Pérez Lleras in Hispania. It concludes that Pérez believed Hispanic America could have avoided the threat of United States and/or European imperialism by spurning despotic rule, educating a governing elite, developing a trained civil service, and establishing strict controls over foreign investment and immigration.

  15. Genetic Variability in Platelet Integrin α2β1 Density: Possible Contributor to Plasmodium vivax–induced Severe Thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda M. F.; Santos, Marina L. S.; Kano, Flora S.; Fontes, Cor J. F.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Brito, Cristiana F. A.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of Plasmodium vivax malaria is challenging. We hypothesized that susceptibility to P. vivax-induced thrombocytopenia could be associated with polymorphisms on relevant platelet membrane integrins: integrin α2 (C807T), and integrin β3 (T1565C). Although β3 polymorphism was not related with P. vivax malaria, α2 807T carriers, which show high levels of integrin α2β1, had a higher probability for severe thrombocytopenia than wild-type carriers. This evidence of the association of integrin polymorphism and P. vivax morbidity was further demonstrated by a moderate but significant correlation between clinical disease and surface levels of the integrin α2β1. PMID:23249684

  16. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-12-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular interest are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the Upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the Lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S, together with definite future (DF) plans for infrastructure development through the basin, would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap's Floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's DF scenario driven by the Upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30-day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm day-1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will be exploited and that dams will be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruption. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just maximize hydropower generation - appear to be the most feasible alternative to mitigate hydropower-related disruptions in the Mekong.

  17. Directional wave and temperature data from thirteen buoys at San Nicolas Island, Dana Point and Oceanside, CA, 1997-2002 (NODC Accession 0000774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) is an extensive network for monitoring waves along the coastlines of the United States, with a strong emphasis on our...

  18. A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araújo; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Coura, José Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Torres, Rosália Morais; de Lana, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

  19. Shedding Light on Thirteen Years of Darkness: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Transgender Issues in Marriage/Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Markie L. C.; Green, Mary S.; Knowles, Sarah J.; Williams, April

    2012-01-01

    What is the extent to which marriage/couple and family therapy (M/CFT) journals address transgender issues and how many of them say they are inclusive of transgender persons when they are not? To answer these queries, a content analysis was conducted on articles published in M/CFT literature from 1997 through 2009. Of the 10,739 articles examined…

  20. The History of One-Hundred Thirteen P-38 Lightning Aircraft Constructed by Consolidated-Vultee Aviation Corporation of Nashville Tennessee, 1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, George

    The purpose of this research project was to trace and locate 113 P- 38 Lightning Aircraft that were constructed by Consolidated-Vultee Aviation Corporation of Nashville-Tennessee. A determination as to where they were located at the end of World War II, along with their subsequent location, was attempted. This project utilized historical research with a qualitative approach where data was accumulated, evaluated and formulated based on events that happened 70 years ago. A triangulation practice is the process of collecting data, not from just one source, but from several sources. This process helps strengthen the individual data, compensated by others to create a complete picture of the phenomenon being researched. The research does not focus on pilots that flew the P-38's. However, a few pilot names may be mentioned that were involved in an accident the aircraft may have suffered. The Army Air Force requested 2000 P-38's Model " L " built by Consolidated-Vultee for the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in Burbank, California. The War Department did not know at the time how long the present conflict of war might last.

  1. One hundred and thirteen attempts at directional coronary atherectomy: the early and combined experience of two European centres using quantitative angiography to assess their results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); E. Haine; J. Renkin; P.J. de Feyter (Pim); W. Wijns (William); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDirectional coronary atherectomy has been introduced as an alternative to conventional balloon angioplasty when treating coronary artery stenoses with complex lesion morphology. To determine the immediate efficacy of coronary atherectomy in patients with such lesions, the first 113

  2. Thirteen years of Aeolian dust dynamics in a desert region (Negev desert, Israel): analysis of horizontal and vertical dust flux, vertical dust distribution and dust grain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offer, Z.Y.; Goossens, D.

    2004-01-01

    At Sede Boqer (northern Negev desert, Israel), aeolian dust dynamics have been measured during the period 1988–2000. This study focuses on temporal records of the vertical and horizontal dust flux, the vertical distribution of the dust particles in the atmosphere, and the grain size of the

  3. Lack of replication of thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms implicated in Parkinson’s disease: a large-scale international study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Alexis; Nelson, Lorene M; Payami, Haydeh; Ioannidis, John P A; Fiske, Brian K; Annesi, Grazia; Belin, Andrea Carmine; Factor, Stewart A; Ferrarese, Carlo; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Higgins, Donald S; Kawakami, Hideshi; Krüger, Rejko; Marder, Karen S; Mayeux, Richard P; Mellick, George D; Nutt, John G; Ritz, Beate; Samii, Ali; Tanner, Caroline M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Wirdefeldt, Karin; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Dehem, Marie; Montimurro, Jennifer S; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background A genome-wide association study identified 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with Parkinson’s disease. Small-scale replication studies were largely non-confirmatory, but a meta-analysis that included data from the original study could not exclude all SNP associations, leaving relevance of several markers uncertain. Methods Investigators from three Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research-funded genetics consortia—comprising 14 teams—contributed DNA samples from 5526 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 6682 controls, which were genotyped for the 13 SNPs. Most (88%) participants were of white, non-Hispanic descent. We assessed log-additive genetic effects using fixed and random effects models stratified by team and ethnic origin, and tested for heterogeneity across strata. A meta-analysis was undertaken that incorporated data from the original genome-wide study as well as subsequent replication studies. Findings In fixed and random-effects models no associations with any of the 13 SNPs were identified (odds ratios 0·89 to 1·09). Heterogeneity between studies and between ethnic groups was low for all SNPs. Subgroup analyses by age at study entry, ethnic origin, sex, and family history did not show any consistent associations. In our meta-analysis, no SNP showed significant association (summary odds ratios 0·95 to 1.08); there was little heterogeneity except for SNP rs7520966. Interpretation Our results do not lend support to the finding that the 13 SNPs reported in the original genome-wide association study are genetic susceptibility factors for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:17052658

  4. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data: an illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data. A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models. Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data from bone metastasis patients, collected at 13 consecutive measurement occasions. The use of curves to facilitate substantive interpretation of apparent measurement bias. Assessment of change in common factor means, after accounting for apparent measurement bias. Longitudinal measurement invariance is usually investigated with a longitudinal factor model (LFM). However, with multiple measurement occasions, the number of parameters to be estimated increases with a multiple of the number of measurement occasions. To guard against too low ratios of numbers of subjects and numbers of parameters, we can use Kronecker product restrictions to model the multivariate longitudinal structure of the data. These restrictions can be imposed on all parameter matrices, including measurement invariance restrictions on factor loadings and intercepts. The resulting models are parsimonious and have attractive interpretation, but require different methods for the investigation of measurement bias. Specifically, additional parameter matrices are introduced to accommodate possible violations of measurement invariance. These additional matrices consist of measurement bias parameters that are either fixed at zero or free to be estimated. In cases of measurement bias, it is also possible to model the bias over time, e.g., with linear or non-linear curves. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models will be illustrated with multivariate longitudinal data from 682 bone metastasis patients whose health-related quality of life (HRQL) was measured at 13 consecutive weeks. PMID:25295016

  5. Simultaneous measurement of thirteen steroid hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and control women using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace C Keefe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The measurement of adrenal and ovarian androgens in women with PCOS has been difficult based on poor specificity and sensitivity of assays in the female range. METHODS: Women with PCOS (NIH criteria; n = 52 and control subjects with 25-35 day menstrual cycles, no evidence of hyperandrogenism and matched for BMI (n = 42 underwent morning blood sampling. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to simultaneously measure 13 steroids from a single blood sample to measure adrenal and ovarian steroids. Androgen and progesterone results were compared in the same samples using RIA. RESULTS: Testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels were higher when measured using RIA compared to LC-MS/MS, although the testosterone RIA demonstrated the best agreement with the LC-MS/MS using a Bland-Altman analysis. Results using LC-MS/MS demonstrated that the concentration of androgens and their precursors were higher in women with PCOS than controls [median (2.5, 97.5th %ile; 1607 (638, 3085 vs. 1143 (511, 4784 ng/dL; p = 0.03]. Women with PCOS had higher testosterone [49 (16, 125 vs. 24 (10, 59 ng/dL], androstenedione [203 (98, 476 vs. 106 (69, 223 ng/dL] and 17OH progesterone levels [80 (17, 176 vs. 44 (17, 142 ng/dL] compared to controls (all P<0.02, but no differences in serum concentrations of the adrenal steroids DHEAS, cortisol, corticosterone and their 11 deoxy precursors. Women with PCOS also had an increase in the product:precursor ratio for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [22% (6, 92 vs. 20% (4, 43; p = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: LC-MS/MS was superior to RIA in measuring androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels, while testosterone measurements were better matched in the two assays. Androgen levels were higher in women with PCOS in the absence of a difference in adrenal-predominant steroids. These data support previous findings that the ovary is an important source for the androgen excess in women with PCOS.

  6. Heavy-Atom Tunneling Calculations in Thirteen Organic Reactions: Tunneling Contributions are Substantial, and Bell's Formula Closely Approximates Multidimensional Tunneling at ≥250 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, Charles; Armas, Randy; Walker, Dana; Cosgriff, Christopher V; Greer, Edyta M

    2017-10-09

    Multidimensional tunneling calculations are carried out for 13 reactions, to test the scope of heavy-atom tunneling in organic chemistry, and to check the accuracy of one-dimensional tunneling models. The reactions include pericyclic, cycloaromatization, radical cyclization and ring opening, and S N 2. When compared at the temperatures that give the same effective rate constant of 3×10 -5  s -1 , tunneling accounts for 25-95 % of the rate in 8 of the 13 reactions. Values of transmission coefficients predicted by Bell's formula, κ Bell  , agree well with multidimensional tunneling (canonical variational transition state theory with small curvature tunneling), κ SCT . Mean unsigned deviations of κ Bell vs. κ SCT are 0.08, 0.04, 0.02 at 250, 300 and 400 K. This suggests that κ Bell is a useful first choice for predicting transmission coefficients in heavy-atom tunnelling. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. ABO hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: thirteen years of data after implementing a universal bilirubin screening and management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R D; Baer, V L; MacQueen, B C; O'Brien, E A; Ilstrup, S J

    2018-02-06

    ABO hemolytic disease occurs among neonates with blood groups A or B delivered to group O women. Extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO disease has been reported, but its frequency is not well known. We sought to determine the odds of developing severe ABO hemolytic disease in the 13 years since adopting universal bilirubin screening/management in the Intermountain Healthcare system. We conducted a retrospective analysis of neonates born between 2004 and 2016, defining "severe hemolytic disease" as; (1) total serum bilirubin (TSB) >25 mg/dL, or (2) hospital readmission for jaundice, or (3) bilirubin encephalopathy. Neonates born to group O (+) mothers were included and considered either; (1) Controls (not at risk for ABO disease because they were group O), (2) Study subjects (at risk for ABO disease because they were group A or B). Of 400,531 live births, 47% were to group O women; 86% of whom were group O (+). Overall, 42,529 (27%) neonates born to group O (+) women had their blood group determined; 29,729 (68%) were O, 10,682 (25%) A, and 3109 (7%) B. Peak TSBs during the first 10 days were higher in group A (11.0 ± 4.2 mg/dL) and B (11.5 ± 4.3) than group O neonates (10.3 ± 4.1). However the relative risks of a TSB ≥25 mg/dL, readmission for jaundice, or kernicterus, were the same in the control vs. study groups. In our health system, severe hemolytic disease in neonates born to group O (+) woman is not more likely in group A or B neonates than in controls (group O). We recognize that in other practices, particularly those who do not have a universal bilirubin screening/management program, ABO hemolytic disease severity might be different than in our system.

  8. Thirteen-Year Evaluation of Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Articulating With Either 28-mm or 36-mm Femoral Heads Using Radiostereometric Analysis and Computerized Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, Audrey K; Greene, Meridith E; Rubash, Harry E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this 13-year prospective evaluation of highly cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (HXLPE) was to (1) assess the long-term wear of HXLPE articulating with 2 femoral head sizes using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and to (2) determine if osteolysis...... is a concern with this material through the use of plain radiographs and computerized tomography (CT). METHODS: All patients received a Longevity HXLPE liner with tantalum beads and either a 28-mm or 36-mm femoral head. Twelve patients (6 in each head size group) agreed to return for 13-year RSA, plain...... scan revealed areas of remodeling of this graft. One patient's 13-year plain radiographs showed evidence of cup loosening and linear radiolucencies in zones 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of significant wear over time using RSA. The CT scans did not show evidence of osteolysis due to wear...

  9. Kate Steinitz, Librarian, Artist, Scholar; Being a Thirteen-Part Tribute to One Whose Verve Has Enlivened Some Eight Decades on Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson Libr Bull, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Personal reminiscences about the Dada artist, expert on Leonardo da Vinci, and librarian at the UCLA Library of Vinciana by museum directors, scholars, and friends. Includes selected bibliography of her works, a chronology, poems, sketches, and photographs. (JS)

  10. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data: an illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdam, Mathilde G E; Oort, Frans J

    2014-01-01

    Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data.A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models.Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data from bone metastasis patients, collected at 13 consecutive measurement occasions.The use of curves to facilitate substantive interpretation of apparent measurement bias.Assessment of change in common factor means, after accounting for apparent measurement bias.Longitudinal measurement invariance is usually investigated with a longitudinal factor model (LFM). However, with multiple measurement occasions, the number of parameters to be estimated increases with a multiple of the number of measurement occasions. To guard against too low ratios of numbers of subjects and numbers of parameters, we can use Kronecker product restrictions to model the multivariate longitudinal structure of the data. These restrictions can be imposed on all parameter matrices, including measurement invariance restrictions on factor loadings and intercepts. The resulting models are parsimonious and have attractive interpretation, but require different methods for the investigation of measurement bias. Specifically, additional parameter matrices are introduced to accommodate possible violations of measurement invariance. These additional matrices consist of measurement bias parameters that are either fixed at zero or free to be estimated. In cases of measurement bias, it is also possible to model the bias over time, e.g., with linear or non-linear curves. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models will be illustrated with multivariate longitudinal data from 682 bone metastasis patients whose health-related quality of life (HRQL) was measured at 13 consecutive weeks.

  11. Pollination and reproductive biology of thirteen species of Begonia in the Serra do Mar State Park, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Edward Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of 13 monoecious species of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae that occur in the Serra do Mar State Park, São Paulo, Brazil, was investigated. These species flower annually and present flowers with mostly white tepals, light and sweet odour, pollen as a reward but no nectar, numerous yellow stamens, and coiled yellow styles. Anthesis is diurnal and floral duration is long (6 - 15 days. The unusual appearance of pistillate flowers of these species supports the view that they are intersexual mimics of the staminate flowers. Despite consistently high levels of fruit-set, none of the 11 species tested proved to be apomictic. In contrast to earlier reports of self-compatibility in Begonia, self-pollinations of B. integerrima and B. itatinensis produced no fruits or seeds, and the complete absence of pollen tubes in the styles of self-pollinated flowers of B. integerrima suggests that the species is genetically self-incompatible. Flowers pollinated under natural conditions showed many pollen tubes that reached ovules, suggesting that adequate numbers of compatible pollen grains had been transported by pollinators. The principal pollinators were small bees of the Apidae and Halictidae. Ten species of bees were observed to visit eight species of Begonia, and pollen collection occurred by means of vibration, except for Trigona spinipes. Visits to rewarding staminate flowers were significantly more frequent than visits to unrewarding pistillate flowers. Duration of visits to pistillate flowers also was significantly shorter than the duration of visits to staminate flowers. We conclude that visits to pistillate flowers occur by mistake but with sufficient frequency to allow for successful reproduction in natural populations of these species.

  12. Review of Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) inhabiting Cycas (Cycadaceae) in Asia, with descriptions of a new subgenus and thirteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Paul; Xu, Guang; Tang, William; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Thomas; Khuraijam, Jibankumar Singh; Singh, Rita; Radha, P; Rich, Stephen

    2017-05-12

    The genus Cycadophila Xu, Tang & Skelley (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Pharaxonothinae) associated with Cycas L. (Cycadacaeae) in Asia is reviewed. Strobilophila, new subgenus, with five species is described: Cycadophila (Strobilophila) assamensis new species, C. (S.) hiepi new species, C. (S.) kwaiensis new species, C. (S.) tansachai new species and C. (S.) yangi new species, all associated with Cycas. For the nominate subgenus Cycadophila eight new species are described, Cycadophila (Cycadophila) abyssa new species, C. (C.) collina new species,C. (C.) samara new species, C. (C.) convexa new species, C. (C.) cyclochasma new species, C. (C.) eurynota new species, C. (C.) papua new species, and C. (C.) torquata new species and four new generic combinations are proposed: C. (C.) vittata (Arrow) new combination, C. (C.) discimaculata (Mader) new combination, C. (C.) intermedia (Chûjô) new combination, and C. (C.) lata (Grouvelle) new combination. Only the first three listed species of the nominate subgenus have known associations with Cycas. Species are distinguished on the basis of morphology and/or by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The larva of subgenus Strobilophila is described based on individuals collected together with adults and matched with analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Keys to subgenera and species of known adults and larvae are provided.

  13. Instructional Media Initiatives: Focusing on the Educational Resources Center at Thirteen/wnet, New York, New York-- Slavery and the Making of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Slavery and the Making of America, a four-part series from PBS, is airing throughout the United States during February 2005. This landmark series examines the history of slavery in the United States and the significant role it played in shaping the development of the Nation. This article describes the series, including online resources, and…

  14. HERITAGE SURVEY AND SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF THE WATCHTOWERS THAT DEFENDED THE LAST ISLAMIC KINGDOM IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA (THIRTEEN TO FIFETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. García-Pulido

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic Nasrid kingdom of Granada occupied the mountainous areas of the southeastern area of the Iberian Peninsula. There, a natural border was established between the Nasrid kingdom and the Christian kingdom of Castile from 1232 to 1492. To control this frontier and establish visual communication between it and the Nasrid center at the Alhambra citadel, an extensive network of watchtowers and defensive towers was constructed. Studies have been done of individual towers, but no comparative study has been undertaken of all of them. Graphic, homogenous, and exhaustively planimetric documentation would bring together existing information on the majority of them and enable comparative analysis. For this reason, this work conducts systematic architectural surveys of all these military structures, using photogrammetry. In addition to studying the construction typology and techniques, the structural capacity of these towers has been analyzed. It examines how they have been affected by human and natural destructive forces, especially earthquakes, which are common in eastern Andalusia. Although all the historical military architecture is protected by the Spanish and Andalusian Heritage laws, many of these medieval towers and their cultural landscapes are in severe risk. The towers are being studied as individual specimens (emphasizing their differences and as a unit in a typological group (looking for similarities and unifying characteristics. New technologies for Information and Communication are being used in order to disseminate the results among specialists and to make them available to the general public. Guidelines for restoration projects are also being formulated from the cases analyzed.

  15. Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Wolf, D C; Cattley, R C; Wong, B; Janszen, D B; Farris, G M; Wright, G A; Bond, J A

    1999-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline.

  16. Heritage Survey and Scientific Analysis of the Watchtowers that Defended the Last Islamic Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula (thirteen to Fifeteenth Century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pulido, L. J.; Ruiz Jaramillo, J.; Alba Dorado, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    The Islamic Nasrid kingdom of Granada occupied the mountainous areas of the southeastern area of the Iberian Peninsula. There, a natural border was established between the Nasrid kingdom and the Christian kingdom of Castile from 1232 to 1492. To control this frontier and establish visual communication between it and the Nasrid center at the Alhambra citadel, an extensive network of watchtowers and defensive towers was constructed. Studies have been done of individual towers, but no comparative study has been undertaken of all of them. Graphic, homogenous, and exhaustively planimetric documentation would bring together existing information on the majority of them and enable comparative analysis. For this reason, this work conducts systematic architectural surveys of all these military structures, using photogrammetry. In addition to studying the construction typology and techniques, the structural capacity of these towers has been analyzed. It examines how they have been affected by human and natural destructive forces, especially earthquakes, which are common in eastern Andalusia. Although all the historical military architecture is protected by the Spanish and Andalusian Heritage laws, many of these medieval towers and their cultural landscapes are in severe risk. The towers are being studied as individual specimens (emphasizing their differences) and as a unit in a typological group (looking for similarities and unifying characteristics). New technologies for Information and Communication are being used in order to disseminate the results among specialists and to make them available to the general public. Guidelines for restoration projects are also being formulated from the cases analyzed.

  17. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data : An illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, M.G.E.; Oort, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: - Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data. - A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models. - Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data

  18. Measurement bias detection with Kronecker product restricted models for multivariate longitudinal data: an illustration with health-related quality of life data from thirteen measurement occasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; Oort, Frans J.

    2014-01-01

    Application of Kronecker product to construct parsimonious structural equation models for multivariate longitudinal data. A method for the investigation of measurement bias with Kronecker product restricted models. Application of these methods to health-related quality of life data from bone

  19. Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: Results from thirteen studies across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been growing interest in the capacity of riparian buffer zones to remove nitrate from ground waters moving through them. Riparian zone sediments often contain organic carbon, which favors formation of reducing conditions that can lead to removal of nitrate through denitrification. Over the past decade the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has investigated the transport and fate of nitrate in ground and surface waters in study areas across the United States. In these studies riparian zone efficiency in removing nitrate varied widely as a result of variations in hydrogeologic factors. These factors include (1) denitrification in the up-gradient aquifer due to the presence of organic carbon or other electron donors, (2) long residence times (>50 years) along ground-water flow paths allowing even slow reactions to completely remove nitrate, (3) dilution of nitrate enriched waters with older water having little nitrate, (4) bypassing of riparian zones due to extensive use of drains and ditches, and (5) movement of ground water along deep flow paths below reducing zones. By developing a better understanding of the hydrogeologic settings in which riparian buffer zones are likely to be inefficient we can develop improved nutrient management plans. ?? US Government 2004.

  20. 78 FR 64385 - United Nations Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... A Proclamation In 1945, after two world wars that showed the horrific lethality of modern conflict.... We celebrate the organization's challenging and often unheralded work of forging a world in which... children and grandchildren from the ravages of war, the members of the United Nations committed ``to unite...

  1. Nursing leadership: a concise encyclopedia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Harriet R

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv...

  2. Targeted Resequencing and Functional Testing Identifies Low-Frequency Missense Variants in the Gene Encoding GARP as Significant Contributors to Atopic Dermatitis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Judith; Rodríguez, Elke; ElSharawy, Abdou; Oesau, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mayr, Gabriele; Weber, Susanne; Harder, Jürgen; Reischl, Eva; Schwarz, Agatha; Novak, Natalija; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Gene-mapping studies have consistently identified a susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory diseases on chromosome band 11q13.5, with the strongest association observed for a common variant located in an intergenic region between the two annotated genes C11orf30 and LRRC32. Using a targeted resequencing approach we identified low-frequency and rare missense mutations within the LRRC32 gene encoding the protein GARP, a receptor on activated regulatory T cells that binds latent transforming growth factor-β. Subsequent association testing in more than 2,000 atopic dermatitis patients and 2,000 control subjects showed a significant excess of these LRRC32 variants in individuals with atopic dermatitis. Structural protein modeling and bioinformatic analysis predicted a disruption of protein transport upon these variants, and overexpression assays in CD4 + CD25 - T cells showed a significant reduction in surface expression of the mutated protein. Consistently, flow cytometric (FACS) analyses of different T-cell subtypes obtained from atopic dermatitis patients showed a significantly reduced surface expression of GARP and a reduced conversion of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into regulatory T cells, along with lower expression of latency-associated protein upon stimulation in carriers of the LRRC32 A407T variant. These results link inherited disturbances of transforming growth factor-β signaling with atopic dermatitis risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally L

    2005-01-01

    ... some of its racial/ethnic variation. Therefore, for a population-based series of post-menopausal white, black and Hispanic breast cancer cases and controls, we are determining HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DR, DO) genotypes...

  4. For a better visibility: changes in notes for contributors Acta Scientiarum. Technology - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.15289

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O Fator de Impacto de 2009 da Acta Scientiarum. Technology pelo JCR foi 0,276 e o de 2010 é 0,150. O Objetivo da revista é adquirir maior visibilidade tanto Nacional como Internacional. Nesse contexto, o Conselho Editorial da revista Acta Scientiarum. Technology modificou as normas de submissão a partir de setembro de 2011 (Os artigos submetidos deverão ser em inglês. Os autores devem providenciar uma versão com qualidade. A revista recomenda que oitenta porcento (80% das referências sejam de artigos listados na base ISI Web of Knowledge ou SCOPUS com menos de 10 anos. Recomenda-se dar preferência as citações de artigos internacionais. Não serão aceitos nas referências citações de dissertações, teses, monografias, anais, resumos, resumos expandidos, jornais, magazines e boletins técnicos. Recomenda-se evitar documentos eletrônicos.

  5. K+-dependent paradoxical membrane depolarization and Na+ overload, major and reversible contributors to weakness by ion channel leaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Weber, Marc-André; Fauler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Normal resting potential (P1) of myofibers follows the Nernst equation, exhibiting about -85 mV at a normal extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) of 4 mM. Hyperpolarization occurs with decreased [K(+)](o), although at [K(+)](o)

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally

    2004-01-01

    ... may explain some of its variation by race/ethnicity. Therefore, for a population-based series of white, black and Hispanic breast cancer cases and controls, we are determining: 1) HLA class I (A, B) and class II (DQ, DR...

  7. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based, Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glaser, Sally L

    2005-01-01

    ...; whether HLA genotype is related to breast cancer overall; whether associations and prevalence of associated HLA genotypes vary by race/ethnicity, and how much such differences explain racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence...

  8. Total and inorganic arsenic in dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae—a possible contributor to inorganic arsenic exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Rokkjær, Inge; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The content of total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 16 dietary supplements based on herbs, other botanicals and algae purchased on the Danish market. The dietary supplements originated from various regions, including Asia, Europe and USA. The contents of total and inorganic arsenic...... was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, were in the range of 0.58 to 5.0 mgkg−1 and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg−1, respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100 %. Consumption of the recommended...... dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day−1. Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4 % of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw−1 kg−1...

  9. Redox-based epigenetic status in drug addiction: a potential contributor to gene priming and a mechanistic rationale for metabolic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance, and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS). For example, under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY) to the trans sulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine, and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH)-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting SAM levels and DNA methylation status. Here, existing evidence is presented in a coherent manner to propose a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Further, we discuss how a "gene priming" phenomenon can contribute to the maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Additionally, a new mechanistic rationale for the use of metabolic interventions/redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol and other drug addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms is also provided. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction exemplified by the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  10. A tribute to Dr Willem J. Kolff: innovative inventor, physician, scientist, bioengineer, mentor, and significant contributor to modern cardiovascular surgical and anesthetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Theodore H

    2013-06-01

    Dr Willem J. Kolff was surely one of the greatest inventors/physicians/scientists/bioengineers of the last few hundred years. He was knighted (Commander of the Order of Oranje-Nassau) in 1970 by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. In 1990, Life magazine published a list of its own 100 most important figures of the 20th century. Kolff stood in 99th place as the Father of Artificial Organs. Dr Kolff forged a path of innovative thinking and creativity that has had a huge impact on the quality of human life. His contributions to the development of the artificial kidney and dialysis, the heart-lung machine, the membrane oxygenator, potassium arrest of the heart, the AH, mechanical cardiac assistance, and other artificial organs, and his support and mentoring of hundreds to thousands of anesthesiologists, surgeons, and bioengineers throughout the world, have had a significant impact on anesthesiology and the medical community.

  11. Let us fight and support one another: adolescent girls and young women on contributors and solutions to HIV risk in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butts SA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stefani A Butts,1 Lauren E Parmley,1 Maria L Alcaide,1 Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Annette Kayukwa,2 Ndashi Chitalu,2 Stephen M Weiss,1 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia Abstract: In Zambia, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, social, cultural and economic factors making them particularly vulnerable. This study was designed to understand the context in which AGYW are at risk and to identify perceived drivers of the epidemic and potential strategies to reduce HIV risk. Focus group discussions were conducted with AGYW in Zambian districts with the highest HIV prevalence from February through August 2016. The focus group guide addressed HIV risk factors and strategies for HIV prevention in AGYW. Focus group discussions were recorded, translated and transcribed, themes identified and responses coded. Results suggest that gender inequality undermined potentially protective factors against HIV among AGYW. Poverty and stigmatization were major barriers to accessing available HIV prevention services as well as primary risk factors for HIV infection. Sponsorship to support AGYW school attendance, programs for boys and girls to foster gender equality and financial assistance from the government of Zambia to support AGYW most in need were proposed as strategies to reduce HIV risk. Results highlight the utility of using community-based research to guide potential interventions for the affected population. Future research should explore the use of multilevel interventions to combat HIV among AGYW. Keywords: HIV, sub-Saharan Africa, prevention, adolescent girls, women, Zambia

  12. Heterotrophs are key contributors to nitrous oxide production in activated sludge under low C-to-N ratios during nitrification-Batch experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Petersen, Morten S; Jensen, Marlene M; Plósz, Benedek G; Smets, Barth F

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a by-product of biological nitrogen removal during wastewater treatment, is produced by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria (HB). Mathematical models are used to predict N 2 O emissions, often including AOB as the main N 2 O producer. Several model structures have been proposed without consensus calibration procedures. Here, we present a new experimental design that was used to calibrate AOB-driven N 2 O dynamics of a mixed culture. Even though AOB activity was favoured with respect to HB, oxygen uptake rates indicated HB activity. Hence, rigorous experimental design for calibration of autotrophic N 2 O production from mixed cultures is essential. The proposed N 2 O production pathways were examined using five alternative process models confronted with experimental data inferred. Individually, the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification pathway could describe the observed data. In the best-fit model, which combined two denitrification pathways, the heterotrophic was stronger than the autotrophic contribution to N 2 O production. Importantly, the individual contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic to the total N 2 O pool could not be unambiguously elucidated solely based on bulk N 2 O measurements. Data on NO would increase the practical identifiability of N 2 O production pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 132-140. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Carrying water may be a major contributor to disability from musculoskeletal disorders in low income countries: a cross-sectional survey in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geere, Jo-Anne; Bartram, Jamie; Bates, Laura; Danquah, Leslie; Evans, Barbara; Fisher, Michael B; Groce, Nora; Majuru, Batsirai; Mokoena, Michael M; Mukhola, Murembiwa S; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Duc, Phuc Pham; Williams, Ashley Rhoderick; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Hunter, Paul R

    2018-01-01

    Background The Sustainable Development Goals include commitments to end poverty, and promote education for all, gender equality, the availability of water and decent work for all. An important constraint is the fact that each day, many millions of women and children, and much less frequently men, carry their household’s water home from off-plot sources. The burden of fetching water exacerbates gender inequality by keeping women out of education and paid employment. Despite speculation about the potential health impacts of fetching water, there is very little empirical evidence. We report the first large study of the health impacts of carrying water on women and children. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in South Africa, Ghana and Vietnam during 2012. It investigated water carrying methods and health status. Because areas of self-reported pain were correlated we undertook factor analysis of sites of reported pain, to interpret patterns of pain reporting. Regression analysis using Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) investigated water carrying as a risk factor for general health and self-reported pain. Results People who previously carried water had increased relative risk of reporting pain in the hands (risk ratio RR 3.62, 95% confidence interval CI 1.34 to 9.75) and upper back (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.40), as did people who currently carry water (RR hand pain 3.11, 95% CI 1.34 to 7.23; RR upper back pain 2.16, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.73). The factor analysis results indicate that factor 1, ‘axial compression’, which is correlated with pain in the head and upper back, chest/ribs, hands, feet and abdomen/stomach, is associated with currently (0.30, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.43) or previously (0.21, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.42) carrying water. Factor 2, ‘soft tissue strain’, which is correlated with pain in the neck, shoulders/arms, lower back and hips/pelvis or legs, is marginally negatively associated with currently (-0.18, 95% CI -0.32 to -0.04) carrying water. The factor ‘axial compression’ was more strongly associated with carrying water containers on the head. Conclusions Participants who reported a history of current or past water carrying more frequently reported pain in locations most likely to be associated with sustained spinal axial compression in the cervical region. Given the fact that cervical spinal conditions are globally one of the more common causes of disability, our findings suggest that water carrying, especially by head loading is a major contributing factor in musculoskeletal disease burden in low income countries. Our findings support the proposed indicator for monitoring SDG6.1: “Percentage of population using safely managed drinking water services at home.” PMID:29497503

  14. Pilot Study: Survey Tools for Assessing Parenting Styles and Family Contributors to the Development of Obesity in Arab Children Ages 6 to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tami, Suzan H; Reed, Debra B; Trejos, Elizabeth; Boylan, Mallory; Wang, Shu

    2015-11-05

    Our pilot study was conducted to test the reliability of the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment (FNPA) in a sample of Arab mothers. Twenty-five Arab mothers completed the CFSQ, FNPA, and the Participant Background Survey for the first administration. After 1-2 weeks, participants completed the CFSQ and the FNPA for the second administration. The two administrations of the surveys allowed for test/retest reliability of the CFSQ and the FNPA and to measure the internal consistency of the two surveys. Pearson's correlation between the first and second administrations or the 19-item scale (demandingness) and the 7-item scale (responsiveness) of the CFSQ were .95 and .86, respectively. As for the FNPA, Pearson's correlation was .80. The estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha) of the CFSQ increased from .86 for the first administration to .93 for the second administration. However, the estimated reliabilities of the FNPA slightly increased from .58 for first administration to .59 for the second administration. In our pilot study of Arab mothers, the CFSQ and FNPA were shown to be promising in terms of reliability and content validity.

  15. Identification of the contributors (Ag-110m) for higher radiation field on Primary Heat Transport System of TAPS-3 and its impact on collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonwalkar, V.M.; Mohanta, S.; Pal, S.K.; Rajagopalan, H.; Venkataramana, K.

    2018-01-01

    TAPS-3 and 4, First Indian PHWR of capacity 540 MWe, attained first criticality on 21 st May 2006 and 6 th March 2005 respectively. TAPS-3 and 4 are under commercial operation since August 2006 and September 2005. The PHT circuit pipeline/equipment exhibit higher radiation filed in accessible area of Reactor building due to presence of fission product and corrosion produces in the PHT system water and their deposition on the pipeline surface. The radiological monitoring of various equipment/area is performed routinely to detect the deviation and initiate corrective actions. During such routine measurements, it was noted that PHT D 2 O lines at 104 m El. of TAPS-3 were showing increasing trend of radiation field. The radiation field on the PHT D 2 O lines increased from 1 mSv/hr to 10 mSv/hr. The radiation filed at the same location of TAPS-4 was 1mSv/hr

  16. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Concurrent Peripheral Pathologies and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 as Contributors to Acute Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Akhavan Hejazi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with either a peripheral or central pathology. However, most of the time, it is challenging to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the suggested pathology and shoulder pain reported. We report a 66 year-old man who developed a right hemiplegic shoulder pain two months post stroke with initial investigations suggestive of peripheral pathologies. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment did not improve his shoulder pain. Later he developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS of the right hand and the initial shoulder pain subsequently relieved following resolution of the CRPS.

  18. Proton concentrations can be a major contributor to the modification of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation, working independently of extracellular bicarbonate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kohtaro; Matsushita, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We established a system to separately analyze the role of protons and bicarbonate ions in vitro in which the pH of the medium was controlled by HEPES at various concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in the absence of carbon dioxide (CO2). Using this system, we demonstrated that acidosis promoted osteoclast formation independently of extracellular NaHCO3 in a short-term culture. Protons and bicarbonate ions acted on osteoclast differentiation with opposite effects, the former positively and the latter negatively. The HEPES-based system maintained pH in the absence of extracellular NaHCO3 without CO2. Therefore, we could demonstrate that osteoblast differentiation was promoted at higher pH in a long-term culture system without NaHCO3 in which ALP activity and nodule mineralization were enhanced. This finding indicates that protons negatively control osteoblast differentiation independently of extracellular bicarbonate ions. However, the difference in the concentration of NaHCO3 did not have any influence on nodule mineralization. The opposite effects of protons, the promotion of osteoclast formation and the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, were suppressed in the presence of 5 mM N-acetyl cysteine, a reagent activating the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), implying that ROS act on both systems, the promotion of large osteoclast formation and the deterioration of osteoblast formation under acidosis.

  19. Evaluation of host rocks and background lithologies as secondary contributors to the uranium and rare-earth element source-term at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyslop, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites in the UK as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic database and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes a study of the distributions of uranium (U) and the rare-earth elements (REE) in the vicinity of pitchblende veins outcropping in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coats, SW Scotland. This report improves the information available on the secondary source-terms of U and REE. The minerals in the country rocks are thought to be supplying only minor amounts of these elements to the groundwaters flowing into the Merse silts within the detailed study area close to the mineralisation in the cliff. The pitchblende veins are the principal source-term for U migrating into the Merse silts at the foot of the cliff. (author)

  20. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and UPPS impulsive behavior questionnaire. BD score was calculated using the AUQ. Three items of the EDE-Q were used to construct a BE score. The predictors of the BD score were determined using a linear regression model. Our results showed that the BE score was correlated with the BD score (β 0 = 0.051 ± 0.022; p = 0.019), but no other DES was associated with BD, including purging behaviors. The severity of BD was also correlated with younger age, male gender, tobacco and cannabis use, and with the 'positive urgency,' 'premeditation,' and 'sensation seeking' UPPS subscores ( R 2 of the model: 25%). Within DES, BE appeared as an independent determinant of the BD severity. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that BE is not a subtype of DES, but more a general vulnerability factor of emotional dysregulation, which could be shared by different behavioral and addictive disorders.

  1. Binge Eating, But Not Other Disordered Eating Symptoms, Is a Significant Contributor of Binge Drinking Severity: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study among French Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Benjamin; Naassila, Mickael; Duffau, Céline; Houchi, Hakim; Gierski, Fabien; André, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have suggested the co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders but in which extent binge eating (BE) and other disordered eating symptoms (DES) are associated with the severity of binge drinking (BD) remains unknown. We conducted a online cross-sectional study among 1,872 French students. Participants were asked their age, gender, tobacco and cannabis use status. They completed the Alcohol Use Questionnaire (AUQ), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q),...

  2. What Are We Putting in Our Food That Is Making Us Fat? Food Additives, Contaminants, and Other Putative Contributors to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber L.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.; Corkey, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    The “chemical obesogen” hypothesis conjectures that synthetic, environmental contaminants are contributing to the global epidemic of obesity. In fact, intentional food additives (e.g., artificial sweeteners and colors, emulsifiers) and unintentional compounds (e.g., bisphenol A, pesticides) are largely unstudied in regard to their effects on overall metabolic homeostasis. With that said, many of these contaminants have been found to dysregulate endocrine function, insulin signaling, and/or adipocyte function. Although momentum for the chemical obesogen hypothesis is growing, supportive, evidence-based research is lacking. In order to identify noxious synthetic compounds in the environment out of the thousands of chemicals that are currently in use, tools and models from toxicology should be adopted (e.g., functional high throughput screening methods, zebrafish-based assays). Finally, mechanistic insight into obesogen-induced effects will be helpful in elucidating their role in the obesity epidemic as well as preventing and reversing their effects. PMID:25045594

  3. Professor Dr Med Oskar Fehr: the fate of an outstanding German-Jewish ophthalmologist: an early contributor to cornea and external disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Mannis, Mark J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to recount the immense and abrupt change in the private and professional life of a prominent German-Jewish ophthalmologist in the transition from democracy to dictatorship in Germany during the first half of the 20th century. This involves a Retrospective analysis of Fehr's clinical and scientific work as the first assistant of Julius Hirschberg's world-famous eye clinic in Berlin; evaluation of Fehr's successful tenure as a chair of Virchow's Eye Hospital; the catastrophic influence of Hitler's seizure of power on the private and professional lives of German-Jewish physicians; and an analysis of Fehr's personal and professional will to continue the practice of medicine in England. Oskar Fehr published >50 articles and was the first to describe the endemic swimming pool conjunctivitis. He was the first to specifically distinguish granular, lattice, and macular corneal dystrophies. Professor Oskar Fehr was the chair of one of the most important eye clinics in Germany for nearly 30 years. The "Anti-Jewish Medical Laws" with their terrible consequences on private and professional lives led to Fehr's emigration from his homeland to England in 1939. He obtained a British medical doctor degree after 4 years of study, and at an advanced age, he demonstrated his determination to practice ophthalmology successfully in London. Oskar Fehr died in London on August 1, 1959.

  4. The wheat AGC kinase TaAGC1 is a positive contributor to host resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuliang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Xuening; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Rong, Wei; Du, Lipu; Ye, Xingguo; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-11-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the roles of AGC kinases in mammalian systems. However, very little is known about the roles of AGC kinases in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen of the destructive disease sharp eyespot of wheat. In this study, the wheat AGC kinase gene TaAGC1, responding to R. cerealis infection, was isolated, and its properties and role in wheat defence were characterized. R. cerealis-resistant wheat lines expressed TaAGC1 at higher levels than susceptible wheat lines. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the TaAGC1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) subgroup of AGC kinases. Kinase activity assays proved that TaAGC1 is a functional kinase and the Asp-239 residue located in the conserved serine/threonine kinase domain of TaAGC1 is required for the kinase activity. Subcellular localization assays indicated that TaAGC1 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Virus-induced TaAGC1 silencing revealed that the down-regulation of TaAGC1 transcripts significantly impaired wheat resistance to R. cerealis. The molecular characterization and responses of TaAGC1 overexpressing transgenic wheat plants indicated that TaAGC1 overexpression significantly enhanced resistance to sharp eyespot and reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wheat plants challenged with R. cerealis. Furthermore, ROS-scavenging and certain defence-associated genes were up-regulated in resistant plants overexpressing TaAGC1 but down-regulated in susceptible knock-down plants. These results suggested that the kinase TaAGC1 positively contributes to wheat immunity to R. cerealis through regulating expression of ROS-related and defence-associated genes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. How is the Customer Contributor and Interpreter of Value? : Opening the Black Box of the linkages between value creation and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahhar, Y.; Loohuis, R.P.A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to open up the black box of the link between value experience and value creation through a phenomenological lens. We aim to explore distinct linkages between these two concepts and attempt to investigate what constitutes these linkages and how they relate to

  6. Is proglacial field an important contributor to runoff in glacierized watershed? Lesson learned from a case study in Duke River watershed, Yukon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, A.; Baraer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sub-Arctic glacierized catchments are complex hydrological systems of paramount importance not only for water resources management but also for various ecosystem services. Those areas are environmentally fragile and host many climate-sensitive components of hydrological cycle. In a context of shifting from glacial to non-glacial regimes in Sub-Arctic, this study focuses on understanding hydrological role of proglacial field in runoff generation in headwaters of Duke River watershed, Canada, by comparing to that of alpine meadow (area that is not recently reworked by glacier). Duke Glacier, as many glaciers in St. Elias Mountains, is a surging glacier, and produced debris-charged dead-ice masses once the last surge has seized. In addition, such features as ice-cored moraines and taluses are found in proglacial field. Those features are hypothesised to cause high storage capacity and complex groundwater distribution systems which might affect significantly watershed hydrology. In order to estimate the contribution of different components of the alpine meadow and the proglacial field to runoff, HBCM, a multi-component distributed hydrochemical mixing model (Baraer et al., 2015) was applied. During field campaign in June 2016, 157 samples were taken from possible hydrological sources (end-members) and from main stream, and analysed for major ions, dissolved organic compounds and heavy stable water isotopes. End-members contribution was quantified based on tracer concentration at mixing points. Discharge was measured 6 km downstream from the glacier snout so that both proglacial field and alpine meadow occupy comparable areas of the catchment. Results show the difference between main water sources for the two hydrological systems: buried ice, ice-cored moraines and groundwater sources within proglacial field, and groundwater and supra-permafrost water within alpine meadow. Overall contribution of glaciers during June 2016 exceeded the contribution of the rest of the components of hydrological system. However, water production from both proglacial field and alpine meadow was significant, with proglacial field yielding more water than alpine meadow. Since the Duke Glacier keeps retreating, the area of proglacial field is increasing as well as it role in runoff generation in the area.

  7. Using ACE Observations of Interplanetary Particles and Magnetic Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog interplanetary events arriving at Earth including interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries, interplanetary shocks, and interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of interplanetary energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do interplanetary field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.

  8. Is ozone, rather than PM2.5, actually the largest contributor to premature deaths associated with trans-continental transport of air pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Davila, Y.; Anenberg, S.; Malley, C.; Kuylenstierna, J. C. I.; Vallack, H.; Ashmore, M. R.; Turner, M.; Sudo, K.; Jonson, J. E.; Chin, M.; Doherty, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    While both ozone and PM2.5 contribute to a range of deleterious human health impacts, evaluations of regional and global burdens of disease associated with exposure to these pollutants have concluded that PM2.5 is the larger driver of premature deaths from degraded air quality. This is owing to both high PM2.5 concentrations in heavily populated areas and stronger concentration-response relationships between PM2.5 exposure and increased mortality risk. Meanwhile, both PM2.5 and O3 are formed and/or advected far downwind of their sources and contribute to long-range (trans-continental) pollution transport. Ozone most often makes greater contributions to long-range pollution transport in terms of percent changes in surface-level concentrations given its longer tropospheric lifetime than PM2.5. Combining these factors, previous works have identified PM2.5 as more frequently being the dominant long-range source of air pollution related premature deaths, closely followed by O3. Here we re-evaluate this question using several updates, drawing from ensembles of model simulations performed as part of Phase 2 of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants (HTAP) project. Most importantly, we use recently revised concentration-response relationships for respiratory (and, less confidently, cardiovascular) disease associated with long-term O3 exposure, which we have shown increases estimates of premature death owing to O3 several-fold, and integrated exposure response (IER) functions for PM2.5. Further, we attempt to overcome well-recognized biases in estimating PM2.5 exposure with global-scale models via assimilation of high resolution (0.1 x 0.1) maps of surface PM2.5 derived from satellite observations. Overall, we find that our revised estimates of long-range O3 and PM2.5 related premature deaths are most often dominated by O3. These findings provide additional incentives for considering the global-scale consequences of regional emissions controls of O3 precursors.

  9. Dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors as potential contributors to hypertension prevalence in Arusha City, Tanzania: a population-based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalambula, L K; Meyer, D N; Ngoma, T; Buza, J; Mpolya, E; Mtumwa, A H; Petrucka, P

    2017-08-16

    High blood pressure is increasing worldwide, disproportionately so in developing countries. Inadequate health care systems and adoption of unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to this emergent pattern. To better understand this trend, it is imperative we measure prevalence of hypertension, and examine specific risk factors, at a local level. This study provides a cross-sectional view of urban residents of Arusha City to determine prevalence and associated risk factors. Blood pressure was measured using a digital sphygmomanometer. Interviews were conducted using the WHO STEPwise survey questionnaire to assess lifestyle factors. Dietary intake information was collected by a standardized Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. Pearson's Chi Square (χ 2 ) tests were used to determine significant risk factors for hypertension, and multivariate log binomial regression was used to reveal potential predictors of hypertension. Dietary patterns were analyzed by principal component analysis. Approximately 45% of the study population was found to be hypertensive. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) of the sample was 102.3 mmHg (SD = 18.3). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 136.3 (SD = 30.5) and 85.3 (SD = 16.1) mmHg, respectively. Through multivariate analysis, age and body mass index were found to be independently, positively, associated with hypertension. Adherence to 'healthy' dietary pattern was negatively independently associated with hypertension. With nearly half of participants being hypertensive, this study suggests that hypertension is a significant health risk in Arusha, Tanzania. Obesity, healthy diet, and age were found to be positively associated with hypertension risk. This study did not establish any significant association between increased blood pressure and Western-dietary pattern, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activities.

  10. Understanding Etiology of Hearing Loss as a Contributor to Language Dysfluency and its Impact on Assessment and Treatment of People who are Deaf in Mental Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charlene J; Hamerdinger, Stephen H

    2017-11-01

    Working with individuals who are deaf in mental health settings can be complex work, necessitating consideration for the difference in language abilities. These differences include not only the language differences of American Sign Language (ASL) and English, but also the range of heterogeneity within the Deaf Community. Multiple influences such as mental illness, medical conditions, language deprivation and the etiology of deafness can impact how a person acquires and uses language. This article will discuss how various causes of deafness create the potential for specific language dysfluencies with individuals who are deaf in mental health settings. The article will also discuss the use of communication assessments to examine specific language dysfluency patterns and attempt to offer possible corresponding interventions.

  11. Heterotrophs are key contributors to nitrous oxide production in mixed liquor under low C-to-N ratios during nitrification - batch experiments and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Petersen, Morten S.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a by-product of biological nitrogen removal during wastewater treatment, is produced by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria (HB). Mathematical models are used to predict N2O emissions, often including AOB as the main N2O producer. Several...

  12. They Just Respect You for Who You Are: Contributors to Educator Positive Youth Development Promotion for Somali, Latino, and Hmong Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Ortega, Luis; Hang, Mikow; Pergament, Shannon; Pratt, Rebekah

    2016-02-01

    Youth from immigrant communities may experience barriers to connecting with schools and teachers, potentially undermining academic achievement and healthy youth development. This qualitative study aimed to understand how educators serving Somali, Latino, and Hmong (SLH) youth can best promote educator-student connectedness and positive youth development, by exploring the perspectives of teachers, youth workers, and SLH youth, using a community based participatory research approach. We conducted four focus groups with teachers, 18 key informant interviews with adults working with SLH youth, and nine focus groups with SLH middle and high school students. Four themes emerged regarding facilitators to educators promoting positive youth development in schools: (1) an authoritative teaching approach where teachers hold high expectations for student behavior and achievement, (2) building trusting educator-student relationships, (3) conveying respect for students as individuals, and (4) a school infrastructure characterized by a supportive and inclusive environment. Findings suggest a set of skills and educator-student interactions that may promote positive youth development and increase student-educator connectedness for SLH youth in public schools.

  13. Ileal Digesta Nondietary Substrates from Cannulated Pigs Are Major Contributors to In Vitro Human Hindgut Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material. We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber. Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41.4 ± 2.98 kg body weight] adapted (44-d feeding) to diets containing either 25 g/kg dry matter (DM) of kiwifruit fiber (KFf) (25 KFf) or 50 g/kg DM of KFf (50 KFf) and then again after receiving a fiber-free diet (n = 14) for a further 7 d. Pigs were used as a model for adult humans for digestion in the upper digestive tract (mouth to the terminal ileum). The ileal digesta (either unfractionated or fractionated into crude mucin and microbial fractions) were fermented in vitro for 24 h with the use of a fresh human fecal inoculum to predict SCFA production in the human hindgut. SCFAs of nondietary origin were the main source (65%) of total SCFAs predicted to be produced in the human hindgut. The contribution of SCFAs from KFf was only 26% of the total SCFAs, and that from total dietary material was 35%. The higher contribution of nondietary material to total predicted SCFA production was observed at both dietary fiber concentrations. Predicted SCFA intake from dietary fiber was 76 and 105 mmol/kg diet DM intake for the diets containing 25 KFf and 50 KFf, respectively, and from the nondietary substrates it was 178 and 280 mmol/kg diet DM intake, respectively. A considerable proportion of the SCFAs produced in the human hindgut seems to be derived from the fermentation of nondietary substrates. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve?Evidence from cerebral glucose metabolism in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Eva Kowoll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bilingualism is discussed as one factor contributing to ‘cognitive reserve’ (CR as it enhances executive control functions. To elucidate the underlying cerebral correlates regional glucose uptake was compared between bilinguals and monolinguals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and beginning Alzheimer´s disease (AD by using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET. Methods: 30 patients (73.2 ± 7.4 diagnosed with MCI or probable AD received physical and neuropsychological examinations, blood tests and FDG-PET scans. 16 patients were classified as lifelong bilinguals following the criterion of Bialystok et al.; groups were matched for age, sex and MMSE scores. Analyses were conducted using SPM 8 using the whole brain as reference region for intensity normalization controlling for years of education.Results: Bilingual patient groups showed substantially greater impairment of glucose uptake in frontotemporal and parietal regions (including Brodmann areas 9, 47, 40 and 21 and in the left cerebellum relative to monolingual patients.Conclusions: Bilingualism is likely to contribute to CR given that bilingual patients showed more severe brain changes than monolinguals when adjusting for severity of cognitive impairment . The latter did not only comprise Brodmann areas relevant to speech and language but also structures typically involved in AD pathology such as the temporal and the parietal cortices.

  15. Hunger and microbiology: is a low gastric acid-induced bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine a contributor to malnutrition in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Shafiqul A; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Brüssow, Harald

    2017-09-01

    Underproduction of hydrochloric acid into the stomach is frequently encountered in subjects from developing countries. We explore the hypothesis that hypochlorhydria compromises the gastric barrier and favours bacterial overgrowth in the proximal parts of the small intestine where nutrient absorption takes place. Food calories are thus deviated into bacterial metabolism. In addition to an adequate caloric supply, correcting hypochlorhydria might be needed to decrease childhood malnutrition. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors as potential contributors to hypertension prevalence in Arusha City, Tanzania: a population-based descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Katalambula

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure is increasing worldwide, disproportionately so in developing countries. Inadequate health care systems and adoption of unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to this emergent pattern. To better understand this trend, it is imperative we measure prevalence of hypertension, and examine specific risk factors, at a local level. This study provides a cross-sectional view of urban residents of Arusha City to determine prevalence and associated risk factors. Methods Blood pressure was measured using a digital sphygmomanometer. Interviews were conducted using the WHO STEPwise survey questionnaire to assess lifestyle factors. Dietary intake information was collected by a standardized Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. Pearson’s Chi Square (χ 2 tests were used to determine significant risk factors for hypertension, and multivariate log binomial regression was used to reveal potential predictors of hypertension. Dietary patterns were analyzed by principal component analysis. Results Approximately 45% of the study population was found to be hypertensive. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP of the sample was 102.3 mmHg (SD = 18.3. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 136.3 (SD = 30.5 and 85.3 (SD = 16.1 mmHg, respectively. Through multivariate analysis, age and body mass index were found to be independently, positively, associated with hypertension. Adherence to ‘healthy’ dietary pattern was negatively independently associated with hypertension. Conclusions With nearly half of participants being hypertensive, this study suggests that hypertension is a significant health risk in Arusha, Tanzania. Obesity, healthy diet, and age were found to be positively associated with hypertension risk. This study did not establish any significant association between increased blood pressure and Western-dietary pattern, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activities.

  17. Grain Foods Are Contributors of Nutrient Density for American Adults and Help Close Nutrient Recommendation Gaps: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-14

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2015-2020 DGA) maintains recommendations for increased consumption of whole grains while limiting intake of enriched/refined grains. A variety of enriched grains are sources of several shortfall nutrients identified by 2015-2020 DGA, including dietary fiber, folate, iron, and magnesium. The purpose of this study was to determine food sources of energy and nutrients for free-living U.S. adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Analyses of grain food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected in adults ≥19 years of age ( n = 10,697). Sources of nutrients contained in all grain foods were determined using United States Department of Agriculture nutrient composition databases and the food grouping scheme for grains (excluding mixed dishes). Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from various grain food groups were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. All grains provided 285 ± 5 kcal/day or 14 ± 0.2% kcal/day in the total diet in adult ≥19 years of age. In the total daily diet, the grain category provided 7.2 ± 0.2% (4.9 ± 0.1 g/day) total fat, 5.4 ± 0.2% (1.1 ± 0.03 g/day) saturated fat, 14.6 ± 0.3% (486 ± 9 mg/day) sodium, 7.9 ± 0.2% (7.6 ± 0.2 g/day) total sugar, 22.8 ± 0.4% (3.9 ± 0.1 g/day) dietary fiber, 13.2 ± 0.3% (122 ± 3 mg/day) calcium, 33.6 ± 0.5% (219 ± 4 mcg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day) folate, 29.7 ± 0.4% (5.3 ± 0.1 mg/day) iron, and 13.9 ± 0.3% (43.7 ± 1.1 mg/day) magnesium. Individual grain category analyses showed that breads, rolls and tortillas and ready-to-eat cereals provided minimal kcal/day in the total diet in men and women ≥19 years of age. Similarly, breads, rolls and tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals supplied meaningful contributions of shortfall nutrients, including dietary fiber, folate and iron, while concurrently providing minimal amounts of nutrients to limit. Cumulatively, a variety of grain food groups consumed by American adults contribute to nutrient density in the total diet and have the potential to increase consumption of shortfall nutrients as identified by 2015-2020 DGA, particularly dietary fiber, folate, and iron.

  18. Post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression in survivors of the Kosovo War: experiential avoidance as a contributor to distress and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashdan, T.B.; Morina, N.; Priebe, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on psychological disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in war survivors. The aim of this study was to examine PTSD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their associations with distress and quality of life in 174

  19. Increased Expression of the NOD-like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome in Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis is a Potential Contributor to Their Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in the pathogenesis of DM/PM. High NLRP3 expression led to elevated levels of IL-1β and IL-18 and could be one of the factors promoting disease progress.

  20. Imbalance in leptin-adiponectin levels and leptin receptor expression as chief contributors to triple negative breast cancer progression in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rizwana; Kataki, Amal Ch; Borthakur, Bibhuti Bhusan; Basumatary, Tarun K; Bose, Sujoy

    2017-07-20

    Triple-Negative breast cancer (TNBC), accounts for a large percentage of breast cancer cases in India including Northeast India. TNBC has an unclear molecular aetiology and hence limited targeted therapies. Human breast is comprised of glandular, ductal, connective, and adipose tissues. Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes. The adipocytes apart from being energy storage depots, are also active sources of adipocytokines and/or adipokines. The role of adipokines in breast cancer including TNBC has been sporadically documented. Two adipokines in particular, leptin and adiponectin, have come to be recognized for their influence on breast cancer risk and tumour biology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the association of differential expression of critical adipokines and associated cellular mechanism in the susceptibility and severity of TNBC in northeast Indian population. We collected 68 TNBC and 63 controls cases and examined for serum leptin and adiponectin levels using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leptin Receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Differential Ob-R mRNA expression and correlation with cancer stem cell (CSC) markers was evaluated, and correlated with severity. The serum leptin levels were significantly associated with TNBC severity, while the adiponectin levels were comparative. The serum leptin levels correlated inversely with the adiponetin levels. Serum leptin levels were unaffected with difference in parity. The difference in leptin levels in pre and post menopausal cases were found to be statistically non-significant. Higher leptin levels were also found to be associated obesity, mortality and recurrence. Obesity was found to be a factor for TNBC pathogenesis and severity. Increased Ob-R mRNA expression was associated with TNBC, significantly with TNBC severity, and was significantly higher in obese patients with higher grade TNBC cases. The Ob-R gene mRNA expression was significantly higher in the obese TNBC cases showing recurrence or mortality. The higher Ob-R gene mRNA expression correlated significantly with higher serum leptin levels and lower serum adiponectin levels in TNBC cases. The Ob-R mRNA expression with associated with modulation of CSC oct4 and nanog. In conclusion, the present study is first of its kind on TNBC from northeast India, indicates that adipocytokines does play a role in TNBC pathogenesis. Thus, the understanding of molecular mechanisms of both leptin and adiponectin and their interplay in TNBC offer the prospects for new therapeutic approaches targeting similar signalling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.